The President of the Republic of Finland and the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the U.S.S.R.;
Desiring further to develop friendly relations between the Republic of Finland and the U.S.S.R.;
Being convinced that the strengthening of good neighbourly relations and co-operation between the Republic of Finland and the U.S.S.R. lies in the interest of both countries;
Considering Finland's desire to remain outside the conflicting interests of the Great Powers; and
Expressing their firm endeavour to collaborate towards the maintenance of international peace and security in accordance with the aims and principles of the United Nations Organization;
Have for this purpose agreed to conclude the present Treaty and have appointed as their Plenipotentiaries:
The President of the Republic of Finland: Mauno Pekkala, Prime Minister of the Republic of Finland;
The Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the U.S.S.R.: Viacheslav Mihailovich Molotov, Vice-Chairman of the Council of Ministers of the U.S.S.R. and Minister for Foreign Affairs,
who, after exchange of their full powers, found in good and due form, have agreed on the following provisions:
In the eventuality of Finland, or the Soviet Union through Finnish territory, becoming the object of an armed attack by Germany or any State allied with the latter, Finland will, true to its obligations as an independent State, fight to repel the attack. Finland will in such cases use all its available forces for defending its territorial integrity by land, sea and air, and will do so within the frontiers of Finland in accordance with obligations defined in the present Treaty and, if necessary, with the assistance of, or jointly with, the Soviet Union.
In the cases aforementioned the Soviet Union will give Finland the help required, the giving of which will be subject to mutual agreement between the Contracting Parties.
The High Contracting Parties shall confer with each other if it is established that the threat of an armed attack in Article 1. is present.
The High Contracting Parties give assurance of their intention loyally to participate in all measures towards the maintenance of international peace and security in conformity with the aims and principles of the United Nations Organization.
The High Contracting Parties confirm their pledge, given under Article 3. of the Peace Treaty signed in Paris on February 10th, 1947, not to conclude any alliance or join any coalition directed against the other High Contracting Party.
The High Contracting Parties give assurance of the decision to act in a spirit of co-operation and friendship towards the further development and consolidation of economic and cultural relations between Finland and the Soviet Union.
The High Contracting Parties pledge themselves to observe the principle of the mutual respect of sovereignty and integrity and that of non-interference in the internal affairs of the other State.
The execution of the present Treaty shall take place in accordance with the principles of the United Nations Organization.
The present Treaty shall be ratified and remains in force ten years after the date of its coming into force. The Treaty shall come into force upon the exchange of the instruments of ratification, the exchange taking place in the shortest time possible in Helsinki.
Provided neither of the High Contracting Parties has denounced it one year before the expiration of the said ten-year period, the Treaty shall remain in force for subsequent five-year periods until either High Contracting Party one year before the expiration of such five-year periods in writing notifies its intention of terminating the validity of the Treaty.
In witness hereof the Plenipotentiaries have signed the present Treaty and affixed their seals.
Done in the City of Moscow on the sixth day of April 1948 in two copies, in the Finnish and the Russian languages, both texts being authentic.
The Plenipotentiary of the President the Republic of Finland:
The Plenipotentiary of the of Presidium of the Supreme