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Fiscal Year: 1999
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Search term or phrase:  vigilance

 
Hit 2 of 66 -- Awd #: DA360626 
 Award Type: Transfers / Outgoing (Interagency) / Outgoing (Interagency)
Access/Distribution Restriction:
 Code: A - Distribution Unlimited - Unrestricted Access
Parent Organizations: DOD / ARMY / 0603002A - Medical Advanced Technology
 Project: D801 - Defense Women's Health Research
Dates: Dec 1995 to Feb 1999
Performer: UNIFORMED SERVICES UNIV OF THE HEALTH SCIENCES  BETHESDA MD
 Type:     Federal Government
 Contact:  GABBAY, F H, Phone: 301-295-3270
 8th Congressional District in Maryland        
 Location: Bethesda,   MD
Description: TITLE: SUSTAINED ATTENTION AND PERFORMANCE: EFFECTS OF SEX, SEASON AND MENSTRUAL CYCLE PHASE :: LONG DESCR: THE ABILITY TO SUSTAIN ATTENTION AFFECTS PERFORMANCE ON MANY TASKS THAT COMPRISE MILITARY OPERATIONS. THE GOALS OF THIS STUDY ARE TO EXAMINE POSSIBLE (1) SEX DIFFERENCES IN SUSTAINED ATTENTION AND THREE TESTS SELECTED TO REPRESENT FEMALE-FAVORING, MALE-FAVORING AND GENDER-NEUTRAL COGNITIVE TESTS; (2) FLUCTUATIONS ACROSS THE MENSTRUAL CYCLE IN SUSTAINED ATTENTION AND COGNITIVE PERFORMANCE; AND (3) SEASONAL VARIATIONS IN PERFORMANCE ON THE SAME BATTERY OF TESTS. USING AUDITORY AND VISUAL VERSIONS OF THE CONTINUOUS PERFORMANCE TEST OF SUSTAINED ATTENTION, MALE SUBJECTS WILL BE TESTED DURING THE SPRING (WHEN TESTOSTERONE LEVELS ARE LOW), AND DURING THE FALL (WHEN TESTOSTERONE LEVELS ARE HIGH). FEMALE SUBJECTS WILL BE TESTED ONCE DURING THE LATE MENSTRUAL PHASE (WHEN ESTROGEN LEVELS ARE LOW) AND ONCE DURING THE PREOVULATORY PHASE (WHEN ESTROGEN LEVELS ARE HIGH) OF HER MENSTRUAL CYCLE :: KEYWORDS: ATTENTION;COGNITION;ESTROGENS;HEALTH;MENSTRUATION;MILITARY OPERATIONS;PERFORMANCE TESTS;PERFORMANCE(HUMAN);PROGESTERONE;SEASONAL VARIATIONS;SEASONS;SEX;SEX HORMONES;TESTOSTERONE;VIGILANCE;RA VI;DEFENSE WOMEN'S HEALTH RESEARCH PROGRAM;VOLUNTEERS;ATTENTION;COGNITION;SEX DIFFERENCES;MENSTRUAL CYCLE;ESTROGEN;PROGESTERONE;TESTOSTEVONE;SEASON;SEX HORMONES;VIGILANCE;PERFORMANCE ::

Hit 3 of 66 -- Awd #: DN053769 
 Award Type: Extramural / Grants / Project
Access/Distribution Restriction:
 Code: A - Distribution Unlimited - Unrestricted Access
Parent Organizations: DOD / NAVY / 0602233N - Human Systems Technology
 Project: Project number unspecified
Dates: Oct 1997 to Oct 1998
Performer: CALIFORNIA UNIV SAN DIEGO  LA JOLLA
 Type:     Public Educational Institution
 Contact:  HILLYARD,STEVEN, Phone: 619-534-2385
 41th Congressional District in California        
 Location: La Jolla,   CA
Description: TITLE: ELECTROPHYSIOLOGICAL STUDIES OF ATTENTION AND ALERTNESS MONITORING :: LONG DESCR: TO ASSESS VIGILANCE AND THE ALLOCATION OF ATTENTION TO STIMULI IN THE VISUAL AND AUDITORY MODALITIES BY MEANS OF ELECTROPHYSIOLOGICAL PROBE TECHNIQUES. EXPERIMENTS WILL BE CARRIED OUT TO (1) DEVELOP A NEW PROBE TECHNIQUE FOR ASSESSING VIGILANCE AND ATTENTIONAL ALLOCATION, (2) DETERMINE OPTIMAL STIMULATION PARAMETERS FOR OBTAINING RELIABLE DATA RAPIDLY, (3) EXAMINE THE SHAPE OF THE ATTENTIONAL GRADIENT AROUND FOCUS LOCATIONS, AND (4) DETERMINE THE CONSEQUENCES OF DIVIDING ATTENTION BETWEEN TWO LOCATIONS, AND TO OBSERVE THE EFFECTS OF DIVIDED ATTENTION ON ATTENTIONAL GRADIENTS :: KEYWORDS: ATTENTION;BEHAVIORAL SCIENCES;ELECTROPHYSIOLOGY;HIGH FREQUENCY;LIGHT SOURCES;MEASUREMENT;MONITORING;ONLINE SYSTEMS;OPTIMIZATION;PARAMETERS;POSITION(LOCATION);PROBES;RELIABILITY;SENSITIVITY;STIMULATION(GENERAL);STIMULI;SWITCHING;VIGILANCE;VISION;VIGILENCE;ATTENTION;EVOKED POTENTIALS;VOLUNTEERS ::

Hit 4 of 66 -- Awd #: DN248502 
 Award Type: Intramural / In-House Project / In-House Project
Access/Distribution Restriction:
 Code: C - U.S. Federal Government and Contractors Only
 Reason: PD - Premature Dissemination (To Protect Patentable Data)
Parent Organizations: DOD / NAVY / 0603706N - Medical Development
 Project: Project number unspecified
Dates: Oct 1990 to Oct 1998
Performer: NAVAL AEROSPACE MEDICAL RESEARCH LAB  PENSACOLA FL
 Type:     Federal Government
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Contact:  STANNY, ROBERT R, Phone: 904-452-2047
 First Congressional District in Florida
 Location: Pensacola,   FL
Description: TITLE: EFFECTS OF PSYCHOPHYSIOLOGICAL COUNTERMEASURES ON PERFORMANCE DECREMENT DURING SUSTAINED FLIGHT OPERATIONS :: LONG DESCR: OBJECTIVES OF THE RESEARCH ARE TO COMPARE PHARMACOLOGICAL AGENTS THAT MIGHT BE USED IN WARTIME TO COUNTER EFFECTS OF FATIGUE, SLEEP LOSS, AND CIRCADIAN PHENOMENA IN LONG-DURATION NAVAL FLIGHT OPERATIONS; DEVELOP EVIDENCE TO SUPPORT DEVELOPMENT OF GUIDELINES FOR THEIR OPERATIONAL USE; AND DISSEMINATE INFORMATON ABOUT THEIR EFFECTS AND SIDE EFFECTS TO FLIGHT SURGEONS, MISSION PLANNERS, AND CREW. WE WILL COMPARE CAFFEINE, D-AMPHETAMINE, AND MODAFINIL TO OUR RESULTS ON D-METHAMPHETAMINE AND TYROSINE. TO MAKE IT POSSIBLE TO COMPARE THE DRUGS' EFFECTS, ALL STUDIES WILL FOLLOW THE SAME EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN. SUBJECTS WILL PERFORM MONITORING, TRACKING, COMMUNICATIONS, AND MEMORY TASKS FOR A NIGHT FOLLOWING A NORMAL DAY'S ACTIVITIES. EXPERIMENTS WILL BEGIN AT 1930. THE PRESUMABLY ACTIVE DRUG OR A PLACEBO WILL BE ADMINISTERED DOUBLE-BLIND AT APPROXIMATELY 0100. SUBJECTS WILL WORK UNTIL 0900 AND THEN WILL BE GIVEN SEVEN HOURS TO SLEEP. SUBJECTS WILL BE TESTED AFTER SLEEPING, TO CHECK FOR A POST-DRUG SLUMP. WE WILL VARY DOSES ACROSS GROUPS UNTIL WE REACH A DOSE THAT YIELDS A PEAK FATIGUE REDUCTION OF APPROXIMATELY 80-90%, UNTIL WE REACH THE HIGHEST REASONABLE DOSE, OR UNTIL IT BECOMES CLEAR THAT THE AGENT UNDER STUDY IS INEFFECTIVE. WE TENTATIVELY PROPOSE TO EXAMINE CAFFEINE IN FY94-96, MODAFINIL IN FY95-7, AND D-AMPHETAMINE SULFATE IN FY96-8 :: KEYWORDS: ACCURACY;ATTENTION;CAFFEINE;CIRCADIAN RHYTHMS;COASTAL REGIONS;COUNTERMEASURES;CYCLES;DOSAGE;DRUGS;EAST(DIRECTION);EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN;FATIGUE;FLIGHT;FLIGHT SURGEONS;HYPNOTICS AND SEDATIVES;INSTRUCTIONS;INTERVALS;LABORATORIES;LONG RANGE(TIME);NAVAL AVIATION;NAVAL OPERATIONS;NIGHT;NORWAY;PEAK VALUES;PILOTS;PLACEBOS;PSYCHOPHYSIOLOGY;REDUCTION;REFUELING IN FLIGHT;SAMPLING;SHIFTING;SLEEP;SLEEP DEPRIVATION;STIMULI;TIME;TRACKING;TRANSATLANTIC FLIGHTS;TYROSINE;VIGILANCE;WAKE;WARFARE;FATIGUE;STIMULANTS;HYPNOTICS;FLIGHT OPERATIONS;CIVAPP: HUMAN SUBJECTS ::

Hit 5 of 66 -- Awd #: R01EY11144 
 Award Type: Extramural / Grants / Project
Access/Distribution Restriction:
 Code: A - Distribution Unlimited - Unrestricted Access
Parent Organizations: HHS / NIH / NEI
 Project: Vision research (extramural/includes training)
Dates: May 1998 to Apr 1999
Performer: LOUISIANA STATE UNIVERSITY MEDICAL CTR AT NEW
 Type:     Public Educational Institution
 Contact:  WEYAND, THEODORE G, Phone:
 District: Multiple congressional districts in Louisiana
 Location: New Orleans,   LA
Description: TITLE: STATE DEPENDENT CONTROL OF RETINOGENICULATE TRANSMISSION :: LONG DESCR: DESCRIPTION: (from the investigator's abstract) It is now clear that the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) of the dorsal thalamus functions as more than a simple relay of retinal information to the visual cortex.  Instead, this structure acts as a dynamic filter, determining what, when and how much retinal information gets passed on to visual cortex. The cellular factors that control this filtering are the complex innervation patterns and intrinsic membrane properties of LGN cells. These have been studied extensively in vivo using anesthetized, paralyzed animals, or in vitro with a thalamic slice preparation. The problem is that we lack information about how these cellular factors interact with more dynamic factors, such as behavioral state or eye movements, to control the efficacy of visual processing through the LGN. Dynamic factors can only be studied in an awake, behaving animal. The first objective of this proposal is to understand how cells in the LGN filter retinal signals during states of wakefulness. In awake, restrained cats, we plan to record the activity of single neurons in the LGN and examine how aspects of cellular excitability and visual responses are influenced by states such as drowsiness, orienting vigilance, and focal attention.  We manipulated the awake state by training cats to perform various visuomotor tasks, We evaluate behavioral state by monitoring the animal s performance on these tasks and by recording EEG activity. The second objective of this proposal is to understand how eye movements and orbital position modulate the transfer characteristics of LGN neurons.  We plan to monitor the activity of LGN cells before, during and after various fixation and saccade tasks. Recordings are conducted with the animal's head in a fixed position and gaze is monitored by using the scleral search coil technique. Finally, we will begin to explore some of the cellular mechanisms underlying the dynamic modulation of LGN activity. Specifically, we will determine the conditions (i.e., behavioral state, eye movement or orbital position). which cause LGN cells to respond in either a tonic or burst firing mode. Burst responses reflect the activation of a voltage-dependent low threshold Ca2+ conductance, and permit hyperpolarized LGN cells to respond vigorously when depolarizing events reach spike threshold. The proposed experiments address a major and enduring challenge for neuroscience which is to link cognitive behavior to the behavior of single neurons.  More specifically, it is our hope that these studies provide a better understanding for the role played by thalamic circuitry in various aspects of arousal, visual attention, and eye movements. Another important aspect of this proposal is to understand how the brain regulates burst responses in LGN cells during retinogeniculate signal transmission. Burst firing in LGN cells serves a general experimental model for understanding the cellular bases of sleep-waking cycles and pathological thalamocortical rhythms :: KEYWORDS: cat lateral geniculate body visual pathway brain electrical activity electroencephalography calcium flux action potential visual fixation visual stimulus eye movement neural information processing arousal attention psychomotor function ::

Hit 8 of 66 -- Awd #: R01NR04279 
 Award Type: Extramural / Grants / Project
Access/Distribution Restriction:
 Code: A - Distribution Unlimited - Unrestricted Access
Parent Organizations: HHS / NIH / NINR
 Project: Extramural awards (includes training)
Dates: Aug 1998 to Jul 1999
Performer: EMMA PENDLETON BRADLEY HOSPITAL
 Type:     Nonprofit (Non-Educational)
 Contact:  CARSKADON, MARY A, Phone:
 District: Multiple congressional districts in Rhode Island
 Location: Providence,   RI
Description: TITLE: DEVELOPMENTAL MANIFESTATIONS OF DAYTIME SLEEPINESS :: LONG DESCR: (NIH-Designated Clinical Research)  DESCRIPTION (adapted from Applicant's Abstract): Vigilance states in children are important contributors to behavior, and excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) may be a risk for poor behavioral adjustment. EDS may underlie or affect such problems as inattentiveness, hyperactivity, and impulsivity, but developmental differences in the manifestation of EDS may obscure this relationship. Younger children may respond to sleepiness with overactivity and disruptive behavior, while older children may respond with lethargy. This project systematically assesses children's sleep-related behaviors to determine the formal behavioral manifestations of their responses to physiological sleepiness and whether the responses change as a function of childhood development (including puberty) :: KEYWORDS: child physical development human puberty child psychology child behavior adolescence (12-18) middle childhood (6-11) human subject psychic activity level attention sleep sleep deprivation performance age difference behavioral /social science research tag ::

Hit 9 of 66 -- Awd #: R01NR04881 
 Award Type: Extramural / Grants / Project
Access/Distribution Restriction:
 Code: A - Distribution Unlimited - Unrestricted Access
Parent Organizations: HHS / NIH / NINR
 Project: Extramural awards (includes training)
Dates: Sep 1998 to Jul 1999
Performer: BACRA, INC
 Type:     Nonprofit (Non-Educational)
 Contact:  NALIBOFF, BRUCE D, Phone:
 District: Multiple congressional districts in California
 Location: Los Angeles,   CA
Description: TITLE: GENDER RELATED DIFFERENCE IN VISCERAL SENSITIVITY IN IBS :: LONG DESCR: (NIH-Designated Clinical Research)  DESCRIPTION: Based on clinical studies, women are more likely than men to experience a variety of chronic, recurrent visceral pain syndromes such as interstitial cystitis or irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). However, in contrast to well-characterized sex differences in animal models, experimental evidence to support gender differences in human pain perception remains inconclusive and mechanisms remain poorly understood.  Potential mechanisms that may underlie gender-related differences in perception of visceral pain included fixed sexual dimorphism of brain regions concerned with central processing of noxious stimuli, and transient hormone-related cyclic modifiers of central pain processing.  Since women are more likely than men to experience pain affecting pelvic viscera during copulation, pregnancy and labor, it is hypothesized that women exhibit differences in at least two type of responses to potential harmful sensations arising from the pelvic organs: altered activation of endogenous pain inhibition systems and altered attentional processes including hyper-vigilance. In the current proposal, the investigators will test the general hypothesis by determining gender-related differences in healthy control subjects and in IBS patients using H21502 PET imaging of the brain together with measurement of perceptual, autonomic, and neuroendocrine responses to noxious rectosigmoid stimulation. They will utilize two visceral stimulus paradigms based on previous work, one tests visceral sensitization from sigmoid colon conditioning and the other anticipatory responses to expected high and low intensity visceral sensation. This will allow for direct comparison of perceptual and sensory gender-related factors in IBS. The investigators will also separately examine stable, non-hormonal factors (in women on oral contraceptives) and hormonal factors (in ovulating women during the luteal and perimenstruation periods) :: KEYWORDS: thalamus pons brain mapping brain scanning hormone regulation /control mechanis menstrual cycle irritable bowel syndrome human subject questionnaire neural information processing autonomic nervous system neuroendocrine system conditioning behavioral habituation /sensitizatio longitudinal positron emission tomog raphy pain perception sex difference stimulus /response cingulate gyrus clinical research ::
 

Hit 13 of 66 -- Awd #: R01MH54231 
 Award Type: Extramural / Grants / Project
Access/Distribution Restriction:
 Code: A - Distribution Unlimited - Unrestricted Access
Parent Organizations: HHS / NIH / NIMH
 Project: Extramural awards (includes training)
Dates: May 1998 to Apr 1999
Performer: UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA-SAN DIEGO
 Type:     Public Educational Institution
 Contact:  PINEDA, JAMINE A, Phone:
 District: Multiple congressional districts in California
 Location: San Diego,   CA
Description: TITLE: NORADRENERGIC INVOLVEMENT IN REALLOCATION OF ATTENTION :: LONG DESCR: (NIH-Designated Clinical Research)  DESCRIPTION (Adapted from applicant's abstract):  The present application examines the involvement of the noradrenergic (NA)-locus coeruleus (LC) system in the selection, switching and maintenance of the attentional focus, as indexed by event-related potentials (ERPs).  It is hypothesized that this neurotransmitter system plays a significantly greater role in the selection and switching of attention than in maintaining vigilance.  NA-LC originates in the dorsal pontine brainstem and its unique pattern of cortical innervation, regional and laminar specificities, electrophysiological properties, and postsynaptic effects suggest that it is involved in cortical, state-dependent responsiveness to novel and relevant stimuli.  These, and similar physiological processes, may underlie the psychological constructs of stimulus selectivity, switching, and the maintenance of attention.  The proposed studies continue and extend the previous investigations with respect to the onset, duration, and magnitude of electrophysiological indices of orienting (switching), selectively attending to a channel (maintenance), and processing meaningful targets in an attended channel (selectivity).  Both human and non-human primate subjects will be exposed to trains of auditory and visual stimulation and instructed or operantly trained to perform discrimination tasks which are designed to elicit the various aspects of attention that will be correlated with the electrophysiology.  Human studies will be used to quantify and develop a database of the timing, duration, and magnitude of electrophysiological correlates that can serve as a basis for comparison with and as a guide for the development of the animal models.  Second, localization studies using nonhuman primates will utilize epidural, transcortical, and subcortical recordings to map out the specific cortical sites where such processing takes place.  Cortical activity will be initially recorded from anterior cingulate cortex, temporo-parietal junction, and hippocampus, areas hypothesized to be involved in attentional mechanisms and in the generation of endogenous ERP potentials.  Third, the necessary and sufficient role that the NA-LC system plays in these psychological processes will be analyzed.  Studies will include the manipulation of noradrenergic activity using systemically-(human and monkey) and locally-administered (monkey) pharmacological agents designed to activate or suppress neuronal activity.  Successful completion of these aims will result in more specific hypotheses regarding the similarities and differences between primate species, the neural sources of attentional processing, and the role of NA-LC in controlling and regulating the attentional focus :: KEYWORDS: young adult human (19-34) yohimbine species difference locus coeruleus hippocampus parietal lobe /cortex direct cortical response brain mapping auditory stimulus evoked potential orientation visual stimulus human subject clonidine neural information processing adrenergic agent attention behavior test Macaca fascicularis cingulate gyrus clinical research ::

Hit 14 of 66 -- Awd #: R01MH55309 
 Award Type: Extramural / Grants / Project
Access/Distribution Restriction:
 Code: A - Distribution Unlimited - Unrestricted Access
Parent Organizations: HHS / NIH / NIMH
 Project: Extramural awards (includes training)
Dates: Sep 1998 to Apr 1999
Performer: UNIVERSITY OF PENNSYLVANIA
 Type:     Private Educational Institution
 Contact:  ASTON-JONES, GARY S, Phone:
 First Congressional District in Pennsylvania
 Location: Philadelphia,   PA
Description: TITLE: LOCUS COERULEUS AND ATTENTIONAL PROCESSING :: LONG DESCR: Previous studies indicated that the locus coeruleus-norepinephrine (LC-NE) system regulates responsiveness to stimuli, and the capacity to process information during stress.  Our recent findings have provided several new insights into the role of the LC-NE system in vigilance and attention, some of which suggest important modifications of our previous ideas and those of others.  Specifically, we have found that variations in LC activity in the behaving monkey correspond to marked changes in attentiveness.  These results lead us to postulate a specific role for the LC in attentional processing.  We propose that the LC regulates the stability/lability aspect of attention, denoted here as attentional lability.  This dimension of attention rages from focused/selective attention (relatively non-distractible) to scanning/labile attention (easily distractible).  The  present proposal seeks to extend our recent observations to test this hypothesis and define LC's role in attention :: KEYWORDS: locus coeruleus electroencephalography cannulation microinjection visual fixation neural information processing neurochemistry alpha adrenergic agent neuropharmacology norepinephrine attention impulsive behavior cue learning performance stimulus /response environmental stressor psychological stressor Macaca fascicularis neurotransmitter antagonist ::

Hit 15 of 66 -- Awd #: R01NS32938 
 Award Type: Extramural / Grants / Project
Access/Distribution Restriction:
 Code: A - Distribution Unlimited - Unrestricted Access
Parent Organizations: HHS / NIH / NINDS
 Project: Extramural research (includes training)
Dates: Jan 1998 to Mar 1999
Performer: OHIO STATE UNIVERSITY, RESEARCH FOUNDATION
 Type:     State or Local Government
 Contact:  SARTER, MARTIN F, Phone:
 15th Congressional District in Ohio        
 Location: Columbus,   OH
Description: TITLE: GABA CHOLINERGIC INTERACTIONS AND ATTENTIONAL ABILITIES :: LONG DESCR: Attentional processes, such as stimulus selection and stimulus processing, represent critical stages of information processing.  Attentional dysfunctions have been considered major components, and even causes, of the cognitive impairments of senile dementia and schizophrenia.  Furthermore, normal aging is associated with impairments in attentional abilities.  The goal of the proposed research is to determine the role of cortical cholinergic afferents (which originate in the basal forebrain) in sustained and divided attention.  The proposed experiments will utilize novel, validated behavioral paradigms for the test of attentional abilities in rats.  Results from our previous experiments have suggested that the GABAergic innervation of basal forebrain neurons represents a major anatomical substrate mediating the bidirectional effects of benzodiazepine receptor (BZR) agonists and inverse agonists, respectively, on behavioral measures of learning and memory, and on cortical acetylcholine (ACh) release (measured by in vivo microdialysis).  The proposed experiments will test the hypothesis that the basal forebrain GABA-cholinergic link mediates the attentional effects of BZR ligands.  Furthermore, it will be determined whether cortical cholinergic deafferentation (achieved by infusions of the immunotoxin 192 IgG-saponin into cortical areas) result in impairments in attentional abilities.  A third series of experiments will test the hypotheses that age-related impairments in attentional abilities are due to functional impairments in cortical cholinergic afferents and, thus, can be attenuated by infusions of BZR inverse agonists into the basal forebrain.  Taken together, these experiments will determine the role of basal forebrain GABA-cholinergic interactions in general, and of cortical cholinergic projections originating from this area in particular, in attentional abilities.  Furthermore, this research will examine the hypothesis that the effects of BZR ligands on vigilance and brain information processing capacity are mediated via cortical cholinergic afferent projections.  Finally, hypotheses about a major neuronal substrate of the age-related impairments in attentional abilities will be tested, and a pharmacological approach for the treatment of these impairments will be evaluated.  Generally, the findings from these experiments will advance our understanding about the neurobiological mechanisms underlying attentional functions :: KEYWORDS: gamma aminobutyrate laboratory rat benzodiazepine nucleus accumbens hippocampus acetylcholine neural information processing intermolecular interaction neuropharmacology amphetamine dopamine attention benzodiazepine receptor cholinergic receptor dopamine receptor GABA receptor behavioral /social science research tag ::

Hit 16 of 66 -- Awd #: R01NS37948 
 Award Type: Extramural / Grants / Project
Access/Distribution Restriction:
 Code: A - Distribution Unlimited - Unrestricted Access
Parent Organizations: HHS / NIH / NINDS
 Project: Extramural research (includes training)
Dates: Apr 1998 to Apr 1999
Performer: EMORY UNIVERSITY
 Type:     Private Educational Institution
 Contact:  SMITH, YOLAND, Phone:
 5th Congressional District in Georgia        
 Location: Atlanta,   GA
Description: TITLE: SYNAPTIC INPUTS TO THALAMOSTRIATAL NEURONS :: LONG DESCR: DESCRIPTION (adapted from abstract):  The striatum is the major entrance of information to the basal ganglia, a group of interconnected brain structures that play major roles in the control of motor behaviors.  The activity of striatal neurons is under the influence of two major excitatory synaptic inputs that arise from the cerebral cortex and the caudal intralaminar thalamic nuclei, namely the centromedian (CM) and parafascicular (PF) nuclei.  Despite the fact that the existence of a thalamostriatal pathway has long been established, and that the CM reaches its maximum extent in primates, the role of thalamic influences upon striatal neurons is usually not considered in the functional circuitry of the basal ganglia.  Although the functions of the intralaminar nuclei are complex and multifaceted, it is well known that CM plays a role in maintaining a state of high vigilance and attention, two features that might be critical for alerting and preparing striatal neurons for incoming input :: KEYWORDS: Saimiri thalamic nuclei thalamocortical tract basal ganglia synapse neuroanatomy neural transmission neurotransmitter electron microscopy ::

Hit 17 of 66 -- Awd #: R29NS30514 
 Award Type: Extramural / Grants / Project
Access/Distribution Restriction:
 Code: A - Distribution Unlimited - Unrestricted Access
Parent Organizations: HHS / NIH / NINDS
 Project: Extramural research (includes training)
Dates: May 1998 to Apr 1999
Performer: FORDHAM UNIVERSITY
 Type:     Private Educational Institution
 Contact:  KAPAS, LEVENTE, Phone:
 District: Multiple congressional districts in New York
 Location: New York,   NY
Description: TITLE: SLEEP REGULATION--INVOLVEMENT OF CHOLECYSTOKININ :: LONG DESCR: The broad objective of this proposal is to study the role of cholecystokinin (CCK) in the regulation of sleep-wake activity. Two distinct CCK pools are present in the body. CCK is a gastrointestinal peptide released from the small intestines, and also a neurotransmitter/neuromodulator in the nervous system. We hypothesize that peripheral CCK, present in the systemic circulation, contributes to the maintenance of normal sleep, and also mediates sleep responses to common daily activities which lead to sleep: eating and mating. Major evidence in support of this hypothesis includes: a) Systemic administration of CCK induces sleep in all species studied; results are from several independent laboratories, b) Systemic CCK, acting on peripheral structures, is capable of modulating complex higher nervous functions such as learning and hypothalamic hormone secretion, c) The two major stimuli for CCK production, eating and sexual activity, both induce characteristic sleep responses parallel to increased plasma CCK levels, and d) Released CCK, provides a feedback signal to feeding and sexual activity eliciting a typical behavioral syndrome, satiety. To test our hypothesis we propose to: l) test the effects of receptor specific CCK agonists and antagonists on spontaneous sleep; 2) correlate plasma CCK responses with sleep responses after eating and sexual activity; we will also test the effects of CCK receptor antagonists on those sleep responses accompanied with sexual- and feeding-satiety; and 3) we will determine the role of two possible peripheral mediators of sleep responses, the vagal nerve and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide, in CCK-induced sleep. The experiments will be carried out in rats chronically implanted with EEG electrodes, brain thermistors, and intracardial catheters. The proposed experiments will establish the role of CCK in physiological sleep. Almost everybody experiences sleep disturbance in his/her life time. However even today, when we are well into the decade of the brain, the treatments for disturbed sleep are exclusively on empirical bases. We have been able to manipulate vigilance for millennia, but we are still not able to restore physiological sleep. Unfortunately, we will not be able to do so until the physiological sleep signals/mechanisms are better understood :: KEYWORDS: laboratory rat circadian rhythm sleep regulatory center electroencephalography blood chemistry cholecystokinin vagus nerve (X) eating vasoactive intestinal peptide sleep wakefulness sex behavior body temperature regulation ::

Hit 18 of 66 -- Awd #: R01AG15136 
 Award Type: Extramural / Grants / Project
Access/Distribution Restriction:
 Code: A - Distribution Unlimited - Unrestricted Access
Parent Organizations: HHS / NIH / NIA
 Project: Aging research (extramural/includes training)
Dates: Oct 1997 to Dec 1998
Performer: UNIVERSITY OF PITTSBURGH
 Type:     Public Educational Institution
 Contact:  MONK, TIMOTHY H, Phone:
 District: Multiple congressional districts in Pennsylvania
 Location: Pittsburgh,   PA
Description: TITLE: SIESTA NAPS IN OLDER PEOPLE :: LONG DESCR: (NIH-Designated Clinical Research)  DESCRIPTION (Adapted from applicant's abstract):  This study is a new proposal concerned with a behavioral intervention, that of taking an afternoon nap, which might lessen some of the sleep and alertness disorders experienced by many older men and women.  The major aim of this experiment is to determine whether for older people (70y+), a daily 90-minute early afternoon "siesta nap" regimen, applied for 2 weeks in the home followed by 3 days in the laboratory, will help promote evening alertness and prevent Unwanted Early Evening Sleepiness (UEES) which may be manifest as evening napping and/or Advanced Sleep Phase Syndrome (ASPS) symptoms.  A within-subject design will be employed with all subjects doing both conditions, half of the subjects doing the 'nap' condition first, half the 'no-nap' condition first.  Eighteen days will intervene between the two conditions.  The applicants will study both healthy controls and sleep disorders patients who complain of UEES symptoms, expecting the intervention to be most beneficial for the patient group.  Home-based measures will include subjective ratings of alertness, sleep (and nap) diaries, the Social Rhythm Metric (SRM), and Actillume measures of wrist activity and light level.  Laboratory measures will additionally include rectal temperature, polysomnographic measures of naps and sleeps, and single MSLT and waking EEG evening measures of sleepiness.  For both patient (10m, 10f) and control (10m, 10f) groups, the applicants will test the hypothesis that the siesta nap regimen, imposed for 14 days at home and for three days in the laboratory, will have the effect of:  1) delaying the self selected bedtime and/or eliminating evening naps, 2) improving evening performance at manual dexterity, serial response, response inhibition and monotonous visual vigilance tasks, 3) increasing evening subjective alertness (self- rated) and decreasing objective evening sleepiness (MSLT trial, waking EEG analysis), 4) changing the pattern of light exposure and 5) increasing the level of lifestyle regularity.  The intervention is derived from Borbely's original "Process S/Process C" model of the human circadian system, and laboratory sleep and circadian measures will be used additionally to investigate the mechanisms of the model, and to evaluate any consequences of the siesta naps on circadian rhythm timing and nocturnal sleep.  Results from the experiment will reveal the potential benefits (and costs) to older people of a lifestyle that incorporates an early afternoon nap, and determine how these vary between healthy seniors and those complaining of symptoms related to unwanted early evening sleepiness :: KEYWORDS: human old age (65+) aging electroencephalography human subject sleep disorder sleep emotion performance human therapy evaluation clinical research behavioral /social science research tag personal log /diary ::

Hit 19 of 66 -- Awd #: R29AG13961 
 Award Type: Extramural / Grants / Project
Access/Distribution Restriction:
 Code: A - Distribution Unlimited - Unrestricted Access
Parent Organizations: HHS / NIH / NIA
 Project: Aging research (extramural/includes training)
Dates: Sep 1998 to Aug 1999
Performer: MCLEAN HOSPITAL
 Type:     Nonprofit (Non-Educational)
 Contact:  DORSEY, CYNTHIA M, Phone:
 District: Multiple congressional districts in Massachusetts
 Location: Belmont,   MA
Description: TITLE: INSOMNIA IN ELDERLY--PASSIVE BODY HEATING VS ZOLPIDEM :: LONG DESCR: (NIH-Designated Clinical Research)  DESCRIPTION (Adapted from Investigator's Abstract):  This application will examine sleep and sleep disturbance in the elderly, seeking to develop an alternative method for improving sleep quality in the elderly.  Forty elderly female volunteers with sleep maintenance insomnia will participate in a 10-day/night protocol involving a comparison of the effects of Passive Body Heating (PBH) and a commonly used hypnotic (zolpidem) on sleep, temperature, growth hormone secretion, subjective sleepiness, and performance.  Baseline actigraphic and sleep diary data will be collected for ten days prior to the study to evaluate sleep at home and to confirm insomnia.  Subjects will be randomly assigned to one of four treatment conditions:  PBH/placebo, PBH/zolpidem, PBH control/placebo, PBH control zolpidem.  The PBH intervention will involve having the subjects sit in a tub filled with 40 C (active) or 37 C (control) water for 30 minutes.  Zolpidem will be administered at 5mg.  Objective measures of sleep will be quantified using standard sleep scoring criteria.  Changes in sleep efficiency and architecture will be measured and amplitude and density of slow wave sleep will be quantified using power spectral analysis.  Subjective measures of sleep will be taken using a post-sleep questionnaire and a visual analog scale.  Core body temperature and motor activity will be recorded continuously using ambulatory monitoring systems.  Growth hormone will be sampled every 30 minutes during one baseline and one treatment night and assayed using standard procedures.  Measures of memory, reaction time and vigilance will be made during the day.  The PBH technique may achieve the same beneficial effects on sleep as zolpidem, with the risk of side-effects associated with hypnotic medication.  The investigators intend to determine whether the PBH procedure will be a useful non-pharmacologic method for treating insomnia in the elderly :: KEYWORDS: human old age (65+) patient monitoring device circadian rhythm electroencephalography drug administration rate /duration drug adverse effect drug screening /evaluation electrophysiology electrocardiography human subject questionnaire statistics /biometry electromyography sleep disorder somatotropin wakefulness memory performance sedative /hypnotic respiratory airflow measurement female heat body temperature human therapy evaluation clinical research ::

Hit 20 of 66 -- Awd #: Z01DA00248 
 Award Type: Intramural / In-House Project / In-House Project
Access/Distribution Restriction:
 Code: A - Distribution Unlimited - Unrestricted Access
Parent Organizations: HHS / NIH / NIDA
 Project: Intramural research
Dates: Oct 1992 to Sep 1999
Performer: NATIONAL INSTITUTE ON DRUG ABUSE
 Type:     Federal Government
 Contact:  PICKWORTH, W B, Phone:
 Location: Bethesda,   MD
Description: TITLE: NEUROPHYSIOLOGIC, PERFORMANCE AND SUBJECTIVE EFFECTS OF NICOTINE :: LONG DESCR: (NIH-Designated Clinical Research)  Several clinical studies are performed to determine objective and subjective measures associated with smoking and tobacco withdrawal. The results of these studies are applied to develop paradigms for testing of drugs for the treatment of nicotine withdrawal. Neurophysiologic data indicate that nicotine acts on neural substrates involved in attention, cognition and memory. For example, the effects of mecamylamine, a centrally acting nicotinic antagonist is studied to determine the contribution of tonic cholinergic mechanisms on the EEG and cognitive tasks in smokers and nonsmokers. The ability of transcranially delivered electrostimulation to alleviate nicotine withdrawal was evaluated in a treatment protocol. The efficacy of transdermally delivered nicotine to diminish signs and symptoms of tobacco spontaneous withdrawal are tested in a residential study. The effects of nicotine withdrawal on delayed auditory feedback - a proposed measure of attention and distraction - is being evaluated. The interaction of caffeine and nicotine after overnight abstinence was assessed.  Dependent measures for these studies include: Gordon vigilance task (with and without distracters), word memory, PAB (performance) spontaneous EEG, evoked potentials, blood pressure, heart rate (physiologic); withdrawal scales, craving, drug liking, drug identification (subjective). Studies on the effects of smokeless tobacco products, and a newly developed denicotinized cigarette are completed. In an ongoing project, the effects of cigarettes that deliver nicotine from placebo cigarettes were tested in a spaced-smoking paradigm. In another study, the effects of the denicotinized cigarettes in a rapid smoking procedure are evaluated.  These studies contribute to an understanding of the mechanisms of nicotine addiction and are also of practical value in the development of more effective medications for treating nicotine dependence and withdrawal :: KEYWORDS: electroencephalography blood pressure sign /symptom drug addiction drug abuse chemotherapy tobacco abuse drug interaction drug withdrawal auditory feedback electrostimulus heart rate human subject neurophysiology mecamylamine attention psychophysiology cognition memory performance psychopharmacology nicotine human therapy evaluation transdermal drug delivery smoking clinical research craving ::

Hit 21 of 66 -- Awd #: 115701 
 Award Type: Intramural / In-House Project / In-House Project
Access/Distribution Restriction:
 Code: A - Distribution Unlimited - Unrestricted Access
Parent Organizations: DVA / Medical & Prosthetic Research / VA Medical Center - (Baltimore, MD)
Dates: Oct 1996 to Sep 1999
Performer: VA Medical Center - (Baltimore, MD)
 Type:     Federal Government
 Contact:  Kling, Mitchel A., M.D., Phone:
 Location: Baltimore,   MD
Description: TITLE: Continuous Sampling of Cerebrospinal Fluid in PTSD and Major Depression :: LONG DESCR:    Several psychiatric disorders are closely associated with stress. Two of these, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and major depression, are particularly linked with stressful events, either by definition or by clinical observations. In PTSD, severe stressors, such as combat experiences, lead to a sustained tendency to re-experience the stressor, as well as to hyperrespond to other stimuli such as sudden loud noises (1). In major depression, epidemiologic studies show an association between psychosocial stressors (such as losses and disappointments) and episodes of illness.                                                                 The classical syndromal form of major depression, melancholia, is associated with hypersecretion of cortisol (2-4), a hormone known to be involved in responses to stressful stimuli. Cortisol hypersecretion has proven to be one of the most consistent biological alterations in major depression, and particularly in melancholia. Several lines of indirect evidence have suggested that this hypercortisolism reflects a decreased efficacy of glucocorticoid negative feedback at or above the level of the hypothalamus resulting in the hypersecretion of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) (5-8), a principal central regulator of peripheral cortisol secretion (9). Hypersecretion of CRH in major depression may be relevant, not only to the hypercortisolism of melancholia, but also for a number of aspects of its underlying symptom complex. Hence, CRH given centrally to experimental animals has a number of behavioral and physiological effects that are not only commonly associated with responses to stress, but are also cardinal symptoms of melancholia. These effects include increased arousal and vigilance and sympathetic activation, as well as decreased feeding, sleeping and sexual behavior (5-7). Post-mortem data suggest activation of CRH secretion both in hypothalamic (10) and extrahypothalamic (11) brain areas in suicide victims, but more data are needed to determine whether a widespread activation of CRH systems in brain is an integral pathophysiologic feature of melancholic depression.               In contrast to the data suggesting a pathologic activation of the pituitary-adrenal axis in melancholia, studies to date suggest that patients with PTSD show decreased indices of cortisol secretion and increased sensitivity to glucocorticoid negative feedback (12-14). On the other hand, a substantial proportion of patients with PTSD also meet criteria for major depression (15). These observations raise the question of whether different mechanisms are at work in the genesis of major depression and PTSD, or whether these conditions represent different extremes of pathological response to stress. In addition, since the above-cited studies of pituitary-adrenal secretion have been conducted under unstimulated conditions, it is unknown whether the responsiveness of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis to provocative stimuli is altered in patients with PTSD, and how this responsiveness compares to that in patients with major depression. Such information would be of value in helping to elucidate the nature of alterations in stress response systems in PTSD and major depression, and may help guide the development of improved treatments for these illnesses.                                                         Pathophysiologic studies of psychiatric illnesses have frequently utilized cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of hormones and neurotransmitters as an index of their central nervous system production. However, nearly all such studies have utilized a single time point measure, usually at 9 am. Recently, one of us (M.A.K.) has extended the potential scope of such studies by conducting CSF sampling over periods of up to 30 hours using an indwelling lumbar catheter (16, 17). We have shown that CSF sampling by this method can be safely conducted in patients and healthy volunteers and can provide valuable data regarding the dynamic secretion of informational substances into the CSF that is not obtainable by other means. In particular, we have shown that significant diurnal variation in CSF levels of CRH (16) and norepinephrine (NE) (18) occur in healthy volunteers, and that predicted changes in the overall CSF secretion pattern of hormones such as CRH and NE occur with successful treatment of depression (17).                                                                 We propose to compare the diurnal pattern of CSF CRH, NE, the serotonin metabolite 5-HIAA, and functionally related neurohormones in patients with PTSD and major depression, and to relate these to simultaneous plasma levels of ACTH, cortisol, and NE. In addition, we propose to examine whether changes in the CSF levels of these neurohormones occur during challenge with an acoustic startle probe which has shown to be useful in the study of PTSD and other anxiety disorders. We plan to examine responses to this startle probe both at rest and during conditions of increased anxiety induced by informing the subject of the possibility of a mild electric shock, which has been shown to enhance startle responses in volunteers and patients. Responses to acoustic startle stimuli may be of particular relevance to mood and anxiety disorders in the light of data suggesting that conditioned fear potentiation of startle may be mediated by neuronal pathways emanating from the central nucleus of the amygdala (19), a locus that has been implicated in the processing of fear and anxiety responses; the potential involvement of CRH, which is present in this pathway, has also been suggested both by pharmacologic (20) and lesion (21) studies. The effects of treatment on these measures will also be examined. These studies will provide information regarding basal and stimulated CSF levels of neurohormones that may be relevant to the pathophysiology and treatment of both major depression and PTSD :: KEYWORDS: STRESS DISORDERS, POST-TRAUMATIC; DEPRESSION; CEREBROSPINAL FLUID ::

Hit 23 of 66 -- Awd #: 124096 
 Award Type: Transfers / Incoming / Reimbursable-Traditional
 Requester: Private Donor
Access/Distribution Restriction:
 Code: A - Distribution Unlimited - Unrestricted Access
Parent Organizations: DVA / Medical & Prosthetic Research / VA Medical Center - (Buffalo, NY)
Dates: Oct 1998 to Sep 1999
Obligations (federal, FY avg):  $19.0; $19.0
Performer: VA Medical Center - (Buffalo, NY)
 Type:     Federal Government
 Contact:  Lockwood, Alan H., M.D., Phone:
 Location: Buffalo,   NY
Description: TITLE: Assessment of Auditory Attention and Motor Function Using PET and 0-15 Water :: LONG DESCR:    OBJECTIVES: To map areas of cerebral activation in the human brain critical for motor function and auditory attention in order to develop a neuroanatomic model of auditory attention that encompasses (a) simple, high-capacity demand attention, (b) sustained attention or vigilance, and (c) two aspects of selective attention (focused, divided).                 RESEARCH PLAN: We propose to use positron emission tomography (PET) and electrophysiological monitoring to study auditory attention and motor performance in healthy adults. Subjects will perform a series of auditory attention tasks during simultaneous monitoring of brain function. Audiometric, neuropsychological, and magnetic resonance imaging studies will be performed to rule out neurological disease and help calibrate the PET images for analysis. Audiometric and neuropsychological examinations will be performed on one day, PET/Electrophysiology/MRI on another. Subjects will be presented with auditory stimuli (syllables or tone patterns). Subjects will respond to target stimuli with a bilateral thumb press. During focused attention scans, subjects will be asked to identify targets in one channel (e.g. syllable ba) while ignoring the other (e.g. tones). Finally, during divided attention, subjects will be asked to respond to both syllables and tone targets. CBF will be measured using 150-H2) administered intravenously, imaged using a Siemens ECAT 95 1/3 IR tomograph. Electrophysiological data will be acquired while subjects are in the PET scanner.                                                            DATA ANALYSIS: PET data will be analyzed with SPM which displays a spatial representation of regions where rCBF is significantly altered by a specified experimental manipulation or contrast.                          We have just begun to collect data. Results will be forthcoming :: KEYWORDS: TOMOGRAPHY, EMISSION-COMPUTED; AUDITORY CORTEX; ATTENTION ::

Hit 24 of 66 -- Awd #: 110267 
 Award Type: Intramural / In-House Project / In-House Project
Access/Distribution Restriction:
 Code: A - Distribution Unlimited - Unrestricted Access
Parent Organizations: DVA / Medical & Prosthetic Research / VA Medical Center - (Charleston, SC)
Dates: Oct 1995 to Sep 1999
Performer: VA Medical Center - (Charleston, SC)
 Type:     Federal Government
 Contact:  Raymond, John R., M.D., Phone:
 Location: Charleston,   SC
Description: TITLE: Heterologous Expression, Purification and Reconstitution of the 5-HT 1A Receptor :: LONG DESCR:    Progress Report for 7/1/95-3/23/96                                      Project: Biochemistry and Cell Biology of the 5-HTIAReceptor (Active)     OBJECTIVE: Cloning studies have revealed a heretofore unsuspected diversity amongst the G proteincoupled receptors for the neurotransmitter and vasoactive hormone serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT). At lease 14 distinct genes/cDNA have been cloned from mammalian sources with the discovery of so many new players, one major unresolved issue in signal transduction has been how specificity is conferred upon the interactions of receptors with various combinations of G protein heterotrimers. The objective of this study is to map the determinants of specificity of coupling of one of those receptors, the human brain 5-HT1A receptor.           Research Plan, Methods and Findings: We have made considerable progress toward the three stated zoals this year.  Aim # 1: To develop a high yield purification strategy for the f-HT1A receptor. We have expressed the receptor in Sf9 insect and mammalian cells, and have expressed several versions of tagged receptors which can be detected by immunoblot or immunofluorescence microscopy. Receptors have been expressed at high levels in mammalian cells. Aim # 2: To establish a physical and functional coupling of the receptor with various G proteins. Technological advances have allowed us to answer the issues in this aim without relying on the phospholipid vesicle approach. We synthesize a radioactive GTP analog that is a photoaffinity probe that is incorporated into G protein oc-subunits when they are activated by receptors. The respective G proteins can then be purified by immunoprecipitation, then analyze separately. Using that technique, we have been able to show coupling of the receptor to a number of G proteins, and lack of coupling to several others. In the last six months, we have delineated a role for G protein by subunits in activating growth cascades through this receptor. We have also made a fusion protein and several receptor antibodies which will allow us to use other biochemical techniques to further study the specificity of coupling. Aim #3: to investigate the G protein activating sites within the receptor. We have made several mutant receptors which we hope will prove instrumental in achieving this aim. Neutralizing antibodies and fusion constructs are now available. This project resulted in the following manuscripts during the report period: 1) Raymond, JR (1995) Multiple mechanisms of receptor/G protein signaling specificity. Am.J. Physiol.268: (Renal Fluid Electrolyte Physiol.37) F141-F158. 2) Nebigil, C.G., Garnovskaya, M.N., Spurney, R.F., Raymond, J>R. (1995) 5-HT2A receptors expressed in rat mesangial cells inhibit cAMP accumulation. Mol. Pharmacol. 48:230-237. 4) Nebigil, C.G., Garnovskaya, M.N., Casanas, S.J., Mulheron, J.G., Parker, E.M., Gettys, T.W., Raymond, J.R. (1995) Agonist-induced phosphorylation and desensitization of 5-HTIA receptor expressed in Sf9 insect cells. Biochemistry 34:11954-11962. 5) Van Biesen, T., Hawes, B.E., Raymond, J.R., Luttrell, L.M., Koch, W.J., Lefkowitz, R.J. (1996) Goprotein a subunits mediate Ras-independent MAP kinase activation. J. Biol. Chem. 271:1266-1269. 6) Garnovskaya, M.N., Raymond, J.R. (1996) Mediation of 5-HTIA receptor activated Na+H+ exchange in CHO-KI cells by pertussin toxin-sensitive G protein oc-subunits, tyrosine phosphorylation and PI-3-kinase. In revision. 7) Garnovskaya, M.N., vanBiesen, T., Hawes, B.E., Cananas Ramos, S.J., Lefkowitz, R.J., Raymond, J.R. (1996) Ras-dependent activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase by 5-HT1A receptor. In revision. conditionally accepted to J. Biol. Chem.                                 CLINICAL RELEVANCE: The subject of this study is relevant to a number of conditions prevalent in veterans. The serotonin 5-HT1A receptors is important in the treatment of anxiety, as evidenced by the clinical success of the partial agonist BuSpar, (buspirone, Mead Johnson). the 5-HT1A receptor system may also be involved in alcohol or opiate withdrawal syndromes, depression, and the regulation of body temperature, vigilance and sleep. Because 5-HT1A receptors have been localized outside of the central nervous system, in medullary thick ascending limb cells of kidney, in enteric nerves, and in B- and T-cells, it may play important roles in the function of peripheral organs. An understanding of 5-HT1A receptor function will be beneficial in the understanding of neuropsychiatric diseases, as well as being potentially beneficial in physiologic and Pathophysiologic processes outside of the central nervous system. Update of John R. Raymond, M.D., BASS 274-44-2755 Active Research Project, 1996 :: KEYWORDS: TRANSFECTION; RECEPTORS, SEROTONIN; G-PROTEINS; ADENYL CYCLASE ::

Hit 25 of 66 -- Awd #: 97614 
 Award Type: Transfers / Incoming / Reimbursable-Traditional
 Requester: Not Specified
Access/Distribution Restriction:
 Code: A - Distribution Unlimited - Unrestricted Access
Parent Organizations: DVA / Medical & Prosthetic Research / VA Medical Center - (Cleveland, OH)
Dates: Oct 1993 to Sep 1999
Obligations (federal, FY avg):  $0.0; $216.6
Performer: VA Medical Center - (Cleveland, OH)
 Type:     Federal Government
 Contact:  Redline, Susan, M.D., Phone:
 Location: Cleveland,   OH
Description: TITLE: The Neuropsychological Consequences of Sleep Apnea :: LONG DESCR:    OBJECTIVE The aims of this project are (1) to characterize and quantitate the degree to which neuropsychological (NP) performance and health status are impaired in subjects with mild to moderate levels of sleep-disordered breathing (SDB), and (2) to determine if treatment of obstructive respiratory disturbances in these subjects results in beneficial effects on cognition, mood, motor performance, and/or general health and functional status.                                                            RESEARCH PLAN In this study, NP and health status data are collected in subjects with minimal apneic activity (a respiratory disturbance index (RDI) < 5) (n=75), and in subjects with mild to moderate levels of apnea (RDI 5-30) (n= 150), matched to the controls by age, gender, race, and educational level. Subjects are identified by a variety of means: direct referrals by physicians and sleep laboratories, identification via another epidemiological study, and fliers soliciting volunteers. Subjects are screened with in-home monitoring of sleep and by questionnaire. Those with levels of apnea within the above defined categories, and without substantial co-morbidity, are enrolled. Subjects with SDB also are randomized to receive conservative medical therapy (CMT) (consisting of counseling regarding sleep hygiene, sleep position, diet, and use of an external nasal dilator, and, if indicated, nasal decongestants), or CMT plus nasal CPAP. An extensive testing battery is performed prior to and following 2 months of therapy, emphasizing evaluation of sleepiness, vigilance, focused attention, executive processing, learning and memory, and mood.                                                                         METHODOLOGY Standard neuropsychological tests (testing learning and memory, attention, executive functions, etc.) and standard sleep studies (polysomnography and multiple sleep latency tests) are used. Statistical analyses include group comparisons which will indicate if significant differences in performance can be attributed to mild-moderate SDB. Pre- and post-therapy data will indicate which subjects with mild to moderate SDB benefit from therapy.                                                  FINDINGS A total of 225 subjects have been enrolled and studied. To date, 105 subjects have been randomized to CMT or to CPAP. We have demonstrated that subjects with mild sleep apnea (respiratory disturbance index 10-30) have reduced vigilance as compared to controls. It is those subjects with baseline sleepiness and mild-moderate apnea who appear to specifically benefit more from CPAP as compared to CMT.                       CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: The finding that mild to moderate levels of sleep apnea significantly impair daytime performance suggest the importance of considering a diagnosis of sleep apnea in patients who present with such deficits. These data suggest that people with sleepiness benefit the most from CPAP therapy. Further quantification of the degree to which such functions improve with specific therapy can lead to more rationale utilization of health care resources :: KEYWORDS: SLEEP APNEA SYNDROMES; NEUROPSYCHOLOGY; MULTIVARIATE ANALYSIS ::

Hit 26 of 66 -- Awd #: 120883 
 Award Type: Intramural / In-House Project / In-House Project
Access/Distribution Restriction:
 Code: A - Distribution Unlimited - Unrestricted Access
Parent Organizations: DVA / Medical & Prosthetic Research / VA Medical Center - (East Orange, NJ)
Dates: Oct 1997 to Sep 1999
Performer: VA Medical Center - (East ORange, NJ)
 Type:     Federal Government
 Contact:  Ottenweller, John E., Ph.D., Phone:
 Location: East Orange,   NJ
Description: TITLE: Effect of Chemical Stress on Persian Gulf Veterans :: LONG DESCR:    A Significant number of Persian gulf Veterans report fatiguing illnes s that is exacerbated when they are exposed to chemicals such as diesel  exhaust. Psychological stress may also play a role in the illness of the  veterans. The purpose of the present study is to test the health effect s of controlled exposure to volatile components of diesel fuel as a psyc hologic stressor among health PG veterans and PG veterans with fatiguing  illness. health effects of exposure will be addressed by measuring psyc hophysiologic reactivity (i.e. heart rate, blood pressure, vagal tone, r espiration rate, skin conductance, blood pulse volume, and end-tidal CO2 ), symptoms and cognitive performance (computerize, vigilance task) duri ng a 50 minute exposure to 5 ppm of a d8iesel mixture comprised of organ ic compounds and aldehydes.                                                The project seeks to understand the risk factors and health consequen ces of exposure to diesel fumes such as those encountered in typical mil itary situations. Information from this project will help the military f urther understand ongoing illness following the Gulf War conflict and wi ll aid in developing treatment protocols for veterans who continue to be  adversely affected by exposures :: KEYWORDS: STRESS; PERSIAN GULF SYNDROME; MULTIPLE CHEMICAL SENSITIVITY ::

Hit 27 of 66 -- Awd #: 128309 
 Award Type: Transfers / Incoming / Reimbursable-Traditional
 Requester: MIREC
Access/Distribution Restriction:
 Code: A - Distribution Unlimited - Unrestricted Access
Parent Organizations: DVA / Medical & Prosthetic Research / VA Medical Center - (East Orange, NJ)
Dates: Oct 1998 to Sep 1999
Obligations (federal, FY avg):  $0.0; $0.0
Performer: VA Medical Center - (East ORange, NJ)
 Type:     Federal Government
 Contact:  Howanitz, Evelyn M., M.D., Phone:
 Location: East Orange,   NJ
Description: TITLE: Pharmacoatherapy for Cognitative Impairment in Schizophrenia: Cholinergic Approach :: LONG DESCR:    The initial proposed study is a double-blind, placebo-controlled study assessing the                                                            utility of administering Donepezil with Risperidone. All subjects will be receiving                                                             neuroleptics for the duration of the study. Neuroleptics will be given at a fixed dose for                                                      the duration of treatment.                                              After baseline assessments, subjects will be randomized to one of two treatment groups: placebo + Risperidone or Donepezil 5mg + Risperidone. A total of 40 subjects will be equally randomized to one of these two treatment groups to receive that treatment for a period of twelve weeks. Neither the dose of the neuroleptic nor study medication will be changed for the duration of the study.                                            Baseline assessments will consist of cognitive measures of learning and recall, spatial and verbal working memory, executive functions, attention and vigilance. Subjects will also have a symptomatic assessment by the PANSS and extrapyramidal symptom ratings by the ESRS (Extrapyramidal Symptom Rating Scale). The PANSS ratings will continue weekly for the next twelve weeks, and cognitive and extrapyramidal symptom assessments will be repeated at weeks four and twelve :: KEYWORDS: SCHIZOPHRENIA; COGNITIVE THERAPY; CHOLINERGIC AGENTS ::

Hit 28 of 66 -- Awd #: 109408 
 Award Type: Transfers / Incoming / Reimbursable-Traditional
 Requester: Not Specified
Access/Distribution Restriction:
 Code: A - Distribution Unlimited - Unrestricted Access
Parent Organizations: DVA / Medical & Prosthetic Research / VA Medical Center - (Fargo, ND)
Dates: Oct 1995 to Sep 1999
Obligations (federal, FY avg):  $1.0; $3.1
Performer: VA Medical Center - (Fargo, ND)
 Type:     Federal Government
 Contact:  Mark, Victor W., M.D., Phone:
 Location: Fargo,   ND
Description: TITLE: Portable Computer Behavioral Assessment of Stroke :: LONG DESCR:    OBJECTIVE: The feasibility of neuropsychologic assessment based on computerized testing with a notebook computer will be assessed. The user of such a computer will bypass requiring study subjects to travel to the research laboratory. In this way, bedside and home-based behavioral assessment may be facilitated, which should improve the recruitment of patients into behavioral studies, as well as providing improved correlation between formal psychologic assessments and functional activities.           RESEARCH PLAN: Four studies are planned. (1) Correlation of tests of spatial attention and vigilance with functional activities ratings following hospital discharge. (2) Correlation between initial target marking and location of neglected stimuli on cancellation tests of spatial attention. (3) Influence of target marking vs. target touching on cancellation. (4) Evaluation of perceived midpoint of horizontal lines on a task with minimal motor involvement.                                              METHODOLOGY: Subjects will be either stroke patients who have been admitted to any of three hospital inpatient rehabilitation services (VAMC, MeritCare Hospital, and Dakota Hospital) or healthy legal guardians of such patients. All subjects will be adults, ages 21-85 and must have at least 20/200 visual acuity. Patients will be identified to the examiner by rehabilitation staff members. Suitable patients will be approached for consent. If such patients are unable to comprehend spoken or printed consent but are still capable of participating in the study (as indicated by their ability to obey instructions through demonstration), their legal representatives will be approached for consent. Subjects who do not give consent or whose legal representatives do not give consent will not be further contacted, and no record of contact with such patients will be maintained. Approximately 20 stroke patients and 20 control subjects will be enrolled over the two year study period.                            Computerized testing: (1) Shape cancellation: 60 target shapes (sunbursts) will be distributed evenly across an 8x11" sheet of paper, along with 120 non-target shapes (other geometric designs). The page will be fastened to a digitizing table that is connected to the computer. Subjects will be instructed to cross out the targets. The computer will record the locations, sequence, and timing of all cancellations. Subjects will determine when they have finished. On an alternative form of the task, subjects will cross out targets without ink, leaving behind no trace, but with the computer still recording responses.                               (2) Vigilance: 90 reaction time trials will be administered at one sitting, consisting of the pseudorandom appearance of an asterisk within either the left or right half of the screen at pseudorandom intervals. The subject will press a key as fact as possible to the appearance of the target. The task requires about 5 minutes.                                 (3) Line bisection: 120 presentations of a 20cm horizontal line will occur. The line will be exposed for 200 milliseconds. It will have one small vertical mark on it at any of 12 locations throughout its extent. Subjects must press a key to decide whether the vertical mark occurred to the left or the right of the line's actual midpoint. Reaction times and performance accuracy will be recorded. The task requires about 20 minutes.                                                                        Functional assessment will consist of the 10-item Barthel Index, a published and validated questionnaire of success on various basic self-care activities. The questionnaire will be given only to the patient's legal guardian, who must cohabit with the patient. Also, whenever possible, video recording will be made in the home of the patient's locomotion, feeding, grooming, and upper body dressing while wearing clothing, to extend the information obtained from the Barthel Index. Video recording will be optional; the consent form will allow the patient to decline this option.                                                                      Computerized testing will occur either in the hospital or at the patient's home. Functional assessments and simultaneous correlated computer assessments will occur 4-8 weeks post-hospital discharge. Testing times will be adjusted according to the patient's wishes. Testing will not exceed one hour on any day. Repeated testing will be requested if further refinement of measures is required in the opinion of the examiner.          The examiner will be Dr. Mark or his research assistant, who will have been trained on techniques of obtaining consent, test administration, and video recording. Data will be analyzed by Mark E. McCourt, Ph.D., or North Dakota State University and F. Richard Ferraro, Ph.D., of the University of North Dakota. All records will be kept indefinitely in Dr. Mark's locked research laboratory in the Fargo VA. Only study personnel will have access to records :: KEYWORDS: SPATIAL BEHAVIOR; REHABILITATION; REACTION TIME; NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL TESTS; COMPUTERS; CEREBROVASCULAR DISORDERS ::

Hit 29 of 66 -- Awd #: 101195 
 Award Type: Intramural / In-House Project / In-House Project
Access/Distribution Restriction:
 Code: A - Distribution Unlimited - Unrestricted Access
Parent Organizations: DVA / Medical & Prosthetic Research / VA Medical Center - (Houston, TX)
Dates: Oct 1994 to Sep 1999
Performer: VA Medical Center - (Houston, TX)
 Type:     Federal Government
 Contact:  Hirshkowitz, Max, Ph.D., Phone:
 Location: Houston,   TX
Description: TITLE: Nocturnal and Diurnal Breathing in Men At Risk for Obstructive Sleep Apnea :: LONG DESCR:    OBJECTIVES: (1) To assess the relationship between sleep-disordered breathing determined with comprehensive overnight polysomnography and that observed during abbreviated daytime nap studies. (2) To search for a patient profile that predicts which patients can be diagnosed with abbreviated daytime naps studies.                                                RESEARCH PLAN: The subjects will be male VA patients referred for evaluation of Sleep Apnea Syndrome or excessive daytime sleepiness. Sixty men referred to the VA Medical Center Sleep Diagnosis Clinic for evaluation of Sleep Disordered breathing or hypersomnolence will be studied. Each subject must meet inclusion and exclusion criteria, be willing to participate, and provide informed consent.;. Patients suspected of having sleep apnea or excessive daytime sleepiness;. Males because of the high incidence sex ratio (30:1) in the clinical population.; between 35 and 70. All subjects, will be asked to complete a sleep disorders questionnaire, the Epworth Sleepiness Questionnaire, and a standardized psychological test battery. Each will also take a 20 minute visual vigilance-performance test. All subjects will have a physical examination before study. All procedures and questionnaires are part of our routine diagnostic study protocol except for the two-hour nap and the vigilance-performance test.                                                                          METHODS: Patients will sleep at the VA Sleep Center for a two hours daytime (NAP) between noon and 4 p.m. and subsequently at night (8 hours). During these times, each subject will sleep in private, electrically shielded, sound attenuated, temperature controlled bedrooms. We will make recordings using standard polygraphs. Using surface electrodes we will record electroencephalograph, electrooculographic, electromyographic, a electrocardiograph activities. Nasal-oral thermocouples will monitor airflow, while thoracic and abdominal movements be recorded to assess respiratory effort. Blood oxygen saturation will be monitored by pulse oximetry with the sensor placed on the subject's earlobe. Recording and scoring technique will follow currently published standards for human subjects. NAP results will be compared with the full night data. Key parameters will include the number of apnea episodes per hour (apnea index A1), apnea hypopnea+index (AHI), and oxygen desaturation.                          FINDINGS: Patients with severe sleep apnea readily fall asleep on daytime nap opportunities. At present we have only encountered one patient with worse sleep apnea during the daytime nap. Than during nocturnal sleep. Nap studies tend to underestimate sleep apnea severity. Thus, sensitivity especially to milder conditions is moderate; however, specificity is high.                                                                   CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Sleep-disordered breathing is a common, potentially life-threatening condition. The risk factors for sleep-disordered breathing are common in the VA population. More than 75% of patients referred to the VA Sleep Center are sent for assessment of sleep-disordered breathing. Streamlining diagnostic procedures would be economically beneficial and would accelerate the process of providing care to VA patients :: KEYWORDS: SLEEP APNEA SYNDROMES; ELECTROMYOGRAPHY; ELECTROCARDIOGRAPHY ::
 

