Glossary -- Bulgaria
- Asia Minor
- The Asian portion of what is now Turkey.
- Bogomil heresy
- A religious sect founded in Bulgaria and flourishing in the
Balkans between the tenth and fifteenth centuries. It combined
beliefs from several contemporaneous religions, most notably the
Paulicians from Asia Minor (q.v.). The central belief was
that the material world was created by the devil.
- Cominform (Commmunist Information
- An international communist organization (1947-56) including
communist parties of the Soviet Union, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia,
France, Hungary, Italy, Poland, Romania, and Yugoslavia (expelled
in 1948). Formed as a tool of Soviet foreign policy, it issued
propaganda advocating international communist solidarity.
- Conference on Security and Cooperation
in Europe (CSCE)
- Originating at its first Helsinki meeting in 1975, a grouping
of all European nations (the lone exception, Albania, joined in
1991) that produced the Helsinki Accords (q.v.) in 1975
and subsequently sponsored joint sessions and consultations on
political issues vital to European security.
- Conventional Armed Forces in Europe
- An agreement signed in 1990 by the members of the Warsaw Pact
(q.v.) and the North Atlantic Treaty Organization
(q.v.) to establish parity in conventional weapons between
the two organizations from the Atlantic to the Urals. Included a
strict system of inspections and information exchange.
- Council for Mutual Economic Assistance
- A multilateral economic alliance headquartered in Moscow until
it disbanded in 1991. Members in 1991: Bulgaria, Cuba,
Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Mongolia, Poland, Romania, the Soviet
Union, and Vietnam. Also known as CMEA and CEMA.
- Alphabet ascribed to the missionary Cyril (ninth century),
developed from Greek for recording church literature in Russian.
Now the alphabet of Belarus, Bulgaria, Montenegro, Russia, Serbia,
and several former Soviet republics in Central Asia, it is
considered one of the three principal alphabets of the world.
- Intellectual and spiritual movement in Europe seventeenth and
eighteenth centuries, concerned with the relationship of God,
nature, reason, and man, often challenging the tenets of
- European Bank for Reconstruction and
- A bank founded under sponsorship of the European Community (EC)
in 1990, to provide loans to East European countries (Bulgaria,
Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Poland, Romania, the Soviet Union, and
Yugoslavia to establish independent, market-type economies and
democratic political institutions. Some forty-one countries were
shareholders in 1991.
- European currency unit (ECU)
- The unit of account of the European Economic Community
(q.v.), value of which is determined by the value of the
currencies of the member states, apportioned by relative strength
and importance of the member's economy. In 1988 one ECU equalled
about one United States dollar.
- European Economic Community (EEC)
- The "Common Market" of primarily West European countries,
organized to promote coordinated development of economic
activities, expansion, stability, and closer relations among member
states. Methods included elimination of customs duties and import
regulations among member states, a common tariff and commercial
policy towards outside countries, and a common agricultural and
transport policy. A significant further reduction of
intraorganizational barriers was planned in 1992.
- General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade
- An integrated set of bilateral trade agreements among nations,
formed in 1947 to abolish quotas and reduce tariffs. Bulgaria
applied for membership in 1991.
- Russian term, literally meaning "openness," applied beginning
in the mid-1980s in the Soviet Union to official permission for
public discussion of issues and access to information. Identified
with the tenure of Mikhail S. Gorbachev as leader of the Soviet
- gross national product (GNP)
- The sum of the value of goods and services produced within a
country's borders and the income received from abroad by residents,
minus payments remitted abroad by nonresidents. Normally computed
over one year.
- Helsinki Accords
- Signed in 1975 by all countries of Europe except Albania (which
signed in 1991) plus Canada and the United States at the Conference
on Security and Cooperation in Europe (q.v.), a pact
outlining general principles of international behavior and security
and addressing some economic, environmental, and humanitarian
- International Monetary Fund
- Established with the World Bank (q.v.) in 1945, a
specialized agency affiliated with the United Nations and
responsible for stabilizing international exchange rates and
payments. Its main business was providing loans to its members when
they experienced balance of payments difficulties. Bulgaria became
a member in 1991.
- League of Nations
- An organization for international cooperation established by
the Allied powers after World War I. Discredited by failure to
oppose aggression in the 1930s, it became inactive at the beginning
of World War II and was replaced in 1946 by the United Nations.
- lev (pl. leva)
- The national currency unit of Bulgaria, consisting of 100
stotinki. Exchange rate to the U.S. dollar in 1991 was 18
- Marshall Plan
- In full the European Recovery Program, a United States-
sponsored program to rehabilitate European nations after World War
II and prevent communist subversion of countries weakened by war.
- net material product (NMP)
- The total economic value of production in the productive
sectors of a national economy (not counting administration,
defense, finance, education, health, and housing) after
depreciation has been deducted.
- North Atlantic Treaty Organization
- An organization founded in 1949 by the United States, Canada,
and their postwar European allies to oppose Soviet military
presence in Europe. Until the dissolution of the Soviet-led Warsaw
Pact (q.v.) in 1991, it was the primary collective defense
agreement of the Western powers. Its military and administrative
structure remained intact after the threat of Soviet expansionism
- passenger kilometers
- The total number of kilometers traveled by passengers by a
given mode of transportation in a specified period of time.
- Russian word meaning "restructuring," applied in the late 1980s
to official Soviet program of revitalization of the communist
party, economy, and society by adjusting economic, social, and
political mechanisms. Identified with the tenure of Mikhail S.
Gorbachev as leader of the Soviet Union (1985-91).
- A member of the smaller of the two divisions of Islam,
supporting the claims of Ali to leadership of the Muslim community,
in opposition to the Sunni (q.v.) view of succession to
Muslim leadership--the issue causing the central schism within
- An independent trade union founded in 1980 in communist Poland.
For its defiance of the communist system, the union attained great
political power through the loyalty of a large part of the Polish
population. It eventually formed the basis of the first postwar
noncommunist Polish government, under the leadership of Lech
- A member of the larger of the two fundamental divisions of
Islam, opposed to the Shia (q.v.) on the issue of
succession to Muslim leadership.
- ton kilometers
- The total number of tons of cargo conveyed via a given mode of
transportation in a specified period of time.
- Warsaw Pact
- In full Warsaw Treaty Organization, a mutual defense
organization including the Soviet Union, Albania (which withdrew in
1961), Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, the German Democratic Republic
(East Germany), Hungary, Poland, and Romania. Founded in 1955, it
enabled the Soviet Union to station troops in most of the other
countries to oppose the forces of the North Atlantic Treaty
Organization (NATO, q.v.) and was the basis of invasions
of Hungary (1956) and Czechoslovakia (1968). Disbanded in 1991.
- World Bank
- Informal name used for a group of three affiliated
international institutions: the International Bank for
Reconstruction and Development (IBRD), which provided loans to
developing countries; the International Development Association
(IDA), which provided credits to the poorest developing countries
on easier terms than the IBRD; and the International Finance
Corporation (IFC), which supplemented IBRD activity by loans to
stimulate private enterprise in the less developed countries. The
three institutions were owned by the governments of the countries
that subscribed their capital. Bulgaria became a member in 1990.