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1. New York Evening Journal, March 4, 1913, p. 3 (N&CPR).[back]

2. Suffrage Parade, Senate Hearing, March 6-17, 1913, p. 70 (JK1888 1913b GenColl; MicRR; RBSC NAWSA; LAW).[back]

3. There is disagreement about the number of marchers. The New York Times, March 4, 1913, p. 4 (N&CPR), said 5,000. Inez Haynes Irwin, The Story of the Woman's Party (New York: Harcourt, Brace and Co., 1921; JK1901 .I7 GenColl ), 29, says 8,000. Doris Stevens, Jailed for Freedom (New York: Boni and Liveright, 1920; JK1901.S85 GenColl), 22, says 10,000. For a full-text version of Jailed for Freedom, see “Marching for the Vote” on the Topical Essays External Sites page.[back]

4. Procession details from throughout the Official Program: Woman Suffrage Procession (MSS, P&P, RBSC, MicRR); the quotation is from p. 2. The Library's copies of the program have different numbers of pages. All citations in this essay are from the copy in the Rare Book and Special Collections Division, which is available on the Library's American Memory Web site [full item].[back]

5. Suffrage Parade, 27, 68, 70.[back]

6. Ibid., 94.[back]

7. Ibid., 70, 59, 329.[back]

8. Chicago Tribune, March 4, 1913, p. 2 (N&CPR).[back]

9. Washington Post, March 4, 1913, p. 10 (N&CPR).[back]

10. Suffrage Parade, testimony of Secretary Stimson, 120.[back]

11. For a full description of the Allegory, with descriptions of costumes, props, and music, see the Official Program (RBSC), pp. 14, 16. The full program is available on the Library's American Memory Web site [full item]. The records of the National Woman's Party (described in the Manuscript Division's Women's Suffrage section) contain more than fifteen hundred items relating to the parade and its aftermath. All of the parade's many logistical details are documented, including efforts to recruit organizers, secure speakers, obtain permits, assemble the programs, invite members of Congress, and more.[back]

12. New York Times, March 4, 1913, p. 4 (N&CPR).[back]

13. Carrie Chapman Catt and Nettie Rogers Shuler, Woman Suffrage and Politics: The Inner Story of the Suffrage Movement (1926 RBSC NAWSA; reprint, Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1969; JK1896.C3 1969 Gen-Coll), 242. Irwin, The Story, 30, and Stevens, Jailed for Freedom, 21, both say it was Wilson himself who asked the question as he drove through empty streets to his hotel. For a full-text version of Jailed for Freedom, see “Marching for the Vote” on the Topical Essays External Sites page. Presidential inaugurations were held on March 4 until the Twentieth Amendment (1933) changed the date to January 20.[back]

14. Eleanor Flexner and Ellen Fitzpatrick, Century of Struggle: The Woman's Rights Movement in the United States, enl. ed. (Cambridge, Mass.: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1996; HQ1410.F6 1996 Gen-Coll), 255.[back]

15. National Party Platforms, compiled by Donald Bruce Johnson, rev. ed., 2 vols. (Urbana, Ill.: University of Illinois Press, 1978; JK2255.J64 1978 GenColl), 1: 176.[back]

16. Irwin, The Story, 8-11.[back]

17. Catt and Shuler, Woman Suffrage and Politics, 241.[back]

18. Irwin, The Story, 18.[back]

19. Ibid., 19.[back]

20. Historical Statistics of the United States, Colonial Times to 1970 (Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1975; HA202.B87 1975 MRR Ref Desk and other locations), 1: 168.[back]

21. National American Woman Suffrage Association, Forty-fifth Annual Report (New York: NAWSA, 1913; JK1881.N28 45th 1913 GenColl), 67.[back]

22. Votes for Women Inaugural Parade, broadside, National Woman's Party, Records, Group I, box 14, “NWP Leaflets and Broadsides” (MSS).[back]

23. Woman Voter and the Newsletter, 4: 3 (March 1913), p. 10 (JK1880 .W55 GenColl).[back]

24. Ibid., p. 10.[back]

25. The Library of Congress has preserved a print of the film, but unfortunately no known copies of the sound recording survive. Votes for Women, AFI/Tayler Collection (FEA 9595), Thomas A. Edison, Inc., 1913; 1 reel, 368 ft., si., originally produced with sound recording on a cylinder; (the LC copy lacks the cylinder), 35mm ref. print (MBRS). Variety, April 11, 1913, p. 6 (microfilm 03722, MicRR, MBRS).[back]

26. Officers of the National American Woman Suffrage Association to The Honorable Woodrow Wilson, February 12, 1913, in the National Woman's Party Records, Group I, box 2, “February 11-13, 1913.” This letter states that it was to be “borne” by the hikers to Wilson, but the presence of the signed original in the National Woman's Party Records indicates that it was never delivered. There is no copy in the Woodrow Wilson Papers (MSS). Although they did not present the letter, the suffragists did indeed focus their attention on President Wilson, and when he refused to join their cause, they began to picket the White House. Silent women holding banners stood outside the president's home every day, twenty-four hours a day, for eight months. The pickets endured taunts, arrests, and imprisonment but never faltered. It was still to take until January 1918 before Wilson joined the suffrage bandwagon.[back]

27. Woman Voter and the Newsletter, 4:3 (March 1913), p. 10.[back]

28. Stevens, Jailed for Freedom, 23 (for a full-text version of Jailed for Freedom, see “Marching for the Vote” on the Topical Essays External Sites page). Anna Howard Shaw, president of NAWSA, complained that Paul's group had not told her of the meeting and so she did not attend (Ida Husted Harper, Scrapbooks, XI [JK1899.H4 RBSC], p. 31). Alice Paul and her Washington supporters were soon to establish their own, independent suffrage party, the National Woman's Party, to work solely on the passage of a constitutional amendment. [back]

29. Woman's Journal and Suffrage News, March 8, 1913, p. 1 (RBSC-NAWSA, MicRR). [back]

30. New York Tribune, March 8, 1913, p. 3 (N&CPR); Harper, Scrapbook, XI (RBSC), p. 28.[back]

31. NAWSA, Forty-fifth Annual Report, 17.[back]

32. New York Evening Journal, March 3, 1913, p. 3 (N&CPR).[back]

33. Both cartoons were reproduced in Cartoons Magazine, 3:4 (April 1913), p. 216 (LC-USZ62-55985 P&P).[back]

34. Many cartoons appear in newspapers, books, and articles in the General Collections and N&CPR. Life (1883-1936; AP101.L6 GenColl) is a rich source. For a collection of suffrage cartoons, see Alice Sheppard, Cartooning for Suffrage (Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1994; NC1425.S54 1994 GenColl).[back]

35. Yidishes Tageblatt, March 4, 1913, p. 8 (AMED-Hebr).[back]

36. Robert S. Gallagher, “I Was Arrested, of Course,” American Heritage, 25:2 (February 1974), p. 20 (E171.A43 GenColl).[back]

37. Ibid., 20.[back]

38. See the Records of the National Woman's Party (Group I, boxes 1-3) for correspondence on the role of African American women in the parade (MSS). See also Crisis, 5:6 (April 1913), p.267; reprint ed. (New York: Negro Universities Press, 1969; E185.5.C9 GenColl). For Wells Barnett, see the Chicago Tribune, March 4, 1913, p.2 (N&CPR). Additional sources of material on African American women and the march include the aforementioned records of the National Woman's Party and the National American Woman Suffrage Association (both collections are described in the Manuscript Division's Women's Suffrage section).[back]

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