Hit 31 of 66 -- Awd #: 99688 
 Award Type: Intramural / In-House Project / In-House Project
Access/Distribution Restriction:
 Code: A - Distribution Unlimited - Unrestricted Access
Parent Organizations: DVA / Medical & Prosthetic Research / VA Medical Center - (Milwaukee, WI)
Dates: Oct 1993 to Sep 1999
Performer: VA Medical Center - (Milwaukee, WI)
 Type:     Federal Government
 Contact:  Cho, Jung-Ki, M.D., Phone:
 Location: Milwaukee,   WI
Description: TITLE: Effects of Drug Craving and Withdrawal on Regional Brain Activity :: LONG DESCR:    Objectives                                                              The objectives of this project are threefold: 1) to determine those neuronal sites in the human brain that are responsible for the behavioral and physiological craving responses seen in individuals to specific drug related cues and 2) to determine whether during the course of cocaine withdrawal, the ability of various areas of the brain to process cognitive stimuli is altered, and 3) to determine whether there is a reversal of neurochemical changes in various areas of brain during cocaine withdrawal.                                                                       Research Plan                                                           It is well known from both animal and human experiments that cocaine (as well as other drugs of abuse), acting as an unconditional stimuli can induce a conditioned response when paired with formerly neutral environmental stimuli. Such conditioned responses are believed to play a major role in relapse and addict recidivism. The anatomic bases of cue responsively is unknown. To address our first objective, cocaine addicts are presented with a video containing specific drug related cues while brain changes are followed using functional magnetic resonance imaging (FMRI).     It is known from animal experiments that chronic exposure to cocaine can induce long duration alterations in dopamine receptor properties. However, the functional consequences of this plasticity are unknown in humans. As such, the second objective will be addressed by presenting specific cognitive (working memory) tasks to cocaine addicts currently undergoing treatment and following the ability of these tasks to activate specific brain regions during their withdrawal period using FMRI. It is hypothesized that frontal lobe regions, rich in dopamine terminals and involved in working memory will, as a consequence of drug-induced receptor plasticity, have altered responsively to task over time.                   Finally, since chronic cocaine has been shown to alter various neurochemical parameters, it is hypothesized that the reversal of neurochemical changes originally induced during the development of drug dependence can be followed over time by MRS during withdrawal. The recent advances of in vivo MRS of the human brain permit a non invasive assay of key molecules of brain metabolism. Using H MRS methods, amino acids and their intermediary metabolism can be directly monitored. Thus, the specific aim of this experiment is to determine the time course effects of withdrawal from chronic drug use on regional neurochemical activity by measuring specific neurochemical changes when an individual is both cocaine dependent and during the time course of withdrawal from chronic use.              Methods                                                                 Expt 1: cocaine addicts from the VA Psychiatry Service, will be recruited and screened. While echo planar MRI images are acquired within a conventional MRI scanner, subjects will be presented with a video tape depicting individuals preparing, using and speaking about using cocaine. They will also be monitored for heart rate, galvanic skin response and skin temperature to follow autonomic signs. Behavioral rating scales are also obtained. Separate videos controlling for arousal will be alternated with the active video.                                                     Expt 2: subjects will be recruited from the drug abuse outpatient or rehabilitation inpatient service at the VA. Appropriate inclusion/exclusion provisions are followed. Subjects will be brought to the scanner approximately 3-5, 14 and 28 days post last cocaine administration. While in the MRI, they will be asked to perform working memory tasks and tasks to control for attention or vigilance. Identical procedures will be performed on each of their sessions. Behavioral rating scales are also obtained on each visit.                                                         Expt 3: subjects have been recruited from the VA Medical Center, Detoxification Unit. Inclusion and exclusion criteria are the same as experiments one and two. One important inclusion criteria is subject's motivation for total abstinence during the experimental period. Total duration of this project is 12 weeks. Subject will be brought to the MRI scanner at Froedtert Memorial Hospital approximately 3 - 5, 7, 14, 28, 56, and 84 days post last cocaine use. This project does not require subject to view cocaine related cue films or memory tests. Scanner sessions will consist of mapping glutamate, glutamine, and N-Acetyl asparate levels in various brain regions using H-MRS.                                           Findings                                                                The first year of the project was spend on making and editing the appropriate video tapes and testing them in our subject populations in the laboratory to determine their ability to induce craving as measured by heart rate, temperature, and GSR. After 2 versions, we are now beginning the MRI scanning phase. Likewise for experiment 2, the first year was spent developing the memory/attention activation tasks and piloting them in the scanner. Mapping the activation pattern in normal control individuals is almost complete. Bilateral posterior parietal and right frontal activation are seen when performing the memory but not the control task.     Progress                                                               Expt. 1: total of 15 subjects have participated since the last report. Twelve subjects participated only at the laboratory setting for the purpose of assessing the effectivity of the drug video. Subjects were shown cocaine related craving cue film and a non drug film. Skin temperature, heart rate, and subjected behavioral ratings were measured. There was individual variations depend on the severity of the cocaine addiction but definite conditioned cocaine like effects were listed with the cocaine cue film at laboratory and scanner sessions. Findings of brain mapping of this project is inconclusive at this time as only three subjects were run and will continue in the coming year.                                 Expt 2: this project is planned to begin the summer of 1996.            Expt. 3: a total of 10 subjects were recruited for this study. Six subjects were withdrawn (see the annual review questionnaire for reasons). One subject completed all six sessions, another 3 subjects are currently in the study. The findings of this study are also inconclusive due to a small number and additional subjects will be run this year :: KEYWORDS: SUBSTANCE WITHDRAWAL SYNDROME; SUBSTANCE DEPENDENCE; SUBSTANCE ABUSE; COCAINE; BRAIN ::

Hit 32 of 66 -- Awd #: 113835 
 Award Type: Transfers / Incoming / Reimbursable-Traditional
 Requester: Not Specified
Access/Distribution Restriction:
 Code: A - Distribution Unlimited - Unrestricted Access
Parent Organizations: DVA / Medical & Prosthetic Research / VA Medical Center - (New York, NY)
Dates: Oct 1996 to Sep 1999
Obligations (federal, FY avg):  $0.0; $0.0
Performer: VA Medical Center - (New York, NY)
 Type:     Federal Government
 Contact:  Corwin, June, Ph.D., Phone:
 Location: New York,   NY
Description: TITLE: Modeling Impaired Judgment in Cocaine Abusers: Pathology and Treatment Implications :: LONG DESCR:    OBJECTIVES: To operationalize and measure the judgment impairments consequent on chronic cocaine use. Response bias, the decision rules subjects adopt when uncertain is the primary index of judgment.  RESEARCH DESIGN: This is a parallel group design. 10 subjects from each of three groups will be tested once with a battery of memory, mood and other ID formation processing tasks. The groups are: 10 early abstinent cocaine/crack dependent subjects 10 late abstinent cocaine/crack dependent subjects  10 normal age, education and sex matched medically and psychiatrically normal controls                                                             Data analytic approaches will be ANOVA and regression. Response bias will be model led under Two-High Threshold and Signal Detection Theories METHODOLOGY: The tasks to be administered are as follows: Attention and vigilance: Continuous Performance Test. Short term memory: Sternberg Memory Scanning paradigm. Acquisition and retrieval of concrete and abstract material: Hi Lo imagery Test. Appreciation of changing contingency (i.e., judgment): Hi Lo Test modification. Demographics and ratings: Age, sex, and education. DSM IV checklists for schizophrenia, major affective disorders, substance abuse/dependence, PTSD, anxiety disorders. SCL-90 for current symptomatology. Hamilton Depression Scale, Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (has a concentration difficulty item), Hamilton Anxiety Scale. 100mrn analog scales for current substance cravings in users. Arrest/charge history. Patterns of drug use for all drugs of abuse (onset, frequency, amounts, last use), intercurrent illnesses, medications. last EKG results, will be recorded.                              FINDINGS: 40 potential subjects have been screened verbally. 28 subjects have consented and been tested: 19 cocaine abusers, and 9 controls. All have completed uneventfully. Data from these subjects indicates that response bias is more liberal in the cocaine abusing subjects, regardless of length of abstinence. An addendum to this protocol will be submitted to permit the addition of additional subjects, as the power of these tests is not sufficient to yield unequivocal results :: KEYWORDS: MEMORY; JUDGMENT; COCAINE ::
 

Hit 35 of 66 -- Awd #: 89206 
 Award Type: Transfers / Incoming / Reimbursable-Traditional
 Requester: Not Specified
Access/Distribution Restriction:
 Code: A - Distribution Unlimited - Unrestricted Access
Parent Organizations: DVA / Medical & Prosthetic Research / VA Medical Center - (Palo Alto, CA)
Dates: Oct 1992 to Sep 1999
Obligations (federal, FY avg):  $0.6; $16.0
Performer: VA Medical Center - (Palo Alto, CA)
 Type:     Federal Government
 Contact:  Howard, Steven K., M.D., Phone:
 Location: Palo Alto,   CA
Description: TITLE: Evaluation of Sleepiness and Fatigue in Anesthesiologist in Training (AKA) Human Performance :: LONG DESCR:    OBJECTIVES   Sleep deprivation and fatigue are performance shaping factors known to impair behavior in complex, dynamic work environments. This project is designed to assess the amount and effect of sleepiness and fatigue in anesthesia trainees and will further.examine the effect of fatigue on task performance. Specific hypotheses to be tested are: 1) That anesthesia trainees are chronically fatigued, 2) That acute and chronic fatigue combine to cause brief mental lapses or "microsleeps" while on-call or during post-call duty, 3) That cognitive performance on a complex, dynamic and multiple task work environment is impaired by fatigue. RESEARCH PLAN We plan to study the effects of different levels of fatigue on anesthesia trainees. This work is being done in collaboration with Vincent P. Zarcone, M.D. at the Palo Alto VA Medical Center and Mark R. Rosekind, Ph.D. at NASA Ames Research Center. Each subject is being tested in three conditions: baseline, sleep satiated and acutely fatigued. Each study will consist of four parts. METHODS  1) Sleep surveys and Questionnaires: These data will form a base to compare how much anesthesia trainees are sleeping and what they are doing their non-duty periods. Surveys will be compared to data acquired by wrist actigraphy for purposes of subjects' reporting validity.  2) Multiple Sleep Latency Test (MSLT): The MSLT is an objective measure of sleepiness. We will perform MSLT's in the PAVAMC's sleep laboratory on anesthesia trainees in baseline, sleep satiated and acutely fatigued conditions. These data will help determine if residents are chronically sleep deprived (baseline) and will show the effects of acute sleep deprivation on sleep latency.  3) Ambulatory EEG: We will record ambulatory EEG during resident's on-call duty periods. We will examine these recordings for signs of excessive sleepiness as well as sleep stages on-call.                            4) Performance Testing: We will use a medically related, screen-based computer task (called SYNWORK3) to test performance in anesthesia trainees in the different states. We will also be using a test of reaction time (psychomotor vigilance test) as well as tests of frontal lobe function (Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test). The performance tests will be given to subjects during the break periods on the MSLT's. Each subject will be trained on the tests prior to the actual testing period. FINDINGS Sixteen subjects have participated in this study to date with eleven subjects completing tests in all three conditions. MSLT data have been analyzed from all subjects which reveals a significant level of chronic sleep deprivation which is reversible if subjects are allowed to extend their sleep (sleep satiated condition). Performance data are currently being analyzed. The project should be completed within the year :: KEYWORDS: SLEEP DEPRIVATION; SLEEP; FATIGUE ::
 

Hit 37 of 66 -- Awd #: 117721 
 Award Type: Transfers / Incoming / Reimbursable-Traditional
 Requester: Not Specified
Access/Distribution Restriction:
 Code: A - Distribution Unlimited - Unrestricted Access
Parent Organizations: DVA / Medical & Prosthetic Research / VA Medical Center - (Philadelphia, PA)
Dates: Oct 1997 to Sep 1999
Obligations (federal, FY avg):  $158.0; $79.0
Performer: VA Medical Center - (Philadelphia, PA)
 Type:     Federal Government
 Contact:  Aston-Jones, Gary, Ph.D., Phone:
 Location: Philadelphia,   PA
Description: TITLE: Role of Locus Coeruleus in Attentional Processing :: LONG DESCR:    OBJECTIVES: Previous studies indicated that the locus coeruleus-norep inephrine (LC-NE) system regulates responsiveness to stimuli, and the ca pacity to process information during stress. We have found that variatio ns in LC activity in the behaving monkey correspond to marked changes in  attentiveness. These results lead us to postulate a specific role for t he LC in attentional processing. We propose that the LC regulates the st ability/lability aspect of attention, denoted here as attentional labili ty. This dimension of attention ranges from focused/selective attention  (relatively non-distractible) to scanning/labile attention (easily distr actible). The present proposal seeks to extend our recent observations t o test this hypothesis and define LC's role in attention. RESEARCH PLAN AND METHODOLOGY: The following studies are proposed: (1 ) We will record monkey LC neural activity during an attentional disenga gement task, designed to measure the ability to change the focus of atte ntion. This will allow analysis of LC's involvement in attentional labil ity. (2) Local microinjections of selective pharmacologic agents into th e LC will be used to transiently and specifically inactivate or activate  LC neurons during the attentional detachment task or a vigilance task.  The effects of these manipulations on fluctuations in attention (measure d by visual fixation performance) will be determined. Effects will also  be discerned on behavioral responses in the two tasks. These experiments  will test LC's causal role in focused and labile attention, and determi ne whether different levels of LC activity are sufficient or necessary f or such attentional processes. (3) Environmental or cognitive stressors  will be administered to determine their effect on LC activity in the beh aving primate, and to determine the role of LC in mediating the effects  of stress on attentional performance. (4) We will locally microinfuse ph armacologic agents into the LC to control impulse activity during task r eversal and test the hypothesis that altered LC activity plays a critica l role in the acquisition of stimulus significance. Thus, these experime nts will extend our studies to examine the role of the LC in a specific  type of learning. FINDINGS: The current studies have examined both the temporal associa tion (via LC recordings) and functional dependency (via LC manipulations ) between the brain noradrenergic LC system and attentional performance  during normative conditions. We have found that LC activity is closely a ssociated with the level of performance during different levels of task  difficulty. We have also found that inhibition of LC activity by local c lonidine improves task performance in a hyperactive monkey, and that pil ocarpine-induced activation of LC in a normal monkey caused decreased ta sk performance. These findings are the first to examine the role of the  primate LC in learning, and implicate the LC as a neural substrate for r egulation of attention :: KEYWORDS: STRESS; PRIMATES; LOCUS COERULEUS; ATTENTION ::



Hit 40 of 66 -- Awd #: 96786 
 Award Type: Intramural / In-House Project / In-House Project
Access/Distribution Restriction:
 Code: A - Distribution Unlimited - Unrestricted Access
Parent Organizations: DVA / Medical & Prosthetic Research / VA Medical Center - (Pittsburgh, PA)
Dates: Oct 1993 to Sep 1999
Performer: VA Medical Center - (Pittsburgh, PA)
 Type:     Federal Government
 Contact:  Stowe, Robert M., M.D., Phone:
 Location: Pittsburgh,   PA
Description: TITLE: The Role of Prefrontal Cortex in Response Inhibition :: LONG DESCR:    OBJECTIVES: Our aim in this project is to use performance and ERP measures collected during performance of the CPT-AX task, a sequential vigilance paradigm, to test the hypothesis that disturbances in the internal representation of context in working memory may mediate certain of the behavioral deficits observed following prefrontal damage, such as "impulsive" and "stimulus-bound" behavior, and the failure to inhibit automatic or overlearned responses in contextually inappropriate situations.       RESEARCH DESIGN: Pilot performance and event-related potential measures (P3 and CNV) will be obtained from 10 patients with MRI-documented prefrontal lesions, 10 patient controls with cortical lesions outside the frontal lobe, and 10 normal subjects, while subjects perform the CPT-AX task (see below). Subjects watch a stream of serially-presented letters and are instructed to respond only when a target letter (e.g. "X") is preceded by a valid cue letter (e.g. "A"). The conditional probability of target stimuli (i.e., P[X/A]) will be manipulated to determine the effects of establishing a dominant response bias on hit and false-alarm rates. When target probabilities are high, an invalid cue (distractor) forms an inhibitory context which must be maintained across the ISI in working memory to suppress an "automatic" tendency to respond in the following target stimulus. Subjects will be tested at both a 1-second (short) and a 5-second (long) cue-target interstimulus interval (ISI). We predict that the prefrontal subjects will show relatively higher false alarm rates and P3 amplitudes to targets preceded by invalid cues when target probabilities are high, and lower hit- and/or higher-false alarm rates at the 5-second ISI, due to dysfunction of prefrontally-mediated working memory. Higher-than-normal CNV amplitudes on short-ISI trials will be associated with these false-alarms in normals, whereas low CNV amplitudes on long-ISI trials will predict errors of omission in frontal subjects.  METHODOLOGY: EEG data will be acquired from a standard 10-20 montage (referenced to linked ears), and digitized every 4 msecs. Following rejection of artifact-contaminated trials, averaged ERPs (time-locked to cue onset) will be normalized to 200-msec prestimulus baselines. After digital filtering to remove all components above 20 Hz, single-subject averages and mean reaction times and standard deviations will be computed separately for 16 conditions (each representing a unique combination of ISI, cue, target, and response). Peak latencies and amplitudes will be determined by visual inspection with the aid of a computer-generated cursor. Single-trial data, intrasubject averages, reaction time and performance accuracy data will be exported to SYSAT 5.2 (Systat, Inc.) for statistical manipulation.  FINDINGS: Four subjects with prefrontal lesions, one with right temporal damage, and two controls have been studied. Performance data from these subjects are consistent with our predictions; ERP data are still being analyzed. There has been no significant findings since last report :: KEYWORDS: PREFRONTAL CORTEX; NEUROPSYCHOLOGY; NEUROPHYSIOLOGY; FRONTAL LOBE; EVOKED POTENTIALS ::
 

Hit 43 of 66 -- Awd #: 122717 
 Award Type: Transfers / Incoming / Reimbursable-Traditional
 Requester: Not Specified
Access/Distribution Restriction:
 Code: A - Distribution Unlimited - Unrestricted Access
Parent Organizations: DVA / Medical & Prosthetic Research / VA Medical Center - (San Diego, CA)
Dates: Oct 1997 to Sep 1999
Obligations (federal, FY avg):  $25.0; $21.0
Performer: VA Medical Center - (San Diego, CA)
 Type:     Federal Government
 Contact:  Weinger, Matthew B., M.D., Phone:
 Location: San Diego,   CA
Description: TITLE: Scientific Measurement of Anesthesiologist Performance: Further Validation and Study of the Effects of Sleep Deprivation and of Intraoperative :: LONG DESCR:    OBJECTIVE: 1) To establish the validity and reproducibility of specif ic anesthesia task analysis and workload assessment techniques. 2) To us e these techniques to document the adverse effects of acute sleep loss a nd fatigue on task performance, vigilance, and workload in the operating  room and in a realistic simulator. 3) To investigate the impact of intr aoperative reading (by the anesthesiologist) on clinical vigilance, work load, and task characteristics. 4) To compare clinical performance in a  realistic simulator with real anesthesia cases.                            Research Design: Five experiments employ task analysis and workload a ssessment techniques in a controlled prospective design. Data collection  and analysis is ongoing.                                                  METHODOLOGY: In one study, 20 routine general anesthetics performed b y experienced nurse anesthetists were studied. One observer sat in the O R and used custom software to categorize in real time the activities of  each subject into 34 discrete task categories. Concurrently, each case w as videotaped using a comparable view. Two weeks later, the same observe r performed off-line task analysis from the videotapes. A different obse rver also performed task analysis from the videotapes on 2 occasions 2 w eeks apart. Inter- and Intra-rater reliability were tested. In another s tudy, anesthesia residents are being studied while doing actual night ti me anesthesia cases (beginning after 10 pm) during a routine continuous  24-hr "on-call" shift. The same subjects are studied again during day ca ses (10:32 am+48 min) matched with respect to surgery and patient status . The activities of each subject and workload are recorded in real-time  by a trained observer. In the third study, anesthesia residents performe d 2 comparable 4-fur simulated anesthetics under two conditions: 1) Fati gued (FAT) - subjects were kept awake for at least 25 hr before the stud y; and 2) Satiated (SAT) - subjects averaged 2 extra hours of sleep for  4 consecutive nights before being studied. A randomized cross-over desig n was employed. An observer, blinded to the subjects' condition, reviewe d the videotapes performing task analysis and workload assessment.         FINDINGS: There were no significant differences in task time or task  duration between OR and off-line analyses by the same observer. There we re no significant differences in task time or duration, between observer s in the off-line videoanalysis during any phase. One observer toggled b etween discrete tasks more rapidly than the other. In the sleep study of  actual cases, mood was significantly more negative at night (33+1 vs. 1 3+4 than during the day; P<0.01) and workload was higher (11.4+0.3 night  vs. 10.2+0.3 day; P<0.05). At night, less time was spent doing manual t asks (49+4% of case time vs. 59+5% during the day; P<0.05) and conversin g with the patient. In contrast, subjects spent significantly more time  at night observing their monitors (23+4%) compared with day cases (15+3% ; P<0.05). In the simulated cases, there was appreciable inter-subject v ariability in task characteristics and workload. There was more variabil ity in the distribution of task activities in the FAT group. Overt sleep ing was greater in the FAT group.                                          Clinical Relationships: The impact of patient disease and surgical fa ctors on clinical outcome in anesthesia has been well studied. However,  thousands of patients die or are injured each year due to preventable an esthetic mishaps attributable to human error. Scientific study of the ro le of the anesthesia provider in anesthesia patient safety is only in it s infancy and the development of objective tools to assess provider perf ormance is essential to this endeavor.                                     Impact/Significance: The ability to scientifically describe anesthesi ologist performance will improve our understanding of the anesthesiologi st's job and provide a rational basis for the optimal design of training  strategies, work schedules, and anesthesia devices (and for cost-effect ive implementation of new technology), thereby leading to enhanced patie nt safety :: KEYWORDS: WORKLOAD; TASK PERFORMANCE AND ANALYSIS; SLEEP DEPRIVATION; REPRODUCIBILITY OF RESULTS; HUMAN ENGINEERING; ANESTHESIA ::
  

Hit 50 of 66 -- Awd #: 105068 
 Award Type: Intramural / In-House Project / In-House Project
Access/Distribution Restriction:
 Code: A - Distribution Unlimited - Unrestricted Access
Parent Organizations: DVA / Medical & Prosthetic Research / VA Medical Center - (West Haven, CT)
Dates: Oct 1994 to Sep 1999
Performer: VA Medical Center - (West Haven, CT)
 Type:     Federal Government
 Contact:  Trevisan, Louis A., M.D., Phone:
 Location: West Haven,   CT
Description: TITLE: Intravenous Glycine Modulation of Ethanol Intoxication for Healthy Subjects :: LONG DESCR:    (a) The objective of the proposed study is to evaluate the effects of NMDA receptor facilitation with an agonist at the glycine receptor site in ethanol intoxication. We would like to administer glycine at 0.3glkg iv with the hope of producing a behavioral effect modulating (antagonizing) ethanol intoxicatial. Glycine, at doses previously used (O.lg/kg and 0.2glkg, D'Souza, personal communication) does not appear to have effects attributable to facilitating glycine function at the brainstem glycine structures. (b) The research plan includes recruiting healthy subjects from the roles ac the biostudies laboratory, and from advertising for research subjects in local publications. We estimate the duration of the study to be one year to eighteen months. The study is designed in such a way that we will be looking at the effects cf ethanol administration in healthy subjects as well as trying to modulate the known effects of ethanol intaxication. Neuropsychological testing will be used to look at cognitive functioning including: attention, vigilance, dstractibility, immediate and delayed memory and executive functioning. We will be measuring hormone levels (cortisol, prolactin, and MHPG) as well as physiological parameters (vital signs), and blood alcohol levels. (c) Thirty volunteers (male and female) between the ages of 21 and 65 will be recruited. They will be required to complete a medical and psychiatric history, canplete neurological and physical examinations and routine laboratory studies. Participants will be excluded if they meet any DSM IV AXIS I or AXIS III criteria for substance abuse / dependence, Major Depression, an seizure disorder, hypertension etc This study will employ a four session design. IV glycine and control tests will be administered in a double-blind, cross-over, counter balanced fashial. The faur test sessions will correspond to four cells 1) IV glycine and ethanol placebo, 2) IV glydneand ethanol; 3) placebo IV glycineand ethand; 4) placebo IV glycine and ethanol placebo For each test session (when participants receive glycine) participants will receive IV glycine (21g/70kg man) aver 45 minutes prior to the test sessions. An interval of five to seven days between test sessions should be adequate to prevent carryover effects frorn previous IV glycine and/or ethanol administration. After canpletion of baseline testing, the participant will receive ethand arally at a dose of 0.8 g/kg. Participants will then engage in periodic measurements: neuropsychdogical Testing, vital signs, and blood levels of cortisol, prolactin, and MHPG. Breathalyzer readings will be acquired every thirty minutes and at the completion of the testing. (d) There are no current findings or results in this study. Previous studies utilizing IV glycine at this institution by C D'Souza (personal communication) have yielded results that indicate that glycine shows a two fold increase in the CSF after 0.2g/kg IV, and that there is no associated behavioral effect.                                                   I have not begun recruiting yet for this study/protocol. The study is scheduled to begin in May 1996. (Updated 4-14-96 not picked up? :: KEYWORDS: PHARMACY; GLYCINE; ALCOHOL, ETHYL ::
 


Hit 54 of 66 -- Awd #: 93663 
 Award Type: Intramural / In-House Project / In-House Project
Access/Distribution Restriction:
 Code: A - Distribution Unlimited - Unrestricted Access
Parent Organizations: DVA / Medical & Prosthetic Research / VA Medical Center - (West Haven, CT)
Dates: Oct 1992 to Sep 1999
Performer: VA Medical Center - (West Haven, CT)
 Type:     Federal Government
 Contact:  Trevisan, Louis A., M.D., Phone:
 Location: West Haven,   CT
Description: TITLE: Cycloserine Modulation of Alcohol Intoxication :: LONG DESCR:    a. Objective of the project:                                            The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effects of NMDA activation with a partial agonist (cycloserine) at the glycine receptor site (strychnine-insensitive) in ethanol intoxication. Ultimately, understanding biological mechanisms contributing to the rewarding/ intoxicating effects of ethanol may be useful in developing treatment strategies based on blocking alcohol induced "high" or euphoria. Additionally, understanding NMDA contributions to the cognitive dysfunction in ethanol intoxication may lead to developing treatment strategies designed to prevent cognitive dysfunction in acute and chronic ethanol intoxication. b. Research plan: We are looking at several questions pertaining to NMDA contributions to intoxication and cognitive dysfunction in ethanol administration. We are examining healthy subjects with a medication (cycloserine/placebo) and ethanol challenge in a double blind, placebo controlled, crossover design. During the test day subjects will receive medication, (or placebo), ethanol, (or ethanol placebo) and be subjected to various tests. The tests include: startle response, blood levels of hormones and alcohol, subjective behavioral ratings of intoxication, and neuropsychological testing. Subjects will be monitored closely for reactions to ethanol or cycloserine that may be adverse.                                               c. Methods: Subject inclusion criteria include: Men and women must be between the age of 21-65 years old. Subjects must be medically healthy on the basis of history, physical exam and laboratory examination. Female subjects will be excluded if they are pregnant, or are unwilling to use birth control for the duration of the study. There should be no history of psychiatric illness (including, substance abuse), nor history of psychiatric illness in a first degree relative. Subjects must be willing to refrain from caffeine, nicotine and alcohol for two weeks prior to testing through the completion of testing. They must have some prior exposure to ethanol. Screening will include diagnostic interview, physical examination and laboratory examination. Test day: Subjects will receive ethanol/(placebo) and cycloserine/(placebo) orally after completing baseline testing on the test day. Participants will then engage in periodic measurements: neuropsychological testing, vital signs, blood levels of cycloserine, ethanol, cortisol and prolactin. Breathalyzer readings will be acquired every thirty minutes. Each test session consists of one day drug (placebo/cycloserine) and ethanol administration. Outcome measures: Behavioral measures include: PRAS (patient rated analog scales), and the sensation scale. Neuropsychological testing will include the Gordon Vigilance and Distractibility, Proverbs and Similarities, Nonverbal Selective Reminding, Verbal Selective Reminding, Verbal Fluency. Biochemical analyses include cycloserine levels, cortisol and prolactin levels, and blood alcohol levels. Subjects will also receive a startle response assessment. We will need about thirty subjects to complete the study. d. Findings:  Nineteen subjects have successfully completed the protocol as it is approved at this time. There have been eight female subject among the completers. We currently have one subject in the active phase of the study. Analyses of the data (N=14) suggest that Cycloserine significantly increased subjective sensations of Drowsiness and the perceived Number of Drinks consumed. DCS also showed a trend to increase the ethanol induced total scare on the Biphasic Alcohol Effects Scale. DCS significantly lowered the number of words generated in the Verbal Fluency Test (p=.05), and showed a trend in reducing learning and memory as evidenced by scores on The Verbal Selective Reminding Test (Buschke) (p=.08). There is no demonstrated interaction between ethanol and DCS on cognitive measures at this time :: KEYWORDS: PSYCHIATRY; CYCLOSERINE; ALCOHOLISM ::


QUERY CRITERIA
Fiscal Year: 1999
Federal Organization:
      All Federal Organizations.    
Performer(s):
      All performers.     
      All award types.    
Search term or phrase:  alertness


Hit 3 of 51 -- Awd #: DF329585 
 Award Type: Extramural / Contracts / Not Otherwise Specified
 SBIR Award
Access/Distribution Restriction:
 Code: C - U.S. Federal Government and Contractors Only
 Reason: AD - Administrative or Operational Use Data
Parent Organizations: DOD / USAF / 0605502F - Small Business Innovative Research
 Project: Project number unspecified
Dates: Feb 1997 to Jan 1999
Performer: SAM TECHNOLOGY INC  SAN FRANCISCO CA
 Type:     Industry/Business
 Contact:  UNK, Phone:
 5th Congressional District in California        
 Location: San Francisco,   CA
Description: TITLE: OPERATOR STATE CLASSIFICATION DEVELOPER'S TOOLKI T :: LONG DESCR: DEVELOP AN "OPERATOR STATE CLASSIFICATION DEVELOPER'S TOOLKIT (OSC-DTK)" FOR USE BY PROFESSIONAL PSYCHOPHYSIOLOGISTS. DEVELOP AN ADVANCED RESEARCH SYSTEM THAT WOULD FACILITATE DEVELOPMENT OF PROTOTYPE APPLICATIONS THAT USE NEUROPHYSIOLOGICAL AND PHYSIOLOGICAL MEASURES FOR MONITORING THE MENTAL STATE OFTHE HUMAN OPERATORS OF COMPLEX SYSTEMS. 1) IMPROVE THE EEG RECORDING TECHNOLOGY SUITABLE FOR USE IN NATURALISTIC SETTINGS. THIS INVOLVES THE ENGINEERING OF RUGGEDIZED, PORTABLE AND LOW-NOISE RECORDING ELECTRONICS, ELECTRODES, AND HEADSETS THAT CAN BE QUICKLY APPLIED IN THE FIELD, 2) IMPROVE EEG SIGNAL PROCESSING ALGORITHMS AND ANALYSIS SOFTWARE TO PERMIT THE EXTRACTION OF MEASUREMENTS OF NEUROCOGNITIVE BRAIN ACTIVITY FROM ARTIFACT CONTAMINATED DATA, AND 3) DEVELOP IMPROVED PATTERN RECOGNITION ALGORITHMS FOR AUTOMATIC CLASSIFICATION OF EEG FEATURES RELATED TO WITHIN-SUBJECT CHANGES IN DEGREE OF COGNITIVE LOAD, LEVEL OF TASK ACQUISITION, AND AMOUNT OF MENTAL IMPAIRMENT, AS WELL AS BETWEEN-SUBJECT DIFFERENCES IN COGNITIVE ABILITIES :: STAGE: MANAGEMENT AND SUPPORT  :: TYPE: R&D-SVCS-MGMT SUP :: KEYWORDS: ACQUISITION;ALGORITHMS;ARTIFACTS;ATTENTION;AUTOMATION;CLASSIFICATION;COGNITION;COMPUTER PROGRAMS;COMPUTERS;CONTAMINATION;EARPHONES;ELECTRODES;ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY;ELECTRONIC RECORDING SYSTEMS;FUNCTIONS;HUMANS;INSPECTION;INTERACTIONS;LOW NOISE;MEASUREMENT;MENTAL ABILITY;MENTAL DISORDERS;NEURAL NETS;NEUROPHYSIOLOGY;OPERATIONAL READINESS;OPERATORS(PERSONNEL);PATTERN RECOGNITION;PHYSIOLOGY;PORTABLE EQUIPMENT;PROTOTYPES;RECORDING SYSTEMS;SIGNAL PROCESSING;SOFTWARE TOOLS;STATISTICS;TOOL KITS;TOOLS;USER NEEDS;VISUAL AIDS;WORKLOAD;ALERTNESS;CREW;HUMAN COMPUTER INTERACTION;MENTAL WORKLOAD;NEURAL NETS;NEURAL NETWORKS;SBIR I;WORK READINESS;WORKLOAD ::

Hit 4 of 51 -- Awd #: DF330555 
 Award Type: Extramural / Contracts / Not Otherwise Specified
 SBIR Award
Access/Distribution Restriction:
 Code: C - U.S. Federal Government and Contractors Only
 Reason: AD - Administrative or Operational Use Data
Parent Organizations: DOD / USAF / 0605502F - Small Business Innovative Research
 Project: Project number unspecified
Dates: Jan 1998 to Jun 2001
Performer: SAM TECHNOLOGY INC  SAN FRANCISCO CA
 Type:     Industry/Business
 Contact:  GEVINS, A S, Phone:
 5th Congressional District in California        
 Location: San Francisco,   CA
Description: TITLE: OPERATOR STATE CLASSIFIER DEVELOPER'S TOOLKIT :: LONG DESCR: THE OPERATOR STATE CLASSIFICATION DEVELOPER'S TOOLKIT WILL PROVIDE AN ENABLING TECHNOLOGY THAT WILL ACCELERATE THE DEVELOPMENT OF PHYSIOLOGY-BASED PATTERN RECOGNITION METHODS DESIGNED FOR APPLICATION TO THE PROBLEM OF MONITORING THE NEUROCOGNITIVE STATE OF THE HUMAN OPERATORS OF COMPLEX SYSTEMS. IT WILL ALLOW THE FORMATION OF MULTIVARIATE COMBINATIONS OF EEG, EP, AND OTHER PHYSIOLOGICAL SIGNALS AND BEHAVIORAL DATA THAT ARE OPTIMAL METRICS FOR CHARACTERIZING MENTAL STATE. 1) IMPLEMENT AND TEST INTERNAL DATA MANAGEMENT CAPABILITIES FOR CREATION AND QUERYING OF DATASETS; 2) PORT THE JOSEPH-VIGLIONE FEATURE SELECTION AND PATTERN CLASSIFICATION ALGORITHM TO WINDOWS-NT, DEVELOP A USER-MANSCAN COMPATIBLE INTERFACE FOR IT, AND EXTEND ITS FUNCTIONALITY; 3) IMPLEMENT AND TESTNEW SUPPORT PROGRAMS FOR ORGANIZING AND RE-SAMPLING DATASETS; 4) IMPLEMENT AND TEST METHODS TO IDENTIFY REVIEW CLASSIFIER OUTCOMES AND TO ANALYZE NETWORK STRUCTURE; 5) IMPLEMENT AND TEST DIRECT INTERFACE CAPABILITIES BETWEEN MANSCAN AND MATLAB'S NEURAL NETWORK TOOLBOX, NEURALWARE PROFESSIONAL, AND SEVERAL MAJOR STATISTICAL PACKAGES; 6) IMPLEMENT AND TEST EXTENDED SORTER FUNCTIONALITY TO PERMIT INCORPORATION OF AUTOMATIC SORT ROUTINES INTO PIPELINED PROCESSES; 7) IMPLEMENT AND TEST NEW FEATURE EXTRACTION CAPABILITIES, INCLUDING USER-DEFINED FEATURES; AND 8) IMPLEMENT AND TEST WIZARD FUNCTIONS TO GUIDE USER THROUGH THE CLASSIFIER SELECTION AND APPLICATION PROCESS :: STAGE: MANAGEMENT AND SUPPORT  :: TYPE: R&D-SVCS-MGMT SUP :: KEYWORDS: ALGORITHMS;ATTENTION;AUTOMATIC;BEHAVIOR;CLASSIFICATION;CLINICAL MEDICINE;COMPUTER PROGRAMMING;COMPUTER PROGRAMS;COMPUTERS;CREWS;DATA ACQUISITION;DATA PROCESSING;DATA REDUCTION;ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY;EYE;FEATURE EXTRACTION;FUNCTIONS;HUMANS;INTERACTIONS;INTERFACES;JOINING;MENTAL ABILITY;MULTIVARIATE ANALYSIS;NETWORKS;NEURAL NETS;NEUROLOGY;OPERATIONAL READINESS;OPERATORS(PERSONNEL);PATTERNS;PERFORMANCE(HUMAN);PHYSIOLOGY;PSYCHOPHYSIOLOGY;SIGNALS;SORTING;SORTING MACHINES;STATISTICS;TEST AND EVALUATION;TEST METHODS;TOOL KITS;WORK STATIONS;WORKLOAD;ALERTNESS;CLINICAL NEUROLOGY;CREW PERFORMANCE;HUMAN COMPUTER INTERACTION;MENTAL WORKLOAD;PSYCHOPHYSIOLOGY RESEARCH;SBIR II;SUSTAINED OPERATIONS;WORK READINESS;WORKSTATION ::

Hit 5 of 51 -- Awd #: DA336613 
 Award Type: Intramural / In-House Project / In-House Project
Access/Distribution Restriction:
 Code: A - Distribution Unlimited - Unrestricted Access
Parent Organizations: DOD / ARMY / 0601102A - Defense Research Sciences
 Project: BS15 - Science Base/Army Opertional Medicine Research
Dates: Oct 1998 to Sep 2003
Performer: WALTER REED ARMY INST OF RESEARCH  WASHINGTON DC
 Type:     Federal Government
 Contact:  WESENSTEN, N, Phone: 301-295-7826
 First Congressional District in District of Columbia
 Location: Washington Dc,   DC
Description: TITLE: EXAMINE CANDIDATE PHARMACEUTICALS OR OTHER COMPOUNDS FOR USE IN INDUCING OR ENHANCING RESTORATIVE SLEEP :: LONG DESCR: DETERMINE METHODS TO OPTIMIZE MILITARY PERFORMANCE BY IMPROVING RECUPERATIVE SLEEP IN THE OPERATIONAL ENVIRONMENT, MINIMIZE POST-SLEEP PERFORMANCE DEFICITS (SLEEP INERTIA EFFECTS), AND FACILITATE ADAPTATION TO NEW TIME ZONES FOLLOWING RAPID DEPLOYMENT. INTEGRATE RESULTS INTO THE COMPREHENSIVE U.S. ARMY SLEEP MANAGEMENT SYSTEM. DETERMINE AND MODEL THE EFFECTS OF SLEEP-INDUCING MEDICATIONS ON SLEEP DURATION AND CONTINUITY, SUBSEQUENT MILITARILY RELEVANT PERFORMANCE, AND ADAPTATION TO NEW TIME ZONES (E.G., FOLLOWING RAPID DEPLOYMENT ACROSS MULTIPLE TIME ZONES). DEVELOP A TWO-MEDICATION SYSTEM THAT OPTIMIZES CONTROL OF SLEEP, ALERTNESS AND PERFORMANCE THROUGH THE USE OF BOTH SLEEP-INDUCING MEDICATIONS AND COUNTERACTANT MEDICATIONS. INTEGRATE RESULTS INTO THE COMPREHENSIVE U.S. ARMY SLEEP MANAGEMENT SYSTEM :: KEYWORDS: ARMY OPERATIONS;ATTENTION;BZ AGENTS;CONTROL;CONVALESCENCE;DATA ACQUISITION;DRUGS;HUMANS;HYPNOTICS AND SEDATIVES;INERTIA;INTERACTIONS;MANAGEMENT PLANNING AND CONTROL;MELATONIN;PSYCHOPHYSIOLOGY;RAPID DEPLOYMENT;REVERSIBLE;SLEEP;TIME;VOLUNTEERS;RA III;HUMAN VOLUNTEERS;SLEEP;PERFORMANCE;RECUPERATION;SLEEP INERTIA;PSYCHOPHYSIOLOGY;MODELING;PSYCHOPHARMACOLOGY ::

Hit 6 of 51 -- Awd #: DA336620 
 Award Type: Intramural / In-House Project / In-House Project
Access/Distribution Restriction:
 Code: A - Distribution Unlimited - Unrestricted Access
Parent Organizations: DOD / ARMY / 0601102A - Defense Research Sciences
 Project: BS15 - Science Base/Army Opertional Medicine Research
Dates: Oct 1998 to Sep 2003
Performer: WALTER REED ARMY INST OF RESEARCH  WASHINGTON DC
 Type:     Federal Government
 Contact:  BALKIN, T, Phone: 301-295-7826
 First Congressional District in District of Columbia
 Location: Washington Dc,   DC
Description: TITLE: EXAMINE CANDIDATE PHARMACEUTICALS OR OTHER COMPOUNDS FOR USE IN MAINTAINING ALERTNESS AND SUSTAINING MILITARY PERFORMANCE :: LONG DESCR: DETERMINE METHODS TO OPTIMIZE MILITARY PERFORMANCE WHEN OPERATIONAL DEMANDS (E.G., CONTINUOUS OR SUSTAINED OPERATIONS CAUSING SLEEP LOSS, TRAVEL ACROSS MULTIPLE TIME ZONES RESULTING IN CIRCADIAN RHYTHM DESYNCHRONIZATION) RESULT IN DIMINISHED PERFORMANCE CAPACITY/ALERTNESS. INTEGRATE RESULTS INTO A COMPREHENSIVE U.S. ARMY SLEEP MANAGEMENT SYSTEM. DETERMINE THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN CHRONICALLY RESTRICTED SLEEP AND PERFORMANCE TO INCREASE THE SPECIFICITY WITH WHICH PERFORMANCE CAPACITY CAN BE PREDICTED FROM PRIOR SLEEP DATA. DETERMINE AND MODEL THE RELATIVE EFFICACY OF CAFFEINE VERSUS MODAFINIL FOR REVERSAL OF SLEEP-LOSS-INDUCED PERFORMANCE DEFICITS :: KEYWORDS: ARMY OPERATIONS;ATTENTION;CAFFEINE;CAPACITY(QUANTITY);CIRCADIAN RHYTHMS;COGNITION;CONTINUITY;DRUGS;INERTIA;LIMITATIONS;MANAGEMENT PLANNING AND CONTROL;MEDICINE;MODELS;OPERATION;PERFORMANCE(HUMAN);PHARMACOLOGY;PSYCHOPHYSIOLOGY;SLEEP;SLEEP DEPRIVATION;STIMULATION(PHYSIOLOGY);TIME;RA III;VOLUNTEERS;COGNITIVE PERFORMANCE;MODELING;SLEEP INERTIA;PSYCHOPHARMACOLOGY;PSYCHOPHYSIOLOGY;SLEEP DEPRIVATION ::

Hit 7 of 51 -- Awd #: DA361632 
 Award Type: Intramural / In-House Project / In-House Project
Access/Distribution Restriction:
 Code: A - Distribution Unlimited - Unrestricted Access
Parent Organizations: DOD / ARMY / 0601102A - Defense Research Sciences
 Project: BS15 - Science Base/Army Opertional Medicine Research
Dates: Oct 1997 to Sep 2002
Performer: WALTER REED ARMY INST OF RESEARCH  WASHINGTON DC
 Type:     Federal Government
 Contact:  BALKIN, T, Phone: 301-295-7826
 First Congressional District in District of Columbia
 Location: Washington Dc,   DC
Description: TITLE: CHARACTERIZE PHYSIOLOGICAL AND PSYCHOLOGICAL DEGRADATION ASSOCIATED WITH SLEEP DEPRIVATION :: LONG DESCR: ELUCIDATE AND QUANTIFY THE RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN SLEEP DEPRIVATION, SLEEP, ALERTNESS AND SOLDIER PERFORMANCE. DEVELOP PHARMACOLOGICAL, BEHAVIORAL, OR OTHER STRATEGIES TO OPTIMIZE SOLDIER PERFORMANCE WHEN OPERATIONAL DEMANDS (E.G., CONTINUOUS OPERATIONS CAUSING SLEEP LOSS, TRAVEL ACROSS MULTIPLE TIME ZONES RESULTING IN CIRCADIAN DESYNCHRONIZATION) RESULT IN DIMINISHED PERFORMANCE CAPACITY. INTEGRATE RESULTS INTO A COMPREHENSIVE U.S. ARMY SLEEP MANAGEMENT SYSTEM. DETERMINE THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN CHRONICALLY RESTRICTED SLEEP AND PERFORMANCE TO INCREASE THE SPECIFICITY WITH WHICH PERFORMANCE CAPACITY CAN BE PREDICTED FROM PRIOR SLEEP (WRIST ACTIGRAPH) DATA. RESULTS WILL BE USED TO ENHANCE THE U.S. ARMY SLEEP/PERFORMANCE MODE :: KEYWORDS: ARMY;ARMY OPERATIONS;ARMY PERSONNEL;ATTENTION;CAFFEINE;CAPACITY(QUANTITY);CIRCADIAN RHYTHMS;COGNITION;CONTINUITY;DEGRADATION;FUNCTIONS(MATHEMATICS);INERTIA;LIMITATIONS;MANAGEMENT PLANNING AND CONTROL;MODELS;MONITORING;OPERATION;PERFORMANCE(HUMAN);PHYSIOLOGY;PSYCHOLOGY;PSYCHOPHYSIOLOGY;SLEEP;SLEEP DEPRIVATION;TIME;RA III;VOLUNTEERS;SLEEP DEPRIVATION;SLEEP;COGNITIVE PERFORMANCE;PSYCHOPHYSIOLOGY;MODELING;SLEEP INERTIA;PSYCHOPHARMACOLOGY ::

Hit 8 of 51 -- Awd #: DA336185 
 Award Type: Intramural / In-House Project / In-House Project
Access/Distribution Restriction:
 Code: A - Distribution Unlimited - Unrestricted Access
Parent Organizations: DOD / ARMY / 0602787A - Medical Technology
 Project: A879 - Medical Factors Enhancing Soldier Effectiveness
Dates: Oct 1992 to na
Performer: ARMY AEROMEDICAL RESEARCH UNIT  FORT RUCKER AL
 Type:     Federal Government
 Contact:  CALDWELL, J A, Phone: 334-255-6864
 Third Congressional District in Alabama
 Location: Fort Rucker,   AL
Description: TITLE: ENHANCEMENT OF AVIATOR SLEEP AND PERFORMANCE THROUGH CHEMICAL INTERVENTION :: LONG DESCR: EVALUATE CANDIDATE PHARMACOLOGICAL STIMULANTS, HYPNOTICS AND OTHER DRUGS FOR USE IN ARMY FLIGHT ENVIRONMENTS, ADDRESS THE USE OF MEDICATIONS FOR MAINTAINING AVIATORS' ALERTNESS AND PERFORMANCE DURING CONTINUOUS OPERATIONS, AND ASSESSTHE EFFECTS OF VARIOUS HYPNOTICS ON AVIATOR PERFORMANCE. THIS RESEARCH PROGRAM WILL EMPLOY A MULTIDISCIPLINARY TEAM AND WILL INVOLVE THE USE OF FLIGHT SIMULATOR AND ACTUAL AIRCRAFT CAPABLE OF MEASURING FLIGHT PERFORMANCE IN REAL TIME. ADDITIONALLY, ASSESSMENTS OF AVIATORS WILL INCLUDE PHYSIOLOGICAL AND COGNITIVE EVALUATIONS TO FULLY ASSESS THE AVIATOR UNDER THE INFLUENCE OF MEDICATIONS-- EITHER TO SUSTAIN ALERTNESS OR PROMOTE SLEEP. THIS PROGRAM WILL HELP ASSESS CURRENT DOCTRINE ON THE USE OF BOTH HYPNOTICS AND STIMULANTS, AND PROPOSE NECESSARY CHANGES AND GUIDELINES FOR THE AVIATION COMMUNITY :: KEYWORDS: AERONAUTICS;AIRCRAFT;ARMY OPERATIONS;ATTENTION;BEHAVIOR;CHEMICALS;COGNITION;COMMUNITIES;CONTINUITY;COUNTERMEASURES;DOCTRINE;DRUGS;ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY;ENVIRONMENTS;FLIGHT;FLIGHT SIMULATORS;HYPNOTICSAND SEDATIVES;INTERVENTION;MEASUREMENT;OPERATION;OPTIMIZATION;PHARMACOLOGY;PHYSIOLOGY;PILOTS;PLACEBOS;PUBLIC OPINION;REAL TIME;RESOURCES;SLEEP;SLEEP DEPRIVATION;STIMULI;TEST AND EVALUATION;VOLUNTEERS;HYPNOTICS;AVIATOR PERFORMANCE;STIMULANTS;RA III ::

Hit 9 of 51 -- Awd #: DN308520 
 Award Type: Intramural / In-House Project / In-House Project
Access/Distribution Restriction:
 Code: C - U.S. Federal Government and Contractors Only
 Reason: AD - Administrative or Operational Use Data
Parent Organizations: DOD / NAVY / 0601152N - In-House Independent Laboratory Res
 Project: Project number unspecified
Dates: Oct 1998 to Sep 1999
Performer: NAVAL COMMAND CONTROL AND OCEAN SURVEILLANCE CENTER RDT AND E DIV  SAN DIEGO CA
 Type:     Federal Government
 Contact:  MURRAY, S. A., Phone: 619-553-6350
 6th Congressional District in California        
 Location: San Diego,   CA
Description: TITLE: INNOVATIVE METHODS FOR ALERTNESS MONITORING :: LONG DESCR: DEVELOP NEW METHODS FOR UNOBTRUSIVE MONITORING OF CREW ALERTNESS LEVELS IN REAL TIME, AND USE THESE METHODS TO DESIGN NEW APPROACHES TO ROBUST AUTOMATED SYSTEMS. EXISTING DATA REGARDING OPERATOR PERFORMANCE AND MULTIPLE METHODS OF ALERTNESS MEASUREMENT WILL BE EXAMINED TO IDENTIFY THE ACCURACY AND RELIABILITY OF THE BEST METHODS. THESE RESULTS WILL THEN BE APPLIED TO EVALUATION OF CURRENT RESEARCH IN ADAPTIVE, OR INTELLIGENT AUTOMATION SYSTEMS TO DETERMINE OPTIMAL APPROACHES TO OPERATOR MONITORING, PERFORMANCE PREDICTION, AND SYSTEMS SUPPORT :: KEYWORDS: ACCURACY;ATTENTION;AUTOMATION;COMPUTERS;CREWS;HUMAN FACTORS ENGINEERING;HUMANS;INTERACTIONS;MEASUREMENT;MONITORING;OPERATORS(PERSONNEL);OPTIMIZATION;PERFORMANCE(HUMAN);PSYCHOPHYSIOLOGY;REAL TIME;RELIABILITY;ALERTNESS;HUMAN FACTORS;HUMAN COMPUTER INTERACTION;PSYCHOPHYSIOLOGY ::

Hit 10 of 51 -- Awd #: DN053769 
 Award Type: Extramural / Grants / Project
Access/Distribution Restriction:
 Code: A - Distribution Unlimited - Unrestricted Access
Parent Organizations: DOD / NAVY / 0602233N - Human Systems Technology
 Project: Project number unspecified
Dates: Oct 1997 to Oct 1998
Performer: CALIFORNIA UNIV SAN DIEGO  LA JOLLA
 Type:     Public Educational Institution
 Contact:  HILLYARD,STEVEN, Phone: 619-534-2385
 41th Congressional District in California        
 Location: La Jolla,   CA
Description: TITLE: ELECTROPHYSIOLOGICAL STUDIES OF ATTENTION AND ALERTNESS MONITORING :: LONG DESCR: TO ASSESS VIGILANCE AND THE ALLOCATION OF ATTENTION TO STIMULI IN THE VISUAL AND AUDITORY MODALITIES BY MEANS OF ELECTROPHYSIOLOGICAL PROBE TECHNIQUES. EXPERIMENTS WILL BE CARRIED OUT TO (1) DEVELOP A NEW PROBE TECHNIQUE FOR ASSESSING VIGILANCE AND ATTENTIONAL ALLOCATION, (2) DETERMINE OPTIMAL STIMULATION PARAMETERS FOR OBTAINING RELIABLE DATA RAPIDLY, (3) EXAMINE THE SHAPE OF THE ATTENTIONAL GRADIENT AROUND FOCUS LOCATIONS, AND (4) DETERMINE THE CONSEQUENCES OF DIVIDING ATTENTION BETWEEN TWO LOCATIONS, AND TO OBSERVE THE EFFECTS OF DIVIDED ATTENTION ON ATTENTIONAL GRADIENTS :: KEYWORDS: ATTENTION;BEHAVIORAL SCIENCES;ELECTROPHYSIOLOGY;HIGH FREQUENCY;LIGHT SOURCES;MEASUREMENT;MONITORING;ONLINE SYSTEMS;OPTIMIZATION;PARAMETERS;POSITION(LOCATION);PROBES;RELIABILITY;SENSITIVITY;STIMULATION(GENERAL);STIMULI;SWITCHING;VIGILANCE;VISION;VIGILENCE;ATTENTION;EVOKED POTENTIALS;VOLUNTEERS ::

Hit 11 of 51 -- Awd #: R01EY11812 
 Award Type: Extramural / Grants / Project
Access/Distribution Restriction:
 Code: A - Distribution Unlimited - Unrestricted Access
Parent Organizations: HHS / NIH / NEI
 Project: Vision research (extramural/includes training)
Dates: May 1998 to Apr 1999
Performer: MT SINAI SCHOOL OF MEDICINE
 Type:     Nonprofit (Non-Educational)
 Contact:  COHEN, BERNARD, Phone:
 15th Congressional District in New York        
 Location: New York,   NY
Description: TITLE: OCULOMOTOR SYSTEM AND BODY POSTURAL MECHANISMS :: LONG DESCR: Experiments are proposed to establish the neural basis for velocity storage and its control by the nodulus and ventral uvula.  Previously, regions of the vestibular nuclei (VN) where velocity storage is produced have been tentatively identified.  Now cell types that are believed responsible for its generation win be studied in cynomolgus monkeys.  Recent work has shown that vestibular-only (VO) and vestibular-plus-saccade (VPS) neurons in VN have activity related to velocity storage, and that electric stimulation at the site of VO neurons produces nystagmus and after-nystagmus with the dynamic characteristics of velocity storage.  From this it is postulated that VO neurons participate in the production of velocity storage, and that VPS neurons may serve as an output of the velocity storage network to the oculomotor system.  It is also proposed that the VO neurons are under control of the nodulus and uvula to produce vertical and torsional components of eye velocity that provide the spatial orientation of velocity storage.  Experiments in this application will explore these hypotheses, first by identifying sites in VN where VO and VPS neurons are located using extracellular recording.  These and other vestibular neurons win be tested during alertness and drowsiness to determine whether their activity is relatively insensitive to state changes in alertness, as is velocity storage itself.  Midline medullary lesions will be made to abolish velocity storage, and effects of these lesions on the activity of VO and VPS neurons will be determined.  Effects of nodulo-uvulectomy on the spatial orientation of velocity storage will be investigated.  The postulate is that the spatial orientation of velocity storage is dependent on these structures and will disappear after they are lesioned.  The nodulus and ventral uvula will be electrically stimulated to determine if the spatial orientation of velocity storage can be shifted by this manipulation.  It will also be investigated electrophysiologically if the nodulus and uvula have projections to lateral and vertical canal-related VO neurons in MVN and SVN.  In collaborative studies, the afferent and efferent connections and morphology of VO and VPS neurons will be determined.  When these studies are completed, there should be a better understanding of the specific neurons that participate in generation of velocity storage and of the nature of the neural network that produces it.  These results will help meet the long-term goals of the project, i.e., to determine the organization of the velocity storage integrator, to model its function at a cellular level, and to study the role of velocity storage in spatial orientation :: KEYWORDS: vestibular nuclei brain electrical activity experimental brain lesion brain mapping single cell analysis vestibular apparatus vestibuloocular reflex electrophysiology electrostimulus electrooculography nystagmus eye movement neural information processing oculomotor nerve (III) neural plasticity sequential perception space perception ::

Hit 12 of 51 -- Awd #: R01HL52992 
 Award Type: Extramural / Grants / Project
Access/Distribution Restriction:
 Code: A - Distribution Unlimited - Unrestricted Access
Parent Organizations: HHS / NIH / NHLBI
 Project: Blood diseases & resources (extramural/includes training)
Dates: Jun 1998 to May 1999
Performer: BRIGHAM & WOMEN'S HOSPITAL
 Type:     Nonprofit (Non-Educational)
 Contact:  CZEISLER, CHARLES A, Phone:
 District: Multiple congressional districts in Massachusetts
 Location: Brookline,   MA
Description: TITLE: BRIGHT LIGHT TREATMENT OF SHIFT ROTATION INSOMNIA :: LONG DESCR: More than one-third of working men and one-quarter of working women in the U. S. report being exposed to a variable schedule that includes both day and night work.  Of these, approximately 7.3 million must regularly work overnight, either on permanent night shifts or rotations between day, evening, and night shifts, requiring them to forego nocturnal sleep and attempt to sleep during the day.  Despite this nocturnal deprivation of sleep, these workers typically experience daytime insomnia, leading to diminished alertness and cognitive performance and increased sleep tendency during waking hours at night.  In fact, 55 percent of night shift workers report nodding off or falling asleep at work at least once per week, with more than 30 percent reporting that such incidents occur more than three times per week.  Recent research has demonstrated that properly timed exposure to bright light and darkness can rapidly reset the human circadian pacemaker that-controls the timing of the sleep-wake cycle, enabling the circadian pacemakers of individuals working at night to fully adapt to their desired schedules within 2-3 days :: KEYWORDS: cortisol chronotherapy circadian rhythm electroencephalography blood chemistry urinalysis human subject sleep disorder phototherapy melatonin attention sleep wakefulness short term memory psychomotor reaction time visual tracking visible light body temperature human therapy evaluation ::

Hit 13 of 51 -- Awd #: R01HL59598 
 Award Type: Extramural / Grants / Project
Access/Distribution Restriction:
 Code: A - Distribution Unlimited - Unrestricted Access
Parent Organizations: HHS / NIH / NHLBI
 Project: Blood diseases & resources (extramural/includes training)
Dates: Sep 1998 to Aug 1999
Performer: NORTHWESTERN UNIVERSITY
 Type:     Private Educational Institution
 Contact:  TUREK, FRED W, Phone:
 9th Congressional District in Illinois        
 Location: Evanston,   IL
Description: TITLE: GENETIC ANALYSIS OF SLEEP REGULATION :: LONG DESCR: The overall objective of the proposed studies is to use experimental genetic approaches that are available in the mouse to identify genetic, and thus molecular, elements that underlie the control of sleep and wakefulness.  To reach this objective, two general strategies will be taken.  One strategy will involve the use of the recently discovered Click gene which, when mutated, affects the period and expression of the circadian clock underlying the rest-activity and sleep-wake cycles and possibly also the total amount of sleep in mice.  Clock represents the first mammalian circadian clock mutation show to affect sleep.  Sleep EEG activity will be recorded from mice of three different Click genotypes (wild-type, heterozygotes, and homozygotes) under both entrained and free- running conditions, as well as following periods of sleep deprivation, to determine how this gene regulates both the circadian and homeostatic processes underlying sleep and wakefulness, as well as the interactions between the sleep and circadian systems.  The second strategy will involve the use of two different forward genetic approaches to find new genes that are involved in sleep regulation.  One approach will use inbred strains of mice to determine the effects of different genetic backgrounds on sleep, and through the use of Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL) analysis identify linkage of chromosomal regions with sleep EEG phenotypes.  Isolating chromosomal regions containing candidate sleep regulatory loci on a congenic strain background will allow the effects of each locus to be tested individually and will provide specific regions to be targeted for genetic mapping and gene identification.  The second forward genetic strategy will utilize a chemical mutagenesis screen, successfully used to identify Clock, to create mutant animals with an altered phenotypic response of recovery sleep following sleep deprivation.  Animals showing an unusual recovery time will be bred and their offspring used to completely characterize the phenotype and genotype of the mutation.  Ultimately, positional cloning techniques will be used to identify the mutated genes underlying the homeostatic control of sleep.  Determining the molecular mechanisms by which Clock (and its protein product) regulates both the timing and the need for sleep, and the identification of new genes involved in sleep regulation, will provide new information on the genetic and molecular control of sleep.  Such information is expected to lead to new treatments for sleep disorders, mental and physical disorders associated with sleep-wake abnormalities, as well as for strategies to influence human fatigue and alertness :: KEYWORDS: laboratory mouse genetic strain circadian rhythm electroencephalography genetic mapping linkage mapping gene expression genetic regulation genotype gene mutation sleep sleep deprivation wakefulness animal breeding phenotype quantitative trait loci ::

Hit 14 of 51 -- Awd #: R01HL59658 
 Award Type: Extramural / Grants / Project
Access/Distribution Restriction:
 Code: A - Distribution Unlimited - Unrestricted Access
Parent Organizations: HHS / NIH / NHLBI
 Project: Blood diseases & resources (extramural/includes training)
Dates: Sep 1998 to Aug 1999
Performer: STANFORD UNIVERSITY
 Type:     Private Educational Institution
 Contact:  KILDUFF, THOMAS S, Phone:
 12th Congressional District in California        
 Location: Stanford,   CA
Description: TITLE: NEURAL GENE EXPRESSION IN SLEEP DEPRIVATION AND RECOVERY :: LONG DESCR: The significance of this proposal lies in two areas.  First, common experience confirms experimental observations that sleep deprivation leads to sleepiness and that restricted sleep time imposes a sleep "debt" which ultimately must be "repaid" by sleep extension.  This property of homeostatic regulation of sleep has profound societal and economic impacts because the maintenance of optimal performance in the work environment is dependent on the neural mechanisms which facilitate sustained alertness and attention.  Recent analyses have implicated restricted sleep as a major contributory factor to impaired performance in the Challenger, Exxon Valdez and Chernobyl catastrophes.  The second area of significance for the proposal is that the function of sleep and the biochemical nature of the restorative process which occurs during sleep remain among the great mysteries of neuroscience.  We will address these issues by applying state-of-the-art physiological and molecular biological techniques to determine what genes are activated in the brain during normal sleep, during period of extended wakefulness and during recovery sleep after sleep restriction.  Our experiments will be guided by the two-process model of sleep regulation which posits that an increased homeostatic "drive" to sleep occurs during prolonged wakefulness.  We hypothesize that (1) a molecular basis exists for the homeostasis regulation of sleep and that some molecules must be expressed in brain proportional to time spent awake; (2) perturbations of the sleep homeostatic system result in compensatory changes in gene expression in brain that increase the likelihood of subsequent sleep; and (3) sleep after prolonged wakefulness involves a change in macromolecular synthesis that facilitates neuronal recovery or restoration.  To test these hypotheses, we will employ computerized sleep state determination coupled to automated sleep deprivation procedures in rodents.  Gene expression in brain will be assessed using two novel technologies (cDNA microarrays and high density oligonucleotide arrays) which allow assessment of the expression of thousands of genes in parallel, as well as by conventional molecular biological procedures.  We estimate that we will be able to evaluate the expression of 10% of the genome using technologies that should be in place by summer, 1997.  Genes which appear to undergo significant change across experimental conditions will be confirmed by Northern Analysis and in situ hybridization.  These studies should identify candidate genes for subsequent targeting approaches to determine their relevance for the regulation of sleep and wakefulness.  These experiments should provide insights into the biochemical proces occurring during wakefulness that predisposes to sleepiness as well as the restrorative process that occurs during sleep itself :: KEYWORDS: laboratory mouse laboratory rat thalamus cerebral cortex electroencephalography electrophysiology gene expression homeostasis electromyography in situ hybridization complementary DNA sleep sleep deprivation wakefulness northern blotting neurogenetics ::



Hit 17 of 51 -- Awd #: R01MH59978 
 Award Type: Extramural / Grants / Project
Access/Distribution Restriction:
 Code: A - Distribution Unlimited - Unrestricted Access
Parent Organizations: HHS / NIH / NIMH
 Project: Extramural awards (includes training)
Dates: Sep 1998 to Aug 1999
Performer: UNIVERSITY OF PENNSYLVANIA
 Type:     Private Educational Institution
 Contact:  ASTON-JONES, GARY S, Phone:
 First Congressional District in Pennsylvania
 Location: Philadelphia,   PA
Description: TITLE: NEUROPHYSIOLOGICAL AND MODELING STUDIES OF LOCUS COERULEUS :: LONG DESCR: DESCRIPTION (adapted from applicant's abstract): The locus coeruleus- norepinephrine(LC-NE) system has long been implicated in arousal and alertness. This implies a relatively non-specific role for LC in cognitive function. However, the investigators' recent recordings from LC in the behaving monkey suggest a revision of this view. They have found that LC neurons respond to task-relevant stimuli in a selective, stimulus-specific  manner, and that these cells exhibit two modes of activity corresponding to levels of performance in a visual discrimination task. Based on these findings, the investigators hypothesize that the LC helps to regulate the balance between selective vs. flexible behavior. They now have developed a computational model of LC and its influence on performance in cognitive tasks, which delineates mechanisms for such a function. This model predicts that the mode of LC activity influences the state of cortical function to promote either selective responding to task relevant stimuli or responsivity to a broader range of environmental stimuli, each of which may have adaptive value for behavior. Other of the investigators' results indicate that electronic coupling may be an important factor regulating the mode of LC activity. This proposal seeks to test these hypotheses, specifically in the context of tasks that involve visual spatial attention. The following studies are proposed: (1) The investigators will integrate our model of LC function into a model they have already developed of performance in a spatially-cued reaction time SCRT) task. (2) The investigators will record from monkey LC neurons during performance of the SCRT task, and analyze the relationship between LC activity and task performance, to test predictions made by the computational model. (3) The investigators will make local microinjections of selective pharmacologic agents into the monkey LC to transiently manipulate activity of, and electrotonic coupling among, LC neurons. This will test the causal role of LC in task performance, as well as the specific hypothesis that coupling among LC neurons is one means of regulating the mode of LC activity and the corresponding pattern of behavioral performance.  (4) They will record visually responsive neurons in parietal cortex while recording and manipulating LC activity, to test mechanistic hypotheses concerning LC-NE influences on cortical function and task performance.  The proposed program of research integrates computational modeling, neurophysiology, and behavioral studies to understand the functions of the LC-NE system, its interaction with cortical systems, and its regulation of the balance between task- directed behavior vs. responsivity to unexpected environmental stimuli :: KEYWORDS: Macaca mulatta locus coeruleus brain electrical activity carbachol microinjection visual perception clonidine psychological model neuropharmacology attention behavior prediction cue performance psychomotor reaction time sensory discrimination space perception male stimulus /response computational neuroscience behavioral /social science research tag ::

Hit 18 of 51 -- Awd #: R37MH46660 
 Award Type: Extramural / Grants / Project
Access/Distribution Restriction:
 Code: A - Distribution Unlimited - Unrestricted Access
Parent Organizations: HHS / NIH / NIMH
 Project: Extramural awards (includes training)
Dates: Apr 1998 to Jun 1999
Performer: HARVARD UNIVERSITY PRESIDENT & FELLOWS
 Type:     Private Educational Institution
 Contact:  HASTINGS, JOHN W, Phone:
 District: Multiple congressional districts in Massachusetts
 Location: Cambridge,   MA
Description: TITLE: PHOTOBIOLOGICAL CONTROL OF A CELLULAR CIRCADIAN CLOCK :: LONG DESCR: The long-term objectives of this project are to identify the circadian clock and understand its mechanism at the cellular level.  The circadian (circa, about; ides, one day) biological clock is a physiological mechanism responsible for the timing, on a daily basis, of many fundamental processes, such as gene expression and cell division.  In higher organisms, it also regulates blood hormone levels, for example, and more complex phenomena such as activity and alertness.  Its importance in human physiology rests on its involvement in the timing of such processes, which can be disrupted environmentally, as in jet lag or shift-work scheduling.  Endogenous malfunctions are also hypothesized, and have been associated with the pathology of certain depressions :: KEYWORDS: creatine biological signal transduction computer processing of laboratory da ta circadian rhythm cell aggregation microorganism culture light emission light intensity photobiology nonvisual photoreceptor bioluminescence high performance liquid chromatograp hy Dinoflagellate radiotracer video recording system biomedical equipment ::


Hit 20 of 51 -- Awd #: R01NS35695 
 Award Type: Extramural / Grants / Project
Access/Distribution Restriction:
 Code: A - Distribution Unlimited - Unrestricted Access
Parent Organizations: HHS / NIH / NINDS
 Project: Extramural research (includes training)
Dates: Jun 1998 to May 1999
Performer: RUSH-PRESBYTERIAN-ST LUKE'S MEDICAL CENTER
 Type:     Nonprofit (Non-Educational)
 Contact:  EASTMAN, CHARMANE I, Phone:
 District: Multiple congressional districts in Illinois
 Location: Chicago,   IL
Description: TITLE: MELATONIN, HUMAN CIRCADIAN RHYTHMS, AND SLEEP :: LONG DESCR: (NIH-Designated Clinical Research)  DESCRIPTION (Adapted from applicant's abstract):  Shift work effects millions of people and many experience serious health-related consequences, such as shortened and disrupted sleep, fatigue, impaired performance, and gastrointestinal disturbances.  Night shift workers experience these symptoms because their internal circadian rhythms rarely phase shift to align with the new (daytime) sleep schedule.  One reason it is so difficult for these individuals to shift is that they continue to be exposed to the natural 24-hour light-dark cycle, a very powerful zeitgeber that works to keep rhythms synchronized for alertness during the day and sleep at night.  One strategy for shift work adaptation is to force the circadian pacemaker (clock) to phase shift to realign with shifted sleep-wake schedules, while another approach is to try to improve shift worker's daytime sleep and nighttime performance without shifting rhythms.  Melatonin is a hormone normally secreted by the pineal gland at night.  Previous studies suggest that exogenously-administered melatonin has phase-shifting as well as sedative effects :: KEYWORDS: adult human (19+) circadian rhythm dosage hormone metabolism hormone therapy human subject questionnaire job performance photobiology melatonin polygraphy sleep sleep deprivation occupational stressorbody temperature human therapy evaluation clinical research polysomnography ::

Hit 21 of 51 -- Awd #: N43NS82394 
 Award Type: Extramural / Contracts / Not Otherwise Specified
 SBIR Award
Access/Distribution Restriction:
 Code: A - Distribution Unlimited - Unrestricted Access
Parent Organizations: HHS / NIH / NINDS
 Project: R&D Contracts
Dates: Oct 1997 to Sep 1999
Performer: SAM TECHNOLOGY, INC.
 Type:     Not specified
 Contact:  GEVINS, ALAN, Phone:
 Location: San Francisco,   CA
Description: TITLE: SUSTAINED ATTENTION METRIC FOR ASSESSMENT OF ALERTNESS IN NARCOLEPSY :: LONG DESCR: (NIH-Designated Clinical Research)  NO ABSTRACT AVAILABL :: KEYWORDS: clinical biomedical equipment biomedical equipment development patient monitoring device brain electrical activity electroencephalography diagnosis design /evaluation human subject narcolepsy attention psychometrics clinical research ::

Hit 22 of 51 -- Awd #: N43NS92309 
 Award Type: Extramural / Contracts / Not Otherwise Specified
 SBIR Award
Access/Distribution Restriction:
 Code: A - Distribution Unlimited - Unrestricted Access
Parent Organizations: HHS / NIH / NINDS
 Project: R&D Contracts
Dates: Oct 1998 to Sep 1999
Performer: CREARE, INC.
 Type:     Not specified
 Contact:  GREELEY, HAROLD, Phone:
 Location: Hanover,   NH
Description: TITLE: ALERTNESS MONITORING DEVICE :: LONG DESCR: NO ABSTRACT AVAILABL :: KEYWORDS: bioengineering /biomedical engineeri ng clinical biomedical equipment biomedical equipment development computer assisted patient care patient monitoring device electroencephalography computer program /software electrophysiology human subject narcolepsy attention psychomotor reaction time clinical research ::

Hit 23 of 51 -- Awd #: R01AG13396 
 Award Type: Extramural / Grants / Project
Access/Distribution Restriction:
 Code: A - Distribution Unlimited - Unrestricted Access
Parent Organizations: HHS / NIH / NIA
 Project: Aging research (extramural/includes training)
Dates: Oct 1997 to Jan 1999
Performer: UNIVERSITY OF PITTSBURGH
 Type:     Public Educational Institution
 Contact:  MONK, TIMOTHY H, Phone:
 District: Multiple congressional districts in Pennsylvania
 Location: Pittsburgh,   PA
Description: TITLE: PHASE SHIFT TOLERANCE IN OLDER PEOPLE :: LONG DESCR: (NIH-Designated Clinical Research)  This project is concerned with the neuroscience of aging, and in particular with the response of the aging human circadian timekeeping system (CTS) to an abrupt shift in routine. The project will assess the adjustment of sleep, circadian rhythms, mood and performance in healthy elderly (55-90y) people to an acute (6h) phase delay in routine. This will allow the test of hypotheses regarding how well older people can cope with delays in routine that are often required either to remedy advanced sleep phase syndrome (ASPS) in which seniors have pathologically early bedtimes and waketimes, or to cope with evening- and night-working schedules which require sleep periods to be delayed by several hours.  Knowledge of the aging circadian system's ability to phase delay and its effects on sleep, alertness, mood and performance is also of general interest. In all seniors, these entrainment processes are at work, ensuring that the CTS retains an appropriate temporal orientation, and a period length of exactly 24h, thus avoiding the episodic disruptions in sleep and daytime functioning that occur when the GTS runs at non-24h periods (as occurs, for example, in the profoundly blind) :: KEYWORDS: human middle age (35-64) human old age (65+) human very old age (85+) aging circadian rhythm human subject sleep disorder polygraphy attention sleep wakefulness coping emotion performance body temperature clinical research ::

Hit 24 of 51 -- Awd #: R01AG13667 
 Award Type: Extramural / Grants / Project
 NIH-Defined Phase III Clinical Trial
Access/Distribution Restriction:
 Code: A - Distribution Unlimited - Unrestricted Access
Parent Organizations: HHS / NIH / NIA
 Project: Aging research (extramural/includes training)
Dates: May 1998 to Apr 1999
Performer: MASSACHUSETTS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY
 Type:     Public Educational Institution
 Contact:  WURTMAN, RICHARD J, Phone:
 District: Multiple congressional districts in Massachusetts
 Location: Cambridge,   MA
Description: TITLE: AGING AND SLEEP--ROLE OF MELATONIN :: LONG DESCR: DESCRIPTION (Adapted from Investigator's Abstract): Aging is associated with disturbances of both sleep and circadian rhythms. Nocturnal melatonin levels in the elderly are often substantially lower than in younger people. Studies have shown that high pharmacological doses of melatonin produce sleepiness and reduce sleep latency. The proposed studies will test the hypothesis that sleep disturbances of the elderly can be related to deficiencies in nocturnal melatonin secretion, and that restoration of rhythmic, high amplitude variations in circulating melatonin can improve sleep quality and quantity in the elderly without diminishing mood or performance the following morning. Elderly (60 -75 years) men and women participants (N=60) with and without symptomatic and polygraphically-confirmed insomnia will be tested under four conditions (placebo, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3 mg melatonin). Sleep quality and quantity will be polygraphically assessed along with measures of alertness, sleepiness, mood and performance. Parallel measures of cortisol and body temperature will be taken :: KEYWORDS: cortisol human old age (65+) young adult human (19-34) aging secretion circadian rhythm blood chemistry dosage drug adverse effect drug screening /evaluation human subject sleep disorder melatonin polygraphy attention sleep emotion performance female male sex difference body temperature oral administration age difference clinical research ::

Hit 25 of 51 -- Awd #: R01AG15136 
 Award Type: Extramural / Grants / Project
Access/Distribution Restriction:
 Code: A - Distribution Unlimited - Unrestricted Access
Parent Organizations: HHS / NIH / NIA
 Project: Aging research (extramural/includes training)
Dates: Oct 1997 to Dec 1998
Performer: UNIVERSITY OF PITTSBURGH
 Type:     Public Educational Institution
 Contact:  MONK, TIMOTHY H, Phone:
 District: Multiple congressional districts in Pennsylvania
 Location: Pittsburgh,   PA
Description: TITLE: SIESTA NAPS IN OLDER PEOPLE :: LONG DESCR: (NIH-Designated Clinical Research)  DESCRIPTION (Adapted from applicant's abstract):  This study is a new proposal concerned with a behavioral intervention, that of taking an afternoon nap, which might lessen some of the sleep and alertness disorders experienced by many older men and women.  The major aim of this experiment is to determine whether for older people (70y+), a daily 90-minute early afternoon "siesta nap" regimen, applied for 2 weeks in the home followed by 3 days in the laboratory, will help promote evening alertness and prevent Unwanted Early Evening Sleepiness (UEES) which may be manifest as evening napping and/or Advanced Sleep Phase Syndrome (ASPS) symptoms.  A within-subject design will be employed with all subjects doing both conditions, half of the subjects doing the 'nap' condition first, half the 'no-nap' condition first.  Eighteen days will intervene between the two conditions.  The applicants will study both healthy controls and sleep disorders patients who complain of UEES symptoms, expecting the intervention to be most beneficial for the patient group.  Home-based measures will include subjective ratings of alertness, sleep (and nap) diaries, the Social Rhythm Metric (SRM), and Actillume measures of wrist activity and light level.  Laboratory measures will additionally include rectal temperature, polysomnographic measures of naps and sleeps, and single MSLT and waking EEG evening measures of sleepiness.  For both patient (10m, 10f) and control (10m, 10f) groups, the applicants will test the hypothesis that the siesta nap regimen, imposed for 14 days at home and for three days in the laboratory, will have the effect of:  1) delaying the self selected bedtime and/or eliminating evening naps, 2) improving evening performance at manual dexterity, serial response, response inhibition and monotonous visual vigilance tasks, 3) increasing evening subjective alertness (self- rated) and decreasing objective evening sleepiness (MSLT trial, waking EEG analysis), 4) changing the pattern of light exposure and 5) increasing the level of lifestyle regularity.  The intervention is derived from Borbely's original "Process S/Process C" model of the human circadian system, and laboratory sleep and circadian measures will be used additionally to investigate the mechanisms of the model, and to evaluate any consequences of the siesta naps on circadian rhythm timing and nocturnal sleep.  Results from the experiment will reveal the potential benefits (and costs) to older people of a lifestyle that incorporates an early afternoon nap, and determine how these vary between healthy seniors and those complaining of symptoms related to unwanted early evening sleepiness :: KEYWORDS: human old age (65+) aging electroencephalography human subject sleep disorder sleep emotion performance human therapy evaluation clinical research behavioral /social science research tag personal log /diary ::

Hit 26 of 51 -- Awd #: R01DA11448 
 Award Type: Extramural / Grants / Project
Access/Distribution Restriction:
 Code: A - Distribution Unlimited - Unrestricted Access
Parent Organizations: HHS / NIH / NIDA
 Project: Drug abuse & addiction (extramural/includes training)
Dates: Jun 1998 to May 1999
Performer: CASE WESTERN RESERVE UNIV, HENRY FORD HLTH SC
 Type:     Nonprofit (Non-Educational)
 Contact:  ROEHRS, TIMOTHY A, Phone:
 District: Multiple congressional districts in Michigan
 Location: Detroit,   MI
Description: TITLE: SLEEPINESS AND THE REINFORCING EFFECT OF METHYLPHENIDATE :: LONG DESCR: (NIH-Designated Clinical Research)  DESCRIPTION (Adapted from applicant's abstract):  Stimulant abuse remains a social problem.  Studies of the reinforcing and subjective effects of stimulants, specifically amphetamine and cocaine, report variations in subjective and reinforcing effects among individuals and within individuals as a function of time-of-day.  The variations may be due, in part, to differences in daytime sleepiness-alertness.  Daytime sleepiness-alertness can be reliably and validly measured using standard electrophysiological methods and it varies within and among healthy individuals as a function of time-of-day and the prior amount of sleep.  To further understand the conditions leading to stimulant use and abuse, this project will explore how sleepiness-alertness influences the reinforcing and subjective effects of methylphenidate in healthy adults without drug abuse histories.  Methylphenidate will be studied because it is the most often prescribed stimulant and primarily to a population known to be sleepy due to sleep loss.  Thus, the working hypothesis of this project is that one way stimulants, and specifically methylphenidate, may gain reinforcing effects is by enhancing behavioral function and alertness in "sleepy" people :: KEYWORDS: electroencephalography dosage self medication stimulant /agonist drug abuse drug screening /evaluation electrooculography human subject questionnaire electromyography neuropharmacology methylphenidatesleep wakefulness reinforcer performance clinical research polysomnography ::



Hit 31 of 51 -- Awd #: 120276 
 Award Type: Intramural / In-House Project / In-House Project
Access/Distribution Restriction:
 Code: A - Distribution Unlimited - Unrestricted Access
Parent Organizations: DVA / Medical & Prosthetic Research / VA Medical Center - (Dayton, OH)
Dates: Oct 1997 to Sep 1999
Performer: VA Medical Center - (Dayton, OH)
 Type:     Federal Government
 Contact:  Bonnet, Michael H., Ph.D., Phone:
 Location: Dayton,   OH
Description: TITLE: Physiological Arousal and the Measurement of Sleepiness :: LONG DESCR:    Recent studies have shown that patients with psychophysiological inso mnia have increased levels of physiological arousal as indexed by whole  body metabolic rate and cardiac measures throughout the night and day. I ncreased levels of physiological arousal have been shown to be related t o increased difficulty in falling asleep in both insomnia patients and n ormals. Although physiological arousal level has been shown to be an imp ortant component in the ability to tall sleep, systematic investigation  of the role of physiological arousal level in our ability to maintain wa kefulness has not been performed.                                          The role of the arousal system in relationship to the homeostatic sle ep drive is unknown. The arousal system is not a sleep system per se, bu t the arousal system can modify the ability to maintain wakefulness by m asking the sleep system. Sleep deprivation studies are successful in mea suring sleepiness to the extent that they can remove effects of the arou sal system (by maintaining Ss in monotonous situations). However, our un derstanding of the relationship between the arousal system and the sleep  system is so rudimentary that the impact of experimentally varied arous al on measures of sleep and alertness is unknown.                          Understanding how disorders of excessive arousal predispose to insomn ia as well as understanding how failure of the arousal system to sustain  waking can produce disaster (e.g., falling asleep while driving) in mon otonous or sleep deprivation conditions requires empirical observation o f graded levels of physiological activation at various degrees of sleep  pressure. In the proposed studies, physiological arousal and prior wakef ulness will be varied systematically in patients with insomnia and norma l sleepers to understand the manner by which wakefulness is maintained.  Specifically, studies will 1) delineate the impact of level of physiolog ical arousal on the standard measure of sleep tendency (MSLT); 2) examin e the role of external stimulation in maintaining physiological arousal  level and wakefulness; 3) examine basal sympathetic and parasympathetic  nervous system activity as a determiner of trait sleepiness; 4) determin e the impact of graded physiological activation in extending wakefulness  under monotonous conditions; and 5) show the impact of graded levels of  physiological activation upon the ability to maintain wakefulness at va rious levels of sleep loss :: KEYWORDS: SLEEP DISORDERS; SLEEP DEPRIVATION; INSOMNIA; AROUSAL ::
INSOMNIA ::

Hit 33 of 51 -- Awd #: 123771 
 Award Type: Intramural / In-House Project / In-House Project
Access/Distribution Restriction:
 Code: A - Distribution Unlimited - Unrestricted Access
Parent Organizations: DVA / Medical & Prosthetic Research / VA Medical Center - (Houston, TX)
Dates: Oct 1998 to Sep 1999
Performer: VA Medical Center - (Houston, TX)
 Type:     Federal Government
 Contact:  Hirshkowitz, Max, Ph.D., Phone:
 Location: Houston,   TX
Description: TITLE: Frontal Lobe Dysfunction in Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome (98H05.HBL) :: LONG DESCR:    FINAL REPORT                                                            OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study is to investigate and better understand the extent of the frontal lobe related dysfunctions in patients with OSAS.                                                                RESEARCH DESIGN: Patients meeting objective polysomnographic diagnostic criteria for obstructive sleep apnea will be treated with continuous positive air pressure (CPAP). Sleep studies and daytime evaluations will be conducted at the sleep research center. The outcome measures were designed to assess obstructive sleep apnea and neuropsychological deficits.                                                                          METHODOLOGY: Subjects will be patients who consult the Sleep Disorders and Research Center for daytime sleepiness either directly or referred by physicians. Prior to participation in the study all subjects will read and sign an informed consent. At screening a complete medical and psychiatric history, a routine physical, and recording of vital signs will be performed. Subjects will complete several questionnaires. On night 1 and 2 subjects undergo a standard all-night polysomnography. Subjects will be at retest that after two weeks.                                      FINDINGS: CPAP therapy increases objectively measured alertness in patients with obstructive sleep apnea. Most measures of neuropsychological functions showed practice effects, beyond which differential treated vs. untreated subjects were not found. However, treatment-related improvements were found after two weeks on paced auditory serial addition test (PSAT), California Verbal Learning Test Sub-Scores (V+CVLT) and Trial-making A test. CLINICAL RELATIONSHIP: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a common condition in the VA population. The study will help the investigators understand how OSA effects frontal lobe function. IMPACT/SIGNIFICANCE: Improved alertness in CPAP tested OSA patients demonstrated the utility of this therapy. Memory, psychomotor speed, and calculating abilities also appear improved. This research has helped us further define the acute benefits of CPAP therapy :: KEYWORDS: SLEEP APNEA SYNDROMES; POLYSOMNOGRAPHY; NEUROPSYCHOLOGY; FRONTAL LOBE ::  SEDATION; ANESTHETICS ::


Hit 40 of 51 -- Awd #: 109819 
 Award Type: Transfers / Incoming / Reimbursable-Traditional
 Requester: Not Specified
Access/Distribution Restriction:
 Code: A - Distribution Unlimited - Unrestricted Access
Parent Organizations: DVA / Medical & Prosthetic Research / VA Medical Center - (Palo Alto, CA)
Dates: Oct 1995 to Sep 1999
Obligations (federal, FY avg):  $0.0; $88.8
Performer: VA Medical Center - (Palo Alto, CA)
 Type:     Federal Government
 Contact:  Youngs, Elizabeth J., M.D., Phone:
 Location: Palo Alto,   CA
Description: TITLE: Phase I Single Center, Open Label, Parallel Study to Evaluate the Influence of Age on the Pharmacokinetics of Dexmedetomidine :: LONG DESCR:    Objectives of the project                                               The primary purpose of this analysis is to investigate the effect of age on the pharmacokinetics of dexmedetomidine in healthy volunteers. In addition, the relationship between plasma drug concentration and respiratory rate, heart rate, arterial blood pressure, sedation, mood and anxiety will be further delineated.                                            Research plan/methodology                                               This is a single-center, open-label study. Sixty (60) adult ASA Class I-II volunteers will be enrolled. The subjects will be stratified into three groups with 20 subjects apiece: 18-40, 4165, and >65 years of age.     In a screening visit up to three weeks prior to the test day, each potential volunteer will be evaluated to ensure that he or she meets the selection criteria for this study. Informed consent will be obtained. The subject will then be evaluated again on the test day for any interval change.                                                                   The studies will be performed in a bed of the surgical intensive care unit. Each fasting subject will receive an intravenous catheter for delivery of fluid and study drug, and an arterial catheter for measurement of blood pressure and access to arterial blood samples.                    Following baseline measurements, each subject will receive 0.6 mcg/kg dexmedetomidine, administered over 10 minutes. During and after the dexmedetomidine infusion, blood will be sampled for dexmedetomidine levels, for a total of 30 5-ml samples. The arterial waveform, 3-lead EKG, and pulse oximeter waveform will be continuously monitored for 6 hours. Respiratory rate will also be monitored. A Holter monitor will be worn until 24 hours after study drug administration. Level of sedation will be assessed by the Observer's Assessment of Alertness/Sedation scale, the Maddox-Wing test (measurement of the relaxation of extraocular muscles), and visual analog scales. Memory will be assessed using picture recall.       The subject will be admitted to a hospital ward for an overnight stay, after demonstrating alertness, hemodynamic stability and absence of orthostatic hypotension. The following morning he or she will be discharged, after a follow-up physical examination, blood samples and 12-lead EKG.                                                                          Findings, results or conclusions to date                                Not applicabl :: KEYWORDS: PHARMACOKINETICS; HEMODYNAMICS; CLINICAL TRIALS; ANESTHESIA, INTRAVENOUS ::


 DISORDER; CLINICAL TRIALS; BIPOLAR DISORDER ::

Hit 44 of 51 -- Awd #: 115900 
 Award Type: Intramural / In-House Project / In-House Project
Access/Distribution Restriction:
 Code: A - Distribution Unlimited - Unrestricted Access
Parent Organizations: DVA / Medical & Prosthetic Research / VA Medical Center - (Pleasant Hill, CA)
Dates: Oct 1996 to Sep 1999
Performer: VA Medical Center - (Pleasant Hill, CA)
 Type:     Federal Government
 Contact:  Feinberg, Irwin, M.D., Phone:
 Location: Martinez,   CA
Description: TITLE: Effects of Naps on Sleep Homeostasis and Mood in the Elderly :: LONG DESCR:    Changes in EEG sleep patterns with age are among the most pronounced age-related changes in brain physiology. These changes may be due to altered circadian or homeostatic systems. We propose to investigate two aspects of delta homeostasis that have not previously been examined in relation to age: (1) the growth of delta intensity as a function of prior waking duration; and (2) the conservation of delta across naps and post-nap sleep. In the course of these studies, we will obtain data that will enable us to evaluate the effects of age on the reciprocal oscillations of sigma-delta and beta-delta across the night; we have hypothesized that these oscillations represent the fundamental process that generates sleep and we have proposed a new model of NREM-REM alternation based on these oscillations.                                                           Aging is associated with an increased frequency of daytime naps. Naps taken at different times of day have different EEG waveform components and differentially affect post-nap nocturnal sleep EEG. We will investigate the relation of these EEG aspects of nap and post-nap sleep to subjectively-rated mood, alertness and sleep satisfaction. In addition to their relevance for understanding basic sleep processes, these relations could provide a more informed basis for recommendations regarding naps and sleep hygiene in the elderly. More effective principles of sleep hygiene could reduce the dependence of the elderly on hypnotics, an important source of morbidity.                                                       All these questions will be addressed in a straightforward experimental design in which sleep is recorded on baseline nights, in naps on the following day, and on post-nap nocturnal sleep. The effects of age will be examined by studying subjects (Ss) in three age groups: young adults (18-28 years), middle-age (35-50 years) and elderly (60-75 years).         The effects of aging on the brain are a priority clinical issue of the VA as well as being a major problem in fundamental neurobiology. The studies we propose will provide new data that will improve the care of normal elderly with sleep problems. In addition, this research will significantly advance the science base of sleep and normal aging and will provide a firmer foundation for studies of sleep in pathological aging :: KEYWORDS: SLEEP; HOMEOSTASIS; ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY; AGING ::

Hit 45 of 51 -- Awd #: 122231 
 Award Type: Transfers / Incoming / Reimbursable-Traditional
 Requester: Not Specified
Access/Distribution Restriction:
 Code: A - Distribution Unlimited - Unrestricted Access
Parent Organizations: DVA / Medical & Prosthetic Research / VA Medical Center - (Pleasant Hill, CA)
Dates: Oct 1997 to Sep 1999
Obligations (federal, FY avg):  $119.6; $128.3
Performer: VA Medical Center - (Pleasant Hill, CA)
 Type:     Federal Government
 Contact:  Feinberg, Irwin, M.D., Phone:
 Location: Martinez,   CA
Description: TITLE: Effect of Aging on Human Sleep Homeostasis and Dynamics :: LONG DESCR:    Aging is associated with an increased frequency of daytime naps. Naps  taken at different times of day have different EEG waveform components  and differentially affect post-nap nocturnal sleep EEG. We are investiga ting the relation of these EEG aspects of nap and post-nap sleep to subj ectively-rated mood, alertness and sleep satisfaction. In addition to th eir relevance for understanding basic sleep processes, these relations c ould provide a more informed basis for recommendations regarding naps an d sleep hygiene in the elderly :: KEYWORDS: SLEEP; HOMEOSTASIS; AGING ::

Hit 46 of 51 -- Awd #: 118729 
 Award Type: Transfers / Incoming / Reimbursable-Traditional
 Requester: Not Specified
Access/Distribution Restriction:
 Code: A - Distribution Unlimited - Unrestricted Access
Parent Organizations: DVA / Medical & Prosthetic Research / VA Medical Center - (Portland, OR)
Dates: Oct 1997 to Sep 1999
Obligations (federal, FY avg):  $0.0; $0.0
Performer: VA Medical Center - (Portland, OR)
 Type:     Federal Government
 Contact:  Salinsky, Martin C., M.D., Phone:
 Location: Portland,   OR
Description: TITLE: Effects of Gabapentin and Carbamazepine on Brain Function: A Quantitative Analysis Using Psychometry, etc :: LONG DESCR:    We propose to study the effects of gabapentin and carbamazepine on ps ychometric measures, alertness, and QEEG in healthy volunteers treated f or 12 weeks. The primary objective of the study is to test the hypothesi s that carbamazepine monotherapy is associated with greater effects on s ubjective and objective measures of cognitive ability than is gabapentin  monotherapy.         A secondary objective is to compare the relative e ffects of the two drugs on standardized quantitative measures derived fr om the electroencephalogram, and on the awake maintenance task. Study is  progressing satisfactorily 8/98 :: KEYWORDS: ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY; CARBAMAZEPINE; BRAIN ::

Hit 47 of 51 -- Awd #: 125954 
 Award Type: Intramural / In-House Project / In-House Project
Access/Distribution Restriction:
 Code: A - Distribution Unlimited - Unrestricted Access
Parent Organizations: DVA / Medical & Prosthetic Research / VA Medical Center - (San Diego, CA)
Dates: Oct 1998 to Sep 1999
Performer: VA Medical Center - (San Diego, CA)
 Type:     Federal Government
 Contact:  Gillin, J. Christian, M.D., Phone:
 Location: San Diego,   CA
Description: TITLE: Sleep Reg in PTSD: Effect of Selective REM Sleep Suppression by Adminstration of Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitor (MAOI) Phenelzine :: LONG DESCR:    1. OBJECTIVES: In order to extend our knowledge on the regulation and the functions of sleep in health and disease, the present study will investigate the effect of the monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI) phenelzine (Nardil) for at least 5 weeks in patients with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Phenelzine has been reported previously to suppress REM sleep completely in depressed patients and healthy controls. We will assess its effects on polygraphic sleep measures, the sleep EEG (power spectral analysis [PSA]), mood, memory, dream recall and content of dreams.     2. Research Design: Twelve unmedicated patients (age 18-75, males or females) suffering from PTSD will be enrolled into this open-labeled study. Prior to inclusion they will be evaluated by the Diagnostic Core of the University of California at San Diego (UCSD) Mental Health Clinical Research Center (MHCRC) with a full medical and psychiatric history, structured psychiatric diagnostic interview (SCID-IV), physical examination, routine screening laboratory tests, HIV test, and ratings for depression (HDRS, Beck Depression Inventory [BDI], Profile of Mood States [POMS]).                                                                         Exclusion criteria include: suicidality, psychosis, diabetes, epilepsy, hypertension, cardiovascular disease or other serious medical conditions, significant current substance abuse or alcoholism, unreliability or inability to maintain the MAOI diet, irregular sleep-wake schedules (night shift, jet lag), use of medications contraindicated in patients receiving MAOls, use of sleeping pills or other medications which may affect the sleep EEG, sleep apnea or periodic limb movements during sleep, etc.                                                                          Ail participants in the study will be screened during one night in the sleep laboratory to exclude sleep apnea and nocturnal myoclonus. Sleep apnea index and nocturnal myoclonus index should be less than 15 per hour of sleep. The patients will have to stop completely all psychoactive drugs for two weeks (five weeks for fluoxetine) before initiation of treatment with phenelzine. Patients who are eligible and selected for the study will (1) fill out a sleep-log, (2) be instructed to keep a regular sleep-wake schedule with sleep episodes at their habitual sleeping times, (3) omit excessive consumption of alcohol, and (4) maintain or reduce caffeine consumption during the days prior to sleep studies. Additionally, patients may wear a wrist activity monitor.                             General Research Design: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effects of the MAOI, phenelzine (Nardil(E), on mood, sleep, and memory in patients with PTSD. Following about a week of evaluation and diagnosis, patients will begin the MAOI diet and will follow it as long as they continue to take phenelzine. After Baseline measures (Week -I), patients will be started on a low dose of phenelzine (Day 1 and 2: 15 mg; Day 3 and 4: 30 mg; Day 5-7: 45 mg). A dose of 45 mg per day will be maintained until the end of the first week of treatment, and then increased as tolerated and needed (up to 60-90 mg per day) according to clinical considerations. The treatment period will last until complete suppression of REM sleep, but for at least 5 weeks. Patients will be evaluated clinically every week. These clinical evaluations will include: vital signs; ratings (HDRS, BDI, and POMS); memory testing, side effect scales, and sleep and dream scales.                                                         In addition to the laboratory measures at Baseline, subjects will be studied in 2-week intervals starting during Week III of the treatment phase. Each of the laboratory sessions will last 2 nights: An adaptation followed by an experimental night. On the experimental nights, subjects will report to the sleep laboratory about 8:30 PM for overnight polysomnography.                                                                    METHODOLOGY: EEGs will be recorded during a 5 min interval of quiet wakefulness immediately prior to lights-off and during the entire sleep episode. EEGs will be subjected to spectral analysis base on a Fast Gourier Transform (FFT) routine which has been a sensitive method for the detection of drug effects on the EEG. In addition, subjects will be asked to rate both subjective sleep quality and mood (15 minutes after awakening in the morning in the sleep laboratory), by a questionnaire and visual analog scales.                                                            Data Analysis: Significant effects of treatment will be assessed by analysis of variance for repeated measures (ANOVA) with Greenhouse-Geisser correction. Where there are significant effects, contrasts will be tested by paired Student's t-tests. Target variables will include (1) REM sleep variables (amount, episode distribution, latency, REM density); (2) nonREM sleep stages; (3) sleep-stage specific EEG power spectra; (4) EEG slow-wave activity and spindle frequency activity as indicators or nonREM sleep intensity; (5) regional EEG power spectral (6) heart rate; (7) self-rated sleep quality, alertness and mood; (8) dream recall; (9) dream content.                                                                FINDINGS: Study has not been initiated yet.                             Clinical Relationships: Objective measures of sleep disturbances in depressed patients (e.g. sleep continuity disturbances, slow wave sleep deficits, REM sleep abnormalities), and successful "sleep therapies" of depression emphasize a close association between the regulation of sleep and depression. Therefore, an understanding of the physiology of sleep may contribute to a better understanding of the pathophysiology of depression                                                                       Impact/Significance: N/ :: KEYWORDS: STRESS DISORDERS, POST-TRAUMATIC; SLEEP, REM; PHENELZINE; MONOAMINE OXIDASE INHIBITORS ::

Hit 48 of 51 -- Awd #: 94872 
 Award Type: Intramural / In-House Project / In-House Project
Access/Distribution Restriction:
 Code: A - Distribution Unlimited - Unrestricted Access
Parent Organizations: DVA / Medical & Prosthetic Research / VA Medical Center - (Sepulveda, CA)
Dates: Oct 1993 to Sep 1999
Performer: VA Medical Center - (Sepulveda, CA)
 Type:     Federal Government
 Contact:  Rosenthal, Mark J., M.D., Phone:
 Location: Sepulveda,   CA
Description: TITLE: Effects of Dietary Zinc on the Glucose Removal Rate in Diabetic Patients :: LONG DESCR:    Studies were halted at the request of the research office after initially enrolling subjects. None of those subjects experienced any side effects and most demonstrated improved glucose tolerance with better energy and alertness. Note that the zinc supplement was chelated with desiccated bovine prostate powder to reverse the malabsorption of zinc that occurs both with aging and with diabetes. The rationale for chelation was discussed in the original submission to the R and D committee and the selection of proste tissue for chelation was described in my submission for funding by the merit review committee.                                     To reiterate briefly this rationale, zinc is involved in over 200 different enzyme systems, a dozen of which are directly involved in membrane and cellular actions on glucose transport at sites beyond the binding of insulin to its membrane receptors. These transmembrane enzyme activities can be corrected by zinc administration and indeed zinc acts directly in steps parallel to those stimulated by insulin. A number of different cellular components, including prostaglandins also work to effect zinc transport. All of these are contained within prostate tissue in the higher amounts than in any other bodily tissue.                               The dried prostate-chelated zinc powder has been approved as a dietary supplement by the FDA (note IND approval for product called PRO-Z), copy of approval enclosed (12/28/95). The dried prostate material which is considered to be an edible meat product in other countries (confirmed to be edible by Dr. Terry Doherty USDA inspection service in Washington D.C., 202-720-7025) was dried and confirmed to be pyrogen free manner by a local laboratory. Documentation of gel preparation and pyrogen free status are also enclosed with this resubmission.                             Studies are currently underway in animal subjects to clarify which of the chemicals in prostate tissue are most potent at correcting the defect in zinc transport :: KEYWORDS: ZINC; GLUCOSE; DIABETES MELLITUS ::

Hit 49 of 51 -- Awd #: 121014 
 Award Type: Transfers / Incoming / Reimbursable-Traditional
 Requester: Not Specified
Access/Distribution Restriction:
 Code: A - Distribution Unlimited - Unrestricted Access
Parent Organizations: DVA / Medical & Prosthetic Research / VA Medical Center - (Tuscaloosa, AL)
Dates: Oct 1997 to Sep 1999
Obligations (federal, FY avg):  $21.1; $15.7
Performer: VA Medical Center - (Tuscaloosa, AL)
 Type:     Federal Government
 Contact:  Davis, Lori L., M.D., Phone:
 Location: Tuscaloosa,   AL
Description: TITLE: Lamotrigine in the Treatment of Bipolar, Mania, or Mixed State :: LONG DESCR:    Background: Lamotrigine (Lamictal) is an antiepileptic drug of the ph enyltriazine class and has been studied in over 3000 patients with epile psy. It is currently approved by the FDA as an add-on treatment of epile psy. In some patients treated for epilepsy, lamotrigine has been observe d to improve mood, alertness and social interactions. In addition, patie nts with bipolar disorder have responded to other anticonvulsants such a s valproate and carbamazepine. In 1994, Glaxo Wellcome initiated an open -label lamotrigine study in patients with treatment-refractory bipolar d isorder. Results from this study corroborate prior clinical reports supp orting lamotrigine efficacy in mania and mixed states.                     Hypothesis to be tested: Lamotrigine will be better than placebo and  at least equally as effective as lithium in the acute stabilization of b ipolar I, manic or mixed episode.                                          METHODOLOGY: This study will be a 3 week multicenter, double-blind, p arallel-group, placebo-controlled trial in patients who have bipolar dis order and are currently experiencing an acute manic or mixed episode. A  total of 240 patients will be randomized to receive lamotrigine (week 1,  25 mg; week 2, 25 mg; week 3, 50 mg) or lithium (serum levels 0.8 - 1.3  mEq/L) or placebo as monotherapy using a balanced design (80 patients p er group). The patients will be inpatient from enrollment until stabiliz ed, up to 3 weeks. There is a 10 day period after the 3 week study to st abilize a patient on alternative standard treatment. The primary measure  of efficacy will be changes from baseline to Day 22 in scores on the ma nia rating scale from the SADS-C. Secondary efficacy measures will be ch anges from baseline in the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HRSD),  Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS), Clinical Global Impression of Imp rovement and Severity Scale (CGI), and the Global Assessment Scale (GAS) .                                                                          FINDINGS: We have randomized 9 patients to date. There have been 4 sc reen failures to date. The study is project to end in summer of 1999 :: KEYWORDS: MANIC DISORDER; CLINICAL TRIALS; BIPOLAR DISORDER ::

Hit 50 of 51 -- Awd #: NCC2599 
 Award Type: Extramural / Cooperative Agreements / Traditional
Access/Distribution Restriction:
 Code: A - Distribution Unlimited - Unrestricted Access
Parent Organizations: NASA / Aero-Space Technology (Aeronautical Research & Technology until FY01) / Research and technology base
 Project: Controls, guidance and human factors R&T (ended in FY 95)
Dates: Mar 1989 to Oct 1998
Performer: INSTITUTE EXPERIMT PSYCHIATRY [AMES]
 Type:     Nonprofit (Non-Educational)
 Location: Merion Station,   PA
Description: LONG DESCR: CREW ALERTNESS MANAGEMENT ON THE FLIGHT DECK: PSY CHOMOTOR PERFORMANCE AND REST/ACTIVITY CYCLE ::

Hit 51 of 51 -- Awd #: 9723437 
 Award Type: Extramural / Grants / Project
Access/Distribution Restriction:
 Code: A - Distribution Unlimited - Unrestricted Access
Parent Organizations: NSF / BIO / IBN
 Project: Physiology & ethology
Dates: Aug 1997 to Jul 1999
Performer: INDIANA STATE UNIVERSITY
 Type:     Public Educational Institution
 Contact:  Steven L Lima   lslima@scifac.indstate.edu, Phone: 812/237-6311
 7th Congressional District in Indiana        
 Location: Terre Haute,   IN
Description: TITLE: What Drives the Group Size Effect in Ant-Predator Vigilance? :: SHORT DESCR: WHAT DRIVES THE GROUP SIZE EFFECT IN ANT-PREDATOR VIGILANCE? :: LONG DESCR:  9723437  Lima  This research is directed at a new understanding of a widespread  behavioral phenomenon: the vigilance group size effect, in which  socially-feeding animals engage in less vigilance  (alertness) with an increase in group size.  Despite the fact that this is  one of the most well  established results in the study of animal behavior, many  important issues remain unaddressed and even unrecognized.  The  proposed experiments are designed to help remedy this  situation, and in doing so, will shed light on the reasons  why so  many types of animals are social in the first place.  The  proposed  research focuses first on an assumption fundamental to all  explanations  of the group size effect: that an animal cannot detect  predators  while it is actively feeding with its head down.  Recent  work  suggests that apparently non-vigilant (feeding) birds can  detect  approaching predator attacks at a considerable distance.  A  main goal is thus to characterize this ability in birds (as  represented by the dark-eyed junco, Junco hyemalis) under realistic situations, and then explore its consequences for  the  group size effect itself.  This proposed work will determine  whether the group size effect represents a previously  unrecognized interaction between poor quality vigilance  (while  actually feeding), and high quality vigilance (while overtly  alert).  The proposed research also explores two unorthodox  explanations for the group size effect.  The first is based on  theoretical developments which suggest that the group size  effect occurs only because group sizes change frequently over time  (as  animals come and go from the group).  This idea will be  tested by  allowing captive juncos to feed in constant group sizes or  in  groups that vary over time.  If the new theory is correct,  only  those birds experiencing the variable group sizes should  exhibit  the basic group size effect. The second unorthodox  explanation  for the group size effect concerns the effect of competition   for  food on vigilance.  This view does not deny that animals are  vigilant for predators, but maintains that they decrease their  vigilance in larger groups because competition for food is  more intense as group size increases.  If this view is correct,  then  the group size effect should be much more pronounced when  animals  are feeding on a limited food supply; this prediction will  be  tested in flocks of house finches (Carpodacus mexicanus).  Results  from this research will allow a better understanding of  group behavior  and the evolution of sociality :: KEYWORDS: Other Applications NEC ::
QUERY CRITERIA
Fiscal Year: 1999
Federal Organization:
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Performer(s):
      All performers.     
      All award types.    
Search term or phrase:  traffic accidents

Hit 1 of 5 -- Awd #: FLA-FTL-03620 
 Award Type: Extramural / Grants / Formula
Access/Distribution Restriction:
 Code: A - Distribution Unlimited - Unrestricted Access
Parent Organizations: USDA / CSREES / Payments under the Hatch Act
 Project: FL - Florida
Dates: Oct 1997 to Sep 2002
Performer: AGR RES & ED CT, FT LAUDERDALE; UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
 Type:     Public Educational Institution
 Contact:  Busey, P., Phone:
 Location: Gainesville,   FL
Description: TITLE: WEED BIOLOGY AND CONTROL FOR TURFGRASS AND THE LANDSCAPE :: LONG DESCR: 1. Describe the occurrence and nature of weed populations in Florida turfgrass and the associated landscape. 2. Learn the competitive strategies of weeds in the managed landscape ecosystem. 3. Assist in the discovery of herbicides, biocontrol agents, plant growth regulators, and integrated management systems for weed and vegetation suppression in south Florida turfgrass. Controlling weeds in Florida turf costs $90 million each year.  Yet weeds damage public easements, lawns, and recreation areas, and cost urban people in health, safety, and removal.  Weeds cause human allergy, traffic accidents, and loss of use and reduction of property values. This study seeks environmentally sound ways to manage urban weeds, especially weeds of golf courses, sod, and home lawns :: KEYWORDS: weeds grasses turf grasses weed control landscape management plant competition plant communities plant ecology herbicides biological control (weeds) growth regulators integrated pest management golf courses lawns cynodon stenotaphrum paspalum eremochloa plant taxonomy plant genetics ::

Hit 2 of 5 -- Awd #: R01MH48476 
 Award Type: Extramural / Grants / Project
Access/Distribution Restriction:
 Code: A - Distribution Unlimited - Unrestricted Access
Parent Organizations: HHS / NIH / NIMH
 Project: Extramural awards (includes training)
Dates: Jan 1998 to Dec 1998
Performer: SUNY, ALBANY
 Type:     Public Educational Institution
 Contact:  BLANCHARD, EDWARD B, Phone:
 21st Congressional District in New York
 Location: Albany,   NY
Description: TITLE: TREATMENT OF CHRONIC PTSD SECONDARY TO TRAFFIC ACCIDENTS :: LONG DESCR: (NIH-Designated Clinical Research)  DESCRIPTION (Adapted from applicant's abstract):  Evidence from several surveys indicates that posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) may be one of the most widespread psychiatric problems in the USA, and that a sizeable proportion of PTSD cases may arise secondary to motor vehicle accidents (MVAs).  To date, the published reports of treatment with this population have been uncontrolled, with the exception of one controlled early intervention trial which failed to find an advantage of brief treatment over no treatment.  (The latter finding may be due to a fairly sizeable spontaneous remission rate over the first 6 to 9 months post-MVA, identified in the work of the investigators submitting this proposal.) Other controlled evaluations of treatment of PTSD have focused on very chronic cases such as Vietnam veterans and on rape victims :: KEYWORDS: clinical trial vehicular accident human subject trauma longitudinal human study psychological test psychotherapy psychological stressor human therapy evaluation cognitive behavior therapy posttraumatic stress disorder clinical research behavioral /social science research tag ::

Hit 3 of 5 -- Awd #: R01AA09435 
 Award Type: Extramural / Grants / Project
Access/Distribution Restriction:
 Code: A - Distribution Unlimited - Unrestricted Access
Parent Organizations: HHS / NIH / NIAAA
 Project: Alcohol biomedical & behavioral research (extramural/includes training)
Dates: Jun 1998 to May 1999
Performer: UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS AT CHICAGO
 Type:     Public Educational Institution
 Contact:  CHALOUPKA, FRANK J, Phone:
 District: Multiple congressional districts in Illinois
 Location: Chicago,   IL
Description: TITLE: PUBLIC POLICY AND ALCOHOL ABUSE :: LONG DESCR: The focus of this project is on the effects of all alcohol related policies on alcohol abuse among various racial and ethnic populations.  The data to be used include: a pooled time series of annual state cross sections for the years from 1968-1990; the First National Health and Nutrition.  Examination Survey; the Second National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey; the Hispanic Household Surveys on Drug Abuse; the 1982 and 1989 Monitoring the Future Surveys of High School Seniors; the National Alcohol Survey and it Followup and Supplement.  Outcomes to be examined include: alcohol related mortality and fatality rates (including deaths from chronic liver disease, alcohol dependence syndrome, non- dependent abuse of alcohol, alcohol psychosis, alcohol poisoning, motor vehicle traffic accidents, homicides, suicides, falls, drowning, fires and burns, and other accidents) constructed from the Vital Statistics data; and total and beverage specific alcohol consumption, frequency of consumption, incidents of heavy drinking, incidents of drinking and driving, incidents of traffic accident (total and alcohol related), incidents of other alcohol related accidents, drinking related work loss episodes, and other taken from the multiple survey data sets.  Race/ethnic specific death rates will be defined for: Whites (including Hispanics), Blacks, Asian/Pacific Americans, and Native Americans (including American, Alaskan, Canadian, Eskimo, and Aleut).  Less aggregated, race specific death rates will also be defined, where the data allow, for the following groups:  Caucasians, Filipinos, Chinese, Japanese, Hawaiians, Other Asian or Pacific Islanders, all Hispanics, Mexicans, Puerto Ricans, Cubans, Central and South Americans, and Other Hispanics.  The following racial/ethnic groups will be examined in the survey data: Whites; Blacks; and Hispanics (total and the following subgroups: Puerto Rican, Cuban, Mexican, Latin American, and Other Hispanics).  Finally, in addition to the total populations, age and sex specific subgroups will be examined in all data.  Alcohol related policies to be emphasized include alcoholic beverage excise taxes, laws related to driving under the influence of alcohol, restrictions on the availability of alcohol (including mandatory minimum legal drinking ages) and limits on alcohol advertising :: KEYWORDS: alcohol influenced driving alcoholic beverage consumption alcoholism /alcohol abuse health related legal human mortality vital statistics accident proneness sex difference racial /ethnic difference age difference human data health care policy behavioral /social science research tag substance abuse epidemiology ::

Hit 4 of 5 -- Awd #: R01AA10729 
 Award Type: Extramural / Grants / Project
Access/Distribution Restriction:
 Code: A - Distribution Unlimited - Unrestricted Access
Parent Organizations: HHS / NIH / NIAAA
 Project: Alcohol biomedical & behavioral research (extramural/includes training)
Dates: Feb 1998 to Jan 1999
Performer: WESTAT, INC
 Type:     Industry/Business
 Contact:  CAUDILL, BARRY D, Phone:
 8th Congressional District in Maryland        
 Location: Rockville,   MD
Description: TITLE: A COMMUNITY HEALTH SERVICE ALTERNATIVE TO PREVENT DWI :: LONG DESCR: The primary purpose of the proposed study is to conduct a rigorous process and outcome evaluation of a community-wide health service prevention/intervention program to prevent drunk driving in Frederick, Maryland.  The intervention will include two central components, each of which has been suggested in related literature to contribute towards reducing rates of drinking and driving and related traffic accidents and injuries, namely Designated Driver Programs (DDPs) and providing 'Safe Rides' home (SRs) for drunk drivers.  This study will be the first to carefully investigate the combined impact of these two programs :: KEYWORDS: alcohol influenced driving alcoholic beverage consumption health education education evaluation /planning vehicular accident community health service human subject information dissemination mass information media interview injury prevention longitudinal human study health survey attitude social perception behavioral /social science research tag ::

Hit 5 of 5 -- Awd #: R44DA09934 
 Award Type: Extramural / Grants / Project
 SBIR Award
Access/Distribution Restriction:
 Code: A - Distribution Unlimited - Unrestricted Access
Parent Organizations: HHS / NIH / NIDA
 Project: Drug abuse & addiction (extramural/includes training)
Dates: Sep 1998 to Aug 1999
Performer: THE WALSH GROUP, PA
 Type:     Industry/Business
 Contact:  WALSH, J M, Phone:
 8th Congressional District in Maryland        
 Location: Bethesda,   MD
Description: TITLE: NEW TRAINING IN DETECTION OF ILLICIT DRUGS IN DRIVERS :: LONG DESCR: The goal of this research is to develop, evaluate, and disseminate cost- efficient training programs for law enforcement agencies utilizing new drug testing technology to facilitate the detection of drugged drivers. To prevent drug-related traffic accidents, officials must be able to detect drivers under-the-influence of drugs as they routinely do now with alcohol detection devices. The availability of new drug-testing devices capable of providing immediate, accurate and reliable results provides a unique opportunity to apply this technology in the enforcement of drugs and driving laws. The proposed research will establish the commercial potential for innovative application of on-site testing technology in drugged driving detection and deterrence. This research plan proposes to integrate information from drug/driving research with results of the phase I feasibility study to develop training materials and curricula both for DUI Officers and breath testing technicians. The research will synthesize the testing technology and procedures into existing instructional programs. This new training will undergo a series of research evaluations and will ultimately be redesigned in an interactive computer (CD ROM) format. These programs will not only increase cost-effectiveness and efficiency of training but will make drunk and drugged driver training much more available to law enforcement agencies across the country :: KEYWORDS: alcohol influenced driving training vehicular accident human tissue immunologic assay /test police substance abuse drug testing method development behavioral /social science research tag ::
QUERY CRITERIA
Fiscal Year: 1999
Federal Organization:
      All Federal Organizations.    
Performer(s):
      All performers.     
      All award types.    
Search term or phrase: driving  attention

Hit 1 of 1 -- Awd #: 104142 
 Award Type: Intramural / In-House Project / In-House Project
Access/Distribution Restriction:
 Code: A - Distribution Unlimited - Unrestricted Access
Parent Organizations: DVA / Medical & Prosthetic Research / VA Medical Center - (Sepulveda, CA)
Dates: Oct 1994 to Sep 1999
Performer: VA Medical Center - (Sepulveda, CA)
 Type:     Federal Government
 Contact:  Fitten, L. Jaime, M.D., Phone:
 Location: Sepulveda,   CA
Description: TITLE: Effect on Older Persons of a Non-Benzodiazepine Hypnotic (Zolpidem) on Driving Related Cognitive Skills :: LONG DESCR:    Operational skills involved in controlling a motor vehicle will be measured in a group of elderly drivers treated with zolpidem, a non-benzodiazepine hypnotic. This agent does not interfere with attention and short-term memory when used in clinical doses. An actual behind-the-wheel road test will be employed as will laboratory-based measures of visual search, attention and short-term memory. Scores achieved on the Sepulveda Road Test an laboratory tests before and after three days of treatment with placebo or zolpidem will be compared statistically and against established norms. No subjects enrolled in project as yet :: KEYWORDS: MEMORY; HYPNOTICS AND SEDATIVES; BENZODIAZEPINES; AUTOMOBILE DRIVING; ATTENTION ::
QUERY CRITERIA
Fiscal Year: 1999
Federal Organization:
      All Federal Organizations.    
Performer(s):
      All performers.     
      All award types.    
Search term or phrase: driving AND aging

Hit 1 of 16 -- Awd #: R01EY11135 
 Award Type: Extramural / Grants / Project
Access/Distribution Restriction:
 Code: A - Distribution Unlimited - Unrestricted Access
Parent Organizations: HHS / NIH / NEI
 Project: Vision research (extramural/includes training)
Dates: Jul 1998 to Jun 1999
Performer: UNIVERSITY OF SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA
 Type:     Private Educational Institution
 Contact:  KANNAN, RAM, Phone:
 District: Multiple congressional districts in California
 Location: Los Angeles,   CA
Description: TITLE: CHARACTERIZATION OF LENS GLUTATHIONE TRANSPORTERS :: LONG DESCR: Description:  Gluthathione (GSH) is known to protect the lens from oxidant stress and maintain lens transparency.  GSH levels decrease with advancing age rendering the aged lens susceptible to reactive oxygen metabolites and injury.  We have previously shown that GSH is transported intact in an in situ guinea-pig perfused eye model.  Subsequent work showed that when bovine lens mRNA is injected into Xenopus laevis oocytes, GSH transport is expressed and that bovine and rat lenses express the transcript and protein for one of the recently cloned hepatic GSH transporters, rat canalicular GSH transporter (RcGshT).  More recently, evidence for the presence of an additional, novel Na+-dependent GSH transporter in the rat lenticular epithelium was also obtained using the oocyte expression system.  The GSH transport expressed by lens epithelial mRNA was sensitive to BSP-GSH (unlike RcGshT), a finding that was confirmed by inhibitory studies in the in situ eye perfusion model.  The goal in the present proposal is to characterize the GSH transporters, and to study their developmental regulation at the molecular level.  The specific aims are to:  1) clone the Na+/GSH co-transporter in the lens.  The PI will achieved this by size fractionation of lenticular epithelial mRNA, exclusion or identification of RcGshT, the sinusoidal GSH transporter (RsGshT), gamma glutamyltranspeptidase and cloning the fraction with Na+-dependent GSH uptake followed by sequence analysis.  Organ distribution of the newly cloned GSH transporter and kinetics and specificity of transport will also be studied.  2) characterization of RcGshT in the lens.  We will study developmental and age-dependent changes in RcGshT transcript and gene product and localization of RcGshT in the rat lens by in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry.  Use of phenobarbital as a tool to increase RcGshT will also be pursued.  And finally, 3)he will use vesicles as a model to study GSH transport in rat lens cortical plasma membranes.  Specifically, he will determine kinetics of uptake and determine Km and Vmax of multicomponents, study transstimulation of uptake, inhibitor specificity and identify driving force (membrane potential, Na+-dependence, pH dependence).  Knowledge gained on the novel GSH transporters will be of value in better understanding of GSH homeostasis in the lens, their developmental regulation, and in designing therapeutic modalities to prevent lens damage associated with old age :: KEYWORDS: aging glutamyltransferase laboratory rat cell membrane vesicle /vacuole polymerase chain reaction membrane potential lens egg /ovum molecular cloning immunocytochemistry homeostasis statistics /biometry molecular biology in situ hybridization glutathione high performance liquid chromatograp hy protein sequence protein transport membrane transport protein sodium potassium exchanging ATPase scintillation counter northern blotting oxidative stress ::

Hit 2 of 16 -- Awd #: R01MH55247 
 Award Type: Extramural / Grants / Project
Access/Distribution Restriction:
 Code: A - Distribution Unlimited - Unrestricted Access
Parent Organizations: HHS / NIH / NIMH
 Project: Extramural awards (includes training)
Dates: Mar 1998 to Jan 1999
Performer: UNIVERSITY OF ALABAMA AT BIRMINGHAM
 Type:     Public Educational Institution
 Contact:  MARSON, DANIEL C, Phone:
 District: Multiple congressional districts in Alabama
 Location: Birmingham,   AL
Description: TITLE: FINANCIAL CAPACITY IN ALZHEIMERS DISEASE :: LONG DESCR: (NIH-Designated Clinical Research)  DESCRIPTION (Adapted from applicant's abstract):  Loss of functional capacities such as driving.  medical decision making, and managing financial affairs are inevitable consequences of Alzheimer's's disease (AD).  In prior work, we have investigated the capacity of AD patients to consent to medical treatment using psychometric assessment and physician judgments However, little is known about loss of other specific capacities in AD, notably financial capacity.  Financial capacity comprises conceptual, pragmatic and judgment abilities whose loss has important functional.  Psychological and legal consequences for AD patients and their families In this study, we will theoretically and clinically investigate financial capacity in AD using a sample of 100 older controls and 200 AD patients (100 mild and 100 moderately demented).  Financial abilities will be conceptualized along two dimensions:  core knowledge type (declarative, procedural, and executive control) and task difficulty (simple, complex).  In Aim 1, we will use this conceptual model and a psychometric assessment instrument FCI) to investigate loss of financial knowledge in AD.  We hypothesize that mild AD patients will perform equivalently with controls on FCI tasks involving simple declarative and procedural knowledge, but will be impaired on tasks involving complex financial knowledge and executive control.  Moderate AD patients will be paired on all FCI tasks, indicative of more severe and global loss of financial knowledge and executive control.  We also hypothesize that loss in AD patients of declarative and procedural knowledge and executive control will correlate with loss of conceptually related neuropsychological functions as tested traditionally.  Aim 1 will thus demonstrate the cognitive structure of financial abilities and specific neuropsychological changes which mediate their breakdown in AD.  In Aim 2, we will clinically investigate domain specific financial capacities in AD patients using physician judgments, th :: KEYWORDS: aging Alzheimer's disease human subject model design /development psychological model neuropsychological test functional ability clinical research behavioral /social science research tag ::

Hit 3 of 16 -- Awd #: P01AG00538 
 Award Type: Extramural / Grants / Project
Access/Distribution Restriction:
 Code: A - Distribution Unlimited - Unrestricted Access
Parent Organizations: HHS / NIH / NIA
 Project: Aging research (extramural/includes training)
Dates: Apr 1998 to Jun 1999
Performer: UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, IRVINE
 Type:     Public Educational Institution
 Contact:  COTMAN, CARL W, Phone:
 40th Congressional District in California        
 Location: Irvine,   CA
Description: TITLE: BEHAVIORAL AND NEURAL PLASTICITY IN THE AGED :: LONG DESCR: In this renewal application we propose to focus on the theme of plasticity in the aged brain, its regulatory mechanisms, and cellular and molecular cascades. We propose that brain plasticity mechanisms operating through cellular and molecular cascades can offset losses and maintain brain function as the organism ages. Ironically, however, these same cascades can become part of the process driving brain pathology. In this program project we propose to examine the operation of select pathways which our data and others point toward as critical to this intersection between brain plasticity and age-related pathology. Research will focus on three molecular systems pivotal to the aged brain: beta-amyloid (Abeta) and amyloid precursor protein (APP), specific proteases and protease inhibitors, add certain key neurotrophic factors. These systems can aid in brain maintenance, generate pathological cascades, and in some cases, perhaps intersect to generate new cascades. We will examine these cascades with the goal of identifying key intervention points which can aid in the maintenance of brain function. In order to evaluate such multifactorial cascades we need a team approach comprised of experts in their respective specialties so that we can identify the critical mechanisms and intervention points and learn to control them. In the study of APP/Abeta, Dr. Glabe will examine the regulation of Abeta production and its actions on cerebral vascular smooth muscle cells, and Dr. Lynch will examine the influence of lysosomal impairment on Abeta/APP and synaptic function usign long-term organotypic hippocampal cultures. Dr. Cunningham will focus on thrombin and protease nexin-1 and their autodestructive versus autoprotective actions on neurons and glia. Drs. Cotman and Gall will focus on growth factor cascades that are induced after injury and that are postulated to occur in the aged and Alzheimer brain as, for example, in senile plaque formation. It is hypothesized that such cascades can, in turn, influence Abeta/APP and reciprocally, Abeta can enter the cascades and drive the course of functional plasticity toward dysfunction and neurodegeneration. Among the various projects, numerous collaborations exist. A central theme of our proposal is the development of a better understanding of the normal aging process. Accordingly, we propose to maintain and build a core facility to increase the acquisition of qualitity postmortem brain tissues from healthy individuals as well as expand the collection of AD and vascular dementia tissues. This core will also assist in the preparation of peptides for program investigations :: KEYWORDS: aging neurotrophic factor endopeptidase amyloid protein cerebral degeneration ::

Hit 4 of 16 -- Awd #: R01AG13411 
 Award Type: Extramural / Grants / Project
Access/Distribution Restriction:
 Code: A - Distribution Unlimited - Unrestricted Access
Parent Organizations: HHS / NIH / NIA
 Project: Aging research (extramural/includes training)
Dates: Apr 1998 to Jun 1999
Performer: UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, IRVINE
 Type:     Public Educational Institution
 Contact:  COTMAN, CARL W, Phone:
 40th Congressional District in California        
 Location: Irvine,   CA
Description: TITLE: ACTIVITY DEPENDENT PLASTICITY IN THE AGING BRAIN :: LONG DESCR: DESCRIPTION (adapted from applicant abstract):  It is generally agreed that neurotrophic factors can protect neurons from insult, facilitate their recovery, and mediate several types of activity-dependent plasticity.  Neurotrophic factors are regulated by neuronal activity, and certain types of behavior may impact their expression.  Exercise is a type of behavior known to be good for health.  Recently, the applicants investigated the possibility that exercise influences the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF).  The home cages of rats were equipped with running wheels to provide a means of voluntary exercise.  Rats like to run, and after several nights with running wheels, adopt a consistent level of nightly running activity.  The investigators found that levels of BDNF mRNA were increased after 2 nights of running and remained elevated, or continued to rise, depending on the brain region examined, through 7 nights.  In the hippocampal subfield CA1, levels were elevated 94% over controls after 7 nights.  They propose to expand these initial findings.  They will determine the time in the circadian running cycle when this response is greatest, and explore in detail the time course of responses over a 3 month period.  They will investigate whether the trk B receptor for BDNF, is similarly influenced.  The regulation of growth factors may be especially important during aging.  Accordingly, they will analyze the response of the aged brain to short-term exercise.  In addition, they will explore the mechanism driving gene regulation in vivo to evaluate the significance of this response and to predict other responsive genes.  Specifically, they propose that cholinergic activation is a major factor involved in the induction because BDNF can be regulated by this neurotransmitter and because cholinergic activation, expressed as the theta rhythm, is increased in the hippocampus during voluntary motor activity.  Experiments to test this hypotheses will be carried out in vivo and in vitro on hippocampal cultures.  Data from the proposed experiments will provide an initial characterization of how a simple, widely practiced activity impacts molecules known to be important for brain health :: KEYWORDS: aging laboratory rat circadian rhythm hippocampus gene induction /repression neurotrophic factor neural plasticity receptor expression growth factor receptor tissue /cell culture aerobic exercise gait ::

Hit 5 of 16 -- Awd #: R01AG13419 
 Award Type: Extramural / Grants / Project
Access/Distribution Restriction:
 Code: A - Distribution Unlimited - Unrestricted Access
Parent Organizations: HHS / NIH / NIA
 Project: Aging research (extramural/includes training)
Dates: Jun 1998 to May 1999
Performer: REGENTS, UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA
 Type:     Public Educational Institution
 Contact:  ANDERSEN, GEORGE J, Phone:
 District: Multiple congressional districts in California
 Location: Riverside,   CA
Description: TITLE: AGING AND PERFORMANCE OF COGNITIVE AND PERCEPTUAL TASKS :: LONG DESCR: (NIH-Designated Clinical Research)  DESCRIPTION (Adapted from Investigator's Abstract):  A considerable body of research has examined the changes in cognitive and perceptual processing associated with advancing age.  Although previous research has examined age-related performance changes for a wide range of issues (e.g., skill acquisition, memory, attention), one area of research that has received little attention concerns age-related changes in the performance of cognitive and perceptual tasks associated with motion perception.  Decrements in cognitive and perceptual processing associated with motion perception would have serious implications in performing a wide range of tasks, including driving.  The proposed research will examine this issue by assessing changes in performance of cognitive and perceptual tasks associated with three types of motion perception:  object motion, observer motion, and combined object and observer motion.  The proposed tasks include a range of skills critical to driving performance, including the identification of collision events, the perception of the direction of observer motion, the identification of surfaces in a scene, and the perceived layout of a scene.  Performance of these tasks is likely to be dependent on two factors:  limitations in attending to visual information and limitations in the perception of motion.  The proposed research will assess changes in attentional and perceptual processing to determine the importance of these factors on performance of object motion, self-motion, and combined object and self-motion tasks.  The results of this research could have important implications for understanding a number of issues in aging and performance, including performance issues associated with numerous activities of daily living :: KEYWORDS: aging computer simulation vehicular accident visual perception visual stimulus human subject neural information processing attention cognition judgment performance motion perception perception clinical research behavioral /social science research tag ::

Hit 6 of 16 -- Awd #: R01AG14461 
 Award Type: Extramural / Grants / Project
Access/Distribution Restriction:
 Code: A - Distribution Unlimited - Unrestricted Access
Parent Organizations: HHS / NIH / NIA
 Project: Aging research (extramural/includes training)
Dates: Jan 1998 to Mar 1999
Performer: COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY
 Type:     Private Educational Institution
 Contact:  CHALFIE, MARTIN, Phone:
 District: Multiple congressional districts in New York
 Location: New York,   NY
Description: TITLE: CATALASE GENES AND C ELEGANS :: LONG DESCR: In nematodes an alternative third larval stage, often called the dauer stage, allows the animals to weather periods of low food availability (if free living) or to disperse (if parasitic). Genetic studies of mutations in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans have indicated that mutations in several genes that control the entry into and exit from the dauer stage have a profound effect upon the life span of the animal.  We have identified an unusual catalase gene, ctl-1, that is required in C. elegans for this life-span extension.  ctl-1 mRNA is elevated in dauer larvae, and a ctl-1 mutation not only prevents the life-span extension of the dauer (daf) mutations, but also shortens life-span of wild-type animals, i.e., it is progeric.  This catalase is unusual (in animal cells) because it is cytosolic (the C. elegans gene ctl-2 encodes the peroxisomal catalase). The ctl-1 cytosolic catalase may have evolved to allow prolonged periods of dormancy before reproductive maturity.  The hypothesis driving the proposed research is that this catalase (along with superoxide dismutase) is an important determinant of dauer and adult life-span.  Specific aims designed to establish and extend this hypothesis are: 1) to analyze further the role of ctl-1 and ctl-2 in wild-type and life-span-altered mutants and under different environmental stresses (starvation and UV irradiation) by examining and altering their expression; and 2) to identify and characterize other genes that extend or shorten life-span using two novel genetic approaches :: KEYWORDS: aging Caenorhabditis elegans life cycle polymerase chain reaction Saccharomyces cerevisiae developmental genetics gene expression gene mutation immunofluorescence technique nucleic acid sequence catalase ultraviolet radiation environmental stressor ::

Hit 7 of 16 -- Awd #: R01AG14684 
 Award Type: Extramural / Grants / Project
Access/Distribution Restriction:
 Code: A - Distribution Unlimited - Unrestricted Access
Parent Organizations: HHS / NIH / NIA
 Project: Aging research (extramural/includes training)
Dates: Sep 1998 to Aug 1999
Performer: UNIVERSITY OF ALABAMA AT BIRMINGHAM
 Type:     Public Educational Institution
 Contact:  OWSLEY, CYNTHIA, Phone:
 District: Multiple congressional districts in Alabama
 Location: Birmingham,   AL
Description: TITLE: VEHICLE CRASHES, INJURIES AND OLDER DRIVERS :: LONG DESCR: (NIH-Designated Clinical Research)  DESCRIPTION: The long-term goal of this research is the prevention of unintentional injuries due to vehicle crashes by older drivers, through risk factor identification and the development and evaluation of interventions to minimize risk. The objective of the proposed study is to identify performance limitations which place older drivers at risk for crashes in which the older driver is injured. Special attention will be directed at visual and cognitive (including attentional) performance since these skills are critical for vehicle control, tend to decline with age yet are under certain circumstances reversible, and have been associated with unsafe driving among the elderly in prior research. This objective will be addressed by a multiple cohort follow-up study utilizing polled analysis techniques, on an aggregate sample of 3,839 older drivers brought together through the University of Alabama at Birmingham's Center for Research in Applied Gerontology. Visual, cognitive, and medical data are already being collected on these drivers through other studies and is thus financially underwritten by other projects. A major advantage of the research design is that the high cost of collecting functional data on almost 4,000 older drivers does not have to be covered by this project. In addition, the cost of procuring crash data (including the detailed accident report) is also financially underwritten by five or six cohort sites :: KEYWORDS: human old age (65+) aging disease /disorder proneness /risk vehicular accident visual field visual perception medical record human subject injury prevention statistics /biometry cognition comorbidity clinical research behavioral /social science research tag ::

Hit 8 of 16 -- Awd #: R03AG15548 
 Award Type: Extramural / Grants / Project
Access/Distribution Restriction:
 Code: A - Distribution Unlimited - Unrestricted Access
Parent Organizations: HHS / NIH / NIA
 Project: Aging research (extramural/includes training)
Dates: Apr 1998 to Jun 1999
Performer: RUSH-PRESBYTERIAN-ST LUKE'S MEDICAL CENTER
 Type:     Nonprofit (Non-Educational)
 Contact:  CHUBINSKAYA, SUSAN, Phone:
 District: Multiple congressional districts in Illinois
 Location: Chicago,   IL
Description: TITLE: AGE-RELATED DIFFERENCES IN CHONDROCYTE MMP-8 :: LONG DESCR: Osteoarthritis (OA) is a debilitating joint disease affect primarily the elderly. The prevalence of symptomatic OA is higher in the knee joint, than in the ankle. As progressive cartilage degeneration seen in OA increased markedly during adult life, it is important to learn more about the mechanisms driving normal aging. An advantage of the proposed study using the ankle cartilage from human organ donor is the opportunity of documenting cartilage changes in a joint that rarely develops OA. Thin ankle cartilage could serve as an ideal model for studying normal aging processes which do not have impact of changes leading to disease. A significant finding of this study to data has been the establishment of a grading system for joints which cartilage has been taken so that the cartilages could be identified as normal or damaged distinguishing between normal (non pathologically progressive) aging process and pathologically progressive degeneration of cartilage. By eliminating from our studies cartilages with signs of OA, we intend to identify only those biochemical and/or molecular biological differences which are age-related. The uniqueness of this project is that we have unlimited access to human tissue. All ankle cartilages to be tested are from human organ donors collected through the Regional Organ Bank of Illinois within 24 hours of death. For the proposed studies we have chosen to investigate the role of one of the matrix metalloproteinase (MMP), MMP-8, in aging of human ankle cartilage from four age groups: 1) under 10 years old; 2) 20-40 years old; 3) 40-60 years old and 4) 60 and over years old. We have selected this proteinase because of its catalytic activity against both collagen and aggrecan, the major components of the extracellular matrix. Our preliminary data indicate that in relatively young adult ankle articular cartilage the expression of MMP-8 mRNA is negative or barely detectable, however this proteinase is highly up-regulated in OA cartilages from elderly patients. We hypothesize that with normal aging of ankle cartilage some modulation of MMP-8 expression and activity is taking place, but does not lead to accelerated catabolism of aggrecan and collagen. The overall goals of the proposed studies are 1) to define age-related changes in chondrocyte MMP-8 and 2) to study specific changes which the proteinase undergoes with age if cartilage degeneration is enhanced by exposure to catabolic mediator, interleukin-1, at concentrations effective in altering matrix steady state metabolism. Once the involvement of MMP-8 in normal aging of cartilage is better understood, the approaches presented here could prove most helpful in defining the role of MMP-8 in disease-related processes (long-term goal) :: KEYWORDS: juvenile animal animal old age aging polymerase chain reaction gene expression human tissue interleukin 1 immunocytochemistry western blotting in situ hybridization messenger RNA oligonucleotide chondroitin sulfate collagenase protein degradation proteoglycan cartilage chondrocyte ankle tissue /cell culture age difference enzyme activity ::

Hit 9 of 16 -- Awd #: R37AG05739 
 Award Type: Extramural / Grants / Project
Access/Distribution Restriction:
 Code: A - Distribution Unlimited - Unrestricted Access
Parent Organizations: HHS / NIH / NIA
 Project: Aging research (extramural/includes training)
Dates: Oct 1997 to Jan 1999
Performer: UNIVERSITY OF ALABAMA AT BIRMINGHAM
 Type:     Public Educational Institution
 Contact:  BALL, KARLENE K, Phone:
 District: Multiple congressional districts in Alabama
 Location: Birmingham,   AL
Description: TITLE: IMPROVEMENT OF VISUAL PROCESSING IN OLDER ADULTS :: LONG DESCR: Many older adults are subject to declines in their ability to function effectively and independently.  In particular, sensory, perceptual, and cognitive functions may deteriorate in later life for some individuals, and it is widely believed that these deficits contribute to a decline in the ability to perform everyday activities.  While much is now known about cognitive and sensory aging, relatively little is known about the functional consequences of age differences for everyday tasks.  Furthermore, relatively little research has been done to aid in the development of interventions designed to prevent, delay, or reverse the disabilities which affect older adults.  Past research evaluating the relationships between visual function, attentional function, cognitive function and driving crashes has determined that the Useful Field of View, a composite measure of visual attention, is predictive of the crash frequencies of older drivers, as sell as amenable to intervention.  The objectives of this project will extend previous work in three areas;  1) Studies will further explore the mechanisms underlying UFOV reduction, and training.  These studies will also permit a test of several current competing theories of cognitive aging, and data will be analyzed to determine whether different mechanisms underlie observed deficits within different individuals.  For example, based on existing theoretical models, expansion of the UFOV could be the result of a generalized increase in processing speed, an improved ability to switch attention, or improved inhibitory mechanisms.  An individual differences approach will be used to determine why training is effective for different people, the specificity of improvements across sensory modalities, and the relationship of improved attentional function to higher cognitive skills such as working memory.  2) Measuring functional visual abilities in the clinic is becoming increasingly important in geriatric optometry because of the concern for predicting which older patients are at risk for functional problems in everyday activities.  Previous work has shown that individuals with identical visual sensitivities can have dramatically different abilities on measures such as the UFOV, which is predictive of driving problems.  Studies will further explore the contribution of visual function to higher order visual information processing levels by systematically evaluating the impact of degraded visual input on higher level tasks, such as the UFOV, within individuals of known attentional and cognitive ability.  This will allow a determination of the interactions between visual function, attention, and overall mental status on functional performance measures.  3)  Further studies will be carried out to explore the relationship between sensory and cognitive processes and functional outcome measures such as driving and accidental injuries.  We propose to evaluate specific hypotheses concerning the mechanisms underlying difficulty with specific driving tasks (such as turning left) as well as evaluating transfer of training directly to these specific maneuvers.  Such studies, aimed at improving visual/cognitive performance in older adults, should further our understanding of basic visual, attentional, and cognitive processes as well as advance our knowledge of the aging process :: KEYWORDS: human old age (65+) aging training visual field visual feedback visual perception vision test human subject interview questionnaire neural information processing attention cognition memory performancesensory mechanism functional ability behavioral /social science research tag geriatric medicine ::

Hit 10 of 16 -- Awd #: U01AG14289 
 Award Type: Extramural / Grants / Project
Access/Distribution Restriction:
 Code: A - Distribution Unlimited - Unrestricted Access
Parent Organizations: HHS / NIH / NIA
 Project: Aging research (extramural/includes training)
Dates: Apr 1998 to Jun 1999
Performer: UNIVERSITY OF ALABAMA AT BIRMINGHAM
 Type:     Public Educational Institution
 Contact:  BALL, KARLENE K, Phone:
 District: Multiple congressional districts in Alabama
 Location: Birmingham,   AL
Description: TITLE: COGNITIVE TRAINING & EVERYDAY COMPETENCE IN THE ELDERLY :: LONG DESCR: (NIH-Designated Clinical Research)  DESCRIPTION:  Five years of support are requested by the UAB to conduct clinical trials involving cognitive training in elderly persons to see if it improves their everyday competence.  The aim of the proposed research is to examine the effects of a cognitive intervention, specifically improvement of processing speed through a set of tasks known as the "Useful Field of View," on the everyday functional abilities of older adults.  Several recent reports have described perceptual and cognitive interventions have resulted in the improved functioning of older adults.  These measurements include improving their scores on intellectual abilities, processing speed, perceptual abilities, and memory.  Previous research has indicated that the training has a positive effect on improving driving performance in older adults.  Declines in cognitive functioning (including such measures as speed of processing) have had an adverse effect on activities considered essential to independent living (e.g., working, driving, household and medication management, shopping skills, telephone use, personal financial skills, etc.). Recent studies also indicate that a reduction in these everyday competence tasks is related to increased incidences of hospitalization, need for formal care, and mortality.  Since improvement of cognitive function appears to produce improved competence measures, as it has with driving competence, it may also help individuals maintain their personal autonomy.  These findings provide the impetus for evaluating a cognitive intervention on a large scale across a broad spectrum of everyday outcome measures.  The specific aims of this project are to extend previous work on the speed-of-processing intervention to evaluate its effectiveness in preventing or postponing loss of independence, need for formal care, or other major restrictions in quality of life among olde :: KEYWORDS: human old age (65+) aging clinical trial training visual perception health care service utilization human subject neural information processing human mortality behavior prediction cognition problem solving emotional dependency memory performance intelligence psychometrics perception social support network functional ability quality of life clinical research behavioral /social science research tag ::

Hit 11 of 16 -- Awd #: 120684 
 Award Type: Transfers / Incoming / Reimbursable-Traditional
 Requester: Not Specified
Access/Distribution Restriction:
 Code: A - Distribution Unlimited - Unrestricted Access
Parent Organizations: DVA / Medical & Prosthetic Research / VA Medical Center - (Ann Arbor, MI)
Dates: Oct 1997 to Sep 1999
Obligations (federal, FY avg):  $35.7; $60.9
Performer: VA Medical Center - (Ann Arbor, MI)
 Type:     Federal Government
 Contact:  Blow, Frederic C., Ph.D., Phone:
 Location: Ann Arbor,   MI
Description: TITLE: UM Alcohol Research Center: Alcohol, Aging, and Driving Performance Major Component :: LONG DESCR:    America like much of industrialized society, is aging. The average ag e of Americans is increasing and will continue to increase for the fores eeable future. There is every indication this trend will continue for at  least the next several decades. One area of special concern is driving,  an operation that requires a variety of physical and cognitive skills,  many of which are known to change with age. In our society there is prob ably no document that is more highly valued by the older person than the  license to drive. Yet relatively little is known about the changing dri ving performance of older persons, and even less is known concerning the  effects on driving performance of the interaction of alcohol with aging . There is growing recognition that alcohol is more widely used in the o lder population than was previously recognized. Some of the symptoms pre viously attributed to the aging process itself now appear to be related  at least in part to alcohol use in this age group. How alcohol interacts  with aging to affect driving performance is largely unknown. Most state s define 0.10% BAC as the legal definition of drunken driving and in par t because of this legal definition, many drivers believe that it is safe  to drive at lower levels. However, it is known that impairment occurs a t lower levels and that older persons may be more affected by a given am ount of alcohol. There is also some suggestion that women may be at high er risk of crash at low levels of alcohol in comparison to men. In addit ion, very little is known about how alcohol interacts with sleep depriva tion to affect driving performance. It is known that alcohol-related cra shes are more likely to occur during nighttime hours, but both alcohol u se and sleep deprivation are more likely to occur at these times. This p roject seeks to investigate systematically some of the key factors relat ed to driving performance and measure how low levels of alcohol interact  to affect performance.                                                    The overall objective is to examine the interrelationships among alco hol use, aging, and driving performance. The specific aims of the projec t include: 1) to determine the effects of low levels of alcohol on drivi ng performance as a function of age, gender and driving complexity, and  more specifically: a) to determine the degree to which low levels of blo od alcohol alter a specific driving skills as a function of age; b) to e xamine how alcohol-aging effects on driving-related skills vary as a fun ction of gender, c) to measure how alcohol-aging effects on driving-rela ted skills vary as a function of driving complexity; and 2) assess the a lcohol-aging effects on driving performance as a function of sleep depri vation.                                                                    The findings from this research should provide valuable information f or counseling older persons regarding their alcohol use and driving and  should also clarify issues for further investigation :: KEYWORDS: SLEEP; SEX; ALCOHOL, ETHYL; AGING ::

Hit 12 of 16 -- Awd #: 76893 
 Award Type: Transfers / Incoming / Reimbursable-Traditional
 Requester: Not Specified
Access/Distribution Restriction:
 Code: A - Distribution Unlimited - Unrestricted Access
Parent Organizations: DVA / Medical & Prosthetic Research / VA Medical Center - (Ann Arbor, MI)
Dates: Oct 1992 to Sep 1999
Obligations (federal, FY avg):  $0.0; $35.5
Performer: VA Medical Center - (Ann Arbor, MI)
 Type:     Federal Government
 Contact:  Kroll, Phillip D., M.D., Phone:
 Location: Ann Arbor,   MI
Description: TITLE: Alcohol and the Aged: Central Nervous System Effects :: LONG DESCR:    OBJECTIVES: The overall objective of this major research component is to assess the general hypotheses that alcohol abuse and aging are interactive and synergistic in producing sleep problems, particularly sleep-related breathing disturbances, and that the sequelae are associated with high morbidity. Until recently, few studies had assessed potential alcohol-aging interaction in sleep apnea and sleep disruption. This interaction is the focus of four major objectives: 1) to further characterize sleep apnea in aging alcohol abusers and to identify potential contributing variables; 2) to assess individuals with alcoholism and sleep apnea longitudinally to determine if apnea resolves with successful abstinence from alcoholism; 3) to determine if there are increased risks for sleep abnormalities associated with bedtime alcohol administration, and examine the effects of alcohol on computer counts of EEG delta waves; and 4) to assess patterns of motor vehicle accidents and violations as an index of behavioral consequences associated with aging, sleep apnea and alcohol abuse.                                                                    RESEARCH PLAN: Subjects include individuals between 21 and 75 years old in each of the following groups: alcoholics, sleep apneics without alcoholism, and healthy normal controls. The pure apneics and healthy normal controls have baseline sleep monitoring as well as an ethanol or placebo beverage to consume near bedtime. Only the drug-free baseline sleep or detoxified alcoholics is being studied. Alcoholic subjects whose baseline sleep studies identify apnea, and who report abstinence at 3 and 12 months after their baseline sleep studies, complete follow-up interviews and sleep monitoring. A subset of alcoholic subjects are scheduled for a follow-up interview and sleep monitoring 36 months after their baseline sleep study. Driving records of 180 subjects have been obtained through the University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute.           METHODS: Subjects are recruited from the UM Sleep Disorders Center, the UM Alcohol Treatment Programs, the VA Alcohol Treatment Program, and the UM Alcohol Research Center's community screening. The Alcohol Research Center will screen all subjects. This screening includes a psychiatric evaluation and documentation of alcohol use. Subjects keep a sleep log for 1-2 weeks and may be asked to have a physical exam to insure that health criteria are met. Additional questionnaires include a modified Carroll questionnaire to assess depression and two sleep questionnaires. A breathalyzer test is used each night of the study to test for alcohol ingestion and to measure the blood alcohol level on the nights of the alcohol challenge and in the morning following the challenge. Alcoholic subjects must be generally healthy and one week free from psychotropics. Their sleep patterns are monitored for one nigh6t using standard Polysomnographic techniques. The controls and the pure apneic subjects spend four nights in the sleep lab. The first night is an unrecorded adaptation night, and nights 2-4 are monitored using standard Polysomnographic techniques. The alcohol challenge involves the administration of the equivalent of two mixed drinks before the third night of sleep and the equivalent of three mixed drinks before the fourth night of sleep. These subjects are two weeks drug and alcohol free.                                        FINDINGS: Baseline sleep among 72 detoxified alcoholics was correlated with relapse tendency within a 3-12 month follow-up period. Early relapsers had a decrease in percent of delta sleep and an increase in percent of REM sleep at baseline. Discriminant analysis of REM sleep percent at baseline correctly identified 71% of subjects as relapsers or abstainers at 3-12 months after their baseline study. The combination of high REM sleep percent and low delta sleep percent at time of treatment appears to have predictive value for likelihood of relapse over the ensuring months. In 158 alcoholic subjects there was an apnea prevalence rate of 19% for men aged 40-59, with the severity and frequency increasing with age. We have yet to identify a female alcoholic with apnea; a larger sample of women will be needed to reliable estimate sleep disordered breathing in this population. In a study of 48 normal controls there were differential effects of alcohol on sleep based on gender and age. January 14, 1997 :: KEYWORDS: CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM; ALCOHOL, ETHYL; AGING; AGED ::

Hit 13 of 16 -- Awd #: 121894 
 Award Type: Intramural / In-House Project / In-House Project
Access/Distribution Restriction:
 Code: A - Distribution Unlimited - Unrestricted Access
Parent Organizations: DVA / Medical & Prosthetic Research / VA Medical Center - (Decatur, GA)
Dates: Oct 1997 to Sep 1999
Performer: VA Medical Center - (Decatur, GA)
 Type:     Federal Government
 Contact:  Riolo, Lisa, Ph.D., Phone:
 Location: Decatur,   GA
Description: TITLE: Restricted Useful Field of View as a Risk Factor of Falls in Older Adults :: LONG DESCR:    The purpose of this three-year study is to investigate useful field o f view (UFOV) as a risk factor for falls in older adults. The proposed r esearch is designed to address the following key questions: 1) Is visual  attention (UFOV) an independent predictor of fall occurrence; 2) How do es UFOV correlate with measures that have been associated with falls in  older individuals (cognition, hip flexor and ankle dorsiflexor muscle st rength, static balance measure, dynamic balance measure, contrast sensit ivity, and visual fields; and 3) Can UFOV be used to predict frequency o f falls? Risk factors for falls most often studied include impaired sens ation, motor control and cognition, environmental hazards, and side effe cts of medications. One element that blends consideration of sensory imp airment with cognition is visual attention. UFOV is a measure of visual  attention that requires individuals to select objects from their visiona l field and simultaneously attend to multiple stimuli. UFOV is a composi te score of three different aspects of visual attention, including: spee d of visual processing, ability to divide attention, and selective atten tion. Although the literature supports sensory vision as a predictor of  falls, the perceptual requirements of ambulating in a dynamic environmen t have not been assessed as a potential risk factor for falls in older i ndividuals. UFOV is an impairment that can be improved with training to  reduce risk of injury and debilitation that results from falls.            UFOV is tested using an apparatus that requires individuals to locali ze targets presented briefly in the peripheral field. UFOV has been show n to significantly decrease with age. There is also evidence that UFOV i s a strong independent predictor of automobile accidents in the elderly.  A statistical model revealed a significant correlation for UFOV and acc idents. Central vision, peripheral vision, and mental status contributed  only indirectly through correlations with UFOV. Although UFOV has been  shown to predict car accidents, the construct has not been applied to am bulation and the relationship between visual attention and falling behav ior. Because both driving and ambulating require individuals to attend t o objects in the environment, it is reasonable to believe that a limited  UFOV may have an effect on fall behavior.                                 This will be a prospective study of 150 individuals who are at relati vely high risk for falls. Each subject will undergo a comprehensive set  of measures which have previously been shown to be associated with falls  in the older population. In addition to UFOV, subjects will have measur es of hip flexion and dorsiflexion muscle strength, functional reach, ti med up and go, Mini-Mental Status Examination of cognition, digit span b ackwards, contrast sensitivity, and visual fields tested during one visi t to our Center. Subjects will be followed for 12 months to collect data  on fall occurrence.                                                       On hundred fifty subjects, 70 years of age and older, will be recruit ed for this project. Inclusion criteria are: ambulatory with or without  assistive device and be independent of physical assistance, inability to  ascend 3 steps using a reciprocal pattern without a handrail, and visua l acuity of 20/60 in each eye. Exclusive criteria are: diagnosis of inte rmittent vertigo, reports of falls due to syncopal episodes, and inabili ty of the subject or care giver to follow instructions for fall occurren ce. Subjects will be identified through the VAMC. Additional female subj ects will be recruited from local assisted living facilities. Approval w ill be obtained from the Human Investigation Committee and all subjects  will be provided with consent forms and information about the study.       All data will be evaluated for normality by comparing them to the sta ndards used in protocols for relevant age groups. Data will be summarize d descriptively and graphically. Multiple regression analysis will be us ed to determine the extent to which UFOV predicts falls, a series of cor relation analyses will be used to study the relationship among the indep endent variables, and a linear model with UFOV as the independent variab le will be used to determine the ability of UFOV to predict frequency of  falls. The interactions among visual perception and measures of fall ri sk factors are important to the rapidly aging veteran population and may  provide insights to wellness and rehabilitation for these individuals.  This program of study may also have a significant impact on the costs as sociated with medical treatment required as a consequence of falls :: KEYWORDS: VISION; RISK FACTORS; ATTENTION; AGING ::

Hit 14 of 16 -- Awd #: 91754 
 Award Type: Intramural / In-House Project / In-House Project
Access/Distribution Restriction:
 Code: A - Distribution Unlimited - Unrestricted Access
Parent Organizations: DVA / Medical & Prosthetic Research / VA Medical Center - (West Haven, CT)
Dates: Oct 1992 to Sep 1999
Performer: VA Medical Center - (West Haven, CT)
 Type:     Federal Government
 Contact:  Marottoli, Richard A., M.D., Phone:
 Location: West Haven,   CT
Description: TITLE: Career Development Award-Level II :: LONG DESCR:    OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this HSR&D Career Development Award proposal are:                                                                 1. To determine the factors associated with adverse driving events (accidents, moving violations) among elderly veterans;                       2. To develop and test an evaluation instrument that will identify individuals at high risk for adverse driving events.                         RESEARCH PLAN: To accomplish these objectives, a series of three projects is envisioned, each building on the results of the previous project.                                                                          1. Initial assessment of factors associated with adverse driving events in existing longitudinal cohorts.                                       2. A reevaluation of drivers in these same cohorts to assess factors potentially related to driving but not originally evaluated. Development of an evaluation instrument will be based on the results of these first two studies.                                                              3. Testing the reliability and predictive validity of the evaluation instrument among a new cohort of elderly veterans who drive.               METHODOLOGY: The first project will utilized subjects and data from two community cohorts in the New Haven area, the Yale Health and Aging Project (YHAP) and Project Safety (PS). Data on adverse driving events was obtained from the State DMV (YHAP) and self report (PS) in the respective cohorts. These cohorts were selected for this project because drivers had already been identified and there was wealth of background information available on subjects that was be used to determine which factors were associated with adverse driving events. Approximately one third of drivers in these cohorts were veterans. The second project was a nested case control study utilizing drivers from these same two cohorts. Drivers were recontacted and reevaluated to assess functional areas potentially related to driving but not evaluated in the original cohort studies. The factors that distinguish between drivers with and without adverse events will be determined. An expert panel, drawn from the departments of Internal Medicine, Neurology, Ophthalmology, Podiatry, and Psychology at the West Haven VAMC, helped to determine the factors to be assessed and the means of assessment. The panel also assisted with the development of an evaluation instrument based on the results of these two projects. The third project will test prospectively the reliability and predictive validity of this instrument in a new cohort of elderly veterans. The instrument will be administered at baseline and subjects monitored for the subsequent occurrence of events. A risk stratification system based on these results will be developed.                                               FINDINGS:                                                               PROJECT ONE --Completed. Utilizing the above-mentioned cohorts, we found 3 predictors of the occurrence of adverse driving events in multivariable analysis. It is possible to identify higher risk groups based on the presence of these 3 factors: no factor present, 6% of individuals had events; one factor present, 12% had events; two factors present, 26% had events; three factors present, 47% had events. Ref.: Ann Int Med 121:842-6, 1994.                                                                PROJECT TWO -- Interviews completed, analysis underway. This project re-evaluated subjects described in Project 1, assessing factors potentially related to driving ability but not previously tested. An assessment battery was developed and field tested. The goal of analysis is to develop a very brief version of this test battery that can accurately identify older drivers at high risk for crashes and violations. it is possible to narrow the larger test battery down to 12 tests that are associated with history of crashes or violations. Of these 12, 3 factors were independently associated with the astrone in multivariable analysis: poor near visual activity, limited neck range of motion, and poor visual attention. A manuscript is in preparation.                                         PROJECT THREE -- Application for funding of Project 3 is underway :: KEYWORDS: RISK; HEALTH; AGED ::

Hit 15 of 16 -- Awd #: 9723055 
 Award Type: Extramural / Grants / Project
Access/Distribution Restriction:
 Code: A - Distribution Unlimited - Unrestricted Access
Parent Organizations: NSF / BIO / IBN
 Project: Neuroscience
Dates: Jul 1997 to Jun 2000
Performer: University of Virginia
 Type:     Not specified
 Contact:  Thomas C Foster   tcf5a@virignia.edu, Phone: 804/924-0311
 Location: Charlottesville,   VA
Description: TITLE: Mechanisms for Endogenous Changes in Synaptic Strength Due to Experience :: LONG DESCR:  Lay Abstract    PI: Foster, Thomas  Proposal Number: IBN-9723055    Cognitive ability is dependent on the pattern of connections  among nerve cells and the ability to transmit information  between cells. Learning involves the adjustment of this  transmission as a result of experience. There are a variety of mechanisms that could potentially alter the communication  between cells in the brain. This project examines one of  those mechanism, the ability of cells to adjust their  release of the chemical substances important in transmitting information from one cell to another, in an important part  of the brain called the hippocampus. Behavioral experiments  dissociate the different aspects of experience that are  critical for the modification of transmission between cells  in the brain, while physiological experiments at the  cellular level test hypotheses about the mechanism by which  the communication between these cells is altered to reflect  this experience. Examination of the role of different  aspects of experience in driving the changes in cell  function provides important information about learning.  Combining this with studies of the cellular processes  underlying these changes provides important information necessary to understand fundamental mechanisms by which the  brain learns and adapts to novel environments, as well as  processes important in development, aging, and recovery from  injury :: KEYWORDS: Other Applications NEC ::

Hit 16 of 16 -- Awd #: 9801337 
 Award Type: Extramural / Grants / Project
Access/Distribution Restriction:
 Code: A - Distribution Unlimited - Unrestricted Access
Parent Organizations: NSF / MPS / DMS
 Project: Analysis
Dates: Jul 1998 to Jun 2001
Performer: VANDERBILT UNIVERSITY
 Type:     Private Educational Institution
 Contact:  Gieri   Simonett   simonett@math.vanderbilt.edu, Phone: 615/322-7311
 District: Multiple congressional districts in Tennessee
 Location: Nashville,   TN
Description: TITLE: Motion By Curvature In Phase Transitions :: SHORT DESCR: MOTION BY CURVATURE IN PHASE TRANSITIONS :: LONG DESCR:  PI:  Gieri Simonett   DMS-9801337  ABSTRACT:    Over the last years the PI has worked on various free boundary problems  and has studied existence, uniqueness, regularity, and qualitative properties   of classical solutions for such models as the gravitational flow of a fluid   in a porous medium, the multi-dimensional one-phase Hele-Shaw problem,   the one and two-phase Mullins-Sekerka model,the quasi-stationary Stefan   problem with surface tension, and the surface diffusion flow.This research  led to the solution of some long-standing open problems. In this project   the PI will continue to study geometric evolution problems for surfaces   driven by mean curvature. These models are widely used in material sciences, physics, and chemistry to model phase changes, domain growth,and interface controlled crystal growth. Progress on the mathematical front will   necessarily have an impact in material sciences.    The Mullins-Sekerka model is a nonlocal geometric evolution law in which   the normal velocity of a propagating interface depends on the jump   across the interface of the normal derivative of a function which is harmonic on either side and which equals the mean curvature on   the propagating interface. It was introduced to study solidification and liquidation of materials of zero specific heat and has attracted considerable attention since then.Important contributions by Alikakos, Bates and Chen   have tied this  model to a singular limit for the Cahn-Hilliard equation, a fourth order parabolic equation which is widely used as a model for phase separation and coarsening phenomena in a melted binary alloy.  This model has also been proposed to account for aging or Ostwald ripening   in phase transitions. In general, the kinetics of a first order phase transition is characterized by a first stage where small droplets of a new phase are created out of the old phase, e.g., solid formation in an undercooled   liquid. The first stage, called nucleation,yields a large number of small particles .During the next stage the nuclei grow rapidly at the expense of the old phase.When the phase regions are formed,the mass of the new phase is close to equilibrium and the amount of undercooling is small,but large surface area is present.At the next stage, the configuration of phase regions is coarsened, and the geometric shape of the phase regions become simpler and simpler,   eventually tending to regions of minimum surface area with given volume.  The driving force of this process comes from the need to decrease the interfacial energy. There have been considerable effortsin finding a theory which describes Ostwald ripening, and the Mullins-Sekerka model is a prominent candidate.The surface diffusion flow and the intermediate surface diffusion flow are geometric evolution problems which model morphological changes where surface diffusion and interface kinetics are the transport mechanisms.   These laws constitute a class of dynamic problems where the volume   is conserved and the driving force is surface energy reduction :: KEYWORDS: Other Applications NEC ::
QUERY CRITERIA
Fiscal Year: 1999
Federal Organization:
      All Federal Organizations.    
Performer(s):
      All performers.     
      All award types.    
Search term or phrase:  real time AND monitoring

Hit 1 of 277 -- Awd #: ILLU-10-0314 
 Award Type: Extramural / Grants / Formula
Access/Distribution Restriction:
 Code: A - Distribution Unlimited - Unrestricted Access
Parent Organizations: USDA / CSREES / Payments under the Hatch Act
 Project: IL - Illinois
Dates: Oct 1994 to Sep 1999
Performer: AGRI ENGINEERING; UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS
 Type:     Public Educational Institution
 Contact:  Goering, C. E., Phone:
 15th Congressional District in Illinois        
 Location: Urbana,   IL
Description: TITLE: SITE-SPECIFIC CROP MANAGEMENT :: LONG DESCR: 1. Investigate the use of neural networks as a means of predicting realistic target yields. 2. Develop improved methods for collecting data for use in the field information system used with SSCM. 3. Investigate practical methods for measuring and monitoring actual rates of application of fertilizers in real time :: KEYWORDS: #jc95 07 crops farming engineering networks crop management crop yields prediction information systems data collection fertilizer application real time (computers) monitoring systems spatial variability site requirements computer systems flow measurement precision planting ::

Hit 2 of 277 -- Awd #: MICL01935 
 Award Type: Extramural / Grants / Formula
Access/Distribution Restriction:
 Code: A - Distribution Unlimited - Unrestricted Access
Parent Organizations: USDA / CSREES / Payments under the Hatch Act
 Project: MI - Michigan
Dates: Feb 1999 to Jan 2004
Performer: AGRI ENGINEERING; MICHIGAN STATE UNIV
 Type:     Federal Government
 Contact:  Berglund, K., Phone:
 Location: East Lansing,   MI
Description: TITLE: Laser Spectoscopy for Analysis of Crystallization Processes :: LONG DESCR: Crystallization from solution is a major unit operation used for recovery and purification in the food, pharmaceutical, and chemical process industries. A continuing challenge to industry is the assurance of product quality as represented by crystal distribution and purity. The crystallization process is dominated by the kinetic phenomena of crystal nucleation and growth, which in turn are fixed by the supersaturation driving force in the crystallizer. The in situ, real time measurement of supersaturation and continues to be a major industrial challenge. The proposed research project addresses this challenge and proposes to perform in situ, real time measurements utilizing state of the art spectroscopic instrumentation :: KEYWORDS: laser raman spectroscopy crystallization purification product quality product evaluation purity kinetics crystals growth infrared spectroscopy supersaturation measurement real time (computers) experimental design size distribution monitoring sensitivity ::

Hit 3 of 277 -- Awd #: TEX08560 
 Award Type: Extramural / Grants / Project
Access/Distribution Restriction:
 Code: A - Distribution Unlimited - Unrestricted Access
Parent Organizations: USDA / CSREES / Special research grants
Dates: Sep 1997 to Sep 2000
Performer: AGRI ENGINEERING; TEXAS A&M UNIV
 Type:     Public Educational Institution
 Contact:  Searcy, S. W., Phone:
 8th Congressional District in Texas        
 Location: College Station,   TX
Description: TITLE: PREDICTION OF NITROGEN STRESS USING REFLECTANCE TECHNIQUES :: LONG DESCR: Determine the system parameters necessary to optimize reflectance spectra of corn plants as a function of growth stage, chlorophyll content and nitrogen status. Develop an adaptable, multispectral sensor and signal processing algorithms to provide real-time, in-field assessment of corn nitrogen status. Determine the relationship between spectral reflectance, plant maturity, and nitrogen status for real-time determination of nitrogen required to optimize yield. Convenient and reliable sensors are not available for detecting the nitrogen status of corn in a continuous manner across a field.  The availability of such a sensor would provide the ability to continuously vary nitrogen applications within a field in response to crop conditions. This project is intended to develop a sensor suitable for use on field machinery that could examine the reflectance pattern of corn plants and determine the nitrogen status, with appropriate calibrations for inherent variety color differences :: KEYWORDS: engineering agricultural engineering nitrogen fertilizers reflectance corn growth stage chlorophylls nutrient status multispectral scanner algorithms real time (computers) fertilizer requirements sensors monitoring systems plant stress remote sensing equipment design spectral analysis ::

Hit 4 of 277 -- Awd #: 97343394849 
 Award Type: Extramural / Grants / Project
Access/Distribution Restriction:
 Code: A - Distribution Unlimited - Unrestricted Access
Parent Organizations: USDA / CSREES / Special research grants
Dates: Sep 1997 to Sep 2000
Performer: TEXAS A&M RESEARCH FOUNDATION
 Type:     Public Educational Institution
 8th Congressional District in Texas        
 Location: College Station,   TX
Description: SHORT DESCR: PREDICTION OF NITROGEN STRESS USING REFLECTANCE TECHNIQUES :: LONG DESCR: Determine the system parameters necessary to optimize reflectance spectra of corn plants as a function of growth stage, chlorophyll content and nitrogen status. Develop an adaptable, multispectral sensor and signal processing algorithms to provide real-time, in-field assessment of corn nitrogen status. Determine the relationship between spectral reflectance, plant maturity, and nitrogen status for real-time determination of nitrogen required to optimize yield. Convenient and reliable sensors are not available for detecting the nitrogen status of corn in a continuous manner across a field.  The availability of such a sensor would provide the ability to continuously vary nitrogen applications within a field in response to crop conditions. This project is intended to develop a sensor suitable for use on field machinery that could examine the reflectance pattern of corn plants and determine the nitrogen status, with appropriate calibrations for inherent variety color differences :: KEYWORDS: engineering agricultural engineering nitrogen fertilizers reflectance corn growth stage chlorophylls nutrient status multispectral scanner algorithms real time (computers) fertilizer requirements sensors monitoring systems plant stress remote sensing equipment design spectral analysis ::

Hit 5 of 277 -- Awd #: ARZK-9603678 
 Award Type: Intramural / In-House Project / In-House Project
Access/Distribution Restriction:
 Code: A - Distribution Unlimited - Unrestricted Access
Parent Organizations: USDA / CSREES / [Small business innovative research]
Dates: Sep 1996 to Aug 1999
Performer: B. W. JORDEN & COMPANY INC.
 Type:     Federal Government
 Contact:  Jorden, B. W., Phone:
 5th Congressional District in Arizona        
 Location: Tucson,   AZ
Description: TITLE: A SHORT RANGE OPTICAL DATA LINK FOR ROTARY SAMPLERS WHICH PROVIDE CONTINUOUS REAL TIME DATA :: LONG DESCR: Develop a family of rotating air samplers which provide output data in real time. Moving sensors through the air can significantly improve their capability by increasing the volume of air sampled. Completion of the design, prototype fabrication, and evaluation in laboratory and field tests is expected to yield a useful product with benefits for environmental regulators, researchers and others involved in environmental monitoring. This work is aimed at providing a low cost instrument using new intelligent sensors having the capability to track and report the status of ongoing conditions in real time -something not previously attainable. Affordability, and real time data monitoring capability are the key objectives to be obtained by the application of innovative electronics, data links, and microprocessor technology :: KEYWORDS: engineering air air sampling real time (computers) sensors prototypes equipment design performance evaluation optical scanning infrared spectra environmental quality monitoring systems instrumentationelectronics microprocessors measuring equipment air borne particulates aerosols data processing ::

Hit 6 of 277 -- Awd #: NDK-9700099 
 Award Type: Intramural / In-House Project / In-House Project
Access/Distribution Restriction:
 Code: A - Distribution Unlimited - Unrestricted Access
Parent Organizations: USDA / CSREES / [Small business innovative research]
Dates: May 1997 to Nov 1998
Performer: PHOENIX INTERNATIONAL CORP.; PHOENIX INTERNATIONAL CORP.
 Type:     Federal Government
 Contact:  Mertins, K. H., Phone:
 15th Congressional District in North Dakota        
 Location: Fargo,   ND
Description: TITLE: A REAL-TIME CRACKED GRAIN MONITOR FOR COMBINES :: LONG DESCR: Phase I research will demonstrate the feasibility of a new cracked grain monitorthat can mount directly onto a combine to detect breakage in a variety of clean grains while they are being harvested :: KEYWORDS: agricultural engineering engineering farm equipment combines grain harvesting equipment monitoring systems threshing control systems sensors real time (computers) quality maintenance automation performance evaluation equipment development field testing grain breakage tester ::

Hit 7 of 277 -- Awd #: NJK-9800261 
 Award Type: Intramural / In-House Project / In-House Project
Access/Distribution Restriction:
 Code: A - Distribution Unlimited - Unrestricted Access
Parent Organizations: USDA / CSREES / [Small business innovative research]
Dates: May 1998 to Nov 1998
Performer: ML ENERGIA, INC.
 Type:     Federal Government
 Contact:  Lavid, M., Phone:
 12th Congressional District in New Jersey        
 Location: Princeton,   NJ
Description: TITLE: ON-LINE MONITORING OF MOISTURE DURING FOOD PROCESSING :: LONG DESCR: 9800261. This proposal describes a novel fiber optic sensor for the measurement of moisture at elevated temperatures. The sensor relies on films that contain fluorescent compounds sensitive only to the presence of water molecules. By monitoring the changes in fluorescence with a fiber optic interface, it is possible to determine, in near real-time, the local moisture levels. The proposed sensor has two innovative features. It employs a single fiber configuration for both excitation and emission, and it uses a multiwavelength detection method which provides an internal standard for continuous calibration for better measurement accuracy :: KEYWORDS: food properties physical properties moisture food processing food engineering product improvement baking sensors humidity fiber optics fluorescence high temperature measurement food engineering remotesensing wavelength performance testing equipment design prototypes equipment development ::

Hit 8 of 277 -- Awd #: NJK-9900333 
 Award Type: Intramural / In-House Project / In-House Project
Access/Distribution Restriction:
 Code: A - Distribution Unlimited - Unrestricted Access
Parent Organizations: USDA / CSREES / [Small business innovative research]
Dates: May 1999 to Nov 1999
Performer: ALPHA M.O.S.  AMERICAN INC.
 Type:     Federal Government
 Contact:  Misfud, J. C., Phone:
 7th Congressional District in New Jersey        
 Location: Hillsbrough,   NJ
Description: TITLE: INTEGRATED GAS SENSOR ON POROUS SILICON PHOTOLUMINESCENCE FOR MONITORING FOOD PRODUCTS :: LONG DESCR: 9900333. In 1998, the U.S. food and beverage industry is expected to spend more than $300 million in diagnostic systems and reagents. Clearly, there are needs for real-time methods for monitoring, quantitating and performing differential analysis of gas mixtures from chemical processes and products. Although, various chemical instruments such as fast GC's have emerged recently particularly for volatile organic measurements, it is obvious that presently available analytical instrumentation can't meet commercial criteria such as high selectivity and sensitivity, rapid recovery times, long lifetimes if not single use, low cost, no reagents additions required and no sample preparation :: KEYWORDS: food processing food chemistry sensors food engineering instrumentation porosity silicon luminescence monitoring food products real time (computers) chemical analysis gases volatile compounds organic compounds selectivity sensitivity speed longevity equipment design equipment development ::

Hit 9 of 277 -- Awd #: VAK-1999-03230 
 Award Type: Intramural / In-House Project / In-House Project
Access/Distribution Restriction:
 Code: A - Distribution Unlimited - Unrestricted Access
Parent Organizations: USDA / CSREES / [Small business innovative research]
Dates: Sep 1999 to Sep 2001
Performer: RESEARCH SCIENTIST; F & S, INC.
 Type:     Federal Government
 Contact:  Jones, M., Phone:
 9th Congressional District in Virginia        
 Location: Blacksburg,   VA
Description: TITLE: FIBER OPTIC REFRACTOMETERS FOR FOOD PROCESS MONITORING APPLICATIONS :: LONG DESCR: During the Phase II program, F&S and its partners will fully develop the prototype optical fiber refractometer demonstrated in Phase I into a commercially available product. The refractometer system is based on recently developed long-period granting (LPG) technology, a sensing approach patented by F&S. The system design will incorporate inexpensive sensing and processing instrumentation packaged within a standalone, ruggedized housing for real-time on-line monitoring applications. Specifically during the Phase II program, F&S will fully develop a prototype optical fiber refractometer for on-line process monitoring and perform trials at Beta test sites established with industrial partners. F&S believes that a significant refractometer market share can be captured due to the need for multipoint on-line processing and the lack of affordable instrumentation. At present, various separation techniques such as high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) and mass spectroscopy are used to identify product constituents. However, these systems are prohibitively expensive and implementation during many stages of the manufacturing process would result in higher consumer prices. Furthermore, the time needed to perform HPLC reduces factory throughput. Successful completion of the Phase II program will lead to process control instrumentation not only for the food industry, but for pulp and paper, chemical, petroleum, and textile industries as well. Manufacturers of food products are finding increased applications for real-time on-line process monitoring sensors. By continuously measuring industrial processes, manufacturing costs can be reduced while increasing product quality. Refractometers, instruments that measure refractive index, are used to measure concentration levels. Some food processing related applications have included the measurement of purity in thick juice, molasses, corn syrup, and glucose. Quality of other products such as citrus juice, soft drinks, beer wort, coffee, jams, hydrogenated oils, and fats have also been monitored. However, there are limitations to commercially-available refractometers that reduce their overall effectiveness. First, conventional refractometers use lenses and prisms to sense refractive index. To ensure stable operation, complex mechanical encasements are required for mounting optical components and, as a result, devices tend to become heavy and difficult to retrofit into existing structures. Also, current refractometers cannot be readily multiplexed so large-scale monitoring is prohibitively expensive. This factor makes observing the manufacturing process through various stages impractical. During the Phase II program, F&S and its partners will fully develop the optical fiber refractometer demonstrated in Phase I into a commercially available product. The sensor can also be adapted to detect contaminants in the food supply and ensure public safety :: KEYWORDS: refractometers food processing process monitoring optical fiber sensors quality control on-line monitoring ::

Hit 10 of 277 -- Awd #: VTK-1999-03221 
 Award Type: Intramural / In-House Project / In-House Project
Access/Distribution Restriction:
 Code: A - Distribution Unlimited - Unrestricted Access
Parent Organizations: USDA / CSREES / [Small business innovative research]
Dates: Sep 1999 to Sep 2001
Performer: APPLIED RESEARCH ASSOCIATES, INC.
 Type:     Federal Government
 Contact:  Shinn ii, J. D., Phone:
 First Congressional District in Vermont
 Location: South Royalton,   VT
Description: TITLE: REMOTE SOIL MOISTURE MONITORING USING WEB BROWSERS FOR IMPROVED IRRIGATION DECISION MAKING :: LONG DESCR: Our objectives for this Phase II program are to field demonstrate a web browser based decision support system (DSS) providing real-time remote monitoring of various sensors placed at the root depth, and compiling weather station data to provide growers with important information for making irrigation decisions. Key features of the system are the ability to access multiple remote sites that contain monitoring equipment, using software that the grower is already familiar with. Sensors available to the network will include soil moisture, temperature, resistivity, and local weather station data. Under the Phase I SBIR an improved soil moisture sensor (SMRT Probe) as a key element of the monitoring system was designed and built, and a web browser based data acquisition system for the SMRT Probe was used to demonstrate the feasibility of the concept. Phase II will involve full scale field demonstration of the system. Additional sensors, such as a nitrate-nitrogen sensor and pH will be investigated. Sensors available to the network for the demonstration will include soil moisture, temperature, resistivity and local weather station data. This demonstration will provide a tool for growers to monitor fluctuations in soil moisture as they correlate with weather conditions to make more informed irrigation decisions and maximize the efficiency of the water used :: KEYWORDS: soil moisture monitoring web browser data acquisition decision support system ::

Hit 11 of 277 -- Awd #: 98336105926 
 Award Type: Extramural / Grants / Project
 SBIR Award
Access/Distribution Restriction:
 Code: A - Distribution Unlimited - Unrestricted Access
Parent Organizations: USDA / CSREES / [Small business innovative research]
Dates: May 1998 to Nov 1998
Performer: M. L. ENERGIA, INC
 Type:     Industry/Business
 District: Multiple congressional districts in New Jersey
 Location: Princeton,   NJ
Description: SHORT DESCR: ON-LINE MONITORING OF MOISTURE DURING FOOD PROCESSING :: LONG DESCR: 9800261. This proposal describes a novel fiber optic sensor for the measurement of moisture at elevated temperatures. The sensor relies on films that contain fluorescent compounds sensitive only to the presence of water molecules. By monitoring the changes in fluorescence with a fiber optic interface, it is possible to determine, in near real-time, the local moisture levels. The proposed sensor has two innovative features. It employs a single fiber configuration for both excitation and emission, and it uses a multiwavelength detection method which provides an internal standard for continuous calibration for better measurement accuracy :: KEYWORDS: food properties physical properties moisture food processing food engineering product improvement baking sensors humidity fiber optics fluorescence high temperature measurement food engineering remotesensing wavelength performance testing equipment design prototypes equipment development ::

Hit 12 of 277 -- Awd #: 99336107512 
 Award Type: Extramural / Grants / Project
 SBIR Award
Access/Distribution Restriction:
 Code: A - Distribution Unlimited - Unrestricted Access
Parent Organizations: USDA / CSREES / [Small business innovative research]
Dates: May 1999 to Nov 1999
Performer: ALPHA M.O.S. AMERICA INC
 Type:     Industry/Business
 District: Multiple congressional districts in New Jersey
 Location: Hillsborough,   NJ
Description: SHORT DESCR: INTEGRATED GAS SENSOR BASED ON PORUOUS SILICON PHOTOLUNINESCENCE FOR MONITORING FOOD PRODUCTS :: LONG DESCR: 9900333. In 1998, the U.S. food and beverage industry is expected to spend more than $300 million in diagnostic systems and reagents. Clearly, there are needs for real-time methods for monitoring, quantitating and performing differential analysis of gas mixtures from chemical processes and products. Although, various chemical instruments such as fast GC's have emerged recently particularly for volatile organic measurements, it is obvious that presently available analytical instrumentation can't meet commercial criteria such as high selectivity and sensitivity, rapid recovery times, long lifetimes if not single use, low cost, no reagents additions required and no sample preparation :: KEYWORDS: food processing food chemistry sensors food engineering instrumentation porosity silicon luminescence monitoring food products real time (computers) chemical analysis gases volatile compounds organic compounds selectivity sensitivity speed longevity equipment design equipment development ::

Hit 13 of 277 -- Awd #: 70NANB7H3036 
 Award Type: Extramural / Cooperative Agreements / Traditional
Access/Distribution Restriction:
 Code: A - Distribution Unlimited - Unrestricted Access
Parent Organizations: DOC / NIST / Advanced Technology Program
 Project: Advanced technology program
Dates: Jan 1998 to Jun 2000
Performer: DATAMEDIC
 Type:     Industry/Business
 Contact:  Brian Belanger, Phone: 301-975-2162
 District: Multiple congressional districts in Massachusetts
 Location: Waltham,   MA
Description: SHORT DESCR: MEDASSIST: A GENERALIZED COMPONENT-BASED TECHNOLOGY TO SERVE AS A FOUNDATION FOR DECISION SUPPORT SYSTEMS :: LONG DESCR: Little is known about how individual clinical decisions are made and how one medical practice compares to another. Yet the need for clinical data and its interpretation at the point of care is now greater than ever before as healthcare organizations seek improved ways to manage care and costs as demands grow for measures of provider performance. Education of practitioners, coupled with process change supported by computer systems, has been shown to help achieve compliance with clinical protocols. But most current decision-support systems focus on a single type of clinical event and have not been used for ongoing collection of high-quality data sets. Datamedic proposes to develop a computing infrastructure for real-time decision-support systems that will reduce healthcare providers' deviations from prescribed clinical guidelines and protocols. The company already has technology for the automatic collection of clinical data and will now move beyond raw data to the dissemination of knowledge. The MEDassist project will be based on five components: an "inference engine" that will interpret codified guidelines to identify departures from these guidelines; an alert manager for presenting alerts and analyses to the user; a real-time data integrator; a data-integrity module to support the collection of consistent, complete, and validated core data; and language for describing disease-specific or operational guidelines. There are many technical challenges, including representation of codified guidelines in a way that will enable real-time monitoring of them and the design of an alert manager that does not interfere with or delay clinical decision making. MEDassist will be tested in field trials at a number of American Oncology Resources clinical centers and compared to standard educational interventions. The technology will improve the compilation and analysis of extensive clinical data sets and enable clinical studies that have not been possible to date because of the high cost of collecting the necessary data. The project also will provide tools for monitoring and controlling practice variations and collecting error-free data. The combined annual savings resulting from improved compliance with guidelines, improved data collection, and increased provider knowledge is estimated in the hundreds of millions of dollars. This project is co-funded by the NIST Advanced Technology Program (ATP) ::

Hit 14 of 277 -- Awd #: 70NANB8H4060 
 Award Type: Extramural / Cooperative Agreements / Traditional
Access/Distribution Restriction:
 Code: A - Distribution Unlimited - Unrestricted Access
Parent Organizations: DOC / NIST / Advanced Technology Program
 Project: Advanced technology program
Dates: Nov 1998 to Oct 2000
Performer: MONTRONIX
 Type:     Industry/Business
 Contact:  Brian Belanger, Phone: 301-975-2162
 District: Multiple congressional districts in Michigan
 Location: Ann Arbor,   MI
Description: SHORT DESCR: THE NEXT GENERATION INTELLIGENT MONITORING SYSTEM :: LONG DESCR: Industrial machining of metals typically is controlled by an inefficient assortment of independent hardware and software systems, which cannot be integrated because of the lack of affordable, open-architecture platforms for control systems. Montronix plans to design and demonstrate a personal computer-based "intelligent" system for in-process monitoring of machine tool condition, real-time detection of and response to process variations, and rapid machine and process setup. PCs now have become viable open-architecture controllers thanks to rapid advances in processing power and reliability. Even so, a number of technical challenges must be overcome to design a reliable control system. A hardware and software architecture must be designed that can easily incorporate a variety of components to perform all monitoring tasks simultaneously. The system must be portable, reconfigurable, and easily upgraded and expanded. It will be particularly difficult to ensure that the system responds immediately to very rapid changes, so process models will be developed that reliably detect and predict changes in parts and processing speed. Other technologies to be developed include a mechanism enabling the monitoring system to communicate with the controller, indices for predicting tool faults, algorithms to optimize cycle time and tool life, and sensors to collect data. Montronix also will design a human-machine interface that will enable personnel to use a standard PC operating system. The ATP project will accelerate the development of the overall system and enhance its performance and benefits. If successful, the project will set the stage for plug-and-play hardware and software in machine tool monitoring and control. The new technology will have broad applications in the automobile industry and general machining, increasing productivity and product quality while reducing engineering and training costs. The Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering at the University of Illinois (Urbana/Champaign, Ill.) will develop computer models for machining processes. This project is co-funded by the NIST Advanced Technology Program (ATP) ::

Hit 15 of 277 -- Awd #: CTI86101 
 Award Type: Intramural / In-House Project / In-House Project
Access/Distribution Restriction:
 Code: A - Distribution Unlimited - Unrestricted Access
Parent Organizations: DOC / NIST / BFRL
 Project: Structures
Dates: Oct 1997 to na
Performer: Structures
 Type:     Federal Government
 Contact:  Jack Snell, Phone: 301-975-5900
 Location: Not Specified  
Description: TITLE: Structural Evaluation and Standards :: LONG DESCR: Conducts laboratory, field, and analytical research in nondestructive structural evaluation and structural materials evaluation; nondestructive evaluation includes: condition assessment technologies,  automated signal interpretation and sensor integration, portable testing devices and systems, real-time remote-monitoring systems, and testing and calibration of sensors and systems; structural materials evaluation includes: materials such as high-performance concrete, steel, and polymer composites for construction, repair, and rehabilitation applications, structural properties including fire endurance, standard test method development, and improved construction practices :: KEYWORDS: Non Destructive Evaluation;condition assessment;sensor testing and calibration;structural materials and properties;construction materials;repair and rehabilitation;concrete;steel;Fiber Reinforced Polymer composites;fire performance ::

Hit 16 of 277 -- Awd #: CTI86104 
 Award Type: Intramural / In-House Project / In-House Project
Access/Distribution Restriction:
 Code: A - Distribution Unlimited - Unrestricted Access
Parent Organizations: DOC / NIST / BFRL
 Project: Structures
Dates: Oct 1997 to na
Performer: Structures
 Type:     Federal Government
 Contact:  Jack Snell, Phone: 301-975-5900
 Location: Not Specified  
Description: TITLE: Construction Metrology and Automation :: LONG DESCR: Conducts laboratory, field, and analytical  research in construction metrology and automation which includes: real-time spatial metrology for large-scale assembly and field operations in unstructured  applications such as construction, infrastructure repair and  rehabilitation, earth moving operations, and environmental cleanup and site remediation; fundamental research and development of position/orientation tracking systems, including non-line-of-site metrology; real-time sensor calibration and multi-sensor fusion; wireless communication standards, high bandwidth networking, and sensor interface protocols for construction data telemetry; construction site simulation, 3D modeling/visualization, automated CAD model creation, real-time visualization, user interfaces, and head-up displays; automated component placement, robotics, and machinery/vehicle monitoring and control :: KEYWORDS: construction metrology;construction automation;real-time tracking of components and sub-assemblies;Virtual Reality world modeling;Non Line of Site metrology;multi-sensor fusion;wireless communication standards;spatial measurement technologies;automated CADD model generation and dynamic databases;robotics and machinery/vehicle monitoring and control ::

Hit 17 of 277 -- Awd #: CTI220131 
 Award Type: Intramural / In-House Project / In-House Project
Access/Distribution Restriction:
 Code: A - Distribution Unlimited - Unrestricted Access
Parent Organizations: DOC / NOAA / OAR
 Project: Atmospheric programs
Dates: Oct 1992 to na
Performer: Climate Monitoring and Diagnostics Laboratory
 Type:     Federal Government
 Location: Not Specified  
Description: TITLE: Atmospheric programs :: LONG DESCR: Climate Monitoring and Diagnostics Laboratory Atmospheric Programs Climate Monitoring and Diagnostics Laboratory Atmospheric Programs: AEROSOLS:  The aerosol monitoring program continued at the four CMDL baseline stations. Condensation nucleus (CN) concentration and aerosol scattering (ssp) measurements have been made at Barrow since1976, Mauna Loa since 1974, Samoa since 1977, and South Pole since 1974 (ssp since 1979).  Butanol-based CN counters have been installed at all four stations to replace the original General Electric CN counters.  One-year comparisons between the two instruments were performed at all four stations.  A springtime maximum in ssp at Barrow (sometimes called the Arctic haze) is caused by transport of human-produced (anthropogenic) pollution materials from midlatitudes.  A springtime maximum at Mauna Loa is caused by transport of desert dust and pollution materials from Asia.  A latewinter maximum at South Pole is caused by transport of sea salt from the surrounding oceans during storm activity. Samoa shows no seasonal cycle in ssp or CN. Barrow and South Pole show a strong seasonal cycle in CN, but Mauna Loa does not. A study of aerosol absorption at Mauna Loa during the time of the Kuwait oil fires showed that soot particles were detected under strong long-range transport conditions from Kuwait to Hawaii.  A study of aerosol scattering coefficient and optical depth at Barrow showed a decrease by about a factor of 2 in the springtime Arctic haze event of the 1982-1992 time period. CMDL participated in a cooperative atmospheric chemistry experiment with the University of New Hampshire in Greenland by operating a CN counter, in a cooperative experiment with the Naval Research Laboratory concerning aerosol scattering measurements from a blimp, and with the National Center for Atmospheric Research concerning atmospheric chemistry measurements at Mauna Loa Observatory. As part of the CMDL initiative to study climate forcing by aerosol particles, sampling was conducted at three sites across North America:  Sable Island, Nova Scotia (polluted marine); Laramie, Wyoming (clean continental); Cheeka Peak, Washington (clean marine).  Each site is equipped to measure ssp and CN continuously, and aerosol samples from the two marine sites are analyzed for their chemical composition (major ions) in two size fractions (less than 1 mm and 1-10 mm diameter) by the NOAA Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory (PMEL).  The sampling system on Sable Island, initially deployed in August 1992, was relocated to a new building in August 1993 to optimize the inlet configuration and to minimize the effects of local contamination.  Sampling at Cheeka Peak, conducted by the University of Washington with funding from the NOAA CGCP, started in May 1993.  Initial findings from the samplers at Laramie, operating since April 1993, indicate that a more remote site may be needed to provide clean continental air. Plans of Aerosol program:  Develop instrumentation for the measurement of aerosol absorption at the South Pole and also at the regional monitoring stations. Carbon aerosol particles are the most important absorbers in the atmosphere and could be important in climate processes. Install instruments to measure aerosol chemistry and size at the four baseline stations. Develop new multiwavelength nephelometers for use at the four baseline stations. Continue establishment of a new network of aerosol monitoring stations to study the climatic effects of anthropogenic aerosols.  The new stations will complement the existing CMDL baseline stations, most of which are located in regions far removed from anthropogenic source areas. The new stations will measure key physical, optical, and chemical properties of the particles at representative polluted and clean sites in continental and marine locations.  Routine operations at the two marine sites are already under way, as is a site evaluation study at a clean continental site.  During FY 94, we began sampling at a polluted continental site at Bondville, Illinois, and anticipate moving the clean continental site evaluation study to a more remote location in Wyoming or Colorado. We also plan to begin measurements of the aerosol light absorption coefficient (sap) and backscattering coefficient (sbsp) at Bondville and Sable Island (such measurements are already being obtained at Cheeka Peak). Evaluate the contribution of upper tropospheric aerosols to the aerosol optical depth, by combining data from two different satellite sensors, the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE) and the Adanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR). RADIATION:  The global temperature responses to the evolving stratospheric aerosol burden from Mt. Pinatubo were monitored using the NOAA Television and Infrared Observation Satellite (TIROS) Operational Vertical Sounder (TOVS) microwave sounding unit on board polar orbiting satellites.  The cooling that began immediately following the eruption persisted through FY 93, especially in the Northern Hemisphere.  Of particular note is the dramatic decrease in stratospheric temperatures about a year and half after the eruption. The stratospheric temperature decrease is possibly related to decreased ozone. Surface radiation data from four of the seven continuing CMDL sites were processed, analyzed, and forwarded to the international archive for the Baseline Surface Radiation Network initiated and maintained by the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) and NASA. Aerosol optical depth observations were begun at Sable Island, the first of four regional aerosol monitoring sites.  Aerosol optical depth describes the influence of aerosols on the direct solar radiation received at the Earth's surface.  Initial data have been received, processed, and incorporated into more detailed chemical analysis data from that site. An 11-year record of spectral optical depth observed at Mauna Loa, Hawaii, was analyzed for the influence of two major volcanic eruptions, El Chichon in Mexico (1982) and Pinatubo in the Philippines (1991).  A useful relationship between the loss of solar radiation and the magnitude of aerosol optical depth was derived. The extent of the loss of solar radiation as a function of aerosol optical depth allows confirmation of theoretical calculations that have been used to predict climate variations.  The Mauna Loa site continues to be an exceptional site for observing the long-term variations in the transparency of the atmosphere at a remote unpolluted location. Since the early 1980s, a decreasing trend in the levels of Arctic pollution, often called Arctic haze, was detected in both aerosol optical depth measurements and in situ light-scattering observations at Barrow, Alaska.  The trend is attributed to a steadily declining Soviet economy and the implementation of ever-stronger emission controls in the areas that contributed heavily to the existence of the haze initially. Individual independent research projects completed include a study of the radiative and physical properties of winter clouds over the South Pole, an assessment of the detectability of Arctic leads (breaks in the ice pack) using thermal imagery, and a trend analysis of Arctic tropospheric temperatures relative to potential greenhouse warming. Several upgrades to the continuing observational capabilities were implemented or planned.  New data acquisition systems are being installed at each site, and a revamping of the automated solar observatory at Mauna Loa has begun. Further refinements to a new generation of automated, active cavity radiometers continued and significant progress was made toward eventual routine field deployment.  The active cavity radiometer makes solar radiation observations of sufficient accuracy to satisfy most currently stated needs of the radiation budget and climate scientific community. The effects of the stratospheric aerosols from Mt. Pinatubo on radiation observations at CMDL sites were further examined in an effort to assess the measurable impact on the surface radiation budget at sites with varying local environments.  The detectability of an event such as the eruption of Mt. Pinatubo relates to the broader question of the ability to monitor the global radiation budget, which is primary to understanding the driving force of the Earth's climate. An investigation began into the cause of the increasing trend in cloudiness and decreasing solar irradiance detected earlier at the CMDL South Pole site.  The relationship between the trends and changes in transport processes over the continent are being examined as is the role of the breakup of coastal sea ice. Plans for Radiation program -- Continue long-term observational programs with upgrades and improvements to assure the surface radiation data are of maximum scientific utility.  This will include data system upgrades and instrument and data processing refinements. Undertake a more extensive investigation of the climatic effects of the Mt. Pinatubo stratospheric aerosols in cooperation with other NOAA and outside agencies. Develop and test a new procedure for characterizing solar radiometers.  The innovative procedure will bypass shortcomings of current operational and traditional characterization procedures to account for departures of the instruments from pure linear response instruments.  Such improvements are necessary to better define localized surface radiation that can then be interfaced with climate models and satellite observations. Assist WMO in its efforts to establish solar radiation observational programs at the class-1 sites of its Global Atmospheric Watch program.  Such involvement will include training and transfer of technology to several developing countries and the establishment of cooperative research with those countries. Compare CMDL-observed aerosol optical depth data with that obtained by the SAGE II satellite to study the climatic effects of upper-tropospheric aerosols. Investigate the observed relationship between a dramatic decrease in lower-stratospheric temperatures and a similar decrease in stratospheric ozone.  The investigation will include radiative transfer calculations of the evolution of heating rates as aerosol and ozone vary with the life cycle of the volcanic event and observed ozone variations. OZONE:  Total ozone observations were conducted at 15 Dobson spectrophotometer stations, 4 of which are foreign cooperatives. Observations were reestablished at a sixteenth station, Tallahassee, Florida, following temporary suspension of observations there in 1989.  (At several of the stations, Umkehr ozone vertical distribution measurements were also made.)  Total ozone trends derived for six U.S. mainland stations from data obtained during 1979-1992 ranged from -0.3 to -0.4% yr-1.  While trends at the lower latitude stations of Mauna Loa Observatory in Hawaii, Huancayo Observatory in Peru, and American Samoa Observatory in the South Pacific had been near zero for 1979-1991, they became negative (- 0.2% yr-1) at the latter two stations following large decreases in ozone that occurred there in 1992.  An accelerated decrease in ozone began at most CMDL stations in the spring of 1992, and the decrease continued into 1993.  During January 1992- May 1993 monthly mean ozone values were 5-18% lower than long-term monthly normals at the U.S. mainland stations of Bismarck, North Dakota; Boulder, Colorado; Caribou, Maine; Nashville, Tennessee; Wallops Island, Virginia; and Fresno, California. (In January-May 1993 the ozone amounts fell below 2 standard deviations of the long-term monthly mean normals 73% of the time and below 3 standard deviations of the long-term monthly mean normals 33% of the time.)  In Hawaii and Samoa, ozone values dropped at times to 5-10% below long-term normal values.  At South Pole, Antarctica, 15-31 October and November 1992 monthly mean ozone values were lower than corresponding long-term (1962-1979) monthly means by 35% and 48%, respectively. World standard Dobson spectrophotometer 83 was again operated at Mauna Loa Observatory during the summer of 1993 to check its calibration and to obtain data for comparison with ozone data from NASA and NOAA satellite instruments.  Because the NASA Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) satellite instrument failed in May 1993, comparison observations, which had been made since 1979, were no longer possible.  The comparison series is being extended, however, using data from a new NASA TOMS instrument being flown aboard the Russian Meteor satellite.  The Dobson instrument data are also being compared with observations made by the NOAA Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet (SBUV-2) ozone spectrometer being flown aboard the NOAA-11 satellite.  Such comparisons made to date have proved to be highly valuable in assessing long-term calibration drifts of the satellite instruments, thereby lending credence to ozone trends derived from the satellite instrument observations. A special series of intercomparison ozone observations were conducted in Boulder, Colorado, in September and October 1992 involving Dobson instrument 83 and NOAA SBUV-2 satellite instrument flight models 3, 5, and 6, as well as the NASA Shuttle SBUV (SSBUV-2) ozone instrument.  The flight model 3, 5, and 6 spectrometers will be flown on future missions, while the SSBUV-2 instrument is launched into orbit for a few days each year, using the shuttle launch system, to calibrate operational NASA and NOAA satellite ozone instruments. In an ongoing program to calibrate Dobson instruments of the WMO Global Ozone Observing System (GO3OS), an international comparison of Dobson instruments was held 15 May through 3 June 1993, at Hradec Kralove, Czech Republic.  Participating countries included the Czech Republic, Egypt, Italy, Russia, South Africa, and the United States.  Secondary standard Dobson instrument 65 from the United States was the reference instrument at the comparisons.  Other Dobson instruments reconditioned and recalibrated in FY 93 were South Pole instrument 80, and WMO instrument 11 to be used in Algeria.  In a related effort to maintain well-calibrated Dobson instruments, work is continuing on the calibration of 80-90 Dobson instruments of the GO3OS network by means of calibrated traveling standard lamps.  This is the third such international effort; the first was conducted during 1981-1983. An encoder system was developed during FY 93 for automatic recording and real-time computer processing of Dobson instrument observational data.  Dobson instruments at Point Barrow, Samoa, and South Pole, as well as standard instruments 83 and 65, have been equipped with the new systems. Considerable progress has been achieved in a program begun in 1992 to apply final detailed corrections to nearly 400 station years of NOAA Dobson instrument total ozone data.  Data from 13 of 25 stations have now been tentatively reevaluated.  The goals of this project are to optimize data quality for trend analyses, satellite instrument ozone data validation, and research, and to prepare the data for archival at the WMO World Ozone Data Center in Canada. In connection with this effort a section has been prepared for inclusion in a handbook.  It provides detailed instructions concerning data reevaluation procedures for data obtained with Dobson instruments that have been routinely calibrated throughout the years relative to primary standard instrument 83. At the South Pole, 1992 ozone vertical profile measurements revealed unprecedented low ozone during the spring stratosphere over Antarctica.  As with spring 1991, there was substantial additional depletion in the low stratosphere linked to the presence of volcanic aerosol.  In 1991, this depletion resulted from the presence of aerosol from the eruption of Mt. Hudson in Chile, whereas in 1992 the sulfuric acid droplets resulting from the eruption of Mt. Pinatubo in the Philippines were largely responsible.  Because of the high levels of chlorine now present in the stratosphere from humanproduced CFCs, the presence of enhanced aerosols from volcanic eruptions now have the ability to produce ozone losses not seen in past eruptions.  These losses coupled with those resulting from highaltitude ice clouds and high chlorine levels, which are known to have caused severe ozone loss in past years, led to a record low column ozone amount of 105 Dobson units over the South Pole. Total ozone measurements from the NOAA Dobson network revealed that ozone amounts over much of North America were very low during spring 1992 and reached record low levels during winter 1992-1993 and spring 1993.  Although the cause of these dramatically low values has not been firmly established, the comparison of the ozone vertical profile measurements from Boulder, Colorado, and Hilo, Hawaii, with the 5-or-more-year record of soundings from these sites shows that the losses have taken place in the lower stratosphere.  A close link has been established between the region of the atmosphere where the ozone loss occurred and the presence in the same region of volcanic aerosol from Mt. Pinatubo. The mechanism is not definitely known, but chemical processing by the particles in the presence of high chlorine levels in a manner analogous to what has been seen in the lower stratosphere over Antarctica the past 2 years appears to be plausible. To better establish the pattern of ozone behavior in the troposphere above the boundary layer over the North Atlantic Ocean, several campaigns of intensive ozone vertical soundings were carried out. These measurements in Iceland, Bermuda, and the Azores were done as part of the North Atlantic Regional Experiment (NARE) to investigate the chemistry of the atmosphere of this region and particularly the impact that human-produced ozone precursor emissions may have on the ozone budget.  This campaign involved extensive chemical measurements from the surface, aircraft, and balloons during August 1993. Plans for Ozone program --  Continue total ozone observations at 12 domestic and 4 foreign cooperative stations. Equip six Dobson instruments operated on the U.S. mainland with encoders and computers for automatic real-time data aquisition and processing. Compare Dobson instrument 83 and satellite ozone observations again at Mauna Loa Observatory during the summer of 1994. Calibrate additional foreign Dobson spectrophotometers at international Dobson instrument comparisons tentatively scheduled to be held at Tenerife, Canary Islands, and at Arosa, Switzerland, during the summer of 1994. Continue the program to intercompare ozone observations from Dobson instrument 83 and the SBUV-2 satellite instrument ozone observations that began in 1990 with Ball Aerospace Systems Corporation of Boulder. Continue ozone data reevaluation and archiving. Monitor ongoing variations in ozone and perform trend analyses. Continue studying the effects of the Mt. Pinatubo aerosol on the ozone layer through ozonesonde measurements both in Antarctica and at midlatitudes. Expand the study of tropospheric ozone over the North Atlantic to include the temporal and spatial variability over much of the region, particularly in the free troposphere. Investigate the possible long-term changes in the ozone vertical profile using the 8- to 10- year record of ozonesonde data at Boulder, Hilo, and South Pole. WATER VAPOR:  The 12-year set of upper-tropospheric and stratospheric water vapor profiles at Boulder, Colorado, has been analyzed to determine if longterm changes have taken place.  An upward trend of approximately1% yr-1 was found in the lower stratosphere, and about one-half of that in the midstratosphere.  The primary source of water vapor in the stratosphere is the conversion of CH4 to water vapor through photochemical reaction. Increasing levels of CH4 in the atmosphere should eventually be reflected in larger water vapor amounts in the stratosphere.  The increase in the middle stratosphere over Boulder is consistent with the increasing CH4 levels.  The larger low-stratospheric increases suggest that changes in an additional source may also be important.  Such a source could be high-flying aircraft or changes associated with recent increases in global surface temperatures. The rapid progression of the dehydration of the Antarctic stratosphere was studied at South Pole during May-July.  Once air temperatures cool to the water vapor saturation temperature in June, water vapor is lost rapidly over a 2- to 4-week period, because of ice crystal precipitation, with concentrations reaching a low of 1 part per million by volume (ppmv) by early July. In March 1992, a series of stratospheric water vapor profiles from the research ship Vickers were made as part of the Central Equatorial Pacific Experiment (CEPEX).  In the convective region of the western Pacific, very low water amounts (~1 ppmv) were found above the tropopause, suggesting that considerable drying of air rising through the tropopause takes place in this region. A laboratory comparison of the CMDL balloon frost-point hygrometer and the Aeronomy Laboratory ER-2 Lyman  hygrometer showed that the two instruments give substantially the same levels of water vapor over a wide range of tropospheric and stratospheric water vapor concentrations. Plans for Water Vapor program --  Continue monthly soundings at Boulder and make Upper Atmospheric Research Satellite (UARS) correlative water vapor measurements from a tropical and an Arctic location. Carry out an intensive study of the wintertime dehydration over Antarctica near the edge of the polar vortex at McMurdo during the NASA ASHOE campaign in 1994 ::

Hit 18 of 277 -- Awd #: CTI220133 
 Award Type: Intramural / In-House Project / In-House Project
Access/Distribution Restriction:
 Code: A - Distribution Unlimited - Unrestricted Access
Parent Organizations: DOC / NOAA / OAR
 Project: Atmospheric programs
Dates: Oct 1992 to na
Performer: Air Resources Laboratories
 Type:     Federal Government
 Location: Not Specified  
Description: TITLE: Atmospheric programs :: LONG DESCR: Air Resources Laboratories Atmospheric programs ATMOSPHERIC TURBULENCE AND DIFFUSION DIVISION  -- Air-Surface Exchange:  Flux measurements and modeling Demand for the Mobile Flux Platform (MFP) technology continues to expand, with deployment this year on both ship and aircraft platforms.  The MFP technology combines the latest atmospheric sensing, positioning technology, and analysis methods to derive accurate flux information.  In FY 93, the MFP technology was enhanced by adding a four-antenna carrier- phase differential Global Positioning System (GPS), which measures platform pitch, roll, and heading angles with milliradian accuracy. ATDD carried out air-sea momentum, heat, and water vapor flux measurements in support of the Tropical Ocean-Global Atmosphere (TOGA) Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere Response Experiment (COARE) study in the tropical western Pacific Ocean.  In spite of difficult operational conditions, high- precision measurements were made using the MFP on a small (12-m length) ocean-going sailboat operating with furled sails to minimize flow obstruction and distortion.  Preliminary data reduction is complete.  Two Australian teams, who collected similar flux data, will likely collaborate during final analysis and interpretations. Airborne MFP collaborations included the Army's Long-Range Overwater Diffusion (LROD) Test, San Diego State University and the DOE's Arctic Tundra Flux Study, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)-NOAA Boreal Ecosystem- Atmosphere Study (BOREAS).  Northern ecosystems are believed to contain a large fraction of the Earth's carbon.  Such extensive and remote ecosystems are difficult to explore with fixed flux towers, making ATDD's airborne measurements important in defining the role of Arctic and boreal ecosystems on atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) content and global climate change. Tower-based experimental research involved several collaborative experiments.  The major activities were a seasonal study on carbon and water exchange in a temperate broadleaf forest, and a surface-based component of the BOREAS experiment. The growing body of data is being used to develop and test mathematical models for air-surface exchange, and to understand the effects of environmental, seasonal, and physiological variables on air-surface exchange by plant canopies. The initial Sanierung der Atmosphare (SANA) uber den neuen Bundeslandern experiment, a multiyear program monitoring the expected decline of ambient air pollution in what used to be East Germany, was carried out during September 1993 near Leipzig, Germany.  ATDD measured turbulent fluxes of O3, NO2, and SO2, as well as sensible and latent heat, to test ATDD's latest parameterization of the dry deposition inferential method. Measurements of mercury gradients over natural and contaminated soils were acquired in a collaborative effort with scientists from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Environmental Sciences Division.  Mercury vapor samples were taken above the forest, with simultaneous measurements of water vapor and CO2, permitting quantification of mercury fluxes.  Measurements were also made near the bottom of the canopy to determine whether the forest floor acts as a source or sink of mercury vapor. Modeling studies on atmosphere-surface exchange provided several advances over the past year. An analytical solution of the coupled equations for leaf photosynthesis and stomatal conductance was derived.  This solution is an improvement over past numerical solutions, which tended to yield chaotic results under typical canopy conditions.  A new leaf photosynthesis model was incorporated in leaf-to-canopy scaling models for crops and for a broadleaf forest, and appears to work well for CO2 and energy transfer. Dry deposition:  The annual site visit and refurbishment of the ATDD dry deposition inferential method (DDIM) monitoring stations was conducted.  New sites have been operational for about 1 year near Phoenix, Arizona; Burlington, Vermont; and the Chesapeake Bay.  The CORE/satellite network continues to monitor any changes in dry deposition that may result from new emission controls.  During FY 93, additional process-level modeling was implemented to estimate dry deposition for the sites in the network. Several years of chemical concentration data were analyzed to assess the use of weekly-average concentrations in the inferential method approach for estimating dry deposition of SO2. Summertime correlations between measured concentrations and inferred deposition velocities for SO2 in Oak Ridge cause about a 20% underestimate of inferred annual SO2 deposition. ATDD also completed the Large Area Deposition Model for EPA.  This model estimates the spatially variable dry deposition velocity of a pollutant by accounting for local changes in topography and vegetation so that dry deposition can be calculated using observed or modeled concentration fields. ATDD collaborated with Washington State University on measuring hydrogen peroxide deposition to a forest canopy. Integrated surface irradiance study Efforts began toward consolidation of ARL's various surface radiation network operations into Oak Ridge, involving all of site management, routine equipment services, and data collection and distribution. Selection of monitoring sites for permanent observation locations is under way. Turbulence and Diffusion:  A comprehensive review and model comparison of the Regional Atmospheric Transport Code for Hanford Emission Tracking (RATCHET), developed by the DOE Pacific Northwest Laboratory, was performed for the U.S. Centers for Disease Control, which is in charge of dose reconstruction efforts for the DOE sites. The results of this review were presented at a public meeting in Seattle, and a more technical version will be presented at the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) 20th International Technical Meeting on Air Pollution Modelling and its Applications. A parameterization of planetary boundary layer (PBL) fluxes and concentrations for use in global-scale air chemistry models was completed, and a report was submitted for publication.  A report of this work will also be presented at the NATO meeting. The wavelet transform technique was applied to field data from both Oak Ridge, Tennessee, and Boardman, Oregon, to study intermittent turbulence in the stable boundary layer.  An episode of wave-generated turbulence was analyzed using data from the Waves and Turbulence Experiment conducted during the 1990 Atmospheric Studies in Complex Terrain (ASCOT) field program in the Oak Ridge area.  These results were reported at the American Meteorological Society (AMS) 10th Symposium on Turbulence and Diffusion. A joint research program on terrain-generated gravity wave effects in the stable PBL was initiated between ATDD and the Meteorological Institute of the University of Uppsala (MIUU), Sweden.  An ATDD scientist spent 3 months at MIUU working on the beginning phases of this work.  The goal of this research is the parameterization of wave stress generated by subgrid-scale terrain features in a meso-g-scale complex terrain model. A linearized high-resolution wind-field flow (LFLOW) model was developed by improving a model originated at the Riso National Laboratory in Denmark.  LFLOW is being used to study terrain channeling of the winds near Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The two-dimensional version of the Lagrangian stochastic dispersion model (LSDM) was successfully applied to simulations of perfluorocarbon and heavy methane tracer releases during the 1980 ASCOT field study in Anderson Creek Valley, California.  The development of the three-dimensional LSDM to simulate dispersion in nocturnal flows in complex terrain has also been completed.  The model was tested by simulating ASCOT tracer data collected during the 1984 study in Brush Creek Valley, Colorado, and the 1991 study at the Rocky Flats Plant near Denver. An ATDD scientist participated in the radiological consequence uncertainty study, organized jointly by the U.S. NRC and the Commission of the European Communities, and provided expert assessments of dispersion uncertainty to be used as inputs to radiological consequence models. A full year of microclimate and air pollutant monitoring was completed in the endangered Wieliczka Salt Mine World Heritage Site near Krakow, Poland, by a team from ATDD, California Institute of Technology, and Polish Academy of Sciences.  The goal was to determine the likely sources of moisture in the mine that are causing the deterioration of the centuries-old monuments and carvings in the salt, and to determine whether airborne pollutants might be altering the deliquescence point of the salt, thereby exacerbating the problem.  The analysis indicates that the areas of the mine in most danger are being attacked by moisture in the ventilation air stream during the summer months only, and that other moisture sources (e.g., visitors) are of minor importance.  Pollutant-induced shifts in deliquescence have not been found.  Consultations with U.S. Bureau of Mines specialists and Wieliczka ventilation engineers indicate that a standard commercially available dehumidification system can be installed at the mine's ventilation air inlet, and should reduce the problem to negligible levels. Emergency Response and Preparedness:  ATDD, in cooperation with the National Weather Service (NWS) office in Las Vegas, Nevada, undertook a preliminary study of cold-air drainage and pooling in the region of the proposed Yucca Mountain nuclear waste repository.  Photographs of smoke releases indicate highly layered flow structure near the outlet region of Crater Flat, just west of the mountain.  This preliminary study has provided background information needed for a more comprehensive measurement program scheduled for October 1993. In FY 94, ATDD staff operated both tower and airborne flux systems in the multinational BOREAS experiment measuring momentum, heat, water vapor, and CO2 flux densities over the boreal forest of Canada. Tower flux measurements to define mercury exchange rates will continue.  Additional work will include tower flux measurements in Florida, eastern Germany, Hungary, and Sweden.  The ATDD tower-based flux system will continue to be refined for rapid deployment, portability, and reliable long-term operation in remote areas. Continued analysis of data from recent air-surface exchange studies remains a high priority.  Data interpretation and analysis objectives include (1) comparing temperate broadleaf forest to boreal conifer forest mass and energy exchanges, (2) assessing the temperate broadleaf forest seasonal CO2 exchange budget, (3) evaluating water stress effects on CO2 and water vapor exchange rates, (4) comparing tower and airplane flux measurements, using Atmospheric Radiation Measurements (ARM) and BOREAS data, (5) evaluating spatial variability of surface energy exchange downstream of transitions in surface characteristics, and (6) incorporating recent and improved stomatal conductance model algorithms into ATDD's O3 and SO2 deposition models. Studies of the stable PBL will focus on describing gravity wave stress in complex terrain models using real topography.  The present one-dimensional model version will be extended to three dimensions. Research on intermittent turbulence in the stable boundary layer will continue, using wavelet transforms and field data from Oak Ridge, Tennessee, and Boardman, Oregon.  Modeling studies of boundary-layer structure over complex terrain will be conducted using both a prognostic mesoscale model and the diagnostic linear LFLOW model.  A Workshop on Turbulence and Diffusion in the Stable PBL will be held at the University of Phoenix in January 1994. Development of the LSDM will continue.  A diagnostic wind field model will be used to provide non divergent wind fields as input. In the context of emergency response, ATDD's hazardous atmospheric release model (HARM-II) will be expanded to include five related scenarios based on work undertaken at the National Institute of Standards and Technology.  The Oak Ridge-area regional meteorological monitoring network will be expanded to provide a real-time meteorological measurement system for model testing and evaluation.ATDD, in conjunction with the NWS office at Las Vegas, Nevada, will lead a field study of transport conditions at the DOE's proposed Yucca Mountain waste repository. ATDD will complete studies of the Wieliczka Salt Mine, in Poland, to determine how best to eliminate the airborne moisture problem. FIELD RESEARCH DIVISION -- Aircraft sampling tests:  A testing program was completed for the U.S. Air Force, to evaluate the feasibility of using an aircraft air-sampling system to detect low concentrations of various emissions at distances in excess of 100 km. This testing must be done with emissions that can be uniquely distinguished from the normal background signatures already present in the local airstream.  FRD also participated in the development of a new air-sampling capability for various effluents. This new capability utilizes a small transponder designed to fly on a 1-m3 tetroon and retransmitting the signal hundreds of miles. Emergency response:  Several events over the past few years have prompted a need for tracking hazardous materials in the ocean and through the atmosphere.  This was particularly evident during the Kuwaiti oil fires.  Research and development during the International Global Atmospheric Chemistry-Marine Aerosol and Gas Exchange (IGAC- MAGE) experiment enabled FRD to develop a balloonborne GPS that was able to track chemicals throughout the ocean and atmosphere. In FY 93, FRD adapted this new technology and developed six prototype GPS systems for NOAA's Hazardous Materials Response and Assessment Division.  This allows scientists to quickly catalog the location and type of hazard nearly anywhere in the world.  Loggers were delivered to the division and are currently being upgraded with a new version of firmware. Visibility studies:  The Measurement of Haze and Visual Effects (MOHAVE) project is EPA's response to a congressional call for a substantial research program to study regional haze, with special emphasis on the Grand Canyon National Park.  During 1992, three different tracer gases were released continuously for 50 days from three sources: El Centro, California; Tehachapi, California; and Laughlin, Nevada.  In FY 93, primary emphasis was on data reduction and analysis.  A database for tracer gases has been established, revealing general transport patterns and concentrations for every release point. Accident preparedness in Egypt:  At the request of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), assistance was provided to develop a detailed work plan for a series of tracer experiments to characterize local diffusion climatology in preparation for a nuclear power station.  FRD subsequently conducted a tracer-based Coastal Diffusion Study at El Dabaa, Egypt, in cooperation with the Atomic Energy Authority of the Arab Republic of Egypt. The Long-Range Overwater Diffusion Test:  The LROD Test was conducted in July approximately 100 km northwest of Kuaui, Hawaii.  The tracer measurement study was conducted to characterize the along-wind diffusion of a conserved tracer to distances of about 100 km.  This test was designed to fill an important knowledge gap related to biological warfare defense.  A low-altitude crosswind line source of tracer was sampled from about 10 to 120 km downwind of the release location.  The release location was an airborne C-130 releasing the tracer in a line perpendicular to the sampling line.  Surface measurements of tracer were taken at 10, 15, 30, 60, and 100 km downwind aboard small craft using both real-time continuous analyzers and sequential whole-air samplers. Low-altitude (approximately 170 m) airborne measurements of tracer were made using a continuous gas chromatograph. Approximately 40 h of aircraft data were collected with great success.  About 300 plume traverses were measured in detail during the 13 tracer release tests. Experimental Data Rescue:  FRD is performing two tasks under the Earth System Data and Information Management (ESDIM) Program: rescue of meteorological and air chemistry metadata, and rescue of decaying 9-track data tapes containing air chemistry and meteorological field project data. Fifty-one high-priority field campaigns have been identified and campaign records located in long-term archives. Metadata from a dozen field projects have been organized and recorded electronically using the National Environmental Satellite, Data, and Information Service (NESDIS) National Climatic Data Center Data Base Documentation Builder to ensure compatibility with the NOAA-wide database. FY 94, Meteorological forecasting, climatology, and modeling support and consultation on new projects will continue to be provided to DOE and its subcontractors.  Additional display terminals will be connected to the meteorological network and issued to contractors for their use. Metadata rescue will continue with an additional 15 datasets to be rescued.  Nine-track magnetic tapes from 12 field projects will be converted to write-once read-many media.  Announcements of data availability will be made in several professional publications, and metadata floppy discs will be supplied to requestors. The LROD Test will continue with data analysis and application ::

Hit 19 of 277 -- Awd #: CTI220122 
 Award Type: Intramural / In-House Project / In-House Project
Access/Distribution Restriction:
 Code: A - Distribution Unlimited - Unrestricted Access
Parent Organizations: DOC / NOAA / OAR
 Project: Climate and air quality research
Dates: Oct 1992 to na
Performer: Climate Diagnostics Center
 Type:     Federal Government
 Location: Not Specified  
Description: TITLE: Climate and air quality control :: LONG DESCR: Climate Diagnostics Center Climate and Quality Control Programs Climate Diagnostics Center Climate and Quality Control Programs -- LOW-FREQUENCY PREDICTION RESEARCH -- Low-frequency prediction (LFP) research at CDC focuses on diagnostic studies of processes important to the prediction of short-term climate variability on time scales ranging from a few weeks to more than a season.  Examples of phenomena on these time scales include major heat waves and droughts, flood events such as those that occurred over the Midwest during the summer of 1993, and persistent winter cold waves. During the past year, LFP research concentrated on three primary areas:  (1) mechanisms influencing storm track variability;  (2) systematic error evolution in the National Meteorological Center (NMC) medium-range forecast (MRF) model; and (3) diagnostic studies of summer heat waves and droughts.  Studies on storm track variability focused on how basic properties of the large flow influence the tracks and intensities of midlatitude storm systems. An observational diagnostic study indicated that planetary-scale deformation is likely to play an important role in modulating synoptic-scale storm activity, particularly near the ends of the storm tracks. The observational results were supported by a numerical modeling study, which also showed how the reorganized eddy transports feed back to alter the initial imposed large-scale flow. One implication of this research is that systematic errors in planetary-scale flow deformation, which occur in current operational prediction models, are likely to have a significant detrimental impact on predictions of low- frequency variability and short-term climate anomalies, including the extratropical response to ENSO. In the second area of LFP research, a diagnostic study was conducted on the evolution of systematic model errors in the MRF model.  The MRF model is used by the NMC Climate Analysis Center (CAC) in extended-range forecasting and, with some modifications, is also employed in NMC's coupled ocean- atmosphere prediction model experiments and in the NMC Climate Data Analysis System/Reanalyses Project. Results of the systematic error study indicated that there is a rapid development in the MRF model of a global, quasi-stationary error pattern, which subsequently amplifies in time. This pattern is well established after a few days; global correlations between day 2 and day 10 systematic errors are approximately 0.7-0.8 in several fields.  Further diagnostic studies are in progress to identify the source and mechanisms for the development of this pattern. In conjunction with the diagnostic analyses, experiments were initiated to determine whether error patterns having qualitatively similar characteristics can be simulated in simple nonlinear baroclinic models with zonally asymmetric forcing. In the third area of LFP research, a diagnostic study was performed comparing the 1980 and 1988 summer heat waves and droughts over the United States.  Overall, results suggested that both dynamical forcing from a remote source and anomalous local boundary conditions in the drought regions were important in the evolutions of these events, with the former being particularly prominent at early stages and the latter assuming increased importance at later stages.  Although there were a number of qualitative similarities between the cases, the results strongly suggested that the locations of the sources for the anomalous stationary waves were quite different in the two events.  Diagnostic and modeling studies are now in progress to establish more definitively the nature of the anomalous wave sources for the two heat wave and drought cases.  Specific research plans are to do the following: Extend the storm track variability studies by (1) comparing observational results with results obtained from MRF prediction and from Atmospheric Model Intercomparison Project (AMIP) model runs and (2) investigating with simple models the sensitivity of storm track structure and intensity to changes in different physical processes (e.g., latent heating and surface drag). Study the time-mean extratropical response to prescribed tropical heating anomalies in simplified general circulation models (GCMs), and compare the results with observational and prediction model diagnostic studies. The following will be addressed: (1) How does the initial Rossby wave train excited by tropical heating modify the midlatitude transient eddies? and (2) What are the feedbacks between the modified eddies and the midlatitude flow?  The sensitivity of the simulated time- averaged extratropical response to changes in the initial conditions and forcing will also be investigated. The potential sensitivities of the 90-day mean simulated extratropical flow patterns and eddy statistics have implications for designing ensemble forecasting procedures to predict the extratropical response to ENSO events. Perform a detailed diagnostic study of systematic error dynamics in the MRF model.  As part of the study, a budget will be constructed in which the systematic error evolution is decomposed into terms that depend explicitly only on systematic errors (i.e., autonomous terms) and additional unresolved forcing terms (e.g., due to systematic errors in transient eddy fluxes). This will allow a clearer interpretation of the mechanisms leading to the development of systematic errors, which so far have been a major obstacle to progress in numerical long- range prediction. Continue diagnostic and modeling studies to establish more definitively the nature of the anomalous wave sources and physical processes influencing the development and evolution of U.S. summer heat waves and droughts. DIAGNOSTIC STUDIES OF INTERANNUAL VARIABILITY -- Diagnostic and modeling studies of the global circulation for the period 1979 to the present continued.  Relative to the 1950-1990 mean, the period is characterized by warm sea-surface temperatures (SSTs) throughout most of the tropics.  Within this warmer base state, the evolution of SSTs during the ENSO cycle showed some interesting differences from that prior to 1979.  A slow eastward shift of warm water from the western to the eastern Pacific was observed during three prominent warm events, whereas the westward shift of SSTs from the east Pacific, emphasized in studies encompassing the earlier period, was much weaker. Within the slow, eastward-moving envelope of equatorial SSTs, coherent SST variations were found that evolve on shorter time scales (about 3-6 months). These features are best defined during the onset phase of warm and cold events, but their characteristics differ during each type of event. Prior to warm events, the SSTs shift coherently eastward across the international dateline, whereas prior to cold events, they shift westward or have a standing character primarily east of the dateline. The SST variations are an important component in determining the locations and evolution of precipitation anomalies in the tropics. Calculations continued to produce dynamically consistent estimates of the total diabatic heating, of which the latent heat associated with precipitation is one component.  Preliminary results applied to the 1978-1979 First GARP [Global Atmospheric Research Program] Global Experiment (FGGE) winter data and the 1992-1993 Tropical Ocean-Global Atmosphere (TOGA) Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere Response Experiment (COARE) winter data are very encouraging. A complete set of global diabatic heating data for the 1985-1993 period will be important for future modeling and diagnostic studies. The changes in tropical precipitation associated with warm and cold events also have an impact on the atmospheric circulation, especially over North America. The fact that SST anomalies are possibly predictable a season or more in advance leads to optimism for forecasting some global climate anomalies. An atmosphere-ocean climate forecasting system has been developed at the NMC, and a collaborative effort with members of CDC is under way to assess the predictive capability of that system. Needless to say, skill is lost due to errors in the ocean model's ability to generate correct SSTs, and in the atmospheric model's ability to respond realistically to those SSTs. Our focus is currently on the atmospheric component of that system when it is forced with observed SSTs. Within these "perfect SST forecast" experiments, our aim is to isolate the predictable atmospheric component as a function of season and location, and determine the gains to be made through model improvement. Work also continued on much shorter period (6-30 day) variations of the circulation both in the tropics and midlatitudes. Equatorward-propagating Rossby waves that excite convection over the eastern Pacific intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ) were examined in GCMs and found to be deficient. The location and activity of these waves also vary with warm and cold events in the ENSO cycle.  During TOGA COARE, short-period westerly windbursts were studied and compared with composite variations in a 6-year atmospheric dataset. An inverse linear modeling approach was applied to SST data for 1955-1990 for the purpose of predicting and understanding the dynamics of ENSO.  State-of-the-art predictions of the SST pattern are possible with the model.  Further investigation suggested ENSO may best be described as a linear interaction between damped normal modes maintained by stochastic forcing.  This represents an alternative view to the coupled, unstable modes emphasized by other researchers. SATELLITE DATA RESEARCH -- The Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment (GEWEX) Water Vapor Project (GVaP) was proposed in 1991 to improve the observations and analyses of atmospheric water vapor. Water vapor is the predominant greenhouse gas in model scenarios of global warming and plays a critical role in regulating global climate. It is also an essential ingredient in many atmospheric processes such as evaporation, cloud formation, and precipitation, including long-lasting precipitation anomalies such as flood and drought.  GVaP has been endorsed by both national and international climate programs and is now entering a Pilot Phase. The main goal of the GVaP Pilot Phase is to develop, apply, and assess algorithms to obtain an accurate global climatology of the horizontal and vertical distribution of atmospheric water vapor using satellite observations primarily combined with other water vapor analyses and observations. CDC has been a leader in the application and evaluation of satellite-derived atmospheric water vapor. In a recent publication, the record of layer-mean water vapor content was examined using water vapor channel observations over the past 9 years from the NOAA polar-orbiting satellites. The results show that the current NOAA satellite water vapor observations are relatively insensitive to water vapor in the lower levels, but are quite sensitive to water vapor in the upper troposphere. This is significant, since water vapor changes in the upper troposphere strongly influence the degree of warming in model simulations of future climate change. These observations are also useful for examining large-scale changes in moisture (leading to droughts and floods) during ENSO warm events and for examining tropical-extratropical interactions. The upper tropospheric water vapor observations are particularly useful for determining the position and intensity of the large-scale overturning circulations in the tropics. CDC has also started a computer software development effort as a pilot study for how collaborative interdisciplinary studies of the global hydrological cycle may be performed within GEWEX. This is being accomplished by integrating existing software into an interactive environment for the analysis and visualization of remote sensing satellite data of the Earth for climate applications. Khoros, a software development environment for data processing, graphics, and visualization, will be used as the software infrastructure for this pilot study. Khoros was originally developed under Department of Defense funding, but is now being applied to the environment. Khoros is expected to be a popular vehicle on the information highway, facilitating the collaboration of Earth scientists at separate locations. Plans include continued analysis of global water vapor observations from satellite and in situ observations as part of the GEWEX GVaP.  Correlate these observations with other global satellite analyses to better understand the role of water vapor in the global climate system. Continue leadership in GVaP by serving on both national and international science steering committees including the National Research Council and the World Climate Research Program. Develop and integrate existing software into a friendly environment for Earth science collaboration. Work with new post-doctoral fellows in the use of microwave data from satellites to monitor water vapor and precipitation and to assess the impact of water vapor variability on the Earth's radiation budget. DATA MANAGEMENT AND DATASET DEVELOPMENT -- Important milestones were reached recently regarding improvements to the Comprehensive Ocean- Atmosphere Data Set (COADS). Release 1a was completed and made available to the scientific community.  A joint effort between CDC and the Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences (CIRES), the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR), and NOAA's National Climatic Data Center (NCDC), COADS Release 1a updates the original COADS Release 1 for the years 1980-1992.  Monthly summaries for a total of 19 observed and derived variables in the form of 14 statistics are available in 2o latitude by 2o longitude ocean boxes.  The individual marine reports are also available and are organized spatially with the same resolution. Two versions of COADS Release 1a are available: one containing only ship observations, and another containing all available observations, including data from moored and drifting buoys from the Coastal Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) and from the tuna fishing fleets, which are concentrated primarily in the eastern Pacific Ocean. The volume of the full Release 1a monthly 2o statistics is approximately 0.5 gigabytes, and the group files that provide summaries for selected sets of observed and/or derived variables contain approximately 50 megabytes each. A project known as the Global Climate Perspectives System (GCPS) funded by NOAA's Office of Global Programs continued its efforts to develop a high-quality station temperature and precipitation dataset with daily and monthly time resolution for global land areas. This project is a cooperative project with NCDC in Asheville, North Carolina, and the Climate Analysis Center in Washington, D.C.  The main goals of GCPS are to develop a comprehensive archive of climate and climate-related long-term datasets that are useful for providing information about climate variations worldwide, as well as for providing regional-scale assessments, and to develop an integrated system of data analysis tools that includes statistical analysis software, graphical interfaces, database management and common hardware (for interoperability and optimum access), and communication capabilities.  These datasets are already proving to be very valuable for studies of climatic change and variability, for improving regional climatologies of surface temperature and precipitation, and for a variety of other climatological applications. During the past fiscal year our activities have focused on developing objective quality control (QC) procedures for monthly climatic data and developing objective interpolation and other algorithms for estimating missing station data.  Analyses during the past year include investigation of regional precipitation variability, assessment and comparison of spatial interpolation methods, and testing of the performance of the different QC procedures.  This is a critical part of the Global Historical Climate Network (GHCN) quality control procedure being used to develop a NOAA global land surface temperature and precipitation index for use in climate monitoring and diagnostic studies. During FY 1993 a Geographic Information System (GIS) software package, the Geographic Resources Analysis Support System (GRASS 4.2),  was implemented as part of the GCPS data analysis and visualization tool kit.  This system, developed by the U.S. Army Corp of Engineers, is in the public domain, and thus available free of charge to other users.  A number of global and regional datasets have been incorporated into the GCPS/GRASS database. Datasets currently available include, among others, globaland regional-scale coverages of vegetation and soil types, station and gridded precipitation values, high-resolution topography, and various satellite-derived indices. Also included are various vector graphics capabilities for drawing state, national, and continental outlines, including rivers and lakes. Two additional public domain packages are also used for plotting and graphing output data. Plans include reprocessing the COADS data from 1947 to the present and make them available to the global reanalysis project. This update will be known as Release 1b, and will contain additional data mostly for the years prior to 1980 and since about 1990.  Testing of different methodologies will continue in an attempt to improve the data quality control, particularly as it affects the retention of SST values during ENSO episodes and with regard to incorporating different observing platforms, most of which were available only after about the mid-1970s.  For addressing inhomogeneities in the basic variables, it is essential that researchers have access to all the individual observations, which implies large mass-storage requirements (about 100 gigabytes), together with relatively fast access protocols. Plans include updating the complete set of 14 statistics and 19 variables available previously.  The goal is for Release 1b to be available by the end of calendar year 1994. Continue studying the natural climate variability and improving diagnostic and analysis tools as the focus of the GCPS project. Continue working with NCDC and Oak Ridge National Laboratory to implement various data QC routines, and to ready the station temperature and precipitation datasets for compilation into a gridded global-scale surface temperature and precipitation dataset. Specifically, work on this activity will include evaluation of point estimation procedures to evaluate data fields on a near-real-time basis to provide estimates of monthly mean station values when such data are missing, calculate gridded fields, and check for inhomogeneities in station time series.  A major emphasis will be on enhancing the handling of point data by GRASS and on handling floating point values in its raster environment. Continue working on conversion and integration of various datasets, including newer or updated products from NGDC and NCDC.  This would also entail more consistently unifying all current data products into a more efficiently integrated database. Explore the possibility of implementing a database management system for GRASS during FY 94. This would probably be RIM, a public-domain relational database available from the University of Washington and the Corps of Engineers. Linkages already exist for use with the GRASS GIS. Acquire and implement the Modular Hydrologic Modeling System (MHMS) software developed by the Civil Engineering Department of the University of Colorado at Boulder, which is due to be released early in 1994.  This conceptual hydrologic model is quite useful in diagnostic studies designed to test the effects of various temperature and precipitation scenarios (as well as possible effects of land use changes) on runoff and streamflow. Implement a collaborative project with the National Park Service to create "climatic atlases" for selected national parks.  These publications will serve as a set of reference manuals for park scientists and other technical personnel, and will also be available to the general public. The climatic data compiled for the project will be part of the GCPS database and will also be available for use by scientists and staff of the National Biological Survey who are involved in studies of the effects of climate and global changes on the U.S. National Park System ::

Hit 20 of 277 -- Awd #: CTI220129 
 Award Type: Intramural / In-House Project / In-House Project
Access/Distribution Restriction:
 Code: A - Distribution Unlimited - Unrestricted Access
Parent Organizations: DOC / NOAA / OAR
 Project: Climate and air quality research
Dates: Oct 1992 to na
Performer: Atlantic Oceanographic and Meterological Laboratory
 Type:     Federal Government
 Location: Not Specified  
Description: TITLE: Climate and air quality control :: LONG DESCR: Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory/Climate and quality control CLIMATE CHANGE -- El Nino-Southern Oscillation:  AOML activities in the Pacific region were focused primarily on observations related to research on the ENSO phenomenon.  In cooperation with scientists from several other institutions and foreign countries, AOML scientists maintained an array of more than 200 satellite-tracked drifting buoys in the tropical Pacific to measure sea-surface temperature (SST) and currents.  These buoys were a critical component for SST analyses of the ENSO event in the Pacific, and the data collected proved to be of much higher quality than similar data collected using alternative methods for other oceanic regions. The current data available from the drifting buoys are the only direct measurements available over a wide geographical area. AOML completed the study of the 1986-1987 El Nino using Geodetic Satellite (GEOSAT) altimeter data for the band 20oS-20oN across the entire Pacific Ocean. The data have now been processed and analyzed.  The principal effort was to compare the revised geophysical data record with in situ observations and to study the annual cycle.  The 1986-1987 El Nino was found to be associated with a significantly reduced strength of the North Equatorial Countercurrent (NECC) in the autumn of 1987, compared with 1988, across the entire equatorial band from South America to west of the international dateline. Global Database Development:  AOML continued to collaborate with several agencies in Latin America to establish a network to make sea level and meteorological  observations at coastal and island stations.  As part of the VOS program, AOML continued to collect expendable bathythermograph (XBT) data needed for the Tropical Ocean-Global Atmosphere (TOGA) program from vessels of opportunity that call exclusively at South American ports.  In 1992- 1993 two vessels were recruited to make XBT measurements across the South Pacific from Valparaiso to New Zealand, in support of the WOCE program. The assembly and quality-control processing of a tropical Pacific subsurface temperature database was completed for 1979- 1990. Analysis of these data has begun to describe the thermal and circulation fields and their annual and interannual variability. Dynamics and Structures of the Atlantic Ocean Currents:  Results from earlier cruises to the region characterized the Deep Western Boundary Current in the tropical Atlantic.  Comparisons with numerical model simulations of the deep current indicate that improvements are required in the model boundary conditions and/or parameterizations.  A June 1993 cruise extended earlier coverage to south of the equator to study the bifurcation of the Deep Western Boundary Current.  The cruise trackline was designed to supplement data from current meter mooring arrays of the University of Miami, the University of Kiel, and Woods Hole.  The second operational year of the Windward Islands Passages Monitoring Program was completed during FY 93.  The program is a cooperative effort between the University of Miami, the Barbados Coast Guard, and AOML.  Training of regional personnel, improvements in current velocity and hydrographic sampling systems, and several cruises were realized during the year. The VOS XBT analysis center continued the quality control of upper ocean temperature data collected in the Atlantic Ocean.  The center provided guidance to National Ocean Service (NOS) on vessels with instrument problems and on appropriate new sections to be initiated. Sea Level Rise and Global Warming:  A joint AOML-NOS investigation uncovered sea level data from Key West, Florida,  dating back to the mid-1840s. The measurements were connected to the modern record, making this series one of the longest instrument datasets in the United States.  Analysis of the 1846-1992 record shows a rise of 19.9 mm yr-1 without any significant evidence of acceleration.  The sea level rise between 1951 and 1987 can be accounted for by postglacial rebound of land plus steric expansion of adjacent oceanic waters. A book on the impacts of global warming and sea level rise in the Gulf of Mexico, Bahamas, Caribbean Sea, Guianas region was published.  The book concludes "...that for the Intra- American Seas, less of a climate change is expected than for other areas of Earth, but that human population pressure will significantly stress the region's environment." Analyses of Pacific Ocean Currents:  AOML will use the drifting buoy database to characterize the structure of the surface velocity field in the tropical Pacific.  Of interest are both the mean and variability. Detailed comparisons will be made with the 1982-1992 tropical Pacific model reanalysis from the National Meteorological Center (NMC).  A study will begin of the relation between historical SST variability and precipitation anomalies in the inter-American region. Completion of the GEOSAT data analysis leads toward new altimeter studies using concurrent observations from free-drifting buoys, coastal tide gauges, model runs, and upper-layer thermal data. Structure of the eastern equatorial Pacific and temperate latitude sea surface heights along the coasts of North and South America will be the focus of this effort.  Particular attention will be given to comparisons of the NECC from the 1986-1987 and 1991-1992 El Ninos, and to further elucidation of the annual cycle of surface currents. Atlantic Ocean Currents:  A transatlantic section is planned for the spring of 1994.  For the first time, an entire section of direct temperature and velocity observations will be obtained to estimate oceanic heat flux in the subtropics.  The heat flux estimates will be compared with indirect estimates of this variable to determine the reliability of the latter approach.  A 10- year record of deep ocean conditions is now available east of the Bahamas.  The data will be examined for indications of systematic variability.  AOML will continue monitoring of the Windward Island passages and operation of the XBT center. At the center, both real-time and delayed-mode data will be quality-controlled, and the results will be forwarded to appropriate national and international repositories. Sea Level Change.  Direct measurement of vertical land motion at tide gauges in Florida and the Bahamas is planned in conjunction with enhanced analysis of the steric changes in the adjacent oceanic waters.  This effort to determine absolute sea level is coupled to a parallel effort to model coastal sea level fluctuations using numerical models.  The long-term objective of this program is to search for evidence of anthropogenically induced climate change.  RAINFALL STUDIES -- A coastal ocean deployment of a multisensor marine acoustical rainfall measurement system was made in October 1992 at Duck, North Carolina.  A substantial quantity of data was obtained by acoustical and nonacoustical methods during several rainfall events. Analysis of the data thus far has shown excellent correlation between acoustical and nonacoustical rainfall data.  Analysis has revealed that by using acoustical data alone, it appears to be possible to distinguish convective-type rainfall from stratiform-type rainfall. The AOML Brackish Water Rainfall Measurement Facility was established and is now operational. Acoustical and nonacoustical rainfall data are now being gathered continuously there. Currently, any rainfall of 1 mm h-1 or greater is being recorded.  The rainfall events are placed within a meteorological setting and are being classified as convective, stratiform, or "mixed," and statistics on  peak and average rainfall rate, duration, and so on, are being compiled. Hurricane Studies/Tropical Climate Studies:  Correlation techniques were used to isolate the physical mechanisms responsible for the observed contemporaneous relationships between the frequency of major hurricanes (those with winds greater than 50 m s-1), indicators of the ENSO and western Sahelian rainfall over Africa, and winds over the Atlantic region.  With data for 1970-1988, it was found that the primary physical mechanisms for the observed relationships between ENSO, western Sahelian rainfall, and major hurricane activity are the Walker-type circulations that produce changes in the magnitude of the vertical wind shear and vorticity over the primary development region.  It was also found that reduced vertical shear might actually enhance hurricane formation in the more northern part of the region during El Nino events. HRD scientists participated in the development and coordination of the plan for the research aircraft during the international TOGA Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere Response Experiment (COARE) field experiment.  Three researchers flew on many of the NOAA WP-3D and NASA DC-8 flights and helped to ensure that high-quality datasets were collected by the aircraft program. Synoptic-Scale Aspects of Hurricanes:  High-resolution analyses of the environment of tropical cyclones are identifying large-scale influences on intensity changes.  These analyses were used to develop a SHIPS model, which will be run in real time during the hurricane season.  The forecasts from 1993 will determine if SHIPS has skill when run operationally. A diagnostic study is under way to understand the asymmetric interactions between a hurricane and its environment that determine the hurricane's motion.  Analyses of wind and geopotential height for Hurricane Gloria of 1985, derived from the Omega dropwindsonde project, will be completed within a potential vorticity framework. Tropical Climate Studies:  The study of the contemporaneous relationships between the frequency of major hurricanes, indicators of ENSO and western Sahelian rainfall over Africa, and winds over the Atlantic region will be extended through 1992.  The relationships between hurricane frequency and Atlantic sea surface temperatures will also be investigated. Aircraft datasets will be acquired from the TOGA COARE field program. The microphysics, radiation, radar reflectivity, and Doppler velocity data will be calibrated and validated ::

Hit 21 of 277 -- Awd #: CTI220151 
 Award Type: Intramural / In-House Project / In-House Project
Access/Distribution Restriction:
 Code: A - Distribution Unlimited - Unrestricted Access
Parent Organizations: DOC / NOAA / OAR
 Project: Climate and air quality research
Dates: Oct 1992 to na
Performer: Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory
 Type:     Federal Government
 Location: Not Specified  
Description: TITLE: Climate and air quality control :: LONG DESCR: Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory/Climate and air quality control OCEAN CLIMATE RESEARCH -- TOGA-TAO Observing Array in the Tropical Pacific:  The Tropical Ocean-Global Atmosphere (TOGA) Tropical Atmosphere Ocean (TAO) array of Autonomous Temperature Line Acquisition System  (ATLAS) moorings and Profile Telemetry of Upper Ocean Currents (PROTEUS) moorings grew from 49 to 65 sites during FY 93. The array includes five sites specific to the TOGA Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere Response Experiment (TOGA- COARE)  in the western Pacific.  The time series at 0o, 110oW is now more than 13 years long. The Pacific array is supported by five nations (United States, Japan, Korea, France, and Taiwan).  In addition, two TAO moorings were deployed in the Indian Ocean in July 1993 in collaboration with Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization (CSIRO) of Australia and the Institute of Meereskunde in Germany.  The Indian Ocean moorings were deployed to study wind and temperature variability associated with the monsoons during the Indian Ocean World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE). The Pacific Array will be completed by the end of 1994.  A TOGATAO Implementation Panel was instituted in FY 93 under sponsorship of the International TOGA Scientific Steering Group to ensure a coordinated multinational approach to implementation. TAO has been identified in national and international climate program plans as a high priority for continuation when TOGA ends in December 1994, after which the array will be maintained in support of the Climate Variability and Prediction Program (CLIVAR), Global Ocean Observing System (GOOS), and Global Climate Observing System (GCOS).  In FY 93, PMEL signed a memorandum of understanding with Japan Marine Science and Technology Center (JAMSTEC) for the study of short-term climate studies with an initial focus on the tropical Pacific.  As part of this agreement, JAMSTEC has pledged 50 days of shiptime per year for the next 10 years to support the TAO Array west of the international dateline.  A major breakthrough occurred in November 1992 in the transmission of the TAO Argos data stream on the Global Telecommunication System (GTS).  Data throughput from TAO Array buoys to the GTS increased from 10-30% to 80-90% of the data available at the buoys. Operational centers, e.g., National Meteorological Center (NMC), European Centre for Medium- Range Weather Forecasting (ECMWF), and FNMOC, are now assimilating TAO data into numerical weather prediction models in much larger numbers than previously, and impact studies are under way to assess resultant improvements in operational analyses and predictions. The TAO Display Software is an interactive system for distributing and displaying the real-time data from the TOGA-TAO buoys in a modern, point-and-click, UNIX or X-window, workstation environment.  In FY 93, new graphics displays were added, including time-longitude plots, objectively analyzed fields of sea surface temperature (SST) and dynamic height, new animations, and access to the previous 12 months of data.  Under development is a new release of the software that will include access to historical TAO data and displays of related datasets, such as the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Topographic Experiment (TOPEX), POSEIDON (French component of joint U.S./French TOPEX/POSEIDON sea surface topography satellite mission; not an acronym), and European Satellite Agency (ERS) Remote Sensing Satellite-1 (ERS-1) data, in addition to basic display and analysis tools. In FY 93, approximately 15 refereed journal articles were published using TAO data, in addition to approximately 25 technical reports, articles in meeting proceedings, published abstracts, and news articles.  About 60% of these involve PMEL authors.  Research at PMEL has focused in part on a description of the 1991-1993 El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) that evolved differently from any previous ENSO in the past 40 years (i.e., the period over which sufficient data exist to make meaningful comparisons).  An analysis of ocean-atmosphere coupling on intraseasonal time scales has shown that surface winds associated with atmospheric convection propagating from the Indian Ocean to the Pacific Ocean excites equatorial Kelvin waves, which can be traced into the eastern Pacific Ocean.  These linked Indo- Pacific phenomena may play an important role in the dynamics of ENSO.  Other studies include examination of the role of shallow haloclines in the heat budget of the western Pacific; the statistics of rainfall variability and its relationship to rainfall west of the dateline; a basin-scale description of the diurnal cycle in the tropical Pacific; the relationship between diurnal heating, surface heat fluxes, internal mixing, and internal waves in the cold-tongue region; descriptive and diagnostic studies of the annual cycle of currents and temperature in the tropical Pacific; the importance of trade wind fetch in determining the strength of the Equatorial Undercurrent; validation of sea level measurements from the TOPEX/POSEIDON altimeter; the role of instability waves in determining the distribution of CO2 gas concentrations in the equatorial cold tongue; the importance of clouds versus evaporative heat flux in limiting maximum SSTs in the western equatorial Pacific warm pool; and scale analyses of upper ocean thermal variability using moored time series data, with a view toward improving thermal field sampling strategies for short-term climate studies. Carbon Dioxide Program:  The primary objective of NOAA's Ocean Atmosphere Carbon Dioxide Exchange Study is to assess quantitatively the fate of CO2 in the atmosphere and oceans.  To do this, the natural sources and sinks of CO2 must be determined.  During FY 93, the PMEL CO2 group continued to participate in the U.S. Joint Global Ocean Flux Study  (JGOFS) Equatorial Pacific Process Study.  The goal of this study was to determine the relationship between the biogeochemical cycles of carbon and nitrogen species and physical forcing in the upper ocean. The fall cruise on NOAA ship Discoverer was a companion to the spring cruise aboard NOAA ship Malcolm Baldrige, during which time the 1991-1992 ENSO was occurring.  These cruises were integrated with the National Science Foundation (NSF)-funded process studies along 140oW aboard the R/V Thompson.  CO2 partial pressures and wind data from the spring and fall cruises indicated significant reductions (0.5-0.7 gigatons of carbon per year) in the air-sea exchange of CO2 in the eastern tropical Pacific during the ENSO period as compared with non-ENSO periods.  This resulted in an appropriate slowdown in the rate of growth of CO2 in the atmosphere.  The data from the JGOFS cruises provide the first comprehensive data source that substantiates this important process  in the global carbon cycle.  The CO2 group also participated in a joint Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory (AOML)/PMEL cruise aboard NOAA ship Malcolm Baldrige to determine the source and sink regions of CO2 in the equatorial and North Atlantic. Chlorofluorocarbon Tracer Program:  Data from six earlier cruises were published in a NOAA Data Report. A report also was published that discusses the chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) Tracer group's techniques for preparing CFC intercomparison standards, and that presents the results of a multinational CFC intercomparison program for WOCE.  For the second year, CFCs and helium and tritium were used as tracers to monitor variability of a dense water formation and ventilation process in the Greenland-Iceland-Norwegian Seas as part of NOAA's Atlantic Climate Change Program (ACCP).  A system was constructed for the sealing and long-term storage of seawater samples for CFC analysis.  A UNIX-based computer system for acquiring and processing data at sea was implemented.  This system will speed the processing and interpretation of future datasets. Oceanographic expeditions to the western Pacific and North Atlantic were conducted to repeat CTD and tracer sections occupied in these areas in 1987 and 1988, respectively. Radiatively Important Trace Species/Aerosol Program:  As part of the Radiatively Important Trace Species (RITS)/Analysis Program, PMEL scientists conducted a cruise in 1993 from Antarctica to the Gulf of Alaska to measure radiatively important trace gases in the surface ocean and overlying atmosphere and aerosols in the marine boundary layer.  Work continued on assessing the ocean-atmosphere flux of methane, carbon monoxide, and dimethylsulfide.  A major addition to the program was the initiation of daily chemical aerosol sampling at the new NOAA aerosol monitoring stations in North America.  The results from this study will be used to assess the anthropogenic impact of aerosol particles on the radiative forcing of Earth's climate. Thermal Modeling and Analysis Project:  The Thermal Modeling and Analysis Project continued to be involved in the enhancement of the integrated model-observations gridded dataset analysis system (called FERRET) in a variety of satellite and in situ data analysis projects associated with tropical ocean-atmosphere variability and in model studies of the forced tropical ocean. Data analysis work centered on trying to determine the space-time structure of westerly wind events in the western tropical Pacific to see if it is possible to introduce a taxonomy for westerly wind events based on quantitative criteria and to construct various statistics including composites.  Both satellite wind datasets and analyses of surface winds from NMC, FNMOC, and ECMWF were used.  Also a detailed study of the characteristics of ENSO at the ocean surface since 1951 has begun.  This study is motivated by the fact that ENSO events since 1972 have tended not to resemble the composite ENSO evaluated by other researchers.  Numerical modeling work has involved studies of both the 19861988 and 1991-1993 ENSO.  Hindcasts have been made of all the ENSO events since 1957 using the Florida State University pseudo-stress fields to examine the similarities and differences between events according to the model.  This effort is motivated by the very serious lack of subsurface observations for ENSO periods during most of this period.  A number of idealized studies have also been made to explore the processes responsible for the seasonal evolution of upper ocean SST and currents in the tropical Pacific. New features added to FERRET in FY 93 include a state-of-the-art, color, on-screen animation capability; compatibility with EPIC (not an acronym), which is PMEL's system for management, display, and analysis of oceanographic data; and a port to the Macintosh computer. Progress also was made in developing a point-and-click, graphical user interface (GUI) and output through the Generic Mapping Tools (GMT) package, which provides publication-quality mapping projections.  Sites actively using FERRET are the National Center for Atmospheric Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Los Alamos National Laboratory, National Marine Fisheries Service, University of Hawaii, University of Rhode Island, University of British Columbia, Texas A&M University, University of Washington (six departments), and numerous others. Western Boundary Currents:  Estimates of the transport variations in the Florida Current continue to be made from cross-stream voltage measurements using an abandoned cable between Key West, Florida, and Havana, Cuba, and an in-service telephone cable between West Palm Beach, Florida, and Eight Mile Rock, Grand Bahamas Island.  The Key West voltages have been calibrated by the use of downstream estimates of the transport derived from current meter mooring data.  These transport measurements show a 3- to 6-sverdrup (Sv) increase in transport between Key West (the southern end of the Straits of Florida) and West Palm Beach (the northern end of the Straits of Florida) due to transport into the Straits through the side channels.  The long-term mean transport is 32 Sv at West Palm Beach.  Almost no correlation exists in the transport variations between Key West and West Palm Beach.  The lack of correlation probably is due to eddy and meandering motions being transported downstream as the Straits of Florida shoals and changes direction.  Voltage measurements have been started using one of the  abandoned undersea telephone cables extending northeast from Hampden, White Bay, Newfoundland, into the Labrador Sea.  The measurement of the cable resistance indicates the cable extends about 270 nautical miles to the edge of the continental shelf (200300 km depth) where it is broken.  Historically, cable breaks due to trawlers usually have occurred at the edge of the shelf.  Because of the present moratorium on fishing, this cable is likely to remain intact for a very long time.  This cable, therefore, is suitable for long-term monitoring of cross-stream voltages and, thereby, the transport of the Labrador currents on the shelf. These observations will be carried out in collaboration with Memorial University, St. John's, Newfoundland, Canada ::


 Hit 25 of 277 -- Awd #: DF993669 
 Award Type: Extramural / Contracts / Not Otherwise Specified
Access/Distribution Restriction:
 Code: B - U.S. Federal Government Access Only
 Reason: CL - Critical Technology (EXPORT CONTROLLED)
Parent Organizations: DOD / DARPA / 0602301E - Computing Systems & Communications Technology
 Project: Project number unspecified
Dates: Apr 1997 to Jul 2000
Performer: MAYA DESIGN INC  PITTSBURGH PA
 Type:     Industry/Business
 Contact:  CONDRICK, J.E., Phone: 412-488-2900
 14th Congressional District in Pennsylvania        
 Location: Pittsburgh,   PA
Description: TITLE: A MEDIUM FOR DISTRIBUTED COLLABORATIOIN IN INFORMATION INTENSIVE DOMAINS :: LONG DESCR: DESIGN AND DEVELOP A COMPREHENSIVE COLLABORATIVE VISUAL USER INTERFACE MEDIUM THAT PERMITS SEAMLESS INTEGRATION OF INDIVIDUAL INFORMATION ANALYSIS PROCESSES, SYNCHRONIZED MULTI-USER COLLABORATION, EFFICIENT WORKFLOW ORGANIZATION AND MONITORING, AND ASYNCHRONOUS COMMUNICATION THROUGH WEB SEARCH AND PUBLISHING ACTIVITIES. FUNCTION: SUPPORT THE DEVELOPMENT OF INTELLIGENT COLLABORATION AND VISUALIZATION TECHNOLOGIES USED WITHIN REAL-TIME C4I APPLICATIONS. DEFICIENCY: PROVIDE THE ABILITY TO SUPPORT BOTH DISTRIBUTED AND LOCALIZED MULTI-USER COLLABORATION IN ENVIRONMENTS REQUIRING ACCESS, ANALYSIS, AND COMMUNICATION OF LARGE AMOUNTS OF DIVERSE INFORMATION. CONTRIBUTION: PROVIDE COLLABORATIVE TECHNIQUES AND TOOLS TO INFORMATION INTENSIVE AIR CAMPAIGN SCHEDULING APPLICATIONS, AS WELL AS, OTHER C4I APPLICATION ENVIRONMENTS. PROVIDE A PROTOTYPE ENVIRONMENT THAT ALLOWS SEAMLESS INTEGRATION OF SYNCHRONOUS MULIT-USER COLLABORATION AND SENTINEL-SUPPORTED ASYNCHRONOUS COMMUNICATION FOR EFFICIENT HANDLING OF TASKS, CULMINATING IN A MECHANISM FOR THE DIRECTING AND PROCESSING INFORMATION IN THE WORKFLOW SYSTEM :: STAGE: APPLIED RESEARCH AND EXPLORATORY DEVELOPMENT  :: TYPE: R&D-OTHER DEFENSE-A RES/EXPL DEV :: KEYWORDS: AIR;ASYNCHRONOUS SYSTEMS;COMMUNICATION AND RADIO SYSTEMS;DISTRIBUTION;EFFICIENCY;ENVIRONMENTS;FEEDBACK;HANDLING;HAWAII;INFORMATION PROCESSING;INTERFACES;PROTOTYPES;SCHEDULING;SEARCHING;SYNCHRONISM;USER NEEDS;VALUE;VISION;WEBS(SHEETS);C4I;MULTI-USER COLLABORATION ::


Hit 27 of 277 -- Awd #: DN453646 
 Award Type: Extramural / Contracts / Not Otherwise Specified
Access/Distribution Restriction:
 Code: A - Distribution Unlimited - Unrestricted Access
Parent Organizations: DOD / DARPA / 0602301E - Computing Systems & Communications Technology
 Project: Project number unspecified
Dates: Jan 1998 to Apr 2002
Performer: SRI INTERNATIONAL  MENLO PARK CA
 Type:     Nonprofit (Non-Educational)
 Contact:  BOLLES,ROBERT, Phone: 415-859-4620
 12th Congressional District in California         
 Location: Menlo Park,   CA
Description: TITLE: EXTRA SET OF EYES :: LONG DESCR: THE OBJECTIVE IS TO DEVELOP A PORTABLE, INEXPENSIVE, SELF-CONTAINED (SENSORS, PROCESSING, RADIO, AND BATTERY) SMALL SENTRY MODULES (SSMS) THAT CAN AUTONOMOUSLY DETECT, CHARACTERIZE, CLASSIFY, AND REPORT MOVING OBJECTS, SUCH AS PEOPLE, ANIMALS, AND VEHICLES. A SEQUENCE OF PROGRESSIVELY MORE COMPETENT AND DEPLOYABLE SMALL SENTRY MODULES (SSMS) AND THEIR ASSOCIATED CONTROL AND COMMUNICATION COMPONENTS WILL BE DEVELOPED. ALGORITHMS FOR DETECTION, TRACKING, CHARATERIZING, AND CLASSIFYING MOVING OBJECTS OBSERVED BY DEPLOYED NETWORKS OF SSMS WILL BE DEVELOPED. THE TOP LEVEL STRATEGY IS TO CONTINUOUSLY MONITOR A SCENE, REFINING AND STORING LOCAL DESCRIPTIONS OF IT UNTIL ONE OF THE DETECTION SENSORS SIGNALS A "MOTION EVENT" AT WHICH POINT THE SEGMENTATION, TRACKING, AND CLASSIFICATION PROCEDURES START TO IDENTIFY COHERENT COMPONENTS AND CHARACTERIZE THEIR MOVEMENTS. A NEW APPROACH TO SEGMENTATION WILL BE DEVELOPED WHICH WILL USE STEREO ANALYSIS TO EXTRACT 3D PROPERTIES OF THE SCENE, LONG SEQUENCES OF IMAGES, APPLY A TWO-PASS APPROACH TO ASSIGNMENT AND THEN COMPLETE THE SEGMENTATION BY ASSIGNING AMIBIGUOUS IMAGE PATCHES AND FEATURES TO OBJECTS SUCH THAT THE RESULTING CONFIGURATIONS REPRESENT THE SIMPLEST EXPLANATION OF THE DATA, IN TERMS OF MINIMUM-DESCRIPTION LENGTH. IN THE CHARACTERIZATION PHASE, PROPERTIES OF THE EXTRACTED OBJECT SUCH AS 3D SIZE, 3D LOCATION, TRAJECTORY, VELOCITY, AND ARTICULATION ARE COMPUTED AND USED FOR OBJECT CLASSFICATION. FOR ARTICULATED OBJECTS, THIS MAY INVOLVE ANALYSIS OF GRAPH STRUCTURES THAT MODEL OBJECT COMPONENTS SUCH AS TURRETS ROTATING, LEGS WALKING AND WHEELS ROLLING. TECHNIQUES FOR COOPERATIVE USE OF NETWORKED SSMS SENSORS WILL BE EXPLORED :: STAGE: ADVANCED DEVELOPMENT  :: TYPE: R&D-ELECTRONICS & COMM EQ-ADV DEV :: KEYWORDS: ALGORITHMS;ALLOCATIONS;ANIMALS;AUTOMATIC;CLASSIFICATION;COHERENCE;COMMUNICATION EQUIPMENT;CONTINUITY;DEMONSTRATIONS;DEPLOYMENT;DETECTION;DETECTORS;EXTRACTION;EYE;GRAPHS;GROUND LEVEL;IMAGES;LEGS;MODELS;MODULAR CONSTRUCTION;MONITORING;MOVING TARGETS;NETWORKS;PICTURES;REAL TIME;REPORTS;ROLL;SEGMENTED;SEQUENCES;SIGNALS;STRATEGY;STRUCTURES;SURVEILLANCE;TARGET RECOGNITION;TRACKING;TRAJECTORIES;VIDEO SIGNALS;VISION;WALKING;WHEELS;VIDEO SURVEILLANCE;UNATTENDED GROUND SENSORS;AUTOMATIC TARGET               RECOGNITION;SCENE ANALYSIS ::

Hit 28 of 277 -- Awd #: DN453650 
 Award Type: Extramural / Grants / Project
Access/Distribution Restriction:
 Code: A - Distribution Unlimited - Unrestricted Access
Parent Organizations: DOD / DARPA / 0602301E - Computing Systems & Communications Technology
 Project: Project number unspecified
Dates: Feb 1998 to May 1999
Performer: MASSACHUSETTS INST OF TECH  CAMBRIDGE
 Type:     Private Educational Institution
 Contact:  GRIMSON,W., Phone: 617-253-6693
 8th Congressional District in Massachusetts        
 Location: Cambridge,   MA
Description: TITLE: A FOREST OF SENSORS :: LONG DESCR: THE OBJECTIVE IS TO DEVELOP THE CONCEPT OF A FOREST OF SENSORS BY DESIGNING AND BUILDING AUTONOMOUS VISION MODULES AND USING THE PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISTICS OF THESE MODULES TO DESIGN AND IMPLEMENT ALGORITHMS THAT WILL COORDINATE THE SENSING OF A SUITE OF DISTRIBUTED SENSORS. THE INITIAL HARDWARE TESTBED WILL BE THE CHEAP VISION MACHINE (CVM), AND COMPACT VISION MODULE BASED ON A C32 DSP. A SECOND GENERATION CVM WILL BE DEVELOPED BASED ON MORE POWERFUL DSP CHIPS. THE ALGORITHMS FOR DEVELOPING A DISTRIBUTED SYSTEM OF AUTONOMOUS VISION MODULES (AVMS) FOR ACTIVITY DETECTION AND MONITORING WILL HAVE SEVERAL COMPONENTS: (1) CALIBRATION OF THE FOREST OF SENSORS - BOTH GEOMETRIC AND ACTIVITY CALIBRATION, PRIMITIVE DETECTION - SPATIAL DETECTION OF PRIMITIVES, EG. PEOPLE, HANDS, VEHICLES, ETC. AND TEMPORAL DETECTION OF PATTERNS OF ACTIVITY INVOLVING SPATIAL PRIMITIVES, (2) SITE MODELS - FOR ESTABLISHING CONTEXT TO AID IN INTERPRETATION OF ACTIVITIES, AND (3) HIERARCHICAL MODELS OF ACTIVITY - INVOLVING COORDINATED ACTIVITIES OF MULTIPLE PRIMITIVES, PATTERNS OF ACTIVITY ACROSS TEMPORAL SEQUENCES, ETC. BY COMBINING A FOREST OF SIMPLE HARDWARE/SOFTWARE VISION SYSTEMS, NEW MONITORING CAPABILITIES WILL BE ACHIEVED. BY MEANS OF GEOMETRIC AND MOTION CALIBRATION, A FOREST OF SENSORS CAN BUILD STATIC MODELS OF SITES AND DYNAMIC MODELS OF MOBILE OBJECTS. BY MATCHING COORDINATED OBSERVATIONS OF OBJECTS WITH PHYSICAL MODELS, A FOREST OF SENSORS CAN INTERPRET OBSERVED ACTIVITIES :: KEYWORDS: ALGORITHMS;AUTOMATIC;CALIBRATION;CAMERAS;DETECTION;DETECTORS;DISTRIBUTION;DYNAMICS;FORESTS;GEOMETRY;HANDS;HIERARCHIES;IMAGES;MOBILE;MODELS;MODULAR CONSTRUCTION;MONITORING;MOTION;MOVING TARGETS;PATTERNS;PHYSICAL PROPERTIES;REAL TIME;SELF OPERATION;SITES;SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION;STATICS;STATISTICAL DATA;TARGET RECOGNITION;TEST BEDS;TRACKING;VEHICLES;VISION;AUTONOMOUS VISION;SITE MODELS;AUTOMATIC TARGET RECOGNITION;ACTIVITY RECOGNIT ::

Hit 29 of 277 -- Awd #: DF993557 
 Award Type: Extramural / Grants / Project
Access/Distribution Restriction:
 Code: B - U.S. Federal Government Access Only
 Reason: CL - Critical Technology (EXPORT CONTROLLED)
Parent Organizations: DOD / DARPA / 0603226E - Experimental Evaluation of Major Innovative Tech
 Project: Project number unspecified
Dates: Apr 1996 to Jun 2000
Performer: STANFORD UNIV  CA
 Type:     Private Educational Institution
 Contact:  UNK, Phone: 415-723-1242
 12th Congressional District in California        
 Location: Stanford,   CA
Description: TITLE: ARCHITECTURE DRIVEN CONSTRUCTION AND MONITORING :: LONG DESCR: FUNCTION: C2 TECHNOLOGY, KNOWLEDGE AND SOFTWARE ENGINEERING. DEFICIENCY: EFFICIENT AND EFFECTIVE METHODS FOR SYSTEMS TO KEEP UP WITH CHANGING REQUIREMENTS AND OPERATING ENVIRONMENTS OVER THEIR LIFETIMES. OBJECTIVE: DEVELOP AND DEMONSTRATE INNOVATIVE APPROACHES AND TECHNIQUES TO SUPPORT RAPID INCORPORATION OF NEW REQUIREMENTS AND TECHNOLOGIES INTO AN EVOLVING SYSTEM'S CAPABILITIES AND ARCHITECTURE. CONTRIBUTION: SUBSTANTIALLY REDUCE THE OVERALL DEVELOPMENT TIME FOR NEW SYSTEMS, REDUCE THE TIME TO PROVIDE FIXES, CUSTOMIZATIONS, AND UPGRADES TO SYSTEMS IN DEPLOYMENT, AND INCREASE THE QUALITY OF THE RESULTING SOFTWARE SYSTEMS. DEVELOP AND DEMONSTRATE (1)EXTENSIONS TO THE CORBA IDL TO PERMIT THE SPECIFICATION OF OBJECT INTERCONNECTIONS, COMMUNICATION PROTOCOLS, LIVENESS, SECURITY, AND SAFETY FEATURES; (2) ORB INSTRUMENTATION TO GENERATE EVENT HISTORIES; (3) CONSTRAINT CHECKING OF EXECUTING ORB-BASED APPLICATIONS; AND (4)INTEGRATION OF RAPID ANALYSIS AND ANIMATION TOOLS ON INSTRUMENTAL ORB'S :: KEYWORDS: ARCHITECTURE;AVIONICS;CIRCUIT INTERCONNECTIONS;CODING;COMPILERS;COMPUTER PROGRAMS;CONSTRUCTION;DISTRIBUTION;ENGINEERS;EVOLUTION(GENERAL);JAVA;NUMERICAL ANALYSIS;NUMERICAL INTEGRATION;PROCESSING;REAL TIME;RELEASE;REQUIREMENTS;SAFETY;SPECIFICATIONS;TIME;TOOL KITS;CORBA IDL;ORB-BASED APPLICATIONS;RAPIDE ANALYSIS ::

**STOPPED here


Hit 30 of 277 -- Awd #: DF579678 
 Award Type: Extramural / Grants / Project
Access/Distribution Restriction:
 Code: B - U.S. Federal Government Access Only
 Reason: CL - Critical Technology (EXPORT CONTROLLED)
Parent Organizations: DOD / DARPA / 0603760E - Command, Control and Communications Systems
 Project: Project number unspecified
Dates: May 1999 to Jul 2002
Performer: MASSACHUSETTS INST OF TECH  CAMBRIDGE
 Type:     Private Educational Institution
 Contact:  NORRIS, JULIE T, Phone: 617-253-3856
 8th Congressional District in Massachusetts        
 Location: Cambridge,   MA
Description: TITLE: ADAPTIVE KNOWLEDGE-BASED MONITORING FOR INFORMATION ASSURANCE :: LONG DESCR: DEVELOP PATTERN AND CIRCUMSTANCE RECOGNITION TECHNOLOGY FOR REAL TIME THREAT ANALYSIS. FUNCTION: PROTECT THE AIR FORCE INFORMATION INFRASTRUCTURE. DEFICIENCY: THE INABILITY TO MONITOR SYSTEMS IN AN EVOLVING ENVIRONMENT TO DETECT POTENTIAL THREATS TO AIR FORCE SYSTEMS. CONTRIBUTION: CAPABILITY TO ALLOW THE SECURITY ANALYST TO IDENTIFY AND DEFEND AGAINST ELECTRONIC ATTACKS. CONSTRUCT TOOLS AND KNOWLEDGE BASE LIBRARIES TO ENABLE SECURITY ANALYSTS TO RAPIDLY RESPOND TO NETWORK ATTACKS :: KEYWORDS: ADAPTIVE SYSTEMS;AIR FORCE;ANALYSTS;ATTACK;COMPUTERS;ELECTRONICS;INFRASTRUCTURE;KNOWLEDGE BASED SYSTEMS;LIBRARIES;MONITORING;NETWORKS;PROTECTION;REAL TIME;RECOGNITION;SECURITY;SYSTEMS ANALYSIS;THREAT EVALUATION;THREATS;KNOWLEDGE BASE LIBRARIES;SECURITY ANALYSIS;REAL TIME THREAT ANALYSIS;COMPUTER PROTECTION ::

Hit 31 of 277 -- Awd #: DN053865 
 Award Type: Extramural / Contracts / Not Otherwise Specified
Access/Distribution Restriction:
 Code: A - Distribution Unlimited - Unrestricted Access
Parent Organizations: DOD / DARPA / 0603763E - Marine Technology
 Project: Project number unspecified
Dates: Jul 1998 to Dec 1998
Performer: BBN LABS INC  CAMBRIDGE MA
 Type:     Industry/Business
 Contact:  TIELKING,TERRY, Phone: 703-284-4691
 8th Congressional District in Massachusetts        
 Location: Cambridge,   MA
Description: TITLE: LONG TERM ACOUSTIC STUDY ACOUSTIC DATA MONITORING, RECORDING AND ARCHIVING FOR THE FULL FIELD PROGRAM (FFP) :: LONG DESCR: BBN WILL MODIFY THE CURRENT DATA COLLECTION SYSTEM OF THE OFFICE OF NAVAL RESEARCH'S LONG TERM ACOUSTIC STUDY (LTAS) PROJECT TO SUPPORT THE FULL FIELD PROGRAM (FFP) ACOUSTIC DATA COLLECTION EFFORT WITH A SERIES OF ARRAYS LOCATED OFF THE CALIFORNIA COAST. A NEW ACOUSTIC DATA RECORDING AND ARCHIVING CONFIGURATION, BASED ON DIFFERENT DATA RATES, IS REQUIRED. THE MODIFIED LTAS PROCESSOR, AS CONFIGURED TO SUPPORT THE TWO-WEEK FFP SEA TEST DATA COLLECTION EFFORT, WILL PERFORM THE FOLLOWING FUNCTIONS: ARCHIVE 150 CHANNELS OF LOW DATA RATE (LDR) 3-BYTE DATA SAMPLED AT 4 KHZ TO DATA TAPES. ARCHIVE 20 CHANNELS OF HIGH DATA RATE (HDR) 2-BYTE DATA SAMPLED AT 48 KHZ TO DATA TAPES. PERFORM ELEMENT-LEVEL CHECK AND ELEMENT PSD CALCULATIONS. HDR DATA WILL BE BASEBANDED AND DECIMATED BEFORE PSD CALCULATIONS. PROVIDE TWO REAL-TIME DISPLAY FORMATS: "SYSTEM STATUS DISPLAY" FOR DATA QUALITY MONITORING AND "SPECTROGRAM DISPLAY" FOR DISPLAYING THE ELEMENT LEVEL SPECTROGRAMS. SPECIFY AND PROCURE HARDWARE. NEW HARDWARE IS REQUIRED TO INTERFACE TO THE FIBER ATM NETWORK. IN ADDITION, THE HIGH DATA RATES OF THE RAW DATA WILL REQUIRE THE PURCHASE OF FASTER DATA TAPE DRIVES. RECONFIGURE LTAS SOFTWARE TO SUPPORT ACOUSTIC DATA COLLECTION FROM THE FFP ARRAYS. THIS TASK INCLUDES THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE SOFTWARE TO DEMULTIPLEX/EXTRACT DATA FROM THE ATM FORMAT, AND THE RECONFIGURATION OF THE ARCHIVE/DATA QUALITY MONITORING SOFTWARE TO THE APPROPRIATE NUMBER OF FFP ARRAY CHANNELS/NODES/SAMPLE RATES, ETC. INTEGRATE AND TEST AT BBN. A SAIC PROVIDED STIMULATOR IS REQUIRED FOR THIS TASK TO TEST THE ATM INTERFACE AND THE RECORDING SYSTEM :: STAGE: APPLIED RESEARCH AND EXPLORATORY DEVELOPMENT  :: TYPE: R&D-OTHER DEFENSE-A RES/EXPL DEV :: KEYWORDS: ACCESS TIME;ACOUSTIC DATA;ACOUSTICS;ARRAYS;CALIFORNIA;CHANNELS;COASTAL REGIONS;COLLECTION;COMPUTER PROGRAMMING;COMPUTER PROGRAMS;DATA ACQUISITION;DATA MANAGEMENT;DATA PROCESSING;DATA RATE;DISPLAY SYSTEMS;DRIVES;FIBERS;FORMATS;HIGH RATE;INTERFACES;LONG RANGE(TIME);LOW RATE;MAGNETIC TAPE;MEASUREMENT;MONITORING;NETWORKS;NODES;OCEANOGRAPHIC DATA;QUALITY;REAL TIME;RECORDING SYSTEMS;SEA TESTING;SHALLOW WATER;SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION;SPECTROGRAPHY;TEST AND EVALUATION;VARIATIONS;SHALLOW WATER;TEMPORAL VARIABILITY;SPATIAL VARIABILITY;LONG-TERM MEASUREMENT ::

Hit 32 of 277 -- Awd #: DF579661 
 Award Type: Extramural / Contracts / Not Otherwise Specified
Access/Distribution Restriction:
 Code: B - U.S. Federal Government Access Only
 Reason: CL - Critical Technology (EXPORT CONTROLLED)
Parent Organizations: DOD / USAF / 0303140F - Information Systems Security Program
 Project: Project number unspecified
Dates: May 1999 to Nov 2000
Performer: ORINCON CORP  LA JOLLA CA
 Type:     Industry/Business
 Contact:  TAYLOR, RICHARD L, Phone: 000-UNK
 43th Congressional District in California        
 Location: La Jolla,   CA
Description: TITLE: DISTRIBUTED AGENT INFORMATION WARFARE FRAMEWORK (DAIWF) :: LONG DESCR: DEVELOP CAPABILITIES TO MONITOR NETWORK TRAFFIC IN REAL-TIME, ALERT ANALYSTS ABOUT INFORMATION ATTACK AND PROVIDE RECOMMENDATIONS FOR INFORMATION-BASED COUNTERMEASURES. FUNCTION: INFORMATION SECURITY/DEFENSIVE INFORMATION WARFARE. DEFICIENCY: IS IN THE AREA OF DETECTING AND RESPONDING TO KNOWN AND NOVEL THREATENING AND SUSPICIOUS EVENTS IN COMPUTER NETWORKS. CONTRIBUTION: IMPROVED DETECTION AND RESPONSE CAPABILITY FOR DEFENSIVE INFORMATION WARFARE. EXTEND AN OPERATIONAL DEFENSIVE INFORMATION WARFARE DETECTIOIN AND RESPONSE SYSTEM PROTOTYPE DEVELOPED DURING PHASE II. THIS EXTENSION WILL EXPAND THE PROTOTYPE'S FUNCTIONALITY AND ROBUSTNESS THROUGH DEVELOPMENT OF ADDITIONAL RESONING TECHNIQUES. FURTHER, THIS EFFORT WILL GENERATE PRODUCTS DESIGNED AND IMPLEMENTED TO PROVIDE EARLY WARNING FOR SYSTEMS, MAKING PENETRATION ATTEMPTS UNPROFITABLE IN TERMS OF BOTH THE COMPUTER RESOURCES REQUIRED TO MOUNT AN ATTACK AND THE TIEM REQUIRED TO TARGET THE PROTECTED SYSTEM. THE PROTOTYPE WILL PROVIDE DETERRENCE BY IMPLEMENTING NETWORK-LEVEL ANALYSIS, HOST-LEVEL ANALYSIS, AND COMPREHENSIVE SITUATION AWARENESS THROUGH THE MULTI-HYPOTHESIS FUSION OF EVIDENCE STREAMS :: STAGE: BASIC RESEARCH  :: TYPE: OTHER DEFENSE (BASIC) :: KEYWORDS: ANALYSTS;ATTACK;AWARENESS;COMPUTER NETWORKS;COMPUTERS;COUNTERMEASURES;DEFENSE SYSTEMS;DETECTION;DISTRIBUTION;EARLY WARNING SYSTEMS;INFORMATION WARFARE;MONITORING;NETWORK ANALYSIS(MANAGEMENT);NETWORKS;OPERATIONAL READINESS;PROTOTYPES;RESOURCES;RESPONSE;SECURITY;TRAFFIC;INFORMATION SECURITY;NETWORK TRAFFIC MONITOR;NETWORK LEVEL ANALYSIS;SITUATION AWARENESS;MULTI-HYPOTHESIS FUSION;INFORMATION BASED COUNTERMEASURES ::

Hit 33 of 277 -- Awd #: DF594962 
 Award Type: Extramural / Contracts / Not Otherwise Specified
Access/Distribution Restriction:
 Code: A - Distribution Unlimited - Unrestricted Access
Parent Organizations: DOD / USAF / 0305160F - Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) (SPACE)
 Project: Project number unspecified
Dates: Jan 1997 to Apr 1999
Performer: PHILLIPS LAB  HANSCOM AFB MA
 Type:     Federal Government
 5th Congressional District in Massachusetts        
 Location: Hanscom Afb,   MA
Description: TITLE: APPLICATIONS OF MODELS :: LONG DESCR: ENHANCE THE PERFORMANCE OF AIR FORCE IONOSPHERIC SPECIFICATION SYSTEMS, PRIMARILY ACHIEVED THROUGH THEORETICAL MODELING STUDIES. EXTEND THE SCOPE OF A THEORETICAL IONOSPHERIC MODEL TO PLASMASPHERIC ALTITUDES AND IN THE PROCESS UPDATING THE PHYSICAL PROCESSES DESCRIBED IN THE MODEL, INCLUDING VALIDATION OF THE MODEL AGAINST SATELLITE AND RADAR MEASUSREMENTS. DEVELOP MEANS OF DRIVING A SPECIFICATION VERSION OF THE THEORETICAL MODEL MAKING USE OF A WIDER RANGE OF PHYSICAL INPUTS FROM BOTH SATELLITE AND GROUND-BASED OBSERVATIONS. USE THEORETICAL PLASMASPHERIC MODEL TO STUDY MORPHOLOGY OF LIGHT ION DENSITIES IN THE LOW LATITUDE TOPSIDE IONOSPHERE. MODIFY MODEL TO ACCEPT REAL-TIME ADJUSTMENTS TO PLASMASPHERIC DENSITIES BASED ON GROUND- AND SATELLITE BASED MEASUREMENTS. COMPARE MODEL OUTPUTS WITH OBSERVATIONS OF QUIET-TIME VARIATIONS IN THE IONOSPHERIC F-REGION. USE DMSP AND TOPEX SATELLITE DATABASES TO FORMULATE BASIS OF SATELLITE-BASED IONOPSHERIC MONITORING SYSTEMS :: KEYWORDS: ALTITUDE;ARTIFICIAL SATELLITES;DATA BASES;EQUATORIAL REGIONS;F REGION;GROUND BASED;ION DENSITY;IONOSPHERE;IONOSPHERIC MODELS;IONS;LIGHTWEIGHT;MATHEMATICAL MODELS;MEASUREMENT;MODELS;MONITORING;MORPHOLOGY;OUTPUT;PLASMASPHERE;RADAR;REAL TIME;THEORY;VALIDATION;FIRST PRINCIPLES MODELS PLASMASPHERIC DENSITIES;LOW LATITUDE IONOSPHERE ::

Hit 34 of 277 -- Awd #: DF001303 
 Award Type: Extramural / Grants / Project
Access/Distribution Restriction:
 Code: C - U.S. Federal Government and Contractors Only
 Reason: AD - Administrative or Operational Use Data
Parent Organizations: DOD / USAF / 0601102F - Defense Research Sciences
 Project: 2305 - Electronics
Dates: Aug 1996 to Mar 1999
Performer: UNIVERSITY OF CENTRAL FLORIDA  ORLANDO
 Type:     Public Educational Institution
 Contact:  STEGEMAN, GEORGE I, Phone: 4076583915
 9th Congressional District in Florida        
 Location: Orlando,   FL
Description: TITLE: RECONFIGURABLE NETWORK ROUTING WITH SPATIAL SOLITON CROSSBAR SWITCHES :: LONG DESCR: UNARR. ------ OBJT. THE PURPOSE OF THIS RESEARCH IS TO DEVELOP NEW METHODS FOR ACTIVE NONLINEAR CONTROLLER DESIGN AND MONITORING OF STALL PHENOMENA IN MULTISTAGE COMPRESSION SYSTEMS. UNARR. ------ APPR. THIS RESEARCH WILL SYNERGISTICALLY COMBINE AND DEVELOP CONTROL AND SIGNAL PROCESSING TECHNIQUES TO PROVIDE POWERFUL NEW TOOLS FOR ACTIVE CONTROL OF SURGE AND ROTATING STALL IN AEROENGINE AXIAL FLOW COMPRESSION SYSTEMS. PREVIOUS RESULTS BY THE PI AND HIS CO-WORKERS ON ACTIVE CONTROL OF SURGE AND ROTATING STALL WILL BE EXPANDED TO ADDRESS REAL-TIME MONITORING AND DIAGNOSTICS, CONTROL PROBLEMS PARTICULAR TO HIGH-SPEED COMPRESSORS, AND ISSUES OF ACTUATOR PLACEMENT IN MULTISTAGE COMPRESSION SYSTEMS. THE ISSUE OF STALL PRECURSORS, WHICH IS LINKED TO MONITORING OF THE SYSTEM TO DETECT NEARNESS TO INSTABILITY,WILL BE TREATED IN A UNIQUE FASHION THAT PROMISES TO YIELD IMPORTANT NEW INSIGHTS ON MULTISTAGE COMPRESSION SYSTEM MONITORING AND CONTROL. WORK WILL INCLUDE AN INVESTIGATION OF HIGHER ORDER SPECTRA ALONG WITH THE POWER SPECTRAL DENSITY TO DEVELOP A HIGHER ORDER THEORY OF PRECURSORS OF NONLINEAR INSTABILITIES, AS WELL AS EXTENDING SELECTIVE MODAL ANALYSIS THEORY AND PARTICIPATION FACTORS TO STUDY THESE PRECURSORS :: KEYWORDS: CROSSBAR SWITCHES;NETWORKS;ROUTING;SOLITONS;SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION;95NE272;SWITCHES;SPATIAL ::

Hit 35 of 277 -- Awd #: DF330855 
 Award Type: Intramural / In-House Project / In-House Project
Access/Distribution Restriction:
 Code: C - U.S. Federal Government and Contractors Only
 Reason: AD - Administrative or Operational Use Data
Parent Organizations: DOD / USAF / 0601102F - Defense Research Sciences
 Project: 2313 - Human Performance
Dates: Feb 1998 to na
Performer: ARMSTRONG LAB  WRIGHT-PATTERSON AFB OH
 Type:     Federal Government
 Contact:  WILSON, GLENN F, Phone: 513 255-8748
 7th Congressional District in Ohio        
 Location: Wright-Patterson Afb,   OH
Description: TITLE: SYSTEM PERFORMANCE ENHANCEMENT USING OPERATOR FU NCTIONAL STATE FEEDBACK :: LONG DESCR: THE PURPOSE OF THE PROPOSED RESEARCH IS TO DEMONSTRATE THAT A WEARABLE ADAPTIVE OPERATOR STATE MONITORING SYSTEM CAN ENHANCE OVERALL SYSTEM PERFORMANCE. THE WEARABLE DEVICE WILL DETECT OPERATOR OVERLOAD USING PHYSIOLOGICAL VARIABLES AND WILL PROVIDE THIS INFORMATION TO THE SYSTEM THAT WILL ADAPT ITSELF IN ORDER TO REDUCE THE DEMANDS ON THE OPERATOR. A GREAT DEAL OF RESEARCH IN OUR LABORATORY AND ELSEWHERE HAS DEMONSTRATED THAT INCREASED MENTAL WORKLOAD IS REFLECTED IN THE OPERATOR'S PHYSIOLOGICAL RESPONSES. HEART RATE, EYE BLINKS AND BRAIN ACTIVITY HAVE ALL BEEN SHOWN TO RELIABLY DETERMINE LEVELS OF COGNITIVE WORKLOAD. THE HYPOTHESIS OF THIS PROJECT IS THAT REAL-TIME PHYSIOLOGICAL MONITORING CAN BE USED TO DETECT COGNITIVE OVERLOAD AND THAT BY USING THIS INFORMATION TO REDUCE TASK DEMANDS TOTAL SYSTEM PERFORMANCE WILL BE ENHANCED. FUNDS WILL BE USED AS SALARY FOR THE PRINCIPLE INVESTIGATOR, TO PROVIDE IN- HOUSE CONTRACTOR SOFTWARE AND HUMAN FACTORS SUPPORT AND TO PURCHASE EQUIPMENT FOR THE WEARABLE SYSTEM. THE SOFTWARE SUPPORT IS REQUIRED TO IMPLEMENT THE OPERATOR STATE ALGORITHMS AND MODIFY THE MATB SOFTWARE TO MAKE IT INTERACTIVE WITH INPUTS FROM THE OPERATOR STATE MONITOR. HUMAN FACTORS SUPPORT IS REQUIRED TO HELP WITH DATA COLLECTION, ANALYSIS AND PAY FOR SUBJECT HOURS. AWEARABLE OPERATOR STATE MONITORING SYSTEM WILL BE DEVELOPED TO PROVIDE THE ON-LINE ESTIMATES FOR THE ADAPTIVE INTERFACE. THE DEVELOPMENT OF THIS LIGHT WEIGHT SYSTEM WILL PERMIT VALIDATION OF THE RESULTS IN OTHER AMBULATORY SETTINGS :: KEYWORDS: ADAPTIVE SYSTEMS;ALGORITHMS;BRAIN;COGNITION;COMPUTER PROGRAMS;COMPUTERS;DATA ACQUISITION;DETECTION;DETECTORS;ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY;ESTIMATES;EXPERIMENTAL DATA;EYE;FEEDBACK;HEART;HEART RATE;HUMAN FACTORS ENGINEERING;HYPOTHESES;INFORMATION SYSTEMS;INTERFACES;LIGHT;LIGHTWEIGHT;MANUALS;MENTAL ABILITY;MONITORING;NEURAL NETS;ONLINE SYSTEMS;OPERATORS(PERSONNEL);OPTIMIZATION;OVERLOAD;PHYSIOLOGICAL EFFECTS;PHYSIOLOGY;PROCUREMENT;PSYCHOPHYSIOLOGY;REAL TIME;SALARIES;SIGNALS;TRAINING;VALIDATION;VARIABLES;WEAR;WORKLOAD;OPERATOR COGNITIVE WORKLOAD;OPERATOR STATE;PSYCHOPHYSIOLOGICAL SIGNALS;UAV ::

Hit 36 of 277 -- Awd #: DF424989 
 Award Type: Extramural / Contracts / Not Otherwise Specified
Access/Distribution Restriction:
 Code: C - U.S. Federal Government and Contractors Only
 Reason: AD - Administrative or Operational Use Data
Parent Organizations: DOD / USAF / 0601102F - Defense Research Sciences
 Project: Project number unspecified
Dates: Oct 1996 to Sep 1999
Performer: SVERDRUP TECHNOLOGY INC  ARNOLD AFS TN
 Type:     Industry/Business
 Contact:  WEHOFER, S., Phone: 931-454-7829
 4th Congressional District in Tennessee        
 Location: Arnold Afs,   TN
Description: TITLE: MODEL-BASED TEST DATA VALIDATION :: LONG DESCR: ENABLE AUTOMATED INSPECTION AND VALIDATION OF TEST DATA AND AUTOMATIC DETECTION AND IDENTIFICATION OF DATA ANOMALIES FOR AIRCRAFT TURBINE ENGINES, RAMJETS, COMPLETE AIR VEHICLES, INSTRUMENTATION SYSTEMS, AND FLIGHT TESTING. THE PRIMARY GOAL IS DEVELOPMENT OF SOFTWARE FOR REAL-TIME OPERATION , INCREASED FUNCTIONALITY, AND BROAD APPLICATION AND PORTABILITY OF A FAULT DETECTION/DIAGNOSIS CAPABILITY. REAL-TIME OPERATION IS ESSENTIAL IN PROVIDING ACCURATE AND TIMELY TEST DATA VALIDATION AND WILL REQUIRE PARALLEL IMPLEMENTATION. INCREASED FUNCTIONALITY IS REQUIRED TO PROVIDE THE INTEGRATED MODELING AND TEST ENVIRONMENT THAT IS ACHIEVABLE WITH MODEL BASED DATA VALIDATION. DEVELOPMENT OF THE NECESSARY CODE FOR REAL-TIME OPERATION, INCREASED FUNCTIONALITY, AND BROADER APPLICATION AND PORTABILITY IS PROPOSED. REAL-TIME OPERATION IS ESSENTIAL IN PROVIDING ACCURATE AND TIMELY TEST DATA VALIDATION AND WILL REQUIRE PARALLEL IMPLEMENTATION. INCREASED FUNCTIONALITY IS REQUIRED TO PROVIDE THE INTEGRATED MODELING AND TEST ENVIRONMENT THAT IS ACHIEVABLE WITH MODEL-BASED DATA VALIDATION. ALTHOUGH INITIAL EMPHASIS WILL BE ON TURBINE ENGINES, BROADER APPLICATION TO OTHER DISCIPLINES, INCLUDING RAMJET TESTING, INSTRUMENTATION SYSTEM HEALTH-MONITORING, FLIGHT TESTING, AND GROUND VEHICLE TESTING HAS BEEN REQUESTED BY OTHER DOD PARTICIPANTS :: STAGE: MANAGEMENT AND SUPPORT  :: TYPE: R&D-OTHER R & D-MGMT SUP :: KEYWORDS: ACCURACY;AIRCRAFT;AIRCRAFT ENGINES;ANOMALIES;AUTOMATIC;AUTOMATION;COMPUTER PROGRAMMING;DATA MANAGEMENT;DETECTION;DIAGNOSIS(GENERAL);ENGINES;ENVIRONMENTAL TESTS;EXPERIMENTAL DATA;FAULTS;FLIGHT TESTING;GROUND LEVEL;GROUND VEHICLES;IDENTIFICATION;INSPECTION;INSTRUMENTATION;INTEGRATED SYSTEMS;MODELS;OPERATION;PLANNING;PROPULSION SYSTEMS;RAMJET ENGINES;REAL TIME;STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS;TEST AND EVALUATION;TIMELINESS;TURBINES;VALIDATION;PROPULSION TEST PLANNING;STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS;GROUND TESTING ::

Hit 37 of 277 -- Awd #: DF594843 
 Award Type: Extramural / Contracts / Not Otherwise Specified
Access/Distribution Restriction:
 Code: C - U.S. Federal Government and Contractors Only
 Reason: AD - Administrative or Operational Use Data
Parent Organizations: DOD / USAF / 0601102F - Defense Research Sciences
 Project: Project number unspecified
Dates: Jul 1996 to Aug 1999
Performer: PHILLIPS LAB  HANSCOM AFB MA
 Type:     Federal Government
 5th Congressional District in Massachusetts        
 Location: Hanscom Afb,   MA
Description: TITLE: OPERATION OF GOOSE BAY :: LONG DESCR: TO OPERATE AND MAINTAIN PHILLIPS LABORATORY (PL) GOOSE BAY IONOSPHERIC OBSERVATORY (GBIO) CONDUCTING REAL TIME IONOSPHERIC/AURORAL MONITORING FOR THE PL/GPIA IN-HOUSE R&D EFFORTS AND SPACE ENVIRONMENTAL SUPPORT SYSTEMS (SESS) SUPPORT. ANALYZE EXPERIMENTAL MEASUREMENTS TO ASSURE THE QUALITY OF THE DATA. TO PROVIDE MANPOWER, SERVICES AND TECHNICAL AND ADMINISTRATIVE SUPPORT TO OPERATE AND MAINTAIN THE PL/GBIO LOCATED AT GOOSE BAY AIRPORT, NEWFOUNDLAND, CANADA, CONSISTING OF BUILDINGS 1234 (KNOWN AS THE TRANSMITTER SITE) AND T831 (KNOWN AS THE RECEIVER SITE) :: KEYWORDS: ADVERSE CONDITIONS;CANADA;CONTRACTS;COSTS;DATA TRANSMISSION SYSTEMS;DIGITAL SYSTEMS;ENGINEERS;ENVIRONMENTS;EXPERIMENTAL DATA;IONOSONDES;IONOSPHERIC SCINTILLATION;MAINTENANCE;MANAGEMENT;MANPOWER;MEASUREMENT;PERSONNEL;QUALITY;RADAR;REAL TIME;RECEIVERS;REPAIR;SITES;SNOW REMOVAL;SPACE SYSTEMS;TELEPHONE LINES;TRANSMITTERS;WEATHER;REAL TIME IONOSPHERIC AURORAL;SPACE ENVIRONMENTAL SUPPORT SYSTEMS ::

Hit 38 of 277 -- Awd #: DF321140 
 Award Type: Not Specified / Not Specified / Not Specified
Access/Distribution Restriction:
 Code: C - U.S. Federal Government and Contractors Only
 Reason: AD - Administrative or Operational Use Data
Parent Organizations: DOD / USAF / 0602202F - Human Effectiveness Applied Research
 Project: 7184 - Crew Technology
Dates: Oct 1976 to Jun 2000
Performer: ARMSTRONG LAB  WRIGHT-PATTERSON AFB OH
 Type:     Federal Government
 Contact:  HAAS, MICHAEL W, Phone: 513 255-8768
 7th Congressional District in Ohio        
 Location: Wright-Patterson Afb,   OH
Description: TITLE: ADAPTIVE INTERFACE CONCEPT INTEGRATION AND APPLI CATION :: LONG DESCR: DEVELOP HUMAN ENGINEERING CRITERIA FOR IMPROVED MISSION PERFORMANCE FROM ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY AIRCRAFT. MORE SPECIFICALLY, HUMAN ENGINEERING CRITERIA USEFUL FOR DISPLAY FORMAT DESIGN AND ANALYSIS WILL BE DEVELOPED. THESE CRITERIAWILL SUPPORT A QUANTITATIVE ASSESSMENT OF ALTERNATIVE FORMATS IN TERMS OF THEIR SENSORY, PERCEPTUAL, AND COGNITIVE QUALITY RELATIVE TO MISSION CONDITIONS. EMPHASIS WILL BE GIVEN TO MULTI-SENSOR BASED, INTEGRATIVE FORMAT CONCEPTS FOR USE ON MULTI-FUNCTION DISPLAYS DURING SINGLE SHIP AND COORDINATED ATTACK SCENARIOS. BEHAVIOR MODELING AND LABORATORY BASED EMPIRICAL TECHNIQUES WILL BE USED TO GENERATE AND VALIDATE CANDIDATE METRICS OF THE SENSORY, PERCEPTUAL, AND COGNITIVE DEMAND CHARACTERISTICS OF MISSION RELEVANT DISPLAY FORMATS. DISPLAY FORMAT SYNTHESIS AND ANALYSIS TOOLS WILL THEN BE DEVELOPED THAT INCORPORATE THE QUANTITATIVE METRICS. FINALLY, THE EFFECTIVE USE OF THESE DESIGN TOOLS BY CREW STATION DESIGNERS WILL BE EMPIRICALLY EVALUATED :: KEYWORDS: ADAPTIVE SYSTEMS;AIRCRAFT;ALGORITHMS;ATTACK;BAYES THEOREM;BEHAVIOR;CLOSED LOOP SYSTEMS;COGNITION;COMPUTATIONS;COMPUTER ARCHITECTURE;COMPUTER PROGRAMS;CONTROL;CREWS;DATA ACQUISITION;DISPLAY SYSTEMS;ELECTROCARDIOGRAPHY;ELECTRODES;ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY;ENVIRONMENTS;ESTIMATES;FLIGHT SIMULATION;FORMATS;FUZZY LOGIC;HELMET MOUNTED DISPLAYS;HELMETS;HIGH RATE;HUMAN FACTORS ENGINEERING;IMMERSION;INTEGRATION;INTERFACES;ISRAEL;JOBS;LABORATORY PROCEDURES;LOW LEVEL;MAN COMPUTER INTERFACE;MEMORY DEVICES;MENTAL ABILITY;MISSIONS;MODELS;MODULAR CONSTRUCTION;MOISTURE CONTENT;MONITORING;MULTIPURPOSE;NETWORKS;OPERATORS(PERSONNEL);PHYSIOLOGY;PILOTS;QUALITY;REAL TIME;RESPIRATORY SYSTEM;COGNITIVE COMPLEXITY;COGNITIVE CONTENT;COGNITIVE DESIGN;COGNITIVE MODELING;DISPLAY COMPLEXITY;DISPLAY SYSTEMS;HUMAN FACTORS ENGINEERING;MAN COMPUTER INTERFACES;SCREENS (DISPLAYS);SEMANTIC NETWORKS ::

Hit 39 of 277 -- Awd #: DF452417 
 Award Type: Extramural / Contracts / Not Otherwise Specified
Access/Distribution Restriction:
 Code: B - U.S. Federal Government Access Only
 Reason: CL - Critical Technology (EXPORT CONTROLLED)
Parent Organizations: DOD / USAF / 0602203F - Aerospace Propulsion
 Project: 3066 - Turbine Engine Technology
Dates: Mar 1998 to Dec 2000
Performer: ORINCON CORP  LA JOLLA CA
 Type:     Industry/Business
 Contact:  FRIEND, R, Phone: 937-255-2734
 43th Congressional District in California        
 Location: La Jolla,   CA
Description: TITLE: NEURAL NETWORK-BASED REAL-TIME EHMS :: LONG DESCR: THE PRIMARY RESULT, A STAND-ALONE HEALTH MONITORING SYSTEM FOR THE ANALYSIS, DETECTION, CLASSIFICATION, AND PROGNOSIS OF MACHINERY PARTS, HAS VERY BROAD COMMERCIAL APPLICATION. THE PROBLEM THAT THE SYSTEM SOLVES IS IMPORTANT, SINCE THE DETECTION AND CLASSIFICATION OF FAULTS PRIOR TO CATASTROPHIC FAILURE CAN SUBSTANTIALLY REDUCE THE COST OF REPAIR AND REPLACEMENT OF DEFECTIVE PARTS AND MAY EVEN SAVE LIVES. THE SYSTEM CAN ALSO BE AN IMPORTANT ADDITION TO THE AIR FORCE'S OVERALL HEALTH MONITORING PROCESSING. A PROBLEM OF CURRENT INTEREST TO THE AIR FORCE IS THE AUTOMATIC DECTECTION, CLASSIFICATION, AND PROGNOSIS OF CRITICAL COMPONENT FAILURES IN TURBO JET ENGINES. CURRENT PROCESSING FOR ENGINE HEALTH MONITORING (EHM) USES RELATIVELY SIMPLE FEATURES AND RULES TO MEASURE AND CHARACTERIZE CHANGES IN SENSOR DATA. AN ALTERNATIVE SOLUTION IS TO USE NEURAL NETS. PHASE I INTRODUCED AN AUTOMATIC RULE EXTRACTION ALGORITHM (TREPAN) THAT EXTRACTS RULES FROM THE TRAINED NEURAL NET TO DERIVE A DECISION TREE RULE SET THAT GIVES THE SAME PERFORMANCE AS THE NEURAL NET. THE TECHNIQUE WAS SUCCESSFULLY DEMONSTRATED ON T56 DATA SUPPLIED BY ALLISON. PHASE II WILL EXTEND THAT WORK TO PROCESS DATA RELEVANT TO THE JOINT STRIKE FIGHTER (JSF) PROGRAM SUPPLIED BY BOEING (F15 AND C17 ENGINE DATA) AND ALLISON (HCF DATA FROM RVM PROGRAM). PROGNOSTICS FOR EHM WILL BE INCLUDED. DETECTION OF NOVEL, NEVER-SEEN-BEFORE EVENTS WILL BE INCLUDED AS WELL. A PROTOTYPE SYSTEM WILL BE DEVELOPED AND PERFORMANCE ASSESSED ON-SITE AT BOEING/ALLISON. FINALLY, THE SYSTEM WILL BE TRAINED WITH CEMS IV DATA AND THEN INTEGRATED AND TESTED WITH THE CEMS IV SYSTEM :: STAGE: APPLIED RESEARCH AND EXPLORATORY DEVELOPMENT  :: TYPE: R&D-OTHER DEFENSE-A RES/EXPL DEV :: KEYWORDS: AIR FORCE;CATASTROPHIC CONDITIONS;CLASSIFICATION;COMMERCE;COSTS;CRITICALITY(GENERAL);DECISION THEORY;DEFECTS(MATERIALS);DETECTION;DETECTORS;ENGINES;FAILURE;FAULTS;HEALTH;MACHINES;MEASUREMENT;MONITORING;NERVOUS SYSTEM;NEURAL NETS;PARTS;PREDICTIONS;PROCESSING;PROTOTYPES;REPAIR;REPLACEMENT;SELF CONTAINED;SIMULATION;SPARE PARTS;TRAINING;TURBINES;TURBOJET ENGINES;TURBINE ENGINE;MONITORING;NEURAL NETWORK;SIMULATION ::

Hit 40 of 277 -- Awd #: DF579726 
 Award Type: Extramural / Contracts / Not Otherwise Specified
Access/Distribution Restriction:
 Code: B - U.S. Federal Government Access Only
 Reason: CL - Critical Technology (EXPORT CONTROLLED)
Parent Organizations: DOD / USAF / 0602702F - Command, Control & Communications
 Project: Project number unspecified
Dates: Apr 1999 to Apr 2000
Performer: SYRACUSE UNIV  NY
 Type:     Private Educational Institution
 Contact:  CHEN, C.Y. ROGER, Phone: 000-UNK
 27th Congressional District in New York        
 Location: Syracuse,   NY
Description: TITLE: FRAMEWORK&APPLICATIONS/COLLABORATION TECHNIQUES FOR CONFIGURABLE AEROSPACE COMMAND CTR (CACC) TESTBED :: LONG DESCR: JON: 558SCAPO: DEVELOP THE INFRASTRUCTURE SUCH THAT IT WILL PROVIDE THE CAPABILITY OF ALLOWING SUB-SYTEMS AND COMPONENTS TO BE PLUGABLE INTO THE ENVIRONMENT AND FORM A COHERENT SYSTEM, WHERE EXCHANGES OF EVENTS, DATA, AND FUNCTIONS ACROSS THE BOUNDARIES OF SUB-SYSTEMS WILL BE SEAMLESS AND ACTIONS ON ALL SUB-SYSTEMS WILL BE GLOBALLY COORDINATED AND OPTIMALLY CONTROLLED AS A SINGLE SYSTEM. FUNCTION: DEVELOPMENT OF A DISTRIBUTED COMPONENT BASED OBJECT FRAMEWORK C4ISR INFRASTRUCTURE AND MULTIMEDIA DATABASE FOR CACC TESTBED. DEFICIENCY: LACK OF C4ISR COMPONENT BASED OBJECT FRAMEWORK THAT WILL SUPPORT EMERGENT AEROSPACE EXPEDITIONARY FORCES CONCEPT OF OPERATIONS. CONTRIBUTION: A DISTRIBUTED COMPONENT BASED OBJECT FRAMEWORK AND C4ISR MULTIMEDIA DATABASE SYTEM DEVELOPED AROUND SUCH AN ENVIRONMENT. JON: 558SCAP1: TO DEVELOP A VIRTUAL COLLABORATION LAYER ON TOP OF THOSE EXISTING SYSTEMS, WITHOUT MODIFYING THEM. FUNCTION: DEVELOPMENT OF A SOFTWARE SYSTEM OR CONNECTOR FOR INTERCONNECTING EXISTING COLLABORATION SYSTEMS IN THE CACC TESTBED. DEFICIENCY: LACK OF EXISTING COLLABORATION SYSTEMS THAT ALLOW COMMUNICATION OR INTERACTION BETWEEN EACH OTHER. CONTRIBUTION: INFORMATION AND DISPLAY VIEW OF EACH COLLABORATION SYSTEM WILL BE "MERGED" TOGETHER AT A VIRTUAL LAYER TO CREATE AN INTEGRATED ENVIRONMENT. JON: 558SCAP0: (1) DEVELOP THE FOUNDATION HARDWARE AND SOFTWARE STRUCTURES TO SUPPORT DIRECT AND EFFICIENT COMMUNICATIONS AND GLOBAL SYSTEM CONTROLS, WHICH WILL BE READY FOR BRINGING IN ALL SUB-SYSTEMS. (2) DEVELOP A SYSTEMATIC AND ORGANIZED WAY, BASED ON A MULTI-LAYER ARCHITECTURE, TO SPECIFY SYSTEM FUNCTIONALITY BEYOND JUST INCLUDING A COLLECTION OF VARIOUS TECHNOLOGY BOXES. (3) DEVELOP A SPECIFICATION FOR DESCRIBING THE FUNCTIONAL REQUIREMENT OF SUB-SYTEMS OR COMPONENTS, TO BE DEVELOPED BY VARIOUS CONTRACTORS AS WELL AS THE INTERFACING REQUIREMENT SUCH THAT THE INTEROPERABILITY AND SEAMLESS DATA-EVENT EXCHANGES BETWEEN ALL SUB-SYSTEMS WILL BE AUTOMATICALLY ESTABLISHED WITH MINIMAL PERFORMANCE DEGRADATION. (4) DEVELOP A REAL-TIME, ON-LINE RESOURCE MONITORING AND ALLOCATION MANAGER. THE RECONFIGURABLE AND SELF-ADJUSTING NATURES OF A CACC TESTBED REQUIRE THE FUNCTIONALITY OF EACH COMPONENT BE DYNAMICALLY PLANNED SUCH THAT, DEPENDING ON AVAILABLE RESOURCES (SUCH AS AVAILABLE BANDWIDTH IN A SHARED NETWORKING ENVIRONMENT), THEY WILL BEHAVE DIFFERENTLY. (5) DEVELOP A SPECIFICATION FOR DESCRIBING THE ADAPTIVE PART OF THE FUNCTIONAL REQUIREMENTS OF EACH SUB-SYSTEM RECONFIGURATION AND SELF-FUNCTIONAL ADJUSTMENT. (6) ONCE A BASIS FOR DEVELOPMENT IN SUCH AN ENVIRONMENT EXISTS (1-4 ABOVE) BUILD A C4ISR MULTIMEDIA DATABASE WITHIN AND FOR CACC TESTBED. JON 558SCAP1: INVESTIGATE EACH EXISTING COLLABORATION SYSTEM IN THE CACC TESTBED. THIS WILL REQUIRE INTERACTIONS WITH I N-HOUSE RESEARCHERS IN THE AFRL AND GOVERNMENT FUNCTIONAL DOMAIN EXPERTS. DETERMINE A SET OF FEASIBLE INTERACTIONS BETWEEN THE EXISTING SYSTEMS TO BE SUPPORTED BY THE PROPOSED CONNECTORS. DEVELOP THE INTER-COLLABORATION CONNECTORS :: KEYWORDS: AEROSPACE SYSTEMS;ALLOCATIONS;ARCHITECTURE;BOXES;COHERENCE;COMPUTER PROGRAMS;CONTROL;DATA BASES;DEGRADATION;DISTRIBUTION;FUNCTIONS;GLOBAL;INTEGRATED SYSTEMS;INTEROPERABILITY;LAYERS;MEDIA;MONITORING;ONLINE SYSTEMS;REQUIREMENTS;RESOURCES;STRUCTURES;SUPERVISORS;TEST BEDS;DISTRIBUTED COMPONENTS;MULTIMEDIA DATABASE;C4ISR;GLOBAL SYSTEM CONTROL;COMMUNICATION SUB-SYSTEMS ::

Hit 41 of 277 -- Awd #: DF593889 
 Award Type: Extramural / Contracts / Not Otherwise Specified
Access/Distribution Restriction:
 Code: C - U.S. Federal Government and Contractors Only
 Reason: NS - Not Specified
Parent Organizations: DOD / USAF / 0603707F - Weather Systems Technology
 Project: 2781 - Weather Radar Technology
Dates: May 1987 to na
Performer: ST SYSTEMS CORP  LEXINGTON MA
 Type:     Industry/Business
 Contact:  HARRIS, F. IAN, Phone: 6178620405
 7th Congressional District in Massachusetts        
 Location: Lexington,   MA
Description: TITLE: COMPUTER BASED WEATHER RA :: LONG DESCR: DEVELOP DOPPLER WEATHER RADAR BASED MODELS FOR THE AUTOMATED DETECTION, TRACKING, AND PREDICTION OF SEVERE STORM PHENOMENA. AUTOMATE EXISTING TECHNIQUES FOR THE MANUAL INTERPRETATION OF STORM HAZARDS AS REVEALED BY DOPPLER WEATHER RADAR. TEST ALGORITHM PERFORMANCE BASED UPON DOCUMENTED ARCHIVE AND REAL TIME DOPPLER DATA SETS, AND IMPLEMENT ALGORITHM MODIFICATIONS AS NECESSARY TO MAXIMIZE PROBABILITY OF DETECTION AND MINIMIZE FALSE ALARM RATE FOR EACH HAZARD :: KEYWORDS: AIR FORCE OPERATIONS;ALGORITHMS;AUTOMATION;CHAINS;CODING;COMPUTERS;CONTOURS;CONVECTION(ATMOSPHERIC);DETECTION;DISCRIMINATORS;DOPPLER RADAR;EXTRACTION;FALSE ALARMS;GRADIENTS;HAIL;HAZARDS;HURRICANES;INTENSITY;LOW STRENGTH;METEOROLOGICAL RADAR;METEOROLOGY;MODIFICATION;MONITORING;NEW ENGLAND;POSITION(LOCATION);PRECIPITATION;PROBABILITY;PRODUCTION;RATES;RATIOS;REFLECTIVITY;REGIONS;ROTATION;SENSITIVITY;STORMS;TEST AND EVALUATION;TORNADOES;TRACKING;VELOCITY;WEATHER;WIND;WIND SHEAR;AUTOMATED METEOROLOGICAL TECHNIQUES;DOPPLER WEATHER RADAR;HAZARDS;WEATHER ::

Hit 42 of 277 -- Awd #: DF409981 
 Award Type: Extramural / Contracts / Not Otherwise Specified
Access/Distribution Restriction:
 Code: A - Distribution Unlimited - Unrestricted Access
Parent Organizations: DOD / USAF / 0603723F - Environmental Engineering Technology
 Project: 2103 - Environmental Quality Advanced Technology
Dates: Apr 1998 to na
Performer: MISSION RESEARCH CORP  ALBUQUERQUE NM
 Type:     Industry/Business
 Contact:  THACKER, MARK, Phone: 505-768-7623
 First Congressional District in New Mexico
 Location: Albuquerque,   NM
Description: TITLE: HORIZONTAL CHARACTERIZATION/MONITORING TECHNOLOGY FOR DNAPLS :: LONG DESCR: THE OBJECTIVE OF THIS RESEARCH IS TO INTEGRATE ENVIRONMENTAL SITE CHARACTERIZATION AND MONITORING SENSORS WITH HORIZONTAL DRILLING TECHNOLOGY FOR REAL TIME CHARACTERIZATION DATA LOGGING. IN THIS RESEARCH, STATE-OF-THE-ART ENVIRONMENTAL SENSORS WILL BE INTEGRATED WITH HORIZONTAL DRILLING TECHNOLOGY. THE INTEGRATED EQUIPMENT WILL BE DEMONSTRATED AT SEVERAL SITES WITH VARIOUS GEOLOGIES :: STAGE: APPLIED RESEARCH AND EXPLORATORY DEVELOPMENT  :: TYPE: R&D-ENVIRONMENTAL SCI-A RES/EXPL DE :: KEYWORDS: DATA PROCESSING;DETECTORS;DIRECTIONAL;DRILLING;ENVIRONMENTS;HORIZONTAL ORIENTATION;INTEGRATED SYSTEMS;MONITORING;REAL TIME;RECORDING SYSTEMS;SITES;STATE OF THE ART;HORIZONTAL DRILLING,HORIZONTAL BORING,;HORIZONTAL WELL, ENVIRONMENTAL DRILLING,;ENVIRONMENTAL WELL, DIRECTIONAL DRILLING,;ENVIRONMENTAL SENSOR, ENVIRONMENTAL;CHARACTERIZATION, ENVIRONMENTAL;MONITORING, DNAPL ::

Hit 43 of 277 -- Awd #: DF579926 
 Award Type: Extramural / Contracts / Not Otherwise Specified
Access/Distribution Restriction:
 Code: B - U.S. Federal Government Access Only
 Reason: CL - Critical Technology (EXPORT CONTROLLED)
Parent Organizations: DOD / USAF / 0603728F - Battlespace C2 Technology
 Project: 2530 - Distributed Systems Reliability and Survivability
Dates: May 1998 to Dec 1998
Performer: WETSTONE TECHNOLOGIES INC  FREEVILLE NY
 Type:     Industry/Business
 Contact:  HOSMER, CHESTER, Phone: 607-539-9981
 36th Congressional District in New York        
 Location: Freeville,   NY
Description: TITLE: CSAP21 MODULE DEMONSTRATION :: LONG DESCR: APPLY RULE BASE TECHNOLOGY FOR REAL TIME DATA ANALYSIS. FUNCTION: PROTECT THE AIR FORCE INFORMATION INFRASTRUCTURE. DEFICIENCY: INABILITY TO COORDINATE DATA FROM HETEROGENEOUS NETWORK MONITORING TOOLS TO DETECT POTENTIAL THREATS TO AIR FORCE SYSTEMS. CONTRIBUTION: CAPABILITY TO ALLOW THE SYSTEM ADMINISTRATORS TO IDENTIFY AND DEFEND AGAINST ELECTRONIC ATTACKS. SURVEY EXISTING ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES AND DEVELOP AN AUTOMATED RULE BASED SYSTEM :: STAGE: BASIC RESEARCH  :: TYPE: R&D-OTHER DEFENSE-B RES :: KEYWORDS: ADMINISTRATIVE PERSONNEL;AIR FORCE;AIR FORCE FACILITIES;ATTACK;AUTOMATION;COMPUTER AIDED DESIGN;COMPUTER ARCHITECTURE;COMPUTER PROGRAMS;COORDINATES;DATA PROCESSING;DATA PROCESSING SECURITY;ELECTRONICS;HETEROGENEITY;INFRASTRUCTURE;MONITORING;NETWORKS;REAL TIME;RULE BASED SYSTEMS;THREATS;TOOLS;TRENCHES;REAL TIME DATA ANALYSIS;AUTOMATED RULE BASE SYSTEM ::

Hit 44 of 277 -- Awd #: DF001873 
 Award Type: Extramural / Contracts / Not Otherwise Specified
 SBIR Award
Access/Distribution Restriction:
 Code: C - U.S. Federal Government and Contractors Only
 Reason: AD - Administrative or Operational Use Data
Parent Organizations: DOD / USAF / 0605502F - Small Business Innovative Research
 Project: Project number unspecified
Dates: Sep 1998 to Oct 2000
Performer: SAM TECHNOLOGY INC  SAN FRANCISCO CA
 Type:     Industry/Business
 Contact:  GEVINS, ALAN, Phone: 4152274900
 5th Congressional District in California        
 Location: San Francisco,   CA
Description: TITLE: SBIR98 SUSTAINED ATTENTION METER (SAM) FOR MONITORING COGNITIVE LOAD :: LONG DESCR: UNARR. ------ OBJT. TO DEVELOP A PREDICTIVE SIMULATION METHODOLOGY TO OBTAIN FLUTTER CHARACTERISTICS OF MANEUVERING AIRCRAFT. UNARR. ------ APPR. A REAL TIME FLUTTER ANALYSIS MODEL WILL BE DEVELOPED AND INCORPORATED INTO A FLUTTER SIMULATION CODE. THE AERO-ELASTIC SIMULATION MODELS WILL BE INCORPORATED INTO PARALLEL PROCESSOR CODES TO OBTAIN REAL TIME FLUTTER PREDICTIONS :: STAGE: MANAGEMENT AND SUPPORT  :: TYPE: R&D-PHYSICAL SCIENCE-MGMT SUP :: KEYWORDS: COGNITION;MONITORING;98NL077;UCOGNITION;UWORKLOAD ::

Hit 45 of 277 -- Awd #: DF326115 
 Award Type: Extramural / Contracts / Not Otherwise Specified
 SBIR Award
Access/Distribution Restriction:
 Code: C - U.S. Federal Government and Contractors Only
 Reason: AD - Administrative or Operational Use Data
Parent Organizations: DOD / USAF / 0605502F - Small Business Innovative Research
 Project: Project number unspecified
Dates: Jun 1994 to Apr 1999
Performer: GALAXY SCIENTIFIC CORP  EGG HARBOR TOWNSHIP NJ
 Type:     Industry/Business
 Contact:  JOHNSON W, Phone:
 First Congressional District in New Jersey
 Location: Egg Harbor Township,   NJ
Description: TITLE: GAMING IN INTELLIGENT TECHNICAL TRAINING :: LONG DESCR: THE OBJECTIVE OF THIS PHASE II PROPOSAL IS TO DESIGN, DEVELOP, AND EVALUATE A SYSTEM THAT USES A GAMING APPROACH FOR INTELLIGENT TECHNICAL TRAINING. THIS SYSTEM, CALLED ACTIVE (AUTHORING COMPONENTS AND TOOLS FOR INSTRUCTION IN VISUAL ENVIRONMENTS), IS AN INTEGRATED AUTHORING SYSTEM THAT INCLUDES TECHNICAL TRAINING, GAMING, NETWORKING, INTERACTIVE SCORING, REAL-TIME DATA COLLECTION, ON-LINE MONITORING, AND COMPETITION. AFTER SURVEYING COMMERCIALAND MILITARY MARKETS TO IDENTIFY TRAINING NEEDS AND GAMING SCENARIOS, TRAINING AND AUTHORING TOOLS WILL BE DEVELOPED TO SUPPORT INTEGRATED AUTHORING FOR TRAINING. AFTER ACTIVE IS DEVELOPED, IT WILL BE USED TO DEVELOP TRAINING IN AN AIR FORCE DOMAIN. WORKSHOPS WILL ALSO BE CONDUCTED TO TEACH AIR FORCE PERSONNEL TO CREATE TRAINING WITH ACTIVE. FINALLY, ACTIVE WILL BE FORMALLY EVALUATED IN ALABORATORY TO DETERMINE PERFORMANCE AND MOTIVATIONAL INFORMATION. THE PHASE II WORK WILL DEVELOP AN INTEGRATED AUTHORING SYSTEM FOR TRAININGTO INCLUDE A GAMING COMPONENT. WE WILL INCORPORATE TECHNICAL TRAINING COMPONENTS, GAMING SCENARIOS, NETWORKING CAPABILITIES, COMPETITION, INTERACTIVE SCORING, REAL-TIME DATA COLLECTION, AND ON-LINE MONITORING CAPABILITIES INTO A FULLY INTEGRATED AUTHORING SYSTEM FOR TRAINING. AT PRESENT, GALAXY ANTICIPATES THAT THE AUTHORING SYSTEM WILL RUN ON AN INTEL 80486-BASED (OR HIGHER) PERSONAL COMPUTER USING MICROSOFT WINDOWS 3.1 (OR HIGHER). THIS PLATFORM WILL ALLOW THE SYSTEM TO TAKE ADVANTAGE OF DIGITAL VIDEO AND SOUND CAPABILITIES INHERENT IN MICROSOFT WINDOWS. ACTIVE WILL BE DESIGNED TO SUPPORT EXISTING AIR FORCE-DEVELOPED MITT WRITER DATABASES. THIS WILL ALLOW THE AIR FORCE TO LEVERAGE DOLLARS ALREADY SPENT TO DEVELOPED MITT TUTORS :: STAGE: MANAGEMENT AND SUPPORT  :: TYPE: R&D-OTHER R & D-MGMT SUP :: KEYWORDS: AIR FORCE;AIR FORCE PERSONNEL;CHEMISTRY;COMMERCE;DATA ACQUISITION;DIGITAL SYSTEMS;EDUCATION;ENVIRONMENTS;GALAXIES;GAME THEORY;GLASS;INTERACTIONS;LEARNING;MARKETING;MEDIA;MICROCOMPUTERS;MILITARY PROCUREMENT;MONITORING;MOTIVATION;ONLINE SYSTEMS;REAL TIME;REQUIREMENTS;SCENARIOS;SCORING;SECONDARY;SOUND;STEREOSCOPIC DISPLAY SYSTEMS;SURVEYS;TRAINING;UNIVERSITIES;VIDEO SIGNALS;VIRTUAL REALITY;VISION;WORKSHOPS;AUTHORING SYSTEMS;EVALUATION;GAMING;INTELLIGENT TUTORING SYSTEMS;TRAINING ::

Hit 46 of 277 -- Awd #: DF329405 
 Award Type: Extramural / Contracts / Not Otherwise Specified
 SBIR Award
Access/Distribution Restriction:
 Code: C - U.S. Federal Government and Contractors Only
 Reason: AD - Administrative or Operational Use Data
Parent Organizations: DOD / USAF / 0605502F - Small Business Innovative Research
 Project: Project number unspecified
Dates: Apr 1997 to Oct 1999
Performer: INTERSCIENCE AMERICA INC  LEESBURG VA
 Type:     Industry/Business
 Contact:  SWEZEY, R W, Phone:
 10th Congressional District in Virginia        
 Location: Leesburg,   VA
Description: TITLE: TEAM PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT DEVICE :: LONG DESCR: THE OBJECTIVE OF THIS EFFORT IS TO DEVELOP AND EVALUATE A TEAM PERFORMANCEASSESSMENT DEVICE (TPAD) AS A TOOL FOR UNDERSTANDING HOW TEAMS FUNCTION. THE TPAD IS A SYSTEM OF NETWORKED COMPUTERS THAT EXECUTES SOFTWARE DESIGNED TO PROVIDE A REALISTIC SIMULATION OF A TEAM TASK. A CRITICAL ELEMENT OF TPAD IS ANARCHITECTURE THAT ALLOWS FOR COLLECTION OF REAL-TIME PERFORMANCE MEASURES AT THE INDIVIDUAL LEVEL AND AT A RANGE OF COMBINATIONS OF TEAM MEMBERS, FROM EVERY POSSIBLE COMBINATION OF TWO PERSONS TO THE LEVEL OF THE ENTIRE TEAM. THE GENERAL APPROACH IS TO USE A STRATEGIC SIMULATION TO MEASURE TEAMWORK.THE MEASURES INCLUDE NORMATIVE AS WELL AS CRITERION-REFERENCED MEASURES OF TEAM EFFECTIVENESS. THE PROPOSED EFFORT WILL EXPAND AND MODIFY A PREVIOUSLY DEVELOPED PHASE I TEAM PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT DEVICE (TPAD) BY ADDING: (1) EXPANSIONS TO EXISTING SEARCH AND RESCUE (SAR) SCENERIO AND DEVELOPMENT OF A SECOND SCENERIO (12 MAC) (2) EXPANSION OF THE SIMULATION FROM A THREE-PERSON NETWORK TO A (MINIMUM) NINE-PERSON NETWORK (14 MAC) (3) EXPANSION OF THE PERFORMANCE MEASURE SCORING CAPABILITY TO ALLOW FOR OVER 80 SCORES PER MEASURED UNIT (I.E.,INDIVIDUALS, TWO-PERSON, THREE-PERSON,...,N-PERSON COMBINATIONS, PLUSTOTAL TEAM) (14 MAC) (4) EMPIRICAL VALIDATION OF THE TPAD (22 MAC) (5) DOCUMENTATION OF ALL DEVELOPED SOFTWARE (19 MAC) (6) DEVELOPMENT OF MULTI-MEDIACOMPUTER GENERATED (AND/OR CD-ROM DISK-BASED) GRAPHICS SOFTWARE (19 MAC) (7) DEVELOPMENT OF AUDIO INPUT TO SIMULATION (19 MAC) (8) APPLICATION OF TPAD TO REAL-WORLD USAF TEAM PERFORMANCE TASK. (24 MAC :: STAGE: MANAGEMENT AND SUPPORT  :: TYPE: R&D-OTHER R & D-MGMT SUP :: KEYWORDS: CODING;COMPUTER GRAPHICS;COMPUTER PROGRAMS;COMPUTERIZED SIMULATION;COMPUTERS;COOPERATION;DECISION MAKING;EXPANSION;EXTRACTION;FUNCTIONS;HOSTAGES;INPUT;INTERFACES;INTERPERSONAL RELATIONS;MEASUREMENT;MEDIA;MESSAGE PROCESSING;MODULAR CONSTRUCTION;MONITORING;PERFORMANCE(HUMAN);PROTOTYPES;REAL TIME;RESCUES;RESPONSE;SCENARIOS;SCORING;SIMULATION;SIMULATORS;SOUND;SPECIFICATIONS;TARGETS;TEAMS(PERSONNEL);TRAINING DEVICES;VALIDATION;COMPUTERIZED SIMULATION;CREWS;INTERPERSONAL RELATIONS;PERFORMANCE MEASUREMENT;SIMULATORS;SKILLS;TEAMS (PERSONNEL);TRAINING DEVICES ::

Hit 47 of 277 -- Awd #: DF330885 
 Award Type: Extramural / Contracts / Not Otherwise Specified
 SBIR Award
Access/Distribution Restriction:
 Code: C - U.S. Federal Government and Contractors Only
 Reason: AD - Administrative or Operational Use Data
Parent Organizations: DOD / USAF / 0605502F - Small Business Innovative Research
 Project: Project number unspecified
Dates: Apr 1998 to Nov 2000
Performer: SAM TECHNOLOGY INC  SAN FRANCISCO CA
 Type:     Industry/Business
 Contact:  GEVINS, A S, Phone:
 5th Congressional District in California        
 Location: San Francisco,   CA
Description: TITLE: WALKKSCAN: A WEARABLE SYSTEM FOR OPERATOR STATE MONITORING :: LONG DESCR: DURING PHASE 1, MICROAMPS RECORDING TECHNOLOGY WILL BE EXAMINED FOR WAYS THAT THIS RECORDING TECHNOLOGY CAN BE OPTIMIZED FOR USE IN THE WALKSCAN SYSTEM. THIS WILL INCLUDE FURTHER SYSTEM INTEGRATION, AND EVALUATION OF WEARABLE COMPUTERS. SOFTWARE WILL ALSO BE DESIGNED FOR HANDLING ARTIFACT DECONTAMINATION, AND ANALYSIS IN REAL-TIME IN PARALLEL WITH ELECTROPHYSIOLOGICALDATA COLLECTION. LASTLY, NEW OFF-LINE ANALYSIS SOFTWARE WILL BE SPECIFIED FOR NEEDED SUPPORT TO RAPID PROTOTYPING AND IMPLEMENTATION OF REAL-TIME INDICES OF MENTAL FUNCTIONING. THE FOLLOWING WORK PLAN APPROACH WILL BE INCORPORATED: (1) DESIGN FURTHER MINIATURIZATION OF THE MICROAMPS; (2) EVALUATE MOBILE COMPUTING OPTIONS; (3) DEFINE USE OF DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSOR (DSP) IN SIGNAL PROCESSING; (4) DESIGN ONLINE CONTAMINANT PROCESSING SYSTEM; (5) DESIGN ONLINE PATTERN CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM; (6) DESIGN REALTIME LIBRARY FUNCTIONS & DRIVER AND (7) DESIGN OFFLINE SUPPORT FOR ANALYSIS PROTOTYPING :: STAGE: MANAGEMENT AND SUPPORT  :: TYPE: R&D-SVCS-MGMT SUP :: KEYWORDS: AMPLIFIERS;ARTIFACTS;CLASSIFICATION;COMPUTER PROGRAMS;COMPUTERS;CONTAMINANTS;CORRECTIONS;COSTS;DATA STORAGE SYSTEMS;DECONTAMINATION;DIGITAL SYSTEMS;ESTIMATES;FUNCTIONS;HANDLING;INDEXES;INTEGRATED SYSTEMS;LIBRARIES;MENTAL ABILITY;MINIATURE ELECTRONIC EQUIPMENT;MINIATURIZATION;MOBILE;MONITORING;OFFLINE SYSTEMS;ONLINE SYSTEMS;OPERATORS(PERSONNEL);PATTERNS;PERFORMANCE TESTS;PHYSIOLOGY;PLANNING;PROCESSING;PSYCHOPHYSIOLOGY;REAL TIME;RECORDING SYSTEMS;SIGNAL PROCESSING;SIGNALS;STATE OF THE ART;TIME;WEAR;WORK MEASUREMENT;CREWS;MENTAL ABILITY;PERFORMANCE TESTS;PERFORMANCE(HUMAN);PSYCHOPHYSIOLOGY;WORK MEASUREMENT ::

Hit 48 of 277 -- Awd #: DF452413 
 Award Type: Extramural / Contracts / Not Otherwise Specified
 SBIR Award
Access/Distribution Restriction:
 Code: C - U.S. Federal Government and Contractors Only
 Reason: SA - Specific Authority (Reason Other Than Specifically Noted)
Parent Organizations: DOD / USAF / 0605502F - Small Business Innovative Research
 Project: Project number unspecified
Dates: Feb 1998 to Apr 1999
Performer: STRESS TECHNOLOGY INC  ROCHESTER NY
 Type:     Industry/Business
 Contact:  FRIEND, R, Phone: 937-255-2734
 32th Congressional District in New York        
 Location: Rochester,   NY
Description: TITLE: A PROBABILISTIC DIAG & PROG. SYSTEM :: LONG DESCR: THE PRODAPS SYSTEM WILL BE CAPABLE OF PERFORMING REAL-TIME ENGINE RISK ASSESSMENT SO THAT CATASTROPHIC ENGINE FAILURES CAN BE AVOIDED. COSTLY INSPECTION POLICIES AND PREMATURE COMPONENT REPLACEMENTS CAN BE AVERTED BY OPTIMIZING THE MAINTENANCE ACTIVITIES BASED ON THIS AVAILABLE RISK-COST RELATIONSHIP. COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS FOR THIS PROBABILISTIC HEALTH MONITORING SYSTEM CAN ALSO BE REALIZED IN THE POWER GENERATION INDUSTRY, WHERE INDUSTRIAL GAS TURBINES ARE DOMINATING NEW POWER PLANT DESIGNS FOR INCREASED GENERATION FLEXIBILITY. PROBABILISTIC DIAGNOSTIC AND PROGNOSTIC SYSTEM (PRODAPS) CAPABLE OF PROBABILISTIC ASSESSMENT OF ENGINE SENSOR SIGNALS, MECHANICAL AND PERFORMANCE DIAGNOSTICS, AND CRITICAL COMPONENT PROGNOSTICS. THE PRODAPS SYSTEM WILL PERFORM REAL-TIME RISK ASSESSMENT OF ENGINE PERFORMANCE AND MECHANICAL FAULTS SO THAT CATASTROPHIC ENGINE FAILURES CAN BE AVOIDED. ALSO, COSTLY INSPECTION POLICIES AND PREMATURE COMPONENT REPLACEMENTS CAN BE AVERTED BY OPTIMIZING THE MAINTENANCE ACTIVITIES BASED ON THIS RISK-COST RELATIONSHIP. THE PRODAPS SYSTEM WILL INTEGRATE REFINED STOCHASTIC MODELING AND RISK ASSESSMENT TOOLS TOGETHER WITH ADVANCED ENGINE HEALTH MONITORING TECHNIQUES USING THE LATEST SENSOR TECHNOLOGY AND ADVANCED PROBABILISTIC FAULT CLASSIFIERS. THE PROPOSED PRODAPS SYSTEM WILL ULTIMATELY PROVIDE A REAL-TIME, PREDICTIVE SYSTEM WITH TRULY COGNITIVE AND REASONING CAPABILITIES :: STAGE: MANAGEMENT AND SUPPORT  :: TYPE: R&D-OTHER DEFENSE-MGMT SUP :: KEYWORDS: CATASTROPHIC CONDITIONS;COGNITION;COMMERCE;DETECTORS;DIAGNOSIS(GENERAL);ELECTRIC POWER PRODUCTION;ENGINES;FAILURE;FAILURE(MECHANICS);FAULTS;GAS TURBINES;HEALTH;INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT;INDUSTRIES;INSPECTION;MAINTENANCE;MATHEMATICAL MODELS;MECHANICAL PROPERTIES;MONITORING;PERFORMANCE(ENGINEERING);POLICIES;PROBABILITY;REAL TIME;REASONING;REPLACEMENT;RISK ANALYSIS;SIGNALS;STOCHASTIC PROCESSES;TOOLS;TURBINES;TURBINE ENGINE;DIAGNOSTICS;AFFORDABLE;MAINTENANCE ::

Hit 49 of 277 -- Awd #: DF452414 
 Award Type: Extramural / Contracts / Not Otherwise Specified
 SBIR Award
Access/Distribution Restriction:
 Code: C - U.S. Federal Government and Contractors Only
 Reason: SA - Specific Authority (Reason Other Than Specifically Noted)
Parent Organizations: DOD / USAF / 0605502F - Small Business Innovative Research
 Project: Project number unspecified
Dates: Feb 1998 to na
Performer: TEST DEVICES INC  HUDSON MA
 Type:     Industry/Business
 Contact:  FRIEND, R, Phone: 937-255-2734
 5th Congressional District in Massachusetts        
 Location: Hudson,   MA
Description: TITLE: REAL-TIME TURBINE ENGINE FADCOMS :: LONG DESCR: THIS PROJECT WILL BE USED AS THE BASIS OF A HEALTH MONITORING AND FAIL-SAFE SYSTEM FOR BOTH MILITARY AND COMMERCIAL AIR TRANSPORTATION. OTHER TARGET MARKETS INCLUDE HYBRID VEHICLES FOR MILITARY APPLICATIONS, THE POWER GENERATION INDUSTRY TO MONITOR LARGE POWER TURBINES TO DETECT PROBLEMS, AND THE ENERGY STORAGE FLYWHEEL INDUSTRY FOR HEALTH MONITORING. THIS PHASE I EFFORT PROPOSES TO DEVELOP A REAL-TIME, TURBINE ENGINE FAULT DETECTION/CONDITION MONITORING SYSTEM THAT CAN DISTINGUISH BETWEEN SYNCHRONOUS AND NON-SYNCHRONOUS VIBRATION IN A COMPLEX ASSEMBLY OF ROTATINNG COMPONENNTS, AND DETECT THE INITIATION AND GROWTH OF A DEFORMATION, CRACK, OR OTHER MECHANICAL ANOMALY. A SYSTEM USED FOR DETECTING CRACKS IN A SPIN PIT HAS RELIABLY DETECTED CRACKS APPROXIMATELY 0.015" IN SIZE, AND HAS CONSISTENTLY SHOWN ITSELF TO BE MORE SENSITIVE THAN FPI. DURING PHASE I TEST DEVICES SHALL DEVELOP A SPECIFICATION AND MODEL FOR A REAL TIME TURBINE ENGINE FAULT DETECTION/CONDITION MONITORING SYSTEM (FADCOMS), AND PERFORM TESTING TO CHARACTERIZE AND DETERMINE THE SENSITIVITY OF ITS CURRENT CRACK DETECTION SYSTEM. PHASE II WILL DEVELOP THE SYSTEM TO DETECT CRACK INDICATIONS FOR A COMPLETE ENGINE :: STAGE: MANAGEMENT AND SUPPORT  :: TYPE: R&D-OTHER R & D-MGMT SUP :: KEYWORDS: AIR TRANSPORTATION;ANOMALIES;ASSEMBLY;COMMERCE;CRACKS;DEFORMATION;DETECTORS;ELECTRIC POWER PRODUCTION;ENERGY STORAGE;FAIL SAFE;FLYWHEELS;HEALTH;HYBRID SYSTEMS;INDUSTRIES;MARKETING;MECHANICAL PROPERTIES;MILITARY APPLICATIONS;MILITARY TRANSPORTATION;MONITORING;POWER EQUIPMENT;REAL TIME;TARGETS;TEST EQUIPMENT;TURBINES;VEHICLES;TURBINE ENGINE;DIAGNOSTICS;AFFORDABLE;MAINTENANCE ::

Hit 50 of 277 -- Awd #: DF579958 
 Award Type: Extramural / Contracts / Not Otherwise Specified
 SBIR Award
Access/Distribution Restriction:
 Code: B - U.S. Federal Government Access Only
 Reason: SA - Specific Authority (Reason Other Than Specifically Noted)
Parent Organizations: DOD / USAF / 0605502F - Small Business Innovative Research
 Project: Project number unspecified
Dates: Apr 1998 to Nov 1999
Performer: APPLIED VISIONS INC  NORTHPORT NY
 Type:     Industry/Business
 Contact:  UNK, UNK, Phone: 000-UNK
 5th Congressional District in New York        
 Location: Northport,   NY
Description: TITLE: NETWORK SECURITY VISUALIZATION :: LONG DESCR: INVESTIGATE WAYS TO RECOGNIZE INTRUSIONS AND PROVIDE AN AUTOMATIC TRANSLATION OF NETWORK SECURITY REPALTED PARAMETERS. FUNCTION: SECURITY MONITORING OF COMPLEX C4I INFORMATION NETWORKS AND DATABASES. DEFICIENCY: DETECTIONS OF INTRUSION IN REAL-TIME OF COMMERCIAL AND MILITARY NETWORKS AND DATABASES. CONTRIBUTION: 3-DIMENSIONAL PICTURE OF NETWORK STATUS AND ACTIVITY. DEVELOP A SOFTWARE APPLICATION THAT RELIES ON GRAPHICAL CUES RATHER THAN CURRENT TEXTURAL DATA THAT ARE FED INTO REAL-TIME VIEWING ENGINES :: STAGE: OPERATIONAL SYSTEMS DEVELOPMENT  :: TYPE: R&D-OTHER DEFENSE-OPSY DEV :: KEYWORDS: AIR FORCE;AUTOMATIC;COMPUTER PROGRAMS;DATA BASES;DETECTION;ENGINES;INTRUSION;MACHINE TRANSLATION;MILITARY APPLICATIONS;MONITORING;NETWORKS;REAL TIME;SECURITY;TEXTURE;TRANSLATIONS;VIEWERS;VISION;C4I;AUTOMATIC TRANSLATIONS;SOFTWARE APPLICATIONS;NETWORK SECURITY DETECTION ::

Hit 51 of 277 -- Awd #: DF749822 
 Award Type: Extramural / Contracts / Not Otherwise Specified
 SBIR Award
Access/Distribution Restriction:
 Code: B - U.S. Federal Government Access Only
 Reason: SA - Specific Authority (Reason Other Than Specifically Noted)
Parent Organizations: DOD / USAF / 0605502F - Small Business Innovative Research
 Project: Project number unspecified
Dates: Mar 1998 to Dec 1998
Performer: INTEGRATED SENSORS INC  UTICA NY
 Type:     Industry/Business
 Contact:  MCDERMOTT, EDWARD J, Phone: 000-UNK
 25th Congressional District in New York        
 Location: Utica,   NY
Description: TITLE: SYNTHETIC APERTURE RADAR ENHANCING TECHNOLOGIES :: LONG DESCR: DESIGN AN EFFICIENT COTS BASED HETEROGENOUS PARALLEL PROCESSOR ARCHITECTURE AND PROCESSING ELEMENT OPTIMIZED FOR REAL-TIME RADIO FREQUENCY INTERFERENCE (RFI) DETECTION AND REJECTION. FUNCTION: MITIGATION OF ELECTRONIC INTERFERENCE IN SYNTHETIC APERTURE RADAR (SAR) SYSTEMS USING INNOVATIVE TECHNIQUES. CONTRIBUTION: COTS REAL-TIME PARALLEL PROCESSING ARCHITECTURE AND PROCESSING ENVIRONMENT FOR ELECTRONIC PROTECTION (EP) OF SAR BASED SYSTEMS AGAINST BROAD NOISE AND COHERENT JAMMERS. IDENTIFY AND QUANTIFY RFI DETECTION AND REJECTION REQUIREMENTS IN TASK 1. USING THE TASK 1 REQUIREMETNS, DESIGN AN EFFICIENT HETEROGENEOUS PARALLEL PROCESSING ARCHITECTURE THAT IS OPTIMIZED FOR RFI DETECTION AND REJECTION AND IS SUPPORTED BY A COTS HOMOGENEOUS PARALLEL PROCESSOR MANUFACTURER. NEXT A EFFICIENT PARALLEL PROCESSING ELEMENT THAT SUPPORTS THE HETEROGENEOUS PARALLEL PROCESSOR ARCHITECTURE WILL BE DESIGNED. FINALLY, THE HETEROGENEOUS PROCESSING ELEMENT WILL BE SIMULATED AND DEMONSTRATED USING MEASURED DATA :: STAGE: BASIC RESEARCH  :: TYPE: R&D-OTHER DEFENSE-B RES :: KEYWORDS: AIRBORNE;ALGORITHMS;ANTENNA LOBES;COHERENCE;COMMUNICATION AND RADIO SYSTEMS;COMPUTER ARCHITECTURE;DETECTION;EFFICIENCY;ELECTRONICS;ENGINEERS;ENVIRONMENTS;HETEROGENEITY;IMAGES;INTERFERENCE;JAMMING;LOSSES;LOW FREQUENCY;METEOROLOGICAL RADAR;MOBILE;MONITORING;NOISE;PARALLEL PROCESSING;PARALLEL PROCESSORS;PROCESSING;PROCESSING EQUIPMENT;PROTECTION;RADAR;RADAR SIGNALS;RADIOFREQUENCY INTERFERENCE;REAL TIME;REJECTION;REQUIREMENTS;RESOLUTION;SIGNAL PROCESSING;SIGNAL TO NOISE RATIO;SOURCES;SUPPRESSION;SYNTHETIC APERTURE RADAR;TARGETS;ELECTRONIC INTERFERENCE;COTS;PARALLEL PROCESSOR;SAR ::

Hit 52 of 277 -- Awd #: DF409959 
 Award Type: Extramural / Contracts / Not Otherwise Specified
 SBIR Award
Access/Distribution Restriction:
 Code: A - Distribution Unlimited - Unrestricted Access
Parent Organizations: DOD / USAF / 0605502F - Small Business Innovative Research
 Project: Project number unspecified
Dates: May 1998 to Feb 1999
Performer: DEPOSITION RESEARCH LAB INC  ST CHARLES MO
 Type:     Industry/Business
 Contact:  KI-SOUK NAM, PAUL, Phone: 573 341 4686
 Second Congressional District in Missouri
 Location: St Charles,   MO
Description: TITLE: DEVELOPMENT OF A PARTICULATE MATTER ON-LINE, REAL-TIME, PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION & MONITORING SYSTEM (PMCMS) :: LONG DESCR: THE OBJECTIVES FOR THIS PHASE I SBIR ARE: 1) THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE LABORATORY-BASED COUPLING OF A MASS-SPECTROMETRIC CHEMICAL COMPOSITION FUNCTION TO A STATE-OR-THE-ART PARTICULATE CHARACTERIZATION SYSTEM; 2) THE PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT OF THE LABORATORY-BASED PMCMS WITH RESPECT TO SAMPLE RATE, SPECIFICITY, SPACIAL RESOLUTION AND SENSITIVITY; 3) A COMPARISON OF THE LABORATORY-BASED SYSTEM WITH DATA GATHERED BY CURRENT PRACTICES; 4) THE DEVELOPMENT OF A CONCEPTUAL DESIGN OF A FIELD-DEPLOYABLE, COMMERCIALIZED VERSION OF PMCMS; AND 5) A FIELD DEMONSTRATION WITH AN ENGINEERING MODEL AND THE PRESENTATION OF A TECHNICAL REPORT DESCRIBING THE PHASE I ACTIVITIES. THE TECHNICAL APPROACH IS AS FOLLOWS: 1) DIFFERENTIAL MOBILITY ANALYSIS AND LASER AEROSOL SPECTROMETRY WILL BE USED TO DETERMINE SIZE DISTRIBUTION AND GROWTH INFORMATION; 2) A MOUDI IMPACTOR WILL BE USED TO SIZE SEGREGATE AND COLLECT PM ON IMPACTOR GRIDS WHICH CAN THEN BE WEIGHED TO DETERMINE SAMPLE MASS; 3) ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE IONIZATION-MASS SPECTROMETRY WILL BE USED TO DETERMINE THE CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF ORGANIC AND INORGANIC SPECIES; AND 4) INDUCTIVELY COUPLED PLASMA AND LASER IONIZATION SOURCES WILL BE USED TO DETERMINE THE CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF HEAVY METALS :: KEYWORDS: AEROSOLS;BAROMETRIC PRESSURE;CHEMICAL COMPOSITION;COUPLING(INTERACTION);DEMONSTRATIONS;EMISSION;ENGINEERING;ENVIRONMENTS;FUNCTIONS;GRIDS;GROWTH(GENERAL);HEAVY METALS;IMPACT;INORGANIC MATERIALS;IONIZATION;LASERS;MASS SPECTROMETRY;METHODOLOGY;MOBILITY;MODELS;MONITORING;ONLINE SYSTEMS;PARTICULATES;PLASMAS(PHYSICS);RESOLUTION;SAMPLERS;SOURCES;SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION;SPECTROMETRY;SURFACES;PARTICULATE EMISSIONS, SIZE SPECTRUM, COMPOSITION,;CONCENTRATION, MASS AND SURFACE DATA, REAL-TIME,;ON-LINE, ENVIRONMENTAL MONITOR ::

Hit 53 of 277 -- Awd #: DF452404 
 Award Type: Extramural / Contracts / Not Otherwise Specified
 SBIR Award
Access/Distribution Restriction:
 Code: B - U.S. Federal Government Access Only
 Reason: CL - Critical Technology (EXPORT CONTROLLED)
Parent Organizations: DOD / USAF / 0605502F - Small Business Innovative Research
 Project: Project number unspecified
Dates: Mar 1998 to Dec 1998
Performer: AIR FORCE RESEARCH LAB  WRIGHT-PATTERSON AFB OH
 Type:     Federal Government
 Contact:  GREEN, A J, Phone: 937-255-2734
 7th Congressional District in Ohio        
 Location: Wright-Patterson Afb,   OH
Description: TITLE: NEURAL NETWORK-BASED REAL-TIME EHMS :: LONG DESCR: THE PRIMARY RESULT, A STAND-ALONE HEALTH MONITORING SYSTEM FOR THE ANALYSIS, DETECTION, CLASSIFICATION, AND PROGNOSIS OF MACHINERY PARTS, HAS VERY BROAD COMMERCIAL APPLICATION. THE PROBLEM THAT THE SYSTEM SOLVES IS IMPORTANT, SINCE THE DETECTION AND CLASSIFICATION OF FAULTS PRIOR TO CATASTROPHIC FAILURE CAN SUBSTANTIALLY REDUCE THE COST OF REPAIR AND REPLACEMENT OF DEFECTIVE PARTS AND MAY EVEN RESULT IN SAVING LIVES. THE SYSTEM CAN ALSO BE AN IMPORTANT ADDITION TO THE AIR FORCE'S OVERALL HEALTH MONITORING PROCESSING. A PROBLEM OF CURRENT INTEREST TO THE AIR FORCE IS THE AUTOMATIC DETECTION, CLASSIFICATION, AND PROGNOSIS OF CRITICAL COMPONENT FAILURES IN TURBO JET ENGINES. CURRENT PROCESSING FOR ENGINE HEALTH MONITORING (EHM) USES RELATIVELY SIMPLE FEATURES AND RULES TO MEASURE AND CHARACTERIZE CHANGES IN SENSOR DATA. AN ALTERNATIVE SOLUTION IS TO USE NEURAL NETS. PHASE I INTRODUCED AN AUTOMATIC RULE EXTRACTION ALGORITHM (TREPAN) THAT EXTRACTS RULES FROM THE TRAINED NEURAL NET TO DERIVE A DECISION TREE RULE SET THAT GIVES THE SAME PERFORMANCE AS THE NEURAL NET. THE TECHNIQUE WAS SUCCESSFULLY DEMONSTRATED ON T56 DATA SUPPLIED BY ALLISON. PHASE II WILL EXTEND THAT WORK TO PROCESS DATA RELEVANT TO THE JOINT STRIKE FIGHTER (JSF) PROGRAM SUPPLIED BY BOEING (F15 AND C17 ENGINE DATA) AND ALLISON (HCF DATA FROM RVM PROGRAM). PROGNOSTICS FOR EHM WILL BE INCLUDED. DETECTION OF NOVEL, NEVER-SEEN-BEFORE EVENTS WILL BE INCLUDED AS WELL. A PROTOTYPE SYSTEM WILL BE DEVELOPED AND PERFORMANCE ASSESSED ON-SITE AT BOEING/ALLISON. FINALLY, THE SYSTEM WILL BE TRAINED WITH CEMS IV DATA AND THEN INTEGRATED AND TESTED WITH THE CEMS IV SYSTEM :: KEYWORDS: AIR FORCE;AUTOMATIC;CATASTROPHIC CONDITIONS;CLASSIFICATION;COMMERCE;COSTS;CRITICALITY(GENERAL);DECISION THEORY;DEFECTS(MATERIALS);DETECTION;DETECTORS;ENGINES;FAILURE;FAULTS;HEALTH;MACHINES;MEASUREMENT;MONITORING;NERVOUS SYSTEM;NEURAL NETS;PARTS;PREDICTIONS;PROCESSING;PROTOTYPES;REPAIR;REPLACEMENT;SELF CONTAINED;SIMULATION;SPARE PARTS;TRAINING;TURBINES;TURBOJET ENGINES;TURBINE ENGINE;MONITORING;NEURAL NETWORK;SIMULATION ::

Hit 54 of 277 -- Awd #: DF594966 
 Award Type: Extramural / Contracts / Not Otherwise Specified
 SBIR Award
Access/Distribution Restriction:
 Code: A - Distribution Unlimited - Unrestricted Access
Parent Organizations: DOD / USAF / 0605502F - Small Business Innovative Research
 Project: Project number unspecified
Dates: Mar 1997 to Sep 1999
Performer: Not specified
 Type:     Not specified
 Location: Not Specified  
Description: TITLE: REAL TIME ELECTROCHEMICAL HCI :: LONG DESCR: DEVELOP A PROTOTYPE PORTABLE MONITOR/DATA LOGGER FOR RAPID DETECTION OF PPM LEVELS OF HC1 GAS AND AEROSOL EMITTED FROM SOLID ROCKET LAUNCHES. THE SENSOR CELL DESIGN AND OPERATING PARAMETERS WILL BE OPTIMIZED FOR DETECTION OF HC1 GAS AND AEROSOL. COM0PLETE PROTOTYPE INSTRUMENTS WILL BE DESIGNED, FABRICATED AND EXTENSIVELY EVALUATED :: KEYWORDS: AEROSOLS;CELLS;COMMERCE;DETECTION;DETECTORS;ELECTRODES;GAS DETECTORS;HYDROCHLORIC ACID;MONITORING;POLYMERS;PORTABLE EQUIPMENT;PROTOTYPES;QUICK REACTION;REAL TIME;ROCKETS;SOLID ELECTROLYTES;SOLIDS;HYDROCHLORIC ACID, GAS SENSOR, ELECTROCHEMICAL,;MICROELECTRODE, SOLID POLYMER ELECTROLYTE ::

Hit 55 of 277 -- Awd #: DF553058 
 Award Type: Extramural / Contracts / Not Otherwise Specified
Access/Distribution Restriction:
 Code: C - U.S. Federal Government and Contractors Only
 Reason: AD - Administrative or Operational Use Data
Parent Organizations: DOD / USAF / 0708011F - Industrial Preparedness
 Project: 2865 - Industrial Preparedness - Manufacturing Technology
Dates: Jun 1992 to Feb 1999
Performer: PERKIN-ELMER CORP  DANBURY CT
 Type:     Industry/Business
 Contact:  PAUL, REID, Phone: 203-797-5479
 5th Congressional District in Connecticut        
 Location: Danbury,   CT
Description: TITLE: RUGATE COATING PRODUCIBTY :: LONG DESCR: THE RUGATE COATING PRODUCIBILITY PROGRAM SHALL ESTABLISH A PRODUCTION CAPABILITY FOR RUGATE COATINGS WHICH DEMONSTRATES ENHANCED YIELD, INCREASED THROUGHPUT, PROCESS SCALABILITY, AND REDUCED COSTS. THE PROGRAM GOALS ARE TO DEMONSTRATE A TWO TIMES INCREASE IN COMPONENT YIELD, A FIVE TIMES INCREASE IN COMPONENT THROUGHPUT, AND A 50% REDUCTION IN COMPONENT COST. IN ADDITION EMPHASIS SHALL BE PLACED ON TRANSFERRING THE INSITU MONITORING TECHNIQUES AND PROCESS METHODOLOGY USED TO MANUFACTURE RUGATE COATINGS TO OTHER MANUFACTURERS OF OPTICAL, MICROELECTRONIC, MICROWAVE, AND OPTOELECTRONIC THIN FILM DEVICES. THE CONTRACTOR SHALL PERFORM THREE PRODUCTION RUNS TO DEMONSTRATE THE INCEASED YIELD AND THROUGHPUT AND REDUCED COST FOR RUGATE COMPONENTS FABRICATED DUING THE PROGRAM. A PRODUCTION RUN SHALL BE COMPLETED EARLY IN THE PROGRAM TO ESABLISH A BASELINE. INTERMEDIATE AND FINAL PRODUCTION RUNS SHALL DEMONSTRATE THEPROGRESS MADE DURING THE PROGRAM. A SPECIFICATIONS FOR ONE RUGATE DEMONSTRATIONCOMPONENT SHALL BE ESTABLISHED AT THE BEGINNING OF THE PROGRAM AND SHALL REMAINUNCHANGED DURING THE COURSE OF THE PROGRAM. DURING EACH PRODUCTION RUN THE CONACTOR SHALL FABRICATE THIS DEVICE AND MEASURE PROCESS IMPROVEMENTS AGAINST THE ASELINE RESULTS. SECOND AND OPTICAL COMPONENTS WHICH ARE SPECIFIED BY THE GOVTCONTRACTOR SHALL BE FABRICATED DURING THE INTERMEDIATE AND FINAL PRODUCTION RUN. THE CONTRACTOR DEMONSTRATION COMPONENT SHALL BE DESIGNED FOR A PURPOSE OTHER HAN NARROW BAND REJECTION AND PREFERRABLY SHALL REPLACE A NON-RUGATE COMPONENT ABRICATED BY CONVENTIONAL DEPOSITION METHODS. THE PURPOSE OF PRODUCING THIS DEVCE IS TO DEMONSTRATE THE BENEFITS OF THE RUGATE PROCESSING METHODOLOGY FOR FABRCATING CONVENTIONAL OPTICAL COMPONENTS. THE CONTRACTOR SHALL ALSO DEMONSTRATE TE APPLICATION AND BENEFITS OF IN-SITU MONITORING TO CONTROL THE THIN FILM DEPOSTION PROCESSES. A COMMERCIALIZATION PLAN SHALL BE DEVELOPED FOR THE MONITORING QUIPMENTS USED IN THE DEPOSITION PROCESSES. THE PLAN SHALL PROVIDE AN APPROACH OR SUITABLY PACKAGAING THE MONITORING EQUIPMENTS FOR APPLICATION BY OTHER MANUCT URERS. THE DEPOSITION SYSTEM SHALL USE A COMPUTER BASED, REAL TIME EXPERT PROESS CONTROLLER. A PRODUCTIZATION PLAN SHALL BE DEVELOPED FOR THE PROCESS CONTROLER. THE CONTRACTOR SHALL MAKE EXTENSIVE USE OF CAUSE AND EFFECT AND PARETO ANAYSIS TO IDENTIFY THE CRITICAL PROCESS PARAMETERS AND DESIGN OF EXPERIMENT TECHNQUES TO ESTABLISH THE OPTIMUM OPERATING CONDITIONS AND A ROBUST SYSTEM. TECHNOLGY TRANSFER SHALL BE ACCOMPLISHED THROUGH WORKSHOPS FOR AND BRIEFINGS TO INDUSTY. THE INTENT OF THIS EFFORT IS TO STIMULATE THE APPLICATION OF RUGATE FABRICATON METHODOLOGY IN THE PRODUCTION OF OTHER OPTICAL COMPONENTS AND MICROWAVE, OPELECTRONIC, AND MICROELECTRONIC THIN FILM DEVICES. THE TASK WILL INCLUDE THREPRODUCTION RUNS TO DEMONSTRATE INCREASED YIELD AND THROUPUT AND REDUCED COST FO RUGATEW COMPONENTS. A PRODUCTIONRUN WILL BE COMPLETED EARLY IN THE TASK TO ESABLISH A BASELINE. INTERMEDIATE AND FINAL PRODUCTION RUNS WILL DEMONSTRATE THEPROGRESS MADE DURING THE TASK. SPECIFICATIONS FOR TWO RUGATE DEMONSTRATION COMONENTS WILL BE ESTABLISHED AT THE BEGINNING OF THE TASK AND WILL REMAIN UNCHANGD DURING THE COURSE OF THE PROGRAM. DURING PRODUCTION RUN THESE DEVICES WILL  :: STAGE: APPLIED RESEARCH AND EXPLORATORY DEVELOPMENT  :: TYPE: R&D-AIRCRAFT-A RES/EXPL DEV :: KEYWORDS: BASE LINES;CONTRACTORS;COSTS;DATA FUSION;DEMONSTRATIONS;DEPOSITION;DETECTORS;ELECTROOPTICS;FILTERS;MEASUREMENT;MICROELECTRONICS;MONITORING;MONITORS;NARROWBAND;OPTICAL EQUIPMENT COMPONENTS;PARAMETERS;PRODUCTION;REAL TIME;REDUCTION;REJECTION;SUBMINIATURE ELECTRONIC EQUIPMENT;THIN FILMS;THROUGHPUT;VISIBILITY;WORKSHOPS;YIELD;RUGATE FILMS;SENSOR FUSION ::

Hit 56 of 277 -- Awd #: DF664898 
 Award Type: Extramural / Contracts / Not Otherwise Specified
Access/Distribution Restriction:
 Code: C - U.S. Federal Government and Contractors Only
 Reason: SA - Specific Authority (Reason Other Than Specifically Noted)
Parent Organizations: DOD / USAF / 0708011F - Industrial Preparedness
 Project: 2865 - Industrial Preparedness - Manufacturing Technology
Dates: Aug 1998 to Mar 2001
Performer: GA TECHNOLOGIES INC  SAN DIEGO CA
 Type:     Industry/Business
 Contact:  JAD, DUNCAN, Phone: 619-455-2733
 45th Congressional District in California        
 Location: San Diego,   CA
Description: TITLE: AFFORDABLE MANUFACTURING OF ADVANCED LO COATINGS :: LONG DESCR: THIS EFFORT WILL DEFINE, DEVELOP AND VALIDATE AN INTEGRATED MANUFACTURING PROCESS FOR THE FABRICATION OF LOW COST, HIGH PERFORMANCE LO PIGMENTS FOR FORMULATION INTO LO COATINGS. THE PAYOFFS INCLUDE: REDUCED IR SIGNATURE OF DOD WEAPONS SYSTEMS AT AN AFFORDABLE COST, AN ASSURED SUPPLY OF AFFORDABLE LO COATINGS, AND AN ACQUISITON COST REDUCTION OF UP TO 80%. THE PROGRAM WILL DEFINE, BUILD, AND VALIDATE A SELF CONTAINED DEPOSITION SYSTEM, INTEGRATE THE SYSTEM INTO AN INTEGRATED FACILITY, DEMONSTRATE REAL TIME INTELLIGENT MONITORING, AND FABRICATE PRODUCTION SAMPLES. THIS WILL BE A MULTI PHASED PROGRAM.  :: STAGE: ADVANCED DEVELOPMENT  :: TYPE: DEFENSE AIRCRAFT (ADVANCED) :: KEYWORDS: ACCEPTANCE TESTS;COATINGS;COSTS;DEPOSITION;FABRICATION;FACILITIES;INTEGRATED SYSTEMS;LESSONS LEARNED;LOW COSTS;MACHINES;MANUFACTURING;MONITORING;NEGOTIATIONS;PHASE;PIGMENTS;PRODUCTION;REAL TIME;REDUCTION;SAMPLING;SELF CONTAINED;WEAPON SYSTEMS;WEBS(SHEETS);COATINGS;AFFORDABLE ::

Hit 57 of 277 -- Awd #: DA349586 
 Award Type: Extramural / Contracts / Not Otherwise Specified
 SBIR Award
Access/Distribution Restriction:
 Code: A - Distribution Unlimited - Unrestricted Access
Parent Organizations: DOD / ARMY / 0601102A - Defense Research Sciences
 Project: BH57 - Scientific Problems with Military Applications
Dates: Sep 1996 to Sep 1999
Performer: ADVANCED FUEL RESEARCH INC  EAST HARTFORD CT
 Type:     Industry/Business
 Contact:  FARQUHARSON, S, Phone: 860-528-9806
 First Congressional District in Connecticut
 Location: East Hartford,   CT
Description: TITLE: RAPID THERMAL ANNELAING PROCESS WITH REAL-TIME MONITORING OF SIO2 36470-EL-SBI :: LONG DESCR: TO REFINE THE TECHNOLOGY FOR REAL-TIME MONITORING OF A RAPID THERMAL GROWTH PROCESS (RTP) FOR CVD OF UNDOPED SIO2 FORMATION IN SILICON IC MANUFACTURING. THE SYSTEM FEASIBILITY WILL BE ESTABLISHED BY DEMONSTRATING THE GROWTH OF THIN GATE INSULATORS AND INTERCONNECT DIELECTRICS WITH IN-SITU DIAGNOSTICS FOR LAYER CHARACTERISTICS (THICKNESS, COMPOSITION, AND MECHANICAL STRESS) AND TEMPERATURE AND REAL-TIME FEEDBACK CONTROL. RELEVANCE. FUTURE MANUFACTURING OF INTEGRATED CIRCUITS (ICS) WILL REQUIRE ANALYTICAL INSTRUMENTATION THAT CAN PROVIDE ON-LINE PROCESS MONITORING LINKED TO REAL TIME PROCESS CONTROL. FOURIER TRANSFORM INFRARED (FT-IR) SPECTROSCOPY CAN BE EFFECTIVELY UTILIZED TO MEET THIS NEED, AND THE PHASE I RESULTS CONFIRM THE POTENTIAL OF THE TECHNIQUE FOR USE IN A MANUFACTURING ENVIRONMENT. THIS PROJECT ADDRESSES THOSE ISSUES THAT WILL DETERMINE THE SUCCESS OF PROCESS CONTROL LAND MONITORING IN IC MANUFACTURING, AND THE ANTICIPATED RESULTS COULD PROVIDE SIGNIFICANT BENEFIT TO THE DOD REQUIREMENTS FOR MANUFACTURING OF SEMICONDUCTOR ELECTRONIC DEVICES AND CIRCUITS. AS SUCH, THIS WORK WILL BROADLY IMPACT ARL PROGRAMS, I.E., EPSD, HDL, AND NVESD. TO DEMONSTRATE THAT THE FOURIER TRANSFORM-INFRARED (FT-IR) MEASUREMENT SYSTEM CAN BE USED TO MANUFACTURE HIGH-QUALITY SILICON INTEGRATED CIRCUITS. A NEW PHYSICS BASED ALGORITHM WILL BE DEVELOPED TO DETERMINE INTERSTITIAL OXYGEN IN THE WAFER SUBSTRATES. THIS INVOLVES MODIFICATION OF A NEW PATENTED METHOD TO ACCOUNT FOR SCATTERING LOSSES AT THE BACK SURFACE OF THE WAFER. UP-GRADES WILL BE MADE TO THE FT-IR SYSTEM TO INCREASE THROUGHPUT AND TURN-AROUND TIME. THE REAL-TIME DATA WILL BE INCORPORATED INTO A PROCESS MODEL COMPOSED OF AN ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NET THAT WILL EMPLOY SUB-MODELS FOR HEATING AND LAYER FORMING BASED ON FIRST PRINCIPLES :: STAGE: BASIC RESEARCH  :: TYPE: R&D-OTHER R & D-B RES :: KEYWORDS: ALGORITHMS;CONTROL;DIAGNOSIS(GENERAL);DIELECTRICS;FEASIBILITY STUDIES;FEEDBACK;FOURIER TRANSFORMATION;GATES(CIRCUITS);GROWTH(GENERAL);INFRARED RADIATION;INSTRUMENTATION;INSULATION;INTEGRATED CIRCUITS;INTERSTITIAL;LAND AREAS;LAYERS;LINKAGES;LOSSES;MANUFACTURING;MEASUREMENT;MECHANICAL PROPERTIES;MONITORING;NERVOUS SYSTEM;ONLINE SYSTEMS;OXYGEN;PHYSICS;REACTION TIME;REAL TIME;RESPONSE;SCATTERING;SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES;SILICON;SPECTROSCOPY;STRESSES;SUBSTRATES;SURFACES;THERMAL PROPERTIES;THERMODYNAMIC PROPERTIES;THICKNESS;THINNESS;TIME;WAFERS;THERMODYNAMIC PROPERTIES;DIELECTRICS;SILICON;INTEGRATED CIRCUITS ::

Hit 58 of 277 -- Awd #: DA368135 
 Award Type: Extramural / Contracts / Not Otherwise Specified
Access/Distribution Restriction:
 Code: A - Distribution Unlimited - Unrestricted Access
Parent Organizations: DOD / ARMY / 0601102A - Defense Research Sciences
 Project: BH57 - Scientific Problems with Military Applications
Dates: Sep 1998 to Sep 2000
Performer: QUALTECH SYSTEMS INC  STORRS CT
 Type:     Industry/Business
 Contact:  DEB, S, Phone: 860-423-2099
 Second Congressional District in Connecticut
 Location: Storrs,   CT
Description: TITLE: A DISTRIBUTED LATTICE ARCHITECTURE FOR REAL-TIME DIAGNOSIS AND RECOVERY 38991-MA-ST2 :: LONG DESCR: TO DEVELOP AN ON-BOARD, REAL-TIME FAULT DETECTION AND ISOLATION SYSTEM FOR STREAMLINING MAINTENANCE OF LARGE, COMPLEX MILITARY SYSTEMS. RELEVANCE. TO THE AREA OF DIAGNOSTIC TECHNOLOGY FOR MILITARY SYSTEMS, CIVILIAN AVIATION, SATELLITES, SPACECRAFT, MEDICAL EQUIPMENT AND AUTOMOBILES. IT IS PLANNED TO EXPAND THE PHASE I PROJECT BY (1) DEVELOPING AN INFERENCE ENGINE FOR REAL-TIME MONITORING, FAULT ISOLATION AND RECONFIGURATION IN THE PRESENCE OF IMPERFECT TESTS AND TEMPORARY FAILURES, (2) ADDING THE CAPABILITY TO PERFORM ADDITIONAL DRILL-DOWN TESTS TO ENABLE PROMPT AND ACCURATE FAULT ISOLATION, AND (3) ENHANCING THE SIGNAL PROCESSING TOOLKIT FOR FAULT DETECTION BY ADDING FINITE-PRECISION CAPABLE REAL-TIME ROBUST ROUTINES :: STAGE: BASIC RESEARCH  :: TYPE: R&D-OTHER R & D-B RES :: KEYWORDS: ACCURACY;AERONAUTICS;DETECTION;DIAGNOSIS(GENERAL);FAULTS;ISOLATION;MEDICAL EQUIPMENT;MONITORING;PASSENGER VEHICLES;REACTIVITIES;REAL TIME;SIGNAL PROCESSING;SPACECRAFT;STATISTICAL INFERENCE;TEST AND EVALUATION;TOOL KITS;REAL TIME;DIAGNOSIS(GENERAL);REACTIVE SYSTEMS ::

Hit 59 of 277 -- Awd #: DA368180 
 Award Type: Extramural / Contracts / Not Otherwise Specified
 SBIR Award
Access/Distribution Restriction:
 Code: A - Distribution Unlimited - Unrestricted Access
Parent Organizations: DOD / ARMY / 0601102A - Defense Research Sciences
 Project: BH57 - Scientific Problems with Military Applications
Dates: Dec 1998 to Sep 1999
Performer: LOS GATOS RESEARCH  MOUNTAIN VIEW CA
 Type:     Industry/Business
 Contact:  SCHERER, J J, Phone: 650-965-7772
 14th Congressional District in California        
 Location: Mountain View,   CA
Description: TITLE: REAL-TIME ULTRASENSITIVE SPECTROMETER FOR PLASMA DIAGNOSTICS 39548-PH-SB1 :: LONG DESCR: TO ADDRESS RESEARCH IN THE TOPIC AREA OF MATERIALS CHARACTERIZATION OF THIN FILMS AND COATINGS. RELEVANCE. THIS RESEARCH PROPOSAL WAS EVALUATED AS BEING RESPONSIVE TO THE TOPIC THAT IT ADDRESSES, AND IS THEREFORE CONSIDERED TO BE RELEVANT TO THE MISSION OF THE ARMY. IMAGING CAVITY-RINGDOWN LASER SPECTROSCOPY IS USED FOR REACTIVE PLASMA DIAGNOSTIC MEASUREMENTS. THIS NEW INSTRUMENTAL METHOD WILL BE DEVELOPED FOR OPERATION OVER A WIDE SPECTRAL RANGE FROM THE UV TO THE INFRARED AND WILL QUANTIFY THE SENSITIVITY FOR SELECTED MOLECULES APPROPRIATE TO REACTIVE PLASMA SITUATIONS :: STAGE: BASIC RESEARCH  :: TYPE: R&D-OTHER R & D-B RES :: KEYWORDS: ARMY;BIOLOGICAL AGENTS;BIOLOGICAL DETECTION;CHEMICAL AGENTS;COATINGS;CONTROL;DETECTION;HIGH SENSITIVITY;INDUSTRIES;INFRARED RADIATION;INFRARED SPECTRA;MATERIALS;MEASUREMENT;MISSIONS;MOLECULES;MONITORING;OFF THE SHELF EQUIPMENT;OPTICS;PLASMA DIAGNOSTICS;PLASMAS(PHYSICS);RANGE(EXTREMES);REACTIVITIES;REAL TIME;SEMICONDUCTORS;SPECTRA;SPECTROMETERS;SPECTROPHOTOMETRY;THIN FILMS;ULTRAVIOLET RADIATION;SBIR PROGRAM;FY99 PHASE 1;PLASMA DIAGNOSTICS;OPTICS;SPECTROMETERS;THIN FILMS;COATINGS ::

Hit 60 of 277 -- Awd #: DA350037 
 Award Type: Extramural / Grants / Project
Access/Distribution Restriction:
 Code: A - Distribution Unlimited - Unrestricted Access
Parent Organizations: DOD / ARMY / 0601102A - Defense Research Sciences
 Project: BH57 - Scientific Problems with Military Applications
Dates: Aug 1998 to Sep 1999
Performer: MICHIGAN UNIV  ANN ARBOR
 Type:     Public Educational Institution
 Contact:  BILELLO, J C, Phone: 313-764-6128
 Second Congressional District in Michigan
 Location: Ann Arbor,   MI
Description: TITLE: FABRICATION OF HIGH PERFORMANCE COATING SYSTEMS VIA NOVEL IN-SITU AND EX-SITU CHARACTERIZATION TECHNOLOGY 37716-MS :: LONG DESCR: TO FABRICATE HIGH PERFORMANCE, HIGH TEMPERATURE, MONOLITHIC AND MULTILAY ER REFRACTORY COATINGS WITH A VARIETY OF FILM ARCHITECTURE. RELEVANCE. THE A RMY REQUIRES HIGH TEMPERATURE WEAR AND EROSION RESISTANT COATINGS FOR MANY SYS TEMS INCLUDING GEARS, CANNON BORE, GUN BARRELS, TURBINE APPLICATIONS ETC. THI S RESEARCH PROVIDES A UNIQUE IN-SITU REAL TIME CHARACTERIZATION CAPABILITY T HAT RELATES PROPERTIES TO PROCESSING CONDITIONS FOR NANODIMENSIONAL REFRACTORY MATERIALS FILMS AND ARCHITECTURES. 1) UTILIZING A UNIQUE IN-SITE REAL-TIME MULTIPURPOSE HIGH ENERGY X-RAY S CATTERING APPARATUS IN CONJUNCTION WITH A TRIPLE SPUTTER TARGET COMPUTER CONTR OLLED DEPOSITION CHAMBER TO DEVELOP DIRECT MEANS OF MONITORING CRITICAL GROWTH PARAMETERS. 2) WITH THE EQUIPMENT IDENTIFIED ABOVE, DESIGN COATINGS THAT OPT IMIZE THE MICROSTRUCTURE OF THE VARIOUS COMPONENT LAYERS TO INCLUDE CONSIDER ATIONS OF FILM TEXTURE, GRAIN SIZE AND MORPHOLOGY, SURFACE ROUGHNESS, MICROCHE MISTRY, CRYSTALLINE AND AMORPHOUS PHASES AND RESIDUAL STRESS LEVELS. 3) CONCE NTRATE THE WORK TO THE FOLLOWING MATERIALS: TA, TAN, TAO, TAC, MO, W, WN AND WC :: KEYWORDS: AMORPHOUS MATERIALS;ARCHITECTURE;BORES;CHAMBERS;COATINGS;COMPUTERS;DEPOSITION;EROSION RESISTANCE;FILMS;GEARS;GRAIN SIZE;GROWTH(GENERAL);GUN BARRELS;GUNS;HIGH RATE;HIGH TEMPERATURE;LAYERS;LEVEL(QUANTITY);MICROSTRUCTURE;MONITORING;PARAMETERS;PHASE;PROCESSING;REAL TIME;REFRACTORY COATINGS;REFRACTORY MATERIALS;RESIDUAL STRESS;SPUTTERING;SURFACE ROUGHNESS;TARGETS;TEXTURE;TURBINES;WEAR;COATINGS;FABRICATION;REFRACTORY MATERIALS ::

Hit 61 of 277 -- Awd #: DA361099 
 Award Type: Extramural / Contracts / Not Otherwise Specified
Access/Distribution Restriction:
 Code: A - Distribution Unlimited - Unrestricted Access
Parent Organizations: DOD / ARMY / 0601102A - Defense Research Sciences
 Project: BS14 - Science Base/Combat Casualty Care Research
Dates: Oct 1996 to Mar 1999
Performer: CORE M PRECISION INSTRUMENTS  ALLSTON MA
 Type:     Industry/Business
 Contact:  GULER, F, Phone: 617-787-2792
 8th Congressional District in Massachusetts        
 Location: Allston,   MA
Description: TITLE: ADAPTATION OF CORE-M'S ELECTRONIC SENSORY PLATFORM FOR MONITORING AND CONTROL OF PHYSIOLOGICAL AND NONPHYSIOLOGICAL DEVICES EMPLOYED ON THE LIFE SUPPORT FOR TRAUMA AND TRANSPORT :: LONG DESCR: CONFIGURE THE CORE-M ELECTRONIC PLATFORM, (WHICH IS A FLEXIBLE PHYSIOLOGICAL MONITORING SYSTEM). CONFIGURE THE CORE-M ELECTRONIC PLATFORM SO AS TO ASSUME THE TASK OF PROVIDING SAID LSTAT COMMON ELECTRONIC STRUCTURE, AND TO ACCOMPLISH SUCH IN A MANNER WHICH IS IN ACCORDANCE WITH FDA GUIDELINES RELATING TO MEDICAL DEVICE EFFECTIVENESS AND SAFETY :: STAGE: BASIC RESEARCH  :: TYPE: R&D-OTHER MEDICAL-B RES :: KEYWORDS: ACQUISITION;BUFFERS;CONTROL;DATA ACQUISITION;DATA PROCESSING;ELECTRONICS;LIFE SUPPORT SYSTEMS;LIGHTWEIGHT;LOW POWER;MEDICINE;MEMORY DEVICES;MODELS;MODULES(ELECTRONICS);MONITORING;PHYSIOLOGY;REAL TIME;SLEDS;TRAUMA;WIRE;RA II;PLATFORM;LSTAT;MONITORING;PHYSIOLOGICAL;DATA;LOGGING ::

Hit 62 of 277 -- Awd #: DA361534 
 Award Type: Intramural / In-House Project / In-House Project
Access/Distribution Restriction:
 Code: A - Distribution Unlimited - Unrestricted Access
Parent Organizations: DOD / ARMY / 0601102A - Defense Research Sciences
 Project: BS15 - Science Base/Army Opertional Medicine Research
Dates: Oct 1997 to Feb 2020
Performer: ARMY AEROMEDICAL RESEARCH UNIT  FORT RUCKER AL
 Type:     Federal Government
 Contact:  CALDWELL, J A, Phone: 334-255-6864
 Third Congressional District in Alabama
 Location: Fort Rucker,   AL
Description: TITLE: AVIATOR STATUS MONITORING :: LONG DESCR: EVALUATE THE FEASIBILITY OF MONITORING HELICOPTER PILOT STATUS IN FLIGHT VIA PHYSIOLOGICAL DATA TELEMETRY. ADDRESS THE RELATIONSHIPS AMONG IN-FLIGHT PHYSIOLOGICAL PARAMETERS AND AIRCRAFT CONTROL ACCURACY. DETERMINE THE EXTENT TO WHICH IN-FLIGHT PHYSIOLOGICAL EFFECTS CORRELATE WITH SIMILAR EFFECTS IN THE LABORATORY. EMPLOY A MULTIDISCIPLINARY APPROACH WHICH INCLUDES THE MEASUREMENT OF FLIGHT PERFORMANCE DATA FROM SPECIALLY-INSTRUMENTED AIRCRAFT; THE MONITORING OF COGNITIVE STATUS USING COMPUTERIZED TESTING TECHNIQUES; THE EVALUATION OF PSYCHOLOGICAL STATES USING QUESTIONNAIRES; AND THE ASSESSMENT OF CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM ACTIVITY USING HELICOPTER-MOUNTED TELEMETRY SYSTEMS. EMPLOY MULTIVARIATE STATISTICAL TECHNIQUES TO DETERMINE THE PREDICTIVE RELATIONSHIPS AMONG TELEMETERED PHYSIOLOGICAL DATA AND OPERATIONALLY-RELEVANT PERFORMANCE INDICES :: KEYWORDS: ACCURACY;AIRCRAFT;ALGORITHMS;CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM;COGNITION;COMPUTER APPLICATIONS;CONTROL;ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY;EXPERIMENTAL DATA;FLIGHT;FLIGHT TESTING;HELICOPTERS;INFLIGHT;MONITORING;MULTIVARIATE ANALYSIS;PARAMETERS;PERFORMANCE TESTS;PERFORMANCE(HUMAN);PHYSIOLOGICAL EFFECTS;PHYSIOLOGY;PILOTS;PLATFORMS;QUESTIONNAIRES;REAL TIME;SENSITIVITY;SLEEP;STATISTICAL PROCESSES;TELEMETER SYSTEMS;TELEMETERING DATA;TEST METHODS;WORKLOAD;TELEMETRY;EEG;AVIATOR PERFORMANCE ::

Hit 63 of 277 -- Awd #: DA361066 
 Award Type: Extramural / Contracts / Not Otherwise Specified
 SBIR Award
Access/Distribution Restriction:
 Code: B - U.S. Federal Government Access Only
 Reason: SA - Specific Authority (Reason Other Than Specifically Noted)
Parent Organizations: DOD / ARMY / 0603002A - Medical Advanced Technology
 Project: Project number unspecified
Dates: Nov 1996 to Jul 2000
Performer: ENZYME TECHNOLOGY RESEARCH GROUP INC  DURHAM NC
 Type:     Industry/Business
 Contact:  HENKENS, R W, Phone: 919-544-8220
 Second Congressional District in North Carolina
 Location: Durham,   NC
Description: TITLE: GENE-PROBE ELECTRODES TO DETECT ENTERICALLY-TRANSMITTED RNA VIRUS PATHOGENS :: LONG DESCR: DEVELOP A PROTOTYPE SENSOR/MONITOR UNIT CAPABLE OF DETECTING ONE OR MORE TYPES OF RNA VIRUS GENOME AT A PARTICALLY USEFUL LEVEL OF SENSITIVITY. THE PI WILL DEVELOP THE DETECTION SYSTEM, REAGENTS AND PROCEDURES FOR ELECTROCHEMICAL DETECTION OF POLIO VIRUS AND HEPATITIS A VIRUS RNA'S AS INITIAL TARGET MOLECULES FOR PHASE I STUDIES. (1) EVALUATE DIFFERENT METHODS OF COUPLING GENE PROBES TO ELECTRODES (2) EXPLORE THE SENSITIVITY THAT IS EXPERIMENTALLY ACHIEVABLE FOR DIFFERENT FORMATS OF THE SYSTEM (3) EXAMINE DIFFERENT FORMATS FOR THE ELECTROCHEMICAL DETECTION OF SPECIFIC RNA VIRUS GENOMES (4) DETERMINE THE SENSITIVITY ACHIEVED BY THE DIRECT ELECTROCHEMICAL GENE-PROBE METHOD AND COMPARE THIS TO THE SENSITIVITY ACHIEVED BY MORE CONVENTIONAL VIRUS DETECTION ASSAYS :: STAGE: OPERATIONAL SYSTEMS DEVELOPMENT  :: TYPE: R&D-OTHER MEDICAL-OPSY DEV :: KEYWORDS: ARMY;ARMY PERSONNEL;ASSAYING;BIOASSAY;CHROMOSOMES;CLINICAL MEDICINE;COUPLING(INTERACTION);DENGUE VIRUS;DETECTION;DETECTORS;DISEASES;ELECTROCHEMISTRY;ELECTRODES;FORMATS;GENES;HEPATITIS;HUMANS;LABORATORY TESTS;MOLECULES;MONITORING;PATHOGENIC MICROORGANISMS;PHASE STUDIES;PHYSICIANS;POLIOMYELITIS;PORTABLE EQUIPMENT;PROBES;PROTOTYPES;REAL TIME;RIBONUCLEIC ACIDS;RISK;SAMPLING;SENSITIVITY;TARGETS;TOXIC AGENTS;VIRUS DISEASES;VIRUSES;WATER;RA I;GENE-PROBES;RNA-VIRUS;PATHOGENS;SANDWICH-HYBRIDIZATION;NON-RADIOACTIVE;ENTERICALLY-TRANSMITTED;COLLOIDAL-GOLD;SOLID-STATE ::

Hit 64 of 277 -- Awd #: DA359802 
 Award Type: Extramural / Contracts / Not Otherwise Specified
 SBIR Award
Access/Distribution Restriction:
 Code: A - Distribution Unlimited - Unrestricted Access
Parent Organizations: DOD / ARMY / 0605502A - Small Business Innovative Research
 Project: Project number unspecified
Dates: Dec 1997 to na
Performer: CYBERNET SYSTEMS CORP  ANN ARBOR MI
 Type:     Industry/Business
 Contact:  YAGER, ERIC, Phone: 313 668-2567
 Second Congressional District in Michigan
 Location: Ann Arbor,   MI
Description: TITLE: SBIRD PHASE II 96.2 - HUMAN PERFORMANCE BASED MEASUREMENT SYSTEM :: LONG DESCR: DEVELOP A REAL-TIME HUMAN PERFORMANCE MEASUREMENT SYSTEM FOR USE BY THE ARMY FOR COLLECTING PHYSIOLOGICAL PARAMETERS OF SOLDIERS WHILE THEY ARE PERFORMING VARIOUS COMBAT RELEVANT TASKS IN OPERATIONAL ENVIRONMENTS. THIS DEVELOPMENT INCLUDES FABRICATION OF BOTH SOLDIER-WORN COMPUTER AND DATA TELEMETRY HARDWARE AS WELL AS SOFTWARE FOR SUBSEQUENT DATA FUSION AND ANALYSIS RELATIVE TO SOLDIER PHYSICAL AND COGNITIVE WORKLOAD. DEVELOP A PRODUCT FOR USE AS PERFORMANCE-BASED MEASUREMENT AND ANALYSIS TOOLS FOR OPTIMIZED MANNED SYSTEMS. DEVELOP A SYSTEM CAPABLE OF INTEGRATING THE VARIED DATA TYPES FROM THE BODY'S PHYSIOLOGICAL SYSTEMS AND APPLY THIS MEASUREMENT DATA TO ARRIVE AT AN ASSESSMENT OF HUMAN/COMPUTER SYSTEM PERFORMANCE :: STAGE: MANAGEMENT AND SUPPORT  :: TYPE: R&D-OTHER DEFENSE-MGMT SUP :: KEYWORDS: ALGORITHMS;ARMY PERSONNEL;BRAIN;COGNITION;COMPUTER PROGRAMS;COMPUTERS;DATA ACQUISITION;DATA FUSION;DATA PROCESSING;ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY;EYE;HUMANS;MANNED;MEASUREMENT;MENTAL ABILITY;MONITORING;OPTIMIZATION;PERFORMANCE(ENGINEERING);PERFORMANCE(HUMAN);PHYSICAL PROPERTIES;PHYSIOLOGY;PROCESSING;SOUND;SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION;TELEMETER SYSTEMS;TRACKING;USER NEEDS;VIDEO SIGNALS;VISUAL PERCEPTION;WAVEFORMS;WORKLOAD;PERFORMANCE MEASUREMENT;COGNITIVE ASSESSMENT;PHYSIOLOGICAL MONITORING ::

Hit 65 of 277 -- Awd #: DN308520 
 Award Type: Intramural / In-House Project / In-House Project
Access/Distribution Restriction:
 Code: C - U.S. Federal Government and Contractors Only
 Reason: AD - Administrative or Operational Use Data
Parent Organizations: DOD / NAVY / 0601152N - In-House Independent Laboratory Res
 Project: Project number unspecified
Dates: Oct 1998 to Sep 1999
Performer: NAVAL COMMAND CONTROL AND OCEAN SURVEILLANCE CENTER RDT AND E DIV  SAN DIEGO CA
 Type:     Federal Government
 Contact:  MURRAY, S. A., Phone: 619-553-6350
 6th Congressional District in California        
 Location: San Diego,   CA
Description: TITLE: INNOVATIVE METHODS FOR ALERTNESS MONITORING :: LONG DESCR: DEVELOP NEW METHODS FOR UNOBTRUSIVE MONITORING OF CREW ALERTNESS LEVELS IN REAL TIME, AND USE THESE METHODS TO DESIGN NEW APPROACHES TO ROBUST AUTOMATED SYSTEMS. EXISTING DATA REGARDING OPERATOR PERFORMANCE AND MULTIPLE METHODS OF ALERTNESS MEASUREMENT WILL BE EXAMINED TO IDENTIFY THE ACCURACY AND RELIABILITY OF THE BEST METHODS. THESE RESULTS WILL THEN BE APPLIED TO EVALUATION OF CURRENT RESEARCH IN ADAPTIVE, OR INTELLIGENT AUTOMATION SYSTEMS TO DETERMINE OPTIMAL APPROACHES TO OPERATOR MONITORING, PERFORMANCE PREDICTION, AND SYSTEMS SUPPORT :: KEYWORDS: ACCURACY;ATTENTION;AUTOMATION;COMPUTERS;CREWS;HUMAN FACTORS ENGINEERING;HUMANS;INTERACTIONS;MEASUREMENT;MONITORING;OPERATORS(PERSONNEL);OPTIMIZATION;PERFORMANCE(HUMAN);PSYCHOPHYSIOLOGY;REAL TIME;RELIABILITY;ALERTNESS;HUMAN FACTORS;HUMAN COMPUTER INTERACTION;PSYCHOPHYSIOLOGY ::

Hit 66 of 277 -- Awd #: DN052323 
 Award Type: Extramural / Grants / Project
Access/Distribution Restriction:
 Code: A - Distribution Unlimited - Unrestricted Access
Parent Organizations: DOD / NAVY / 0601153N - Defense Research Sciences
 Project: Project number unspecified
Dates: Oct 1997 to Dec 1998
Performer: CARNEGIE-MELLON UNIV  PITTSBURGH PA
 Type:     Private Educational Institution
 Contact:  LEHOCZKY,JOHN, Phone: 412-268-8725
 14th Congressional District in Pennsylvania        
 Location: Pittsburgh,   PA
Description: TITLE: REAL-TIME FAULT-TOLERANT COMPUTER SYSTEMS :: LONG DESCR: (U) DEVELOP A NEW ANALYTICAL APPROACH TO DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF DISTRIBUTED FAULT-TOLERANT REAL-TIME SYSTEMS. (U) APPROACH IS BASED ON CONCEPT OF ANALYTICAL REDUNDANCY: TYPE OF DESIGN DIVERSITY THAT EXPLOITS SEMANTICS OF APPLICATION DOMAIN. PRIMARY VERSION OF APPLICATION IS COMPLEX, HIGHLY OPTIMIZED, ADAPTIVE ALGORITHM THAT POTENTIALLY CONTAINS MANY SUBTLE ERRORS. SECONDARY IS SIMPLE, VERIFIABLE ALGORITHM THAT PROVIDES COARSER-GRAINED CONTROL GENERALLY INADEQUATE FOR APPLICATION BUT ACCEPTABLE FOR BRIEF INTERVALS. CONTROL IS AUTOMATICALLY TRANSFERRED FROM PRIMARY TO SECONDARY WHEN MONITORING SYSTEM DETECTS SIGNIFICANT DEVIATIONS FROM EXPECTED BEHAVIOR--INTERPRETED TO BE SOFTWARE ERRORS OR POSSIBLE TRANSITION TO INSTABILITY :: KEYWORDS: ADAPTIVE SYSTEMS;ALGORITHMS;BROWNIAN MOTION;COMPUTER PROGRAM VERIFICATION;COMPUTER PROGRAMS;CONTROL;CONTROL SYSTEMS;DISTRIBUTION;ERRORS;FAULT TOLERANT COMPUTING;FOURIER TRANSFORMATION;INSTABILITY;LEADTIME;MANIFOLDS(ENGINES);MATHEMATICAL MODELS;MONITORING;NETWORKS;POLICIES;PROBABILITY DISTRIBUTION FUNCTIONS;PROFILES;QUEUEING THEORY;REAL TIME;REDUNDANCY;SEMANTICS;THEORY;TRANSITIONS;WEAK CONVERGENCE;REAL-TIME SYSTEMS;DEPENDABLE SOFTWARE;CONTROL SYSTEMS;DESIGN DIVERSITY ::

Hit 67 of 277 -- Awd #: DN054330 
 Award Type: Extramural / Grants / Project
Access/Distribution Restriction:
 Code: A - Distribution Unlimited - Unrestricted Access
Parent Organizations: DOD / NAVY / 0601153N - Defense Research Sciences
 Project: Project number unspecified
Dates: Nov 1997 to Dec 1998
Performer: MICHIGAN UNIV  ANN ARBOR
 Type:     Public Educational Institution
 Contact:  SHIN,KANG, Phone: 313-763-0391
 Second Congressional District in Michigan
 Location: Ann Arbor,   MI
Description: TITLE: TIME-BOUNDED RESTORATION OF REAL-TIME COMMUNICATION SERVICES :: LONG DESCR: (U) TO INVESTIGATE THE DESIGN AND VALIDATION OF FAULT-TOLERANT COMMUNICATION PROTOCOLS FOR REAL-TIME DISTRIBUTED SYSTEMS. (U) REAL-TIME ATOMIC MULTICAST ALGORITHMS WILL BE DEVELOPED AND IMPLEMENTED BASED ON PREVIOUS WORK IN TIME-BOUNDED MULTICAST. THE ALGORITHMS WILL EXPLOIT THE PERIODICITY AND PREDICTABILITY OF MANY REAL-TIME TASK SETS THAT ALLOW PREDETERMINATION OF MESSAGE ORDERING AND LATENCIES. MORE COMPLEX ALGORITHMS FOR APERIODIC TASKS WILL ALSO BE DEVELOPED. EVALUATION WILL BE THROUGH FORMAL CORRECTNESS PROOFS AND SOFTWARE FAULT-INJECTION ON THE HARTS TESTBED AT MICHIGAN. THE LATTER WILL ENTAIL RESEARCH INTO SYNTHETIC WORKLOAD GENERATION AND REAL-TIME MONITORING. MESSAGE OVERHEAD AND LATENCIES WILL BE MEASURED FOR THE VARIOUS LEVELS OF SERVICE GUARANTEES OFFERED BY THE ALGORITHMS :: KEYWORDS: ALGORITHMS;CHANNELS;COMMUNICATION AND RADIO SYSTEMS;DISTRIBUTION;FAILURE;FAULT TOLERANCE;FAULTS;GUARANTEES;MICHIGAN;MONITORING;NETWORKS;QUICK REACTION;REAL TIME;RECOVERY;RESOURCES;SHARING;SIMULATION;STATISTICS;TEST BEDS;TIMELINESS;TOLERANCE;UTILIZATION;VALIDATION;WORKLOAD;DISTRIBUTED SYSTEMS;REAL-TIME SYSTEMS;ATOMIC MULTICAST;FAULT-INJECTION ::

Hit 68 of 277 -- Awd #: DN054657 
 Award Type: Extramural / Grants / Project
Access/Distribution Restriction:
 Code: A - Distribution Unlimited - Unrestricted Access
Parent Organizations: DOD / NAVY / 0601153N - Defense Research Sciences
 Project: Project number unspecified
Dates: Jan 1998 to Dec 1998
Performer: PENNSYLVANIA STATE UNIV  UNIVERSITY PARK
 Type:     Public Educational Institution
 Contact:  SCHLOM,DARRELL, Phone: 814-863-8579
 23rd Congressional District in Pennsylvania
 Location: University Park,   PA
Description: TITLE: REAL TIME SPECTROSCOPIC ELLIPSOMETRY AS A CHARACTERIZATION TOOL FOR OXIDE SUPERCONDUCTOR HETERSTRUCTURES FOR JUNCTION DEVICES :: LONG DESCR: INITIAL GOALS OF THIS PROJECT ARE TO DEVELOP SMOOTH YBCO INTERFACES ON EITHER SIDE OF A THIN (<= 4 NM), UNIFORM, PIN-HOLE FREE BARRIER FOR JOSEPHSON JUNCTION FABRICATION. ULTIMATELY THIS EFFORT SEEKS TO DEVELOP THIN FILM, HIGH PERFORMANCE, HIGH YIELD, AND HIGH TC JOSEPHSEN JUNCTION TECHNOLOGY FOR ULTRA-FAST DIGITAL CIRCUITRY. MBE WILL BE USED TO GROW (IN A LAYER-BY-LAYER FASHION) HIGH QUALITY INTERFACES. IN-SITU AA WILL BE USED TO CONTROL THE DELIVERY OF REACTIVE SPECIES DURING THE GROWTH PROCESS. IN ADDITION IN SITU, REAL TIME SPECTROSCOPIC ELLIPSOMETRY WILL BE INTEGRATED INTO THE SYSTEM TO EXAMINE THE INTERFACES BETWEEN YBCO AND COMPATIBLE MATERIALS WHILE THEY ARE GROWING. OXYGEN MOBILITY WILL BE ONE OF THE KEY PROCESSES STUDIED. BY FULLY UNDERSTANDING THE GROWTH AND PROPERTIES OF YBCO INTERFACES, NEW COMPATIBLE MATERIALS (AND INTERFACES) WILL BE DESIGNED AND UTILIZED IN FUTURE DEVICE STRUCTURES :: KEYWORDS: ABSORPTION;ANISOTROPY;ATOMIC PROPERTIES;CHAMBERS;CIRCUITS;COMPUTER PROGRAMS;CONTROL;DELIVERY;DIFFUSION;DIGITAL SYSTEMS;ELLIPSOMETERS;EPITAXIAL GROWTH;FABRICATION;FILMS;GROWTH(GENERAL);HIGH RATE;INTERFACES;JOSEPHSON JUNCTIONS;JUNCTIONS;LAYERS;MATERIALS;METALS;MOBILITY;MONITORING;OXIDATION;OXIDES;OXIDIZERS;OXYGEN;OZONE;PRODUCTION;PROFILES;RAMPS;RATES;REACTIVITIES;REAL TIME;SPECTROSCOPY;STOICHIOMETRY;SUPERCONDUCTORS;SURFACES;THIN FILMS;HIGH TC SUPERCONDUCTOR;INTERFACES;ELLIPSOMETRY;MBE ::

Hit 69 of 277 -- Awd #: DN154194 
 Award Type: Intramural / In-House Project / In-House Project
Access/Distribution Restriction:
 Code: C - U.S. Federal Government and Contractors Only
 Reason: SA - Specific Authority (Reason Other Than Specifically Noted)
Parent Organizations: DOD / NAVY / 0601153N - Defense Research Sciences
 Project: Project number unspecified
Dates: Jul 1994 to Dec 1998
Performer: NAVAL RESEARCH LAB  WASHINGTON DC
 Type:     Federal Government
 Contact:  DESISTO, W. J., DR., Phone: (202) 767-3672
 First Congressional District in District of Columbia
 Location: Washington Dc,   DC
Description: TITLE: HTSC THIN FILMS :: LONG DESCR: TO DEVELOP METHODOLOGY FOR IN-SITU MEASUREMENTS OF PRECURSOR CONCENTRATIONS DURING METALORGANIC CHEMICAL VAPOR DEPOSITION OF HIGH TEMPERATURESUPERCONDUCTORS REACTOR. THESE MEASUREMENTS WILL PROVIDE REAL-TIME MONITORING AND FEEDBACK CONTROL OF CRITICAL VARIABLES DURING PROCESSING TO IMPROVE MANUFACTURING CAPABILITY AND REDUCE PRODUCTION COSTS. THE PRIMARY APPROACH WILL USE ULTRAVIOLET ABSORBANCE OF THE METALORGANIC SOURCES, 2,2,6,6-TETRAMETHYL-3,5 HEPTANEDIONATES OF YTTRIUM, BARIUM, AND COPPER AS A MEANS OF DETERMINING CONCENTRATIONS. SENSORS BASED ON THIS APPROACH WILL BE IMPLEMENTED INTO A MOCVD REACTOR AND TESTED DURING FILM GROWTH :: KEYWORDS: ABSORPTION;ARRAYS;BARIUM;BEAMS(RADIATION);CHEMICAL VAPOR DEPOSITION;CONTROL;COPPER;COSTS;DELIVERY;DETECTORS;DUAL MODE;FEEDBACK;FIBER OPTICS;FILMS;GASES;GROWTH(GENERAL);HIGH TEMPERATURE;INTERVALS;MANUFACTURING;MEASUREMENT;MONITORING;ORGANOMETALLIC COMPOUNDS;PHOTODIODES;PRECISION;PRODUCTION;REAL TIME;SOURCES;SPECTRA;SPECTROGRAPHS;SUPERCONDUCTORS;THIN FILMS;ULTRAVIOLET DETECTORS;ULTRAVIOLET RADIATION;ULTRAVIOLET SPECTROSCOPY;VARIABLES;YTTRIUM;UV SPECTROSCOPY;METALORGANIC CHEMICAL VAPOR DEPOSITION;PROCESS MONITORING ::

Hit 70 of 277 -- Awd #: DN158137 
 Award Type: Intramural / In-House Project / In-House Project
Access/Distribution Restriction:
 Code: C - U.S. Federal Government and Contractors Only
 Reason: SA - Specific Authority (Reason Other Than Specifically Noted)
Parent Organizations: DOD / NAVY / 0601153N - Defense Research Sciences
 Project: Project number unspecified
Dates: Mar 1988 to na
Performer: NAVAL RESEARCH LAB  WASHINGTON DC
 Type:     Federal Government
 Contact:  HEITMEYER, C L, Phone: (202)-767-3596
 First Congressional District in District of Columbia
 Location: Washington Dc,   DC
Description: TITLE: FORMAL MODELS FOR REAL-TIME COMPUTING :: LONG DESCR: CASE TOOLS THAT SUPPORT THE FORMAL SPECIFICATION AND VERIFICATION OF REAL-TIME, EMBEDDED DOD SYSTEMS ARE URGENTLY NEEDED. HOWEVER, A CONCEPTUAL BASIS FOR SUCH TOOLS IS LACKING. THE OBJECTIVE OF THIS TASK IS TO DEVELOP A FORMAL MODEL OF REAL-TIME COMPUTING SYSTEMS THAT PROVIDES THIS BASIS. THE MODEL WILL ADDRESS,NOT ONLY SOFT- WARE REQUIREMENTS, BUT THE COMPLETE SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS. IN ADDITION, IT WILL MAKE EXPLICIT FUNCTIONAL, TIMING, AND TOLERANCE REQUIREMENTS AND SUPPORT MORE THAN A SINGLE FORMAL REPRESENTATION OF REQUIREMENTS. THE MODEL WILL MAKE EXPLICIT THE SEMANTICS THAT UNDERLIE FORMAL REQUIREMENTS SPECIFICATIONS REPRESENTED USING THE TABULAR NOTATION INTRODUCED BYNRL'S SCR (SOFTWARE COST REDUCTION) PROJECT. TO DEVELOP THE MODEL, A STUDY WAS CONDUCTED OF THE FORMAL REPRESENTATION OF THE REQUIREMENTS OF TWO REAL-WORLD SYSTEMS--AN AVIONICS SYSTEM AND A MONITORING SYSTEM FOR A NUCLEAR POWER PLANT. THE APPROACH IS TO MODEL A SYSTEM AS A FINITE STATE AUTOMATION THAT IS DRIVEN FROM ONE SYSTEM STATE TO THE NEXT BY MONITORED EVENTS, I.E., CHANGES IN ENVIRONMENTAL VARIABLES CALLED MONITORED STATE VARIABLES. THE MODEL REPRESENTS THE SYSTEM STATE AS A SET OF ORDERED PAIRS; THE FIRST ELEMENT OF EACH PAIR IS A STATE VARIABLE, A CONTROLLED STATE VARIABLE (I.E., A SYSTEM OUTPUT), A TERM, OR A MODE. TERMS AND MODES ARE AUXILIARY VARIABLES THAT SIMPLIFY THE SPECIFICATIONS. IN THE MODEL, A TRANSFORM FUNCTION MAPS A CURRENT SYSTEM STATE AND A MONITORED EVENT, I.E., A CHANGE IN A MONITORED STATE VARIABLE, TO A NEW STATE :: KEYWORDS: ADHESION;AUTOMATION;AUXILIARY;AVIONICS;COMPUTER PROGRAMS;CONSISTENCY;CONSORTIUMS;CONTROL;COSTS;ENVIRONMENTS;MODELS;MONITORING;NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS;OUTPUT;PRODUCTIVITY;PROTOTYPES;REAL TIME;REDUCTION;REQUIREMENTS;SEMANTICS;SIMULATION;SPECIFICATIONS;TABLES(DATA);TOLERANCE;TOOLS;VARIABLES;VERIFICATION;REAL-TIME;HARD REAL-TIME;FORMAL MODEL;TABULAR SPECIFICATIONS ::

Hit 71 of 277 -- Awd #: DN451802 
 Award Type: Extramural / Grants / Project
Access/Distribution Restriction:
 Code: A - Distribution Unlimited - Unrestricted Access
Parent Organizations: DOD / NAVY / 0601153N - Defense Research Sciences
 Project: Project number unspecified
Dates: Nov 1997 to Mar 1999
Performer: STANFORD UNIV  CA
 Type:     Private Educational Institution
 Contact:  KOLLER,DAPHNE, Phone: 415-723-4711
 12th Congressional District in California        
Description: TITLE: KNOWLEDGE REPRESENTATION IN AN UNCERTAIN WORLD :: LONG DESCR: THE PROPOSAL ADDRESSES THE QUESTION OF HOW TO REPRESENT LARGE, UNCERTAIN PROBLEM DOMAINS IN ORDER TO ENABLE EFFECTIVE DECISION-MAKING. THE APPROACH IS TO DEVELOP A GENERAL KNOWLEDGE REPRESENTATION LANGUAGE COMBINING THE POWER OF BELIEF NETWORKS AND FIRST-ORDER LOGIC. LEARNING ALGORITHMS ARE SUGGESTED AS A WAY OF ACQUIRING THE PROBABILISTIC COMPONENTS OF THE MODEL. TO MAKE IT PRACTICAL, SEVERAL WAYS OF SPEEDING UP THE INFERENCE PROCESS ARE SUGGESTED. SUCCESS WILL ENABLE MUCH MORE POWERFUL REASONING SYSTEMS FOR NATURAL LANGUAGE PROCESSING, INFORMATION RETRIEVAL, IMAGE ANALYSIS, FAULT DIAGNOSIS, REAL-TIME MONITORING AND OTHER APPLICATIONS :: KEYWORDS: ALGORITHMS;BAYES THEOREM;COSTS;DIAGNOSIS(GENERAL);FAULTS;HIERARCHIES;IMAGE PROCESSING;INFORMATION PROCESSING;INFORMATION RETRIEVAL;LANGUAGE;LEARNING;LOGIC;MONITORING;NATURAL LANGUAGE;NETWORKS;OBJECT ORIENTED PROGRAMMING;PARAMETERS;PROBABILITY;REAL TIME;REASONING;RHODE ISLAND;STOCHASTIC PROCESSES;UNCERTAINTY;KNOWLEDGE REPRESENTATION;BELIEF NETWORKS;INFERENCE;UNCERTAINTY ::

Hit 72 of 277 -- Awd #: DN457039 
 Award Type: Intramural / In-House Project / In-House Project
Access/Distribution Restriction:
 Code: C - U.S. Federal Government and Contractors Only
 Reason: AD - Administrative or Operational Use Data
Parent Organizations: DOD / NAVY / 0602232N - Communications, Command and Control, Intel, Surveillance
 Project: Project number unspecified
Dates: Oct 1997 to Sep 2001
Performer: NAVAL COMMAND CONTROL AND OCEAN SURVEILLANCE CENTER RDT AND E DIV  SAN DIEGO CA
 Type:     Federal Government
 Contact:  SCHEMENSKY,WILLIAM, Phone: 619-553-3619
 6th Congressional District in California        
 Location: San Diego,   CA
Description: TITLE: REALTIME EXECUTION DECISION AID :: LONG DESCR: DEVELOP A CAPABILITY TO DO REAL TIME MISSION REPLANNING, MISSION EXECUTION, TARGET RECOGNITION AND COMBAT ASSESSMENT IN RESPOND TO DYNAMICALLY CHANGING RETARGETING SITUATIONS. THE ?REALTIME EXECUTION DECISION SUPPORT? (REDS) CONCEPT IS ENVISIONED WITH AN OPEN SYSTEMS ARCHITECTURE USING COMMERCIAL-OFF-THE-SHELF (COTS) HARDWARE. THE ELEMENT LEVEL PLANNER (ELP) AND THE JOINT FORCE LEVEL EXECUTION MONITORING & REPLANNING SYSTEM (JFLEX) ARE THE TWO KEY COMPONENTS OF REDS THAT WILL BECOME THE BASELINE ARCHITECTURE FOR AN ?ANCHOR DESK.? THE ANCHOR DESK WILL SUPPORT DECISION MAKERS AND MISSION PLANNERS BY PROVIDING A REAL TIME CAPABILITY THAT UTILIZES THE ?MISSION MANAGEMENT? CONCEPT OF SEAMLESSLY COMBINING MISSION PLANNING, MONITORING AND INFORMATION MANAGEMENT :: KEYWORDS: ANCHORS;ARCHITECTURE;BASE LINES;COMPUTER ARCHITECTURE;DATA MANAGEMENT;DECISION AIDS;DECISION MAKING;DECISION SUPPORT SYSTEMS;GRAPHICS;INFORMATION SYSTEMS;INTERFACES;JAVA;KNOWLEDGE BASED SYSTEMS;MANAGEMENT;MISSION PROFILES;MISSIONS;OFFICE EQUIPMENT AND SUPPLIES;REAL TIME;TARGET RECOGNITION;TARGETING;USER NEEDS;WARFARE;GRAPHIC USER INTERFACE;REAL TIME JAVA;CORBA;KNOWLEDGE BASED SYSTEM ::

Hit 73 of 277 -- Awd #: DN163835 
 Award Type: Intramural / In-House Project / In-House Project
Access/Distribution Restriction:
 Code: C - U.S. Federal Government and Contractors Only
 Reason: SA - Specific Authority (Reason Other Than Specifically Noted)
Parent Organizations: DOD / NAVY / 0602234N - Materials  and Radio Frequency/ Electric-Optics/ Infrared Electronics Technology
 Project: Project number unspecified
Dates: Oct 1995 to na
Performer: NAVAL RESEARCH LAB  WASHINGTON DC
 Type:     Federal Government
 Contact:  REINTJES, J, Phone: (202)767-2175
 First Congressional District in District of Columbia
 Location: Washington Dc,   DC
Description: TITLE: OPTICAL OIL DEBRIS MONITOR :: LONG DESCR: DEVELOPMENT OF SHIPBOARD-COMBATIBLE MONITOR FOR ANALYSIS OF PARTICLES IN FLUIDS IN THE SIZE RANGE OF 5 MICROMETER AND LARGE THAT USES PARTICLE SIZE, SHAPE AND RATE OF PRODUCTION TO INDICATE WEAR CONDITION AND FAULT TYPE IN REAL TIME OR NEAR REAL TIME. PROOF OF PRINCIPLE DEMONSTRATION AT THE LABORATORY BENCH STAGE OF ILLUMINATION SYSTEM, FLUID HANDLING AND SAMPLING SYSTEM HIGH SPEED IMAGE PROCESSING AND PARTICLE CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM :: KEYWORDS: ACCURACY;ALGORITHMS;CALIBRATION;CLASSIFICATION;COMPUTATIONS;COUNTING METHODS;DEBRIS;FAULTS;FINES;FLUIDS;FUELS;HANDLING;HYDRAULIC FLUIDS;ILLUMINATION;IMAGE PROCESSING;IMAGES;LASERS;LUBRICANTS;MONITORING;OILS;OPTICAL PROPERTIES;PARTICLE SIZE;PARTICLES;PATTERNS;PRODUCTION;RATES;REAL TIME;SHAPE;LASER;IMAGE PROCESSING;PATTERN CLASSIFICATION;LUBRICANTS;FUELS ::

Hit 74 of 277 -- Awd #: DN454907 
 Award Type: Intramural / In-House Project / In-House Project
Access/Distribution Restriction:
 Code: A - Distribution Unlimited - Unrestricted Access
Parent Organizations: DOD / NAVY / 0602435N - Oceanographic & Atmospheric Technology
 Project: Project number unspecified
Dates: Aug 1997 to Aug 1999
Performer: NAVAL OCEANOGRAPHIC AND ATMOSPHERIC RESEARCH LAB  STENNIS SPACE CENTER MS
 Type:     Federal Government
 Contact:  BLAHA,JOHN, Phone: 601-688-5701
 5th Congressional District in Mississippi        
 Location: Stennis Space Center,   MS
Description: TITLE: GULF OF MEXICO OCEAN MONITORING SYSTEM :: LONG DESCR: A WORKING CAPABILITY TO GENERATE CONTINUAL SYNOPTIC NUMERICAL REPRESENTATIONS OF OCEAN VELOCITY FOR THE GULF OF MEXICO WILL BE DEVELOPED. THIS GULF OF MEXICO OCEAN MONITORING SYSTEM WILL USE OPERATIONAL SATELLITE ALTIMETRY DATA AND IN-SITU OCEAN DATA FROM REAL-TIME MEASUREMENT SYSTEMS TOGETHER WITH A PROVEN OCEAN MODEL TO PRODUCE THREE DIMENSIONAL FIELDS OF OCEAN VELOCITY INCLUDING ERROR ESTIMATES. THIS PROJECT WILL DEMONSTRATE THE FEASIBILITY OF OPERATING A SEMI-ENCLOSED SEA MONITORING SYSTEM CAPABLE OF MEETING BASIC AND APPLIED RESEARCH OBJECTIVES. THE EFFORTS IN THE FIRST YEAR WILL FOCUS ON THE WESTERN GULF OF MEXICO. ADDITIONAL FIELD WORK WILL BE UNDERTAKEN IN THE SECOND YEAR TO EXTEND THE GEOID DETERMINATION INTO THE EASTERN GULF. THE HIGH RESOLUTION TIDE MODEL WILL BE COMPLETED IN THE SECOND YEAR AS WILL THE DEVELOPMENT OF DIFFERENTIAL GPS DETERMINATIONS OF SEA LEVEL :: KEYWORDS: ALTIMETERS;ARTIFICIAL SATELLITES;DETERMINATION;EAST(DIRECTION);ERROR ANALYSIS;ESTIMATES;GEOIDS;GULFS;HIGH RESOLUTION;MEASUREMENT;MEXICO;MEXICO GULF;MODELS;MONITORING;OCEAN MODELS;OCEANOGRAPHIC DATA;OCEANS;REAL TIME;SEA LEVEL;TELEMETERING DATA;THREE DIMENSIONAL;TIDES;VELOCITY;(U) GULF OF MEXICO;(U) MONITORING;(U) VELOCITY;(U) OPERATIONAL ::

Hit 75 of 277 -- Awd #: DN454908 
 Award Type: Intramural / In-House Project / In-House Project
Access/Distribution Restriction:
 Code: A - Distribution Unlimited - Unrestricted Access
Parent Organizations: DOD / NAVY / 0602435N - Oceanographic & Atmospheric Technology
 Project: Project number unspecified
Dates: Aug 1997 to Aug 1999
Performer: NAVAL RESEARCH LAB  STENNIS SPACE CENTER MS
 Type:     Federal Government
 Contact:  JACOBS,GREGG, Phone: 601-688-4759
 5th Congressional District in Mississippi        
 Location: Stennis Space Center,   MS
Description: TITLE: GULF OF MEXICO OCEAN MONITORING SYSTEM :: LONG DESCR: A WORKING CAPABILITY TO GENERATE CONTINUAL SYNOPTIC NUMERICAL REPRESENTATIONS OF OCEAN VELOCITY FOR THE GULF OF MEXICO WILL BE DEVELOPED. THIS GULF OF MEXICO OCEAN MONITORING SYSTEM WILL USE OPERATIONAL SATELLITE ALTIMETRY DATA AND IN-SITU OCEAN DATA FROM REAL-TIME MEASUREMENT SYSTEMS TOGETHER WITH A PROVEN OCEAN MODEL TO PRODUCE THREE DIMENSIONAL FIELDS OF OCEAN VELOCITY INCLUDING ERROR ESTIMATES. THIS PROJECT WILL DEMONSTRATE THE FEASIBILITY OF OPERATING A SEMI-ENCLOSED SEA MONITORING SYSTEM CAPABLE OF MEETING BASIC AND APPLIED RESEARCH OBJECTIVES. THE EFFORTS IN THE FIRST YEAR WILL FOCUS ON THE WESTERN GULF OF MEXICO. ADDITIONAL FIELD WORK WILL BE UNDERTAKEN IN THE SECOND YEAR TO EXTEND THE GEOID DETERMINATION INTO THE EASTERN GULF. THE HIGH RESOLUTION TIDE MODEL WILL BE COMPLETED IN THE SECOND YEAR AS WILL THE DEVELOPMENT OF DIFFERENTIAL GPS DETERMINATIONS OF SEA LEVEL :: KEYWORDS: ALTIMETERS;ARTIFICIAL SATELLITES;DETERMINATION;EAST(DIRECTION);ERROR ANALYSIS;ESTIMATES;GEOIDS;GULFS;HIGH RESOLUTION;MEASUREMENT;MEXICO;MEXICO GULF;MODELS;MONITORING;OCEAN MODELS;OCEANOGRAPHIC DATA;OCEANS;REAL TIME;SEA LEVEL;TELEMETERING DATA;THREE DIMENSIONAL;TIDES;VELOCITY;(U) GULF OF MEXICO;(U) MONITORING;(U) VELOCITY;(U) OPERATIONAL ::

Hit 76 of 277 -- Awd #: DN456882 
 Award Type: Extramural / Grants / Project
Access/Distribution Restriction:
 Code: A - Distribution Unlimited - Unrestricted Access
Parent Organizations: DOD / NAVY / 0602435N - Oceanographic & Atmospheric Technology
 Project: Project number unspecified
Dates: Aug 1998 to na
Performer: UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH FLORIDA  ST PETERSBURG
 Type:     Public Educational Institution
 Contact:  WEISBERG,ROBERT, Phone: 813-553-1568
 6th Congressional District in Florida        
 Location: St Petersburg,   FL
Description: TITLE: APPLICATIONS TO SEDIMENT RESUSPENSION, TRANSPORT, AND IMPACTS ON INHERENT OPTICAL PROPERTIES :: LONG DESCR: THE OBJECTIVES ARE TO UNDERSTAND THE CAUSES OF COASTAL MESOSCALE OCEAN VARIABILITY IN THE WEST FLORIDA SHELF REGION, AND TO DEVELOP QUANTIFIABLE PREDICTIVE SKILL FOR THE OBSERVED STRUCTURE. BUILDING UPON STATE AND FEDERALLY SUPPORTED COASTAL MONITORING AND ECOHAB REGIONAL ARRAYS, A WEST FLORIDA AOSN SITE WILL BE EMBEDDED WITHIN A SUITE OF MOORED INSTRUMENTS SAMPLING OCEAN CURRENTS AND WATER PROPERTIES WITH REAL TIME TELEMETRY INPUT TO NUMERICAL CIRCULATION MODELS FOR DIAGNOSTIC STUDIES AND NOWCASTING. A NEW TECHNIQUE OF OPTICAL DATA TRANSMISSION BETWEEN A MOORING AND AN AUV ACCOMPLISHED WITHOUT PHYSICALLY DOCKING THE AUV TO THE MOORING WILL BE DEVELOPED :: KEYWORDS: ARRAYS;BIOLOGY;CIRCULATION;COASTAL REGIONS;DEFENSE SYSTEMS;DETECTORS;DIAGNOSIS(GENERAL);ENVIRONMENTS;INPUT;LIGHT TRANSMISSION;MATHEMATICAL MODELS;MODELS;MONITORING;MOORING;NAVAL OPERATIONS;OPTICAL DATA;OPTICAL PROPERTIES;PHYSICAL PROPERTIES;REAL TIME;REGIONS;TELEMETER SYSTEMS;WATER;WEATHER FORECASTING;(U) WEST FLORIDA;(U) SHELF;(U) CIRCULATION;(U) NOWCASTING ::

Hit 77 of 277 -- Awd #: DN453627 
 Award Type: Extramural / Grants / Project
Access/Distribution Restriction:
 Code: A - Distribution Unlimited - Unrestricted Access
Parent Organizations: DOD / NAVY / 0602633N - Undersea Warfare Weaponry Technology
 Project: Project number unspecified
Dates: Nov 1997 to Sep 2000
Performer: JOHNS HOPKINS UNIV  BALTIMORE MD
 Type:     Private Educational Institution
 Contact:  SMITH,THOMAS, Phone: 301-953-5791
 7th Congressional District in Maryland        
 Location: Baltimore,   MD
Description: TITLE: TACTICAL PLANNING ASSOCIATE :: LONG DESCR: DEVELOP AND DEMONSTRATE AN ADVANCED RESEARCH PROTOTYPE DECISION SUPPORT SYSTEM, THE STEALTH PLANNING ASSOCIATE, WHICH PROVIDES OPTIMAL MANUEVERING AND ROUTE PLANNING RECOMMENDATIONS BASED ON ESTIMATES OF OWNSHIP VULNERABILITY USING REAL-TIME SIGNATURE MODELS. THE STEALTH PLANNING SYSTEM WILL COMBINE DELIBERATIVE AND REACTIVE PLANNING TECHNIQUES TO GENERATE MANEUVERING AND ROUTE PLANNING RECOMMENDATIONS THAT OPTIMIZE OWNSHIP STEALTH. REAL-TIME SIGNATURE MODELS DEVELOPED BY ANOTHER PROJECT (INTEGRATED SUBMARINE STEALTH INFORMATION PROCESSING SYSTEM) WILL PROVIDE ASSESSMENT OF OWNSHIP VULNERABTILIY THAT CAN BE USED IN GENERATING AND MONITORING RECOMMENDED PLANS. THE MAIN CHALLENGE IS TO EXTEND EXISTING MULTI-LAYER PLANNING SYSTEMS TO INCLUDE A VERY HIGH RATE REACTIVE CONTROL LAYER TO PROVIDE PLANNING/CONTROL FEEDBACK AT MULTIPLE LEVELS OF ABSTRACTION :: KEYWORDS: CONTROL;CONTROL SYSTEMS;COUPLING(INTERACTION);ESTIMATES;FEEDBACK;INFORMATION PROCESSING;INFORMATION SYSTEMS;INTEGRATED SYSTEMS;LAYERS;MODELS;MONITORING;PLANNING;REACTIVITIES;REAL TIME;REASONING;RESOURCE MANAGEMENT;SIGNATURES;SUBMARINES;SYNERGISM;VULNERABILITY;WEAPON SYSTEMS;COMBAT CONTROL SYSTEM;OPTIMAL ROUTE PLANNING;STEALTH;DELIBERATIVE AND       REACTIVE CONTROL ::

Hit 78 of 277 -- Awd #: DN570832 
 Award Type: Intramural / In-House Project / In-House Project
Access/Distribution Restriction:
 Code: C - U.S. Federal Government and Contractors Only
 Reason: NS - Not Specified
Parent Organizations: DOD / NAVY / 0603207N - Air/Ocean Tactical Applications
 Project: X0948 - Precise Timing and Astrometry
Dates: Jan 1986 to Sep 1999
Performer: NAVAL OBSERVATORY  WASHINGTON DC
 Type:     Federal Government
 Contact:  WINKLER, G. M. R., Phone: 202-653-1520
 First Congressional District in District of Columbia
 Location: Washington Dc,   DC
Description: TITLE: VERY LONG BASELINE INTERFEROMETRY (VLBI) :: LONG DESCR: THIS TASK DEVELOPS AND IMPROVES THE TECHNIQUE OF VERY LONG BASELINE INTERFEROMETRY (VLBI) FOR THE DETERMINATION OF VARIATIONS IN THE ROTATION AND ORIENTATION OF THE EARTH WITHIN AN INERTIAL REFERENCE FRAME. THE VARIATIONS IN THE ORIENTATION AND ROTATION OF THE EARTH APPEAR AS QUASI-RANDOM PHENOMENA WITH COMPLEX GEOPHYSICAL CAUSES WHICH ARE NOT YET WELL UNDERSTOOD. IT IS THUS NECESSARY TO CONTINUOUSLY MONITOR THE EARTH'S ROTATION AND ORIENTATION USING ASTRONOMICAL TECHNIQUES. VLBI, WHICH USES WIDELY-SPACED RADIO ANTENNAS TO RECEIVE AND RECORD THE NATURAL RADIO NOISE FROM EXTRAGALACTIC OBJECTS (QUASARS), IS THE HIGHEST-PRECISION TECHNIQUE KNOWN FOR THIS PURPOSE. AS A BY-PRODUCT, VLBI CAN, IN PRINCIPLE, BE USED TO SYNCHRONIZE THE CLOCKS AT THE OBSERVING STATIONS AT THE NANOSECOND LEVEL. IMPROVEMENT IN VLBI MEASURING PRECISION REQUIRES THE ESTABLISHMENT OF PERMANENT, 24-HOUR OBSERVING STATIONS AT GEOGRAPHICALLY OPTIMUM POSITIONS, THE DEVELOPMENT OF TECHNIQUES WHICH COMPENSATE FOR ATMOSPHERIC EFFECTS, THE ADVANCEMENT OF DATA RECORDING TECHNOLOGY, THE DEVELOPMENT OF NEW SPECIALIZED DATA REDUCTION FACILITIES USING VHSIC TECHNOLOGY, STUDIES INTO THE USE OF SATELLITE OR OPTICAL FIBER COMMUNICATION CHANNELS TO ACHIEVE REAL-TIME DATA REDUCTION, AND THE IMPROVEMENT IN LOGISTICAL SUPPORT FOR THE STATIONS AND THE CENTRAL VLBI CORRELATOR FACILITY :: KEYWORDS: ACCURACY;ASTRONOMY;BASE LINES;CHANNELS;CLOCKS;CONSTANTS;CONTINUITY;CORRELATORS;DATA REDUCTION;EARTH MOVEMENTS;EARTH(PLANET);EXTRATERRESTRIAL RADIO WAVES;FACILITIES;FIBER OPTICS;INERTIAL SYSTEMS;INTEGRATED CIRCUITS;INTERFEROMETRY;LOGISTICS SUPPORT;MONITORING;MOTION;NOISE(RADIO);OPTICAL COMMUNICATIONS;ORIENTATION(DIRECTION);POLAR REGIONS;PRECISION;QUASARS;REAL TIME;RECORDING SYSTEMS;ROTATION;SOLIDS;TIDES;EARTH ROTATION POLAR MOTION VLBI ASTRONOMY ::

Hit 79 of 277 -- Awd #: DN451887 
 Award Type: Extramural / Contracts / Not Otherwise Specified
 SBIR Award
Access/Distribution Restriction:
 Code: A - Distribution Unlimited - Unrestricted Access
Parent Organizations: DOD / NAVY / 0605502N - Small Business Innovative Research
 Project: Project number unspecified
Dates: Jan 1998 to Dec 1998
Performer: MISSION RESEARCH CORP  SANTA BARBARA CA
 Type:     Industry/Business
 Contact:  FISK,MARK, Phone: 805-963-8761
 13th Congressional District in California        
 Location: Santa Barbara,   CA
Description: TITLE: AN INTEGRATED SATCOM AND DATA MANAGEMENT SYSTEM FOR REMOTELY-PILOTED AIRCRAF :: LONG DESCR: TASK WILL SUPPORT DEVELOPMENT OF AN OVER-THE-HORIZON COMMUNICATIONS SYSTEM. THE SYSTEM WILL SUPPORT REAL-TIME SCIENTIFIC FLIGHT OPERATIONS THROUGH IN-FLIGHT SAMPLED DATA ACQUISITION AND TELEMETRY. ACCESS TO SENSOR DATA ARE REQUIRED FOR REMOTELY PILOTED AIRCRAFT TO REACH THEIR FULL POTENTIAL FOR LONG DURATION, LONG RANGE MEASUREMENT MISSIONS. IN ADDTION, SINCE RESEARCHERS ARE NOT ABOARD THE RPA MONITORING DATA COLLECTION, DATA TELEMETRY TO THE GROUND IS REQUIRED FOR REALTIME DECISION-MAKING. DATA MANAGEMENT AND OVER-THE-HORIZON COMMUNICATIONS FOR RESEARCH ACTIVITY CAN BE USED TO SUPPORT A VERITY OF WORLD METEROLOGICAL, OCEANOGRAPHIC, AND COMMERCIAL NEEDS. THE COMMUNICATION AND DATA MANAGEMENT SYSTEM WILL DRIVE SENSOR SOFTWARE, COORDINATE DATA STREAMS FROM VARIOUS ONBOARD SENSORS, PROVIDE ONBOARD STORAGE OF ALL DATA COLLECTED, AND TELEMETER SELECTED DATA, VIDEO, AND ALL FLIGHT CONTROL COMMANDS VIA SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS TO A GROUND STATION. DATA WILL BE AVALIBLE FOR REAL-TIME ANALYSIS OVER THE INTERNET :: STAGE: BASIC RESEARCH  :: TYPE: R&D-OTHER DEFENSE-B RES :: KEYWORDS: ACCESS;ADDITION;AEROSOLS;AIRCRAFT;COMMERCE;COMMERCIAL COMMUNICATIONS;COMMUNICATION AND RADIO SYSTEMS;COMMUNICATION SATELLITES;COMPUTER PROGRAMS;CONTROL;COORDINATES;DATA ACQUISITION;DATA MANAGEMENT;DATA PROCESSING;DECISION MAKING;DETECTORS;DRIVES;FLIGHT;FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEMS;FUNCTIONS;GROUND STATIONS;INFLIGHT;INSTRUMENTATION;INTEGRATED SYSTEMS;LONG RANGE(TIME);LOS ANGELES(CALIFORNIA);MISSIONS;MONITORING;ONBOARD;OVER THE HORIZON DETECTION;RADIO LINKS;RANGE FINDING;REAL TIME;REMOTELY PILOTED VEHICLES;SAMPLING;SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS;STORAGE;TELEMETER SYSTEMS;TELEMETERING DATA;REMOTELY PILOTED AIRCRAFT;REAL-TIME DATA MANAGEMENT;IMARSAT                 RELAY;INTERNET ACCESS ::

Hit 80 of 277 -- Awd #: DF000633 
 Award Type: Extramural / Grants / Project
Access/Distribution Restriction:
 Code: C - U.S. Federal Government and Contractors Only
 Reason: AD - Administrative or Operational Use Data
Parent Organizations: DOD / OSD / 0601103D8Z - University Research Initiatives
 Project: Project number unspecified
Dates: Nov 1997 to Dec 2000
Performer: OKLAHOMA STATE UNIV  STILLWATER
 Type:     Public Educational Institution
 Contact:  YEN, GARY G, Phone: 4057447743
 Third Congressional District in Oklahoma
 Location: Stillwater,   OK
Description: TITLE: (DEPSCOR-97) HEALTH MONITORING ON VIBRATION SIGNATURES :: LONG DESCR: UNARR. ------ OBJT. THE OBJECTIVE OF THIS RESEARCH IS TO DEMOSTRATE THE FEASIBILITY AND APPLICABILITY OF THE PROPOSED HEALTH MONITORING PROCEDURES THROUGH ANALYTICAL EXAMINATIONS, NUMERICAL SIMULATIONS AND EXPERIEMNTAL VERIFICATIONS IN CHOSEN AIR FORCE APPLICATIONS. UNARR. ------ APPR. A HYBRID NEURAL/FUZZY NETWORK WITH AN ON-LINE REAL-TIME LEARNING ALGORITHM WILL BE DEVELOPED TO PERFORM EXPERT ADVISING. A HIERACHICAL FAULT DIAGNOSIS ARCHITECTURE WILL BE ADVICATED TO FULFILL THE TIME CRITICAL AND ON BOARD NEEDS IN DIFFERENT LEVELS OF STRUCTURAL INTEGRITY OVER A GLOBAL WORKING ENVELOPE :: KEYWORDS: AIR FORCE OPERATIONS;ALGORITHMS;CHANNELS;CHEMICAL REACTIONS;DETECTORS;ENVELOPE(SPACE);GLOBAL;HEALTH;HEARING;HYBRID SYSTEMS;INDUSTRIES;LEARNING;LITERATURE SURVEYS;MEDICINE;MILITARY APPLICATIONS;MONITORING;NAVY;NEURAL NETS;NUMERICAL ANALYSIS;ONLINE SYSTEMS;REAL TIME;SENSES(PHYSIOLOGY);SIGNATURES;SIMULATION;SMELL;STRUCTURAL INTEGRITY;TASTE;TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER;TREES;VALIDATION;VIBRATION;97NA401;HEALTH;VIBRATION ::

Hit 81 of 277 -- Awd #: FC0797ID13578 
 Award Type: Extramural / Cooperative Agreements / Traditional
Access/Distribution Restriction:
 Code: A - Distribution Unlimited - Unrestricted Access
Parent Organizations: DOE / EC / Extramural awards
Dates: Sep 1997 to Sep 2000
Performer: PAPER SCIENCE & TECH INST OF  FIBER & PAPER P
 Type:     Private Educational Institution
 District: Multiple congressional districts in Georgia
 Location: Atlanta,   GA
Description: SHORT DESCR: CONTACTLESS REAL-TIME MONITORING OF PAPER MECHANICAL BEHAVIOR DURING PAPERMAKING :: LONG DESCR: Not Available. ::

Hit 82 of 277 -- Awd #: IDFC0797ID13578 
 Award Type: Extramural / Cooperative Agreements / Traditional
Access/Distribution Restriction:
 Code: A - Distribution Unlimited - Unrestricted Access
Parent Organizations: DOE / EC / Industry sector
 Project: Industries of the future/Specific
Dates: Sep 1997 to Dec 2001
Performer: Idaho Operations Office (ID)
 Type:     Federal Government
 Contact:  YANKEELOV,JOHN, Phone: 208-526-7049
 Location: Idaho Falls,   ID
Description: TITLE: CONTACTLESS REAL-TIME MONITORING OF PAPER MECHANICAL BEHAVIOR DURING PAPERMAKING :: LONG DESCR: N :: KEYWORDS: Industries Of The Future (Specific);ENERGY EFFICIENCY AND RENEWABLE ENERGY ::

Hit 83 of 277 -- Awd #: ORNLCEEB004 
 Award Type: Extramural / Contracts / M&O DOE-Direct Tasking (Used by DOE Only)
Access/Distribution Restriction:
 Code: A - Distribution Unlimited - Unrestricted Access
Parent Organizations: DOE / ES / SE
 Project: Electric energy systems/Electric & magnetic fields R&D
Dates: Oct 1990 to Sep 2020
Performer: Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL)
 Type:     Federal Government
 Contact:  Vancoevering, James, VANCOEVERINJ@ornl.gov, Phone: 423-574-4829
 Location: Oak Ridge,   TN
Description: TITLE: Power Systems Technology :: LONG DESCR: The ORNL Power Systems Technology Program has worked with the Office of Utility Technology to research and develop advanced electric power transmission and distribution options. ORNL will continue to work with DOE to ensure that work currently underway is completed in an orderly fashion and that the results of these completed research efforts are reported in a way that provides maximum benefit to the U.S. utility industry. The two areas in which projects are ongoing are Real-Time System Control which sought to develop system monitoring diagnostic and automated control strategies, and High Capacity Transmission Options which demonstrated high phase order transmission, and pursued development of advanced power electronics technologies for enhancing power system capacity.    In addition to completing previously authorized activities, ORNL will provide ongoing technical support to the Secretary of Energy Advisory Board task force assessing impacts on system reliability due to changes in the structure of the utility industry. This process will involve development of technical, institutional and policy analyses as requested by the task force. ORNL will also provide support for the assessment of engineering issues of distributed utility resource development, including methods of control, protection and economic assessment of benefits. This FWP is multiple funding by the following B&R Nos. EB5005000, EB5003000, EB2500000, and EB5001000 :: KEYWORDS: Advanced Materials And Devices;Collector Research And Systems Developme;Electric And Magnetic Fields R&D;Geothermal Heat Pump;High Temperature Superconductivity R&D;Transmission Reliability;Wind Energy Systems; ENERGY EFFICIENCY AND RENEWABLE ENERGY ::

Hit 84 of 277 -- Awd #: PNNL30326A 
 Award Type: Extramural / Contracts / M&O DOE-Direct Tasking (Used by DOE Only)
Access/Distribution Restriction:
 Code: A - Distribution Unlimited - Unrestricted Access
Parent Organizations: DOE / ES / SE
 Project: Electric energy systems/Transmission reliability
Dates: Oct 1998 to Sep 1999
Performer: Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNNL)
 Type:     Federal Government
 Contact:  Louie, Gary D gary.louie@pnl.gov, Phone: 509-373-1738
 Location: Richland,   WA
Description: TITLE: DOE Power Delivery Initiative Support :: LONG DESCR: Provide support, planning, and research in areas of real-time information monitoring and analysis and impacts of distributed resources upon grid reliability :: KEYWORDS: Transmission Reliability;ENERGY EFFICIENCY AND RENEWABLE ENERGY ::

Hit 85 of 277 -- Awd #: AMESMTTPCH17C232 
 Award Type: Extramural / Contracts / M&O DOE-Direct Tasking (Used by DOE Only)
Access/Distribution Restriction:
 Code: A - Distribution Unlimited - Unrestricted Access
Parent Organizations: DOE / DRWM / Technology development
Dates: Jun 1996 to Sep 2003
Performer: Ames Laboratory (AMES)
 Type:     Federal Government
 Contact:  Baldwin, David, Phone: 515-294-2069
 Location: Ames,   IA
Description: TITLE: Real-Time Plutonium Monitoring by Transient Infared Spectroscopy :: LONG DESCR: The project is developing a real-time noncontact on-line process monitor for plutonium vitrification.  The monitor based on transient infared spectroscopy (TIRS) will be able to quantitatively determine the concentration of plutonium and certain other materials in the molten glass stream leaving the vitrification unit.  This contributes directly to process control and assurance. The analyzer measurement can guide the process operators in maintaining optimum processing, contribute to material accountancy and non-proliferation goals, document the meeting of waste-from environmental specifications, and assist in monitoring safety factors :: KEYWORDS: Treatment And Remediation Technology Sys;ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT ::

Hit 86 of 277 -- Awd #: ANL001930 
 Award Type: Extramural / Contracts / M&O DOE-Direct Tasking (Used by DOE Only)
Access/Distribution Restriction:
 Code: A - Distribution Unlimited - Unrestricted Access
Parent Organizations: DOE / DRWM / Technology development
Dates: Oct 1996 to na
Performer: Argonne National Laboratory (ANL)
 Type:     Federal Government
 Contact:  Helt, J.E. jhelt@anl.gov, Phone: 630-252-7335
 Location: Argonne,   IL
Description: TITLE: Development of a Magnetic Resonance Monitor for Technetium-99 Column Breakthrough :: LONG DESCR: The objectives of this program are to develop and implement a real-time on-line monitoring system for Tc-99. This system will be based upon magnetic resonance spectroscopy of the Tc-99 nucleus. The sensor will be based upon ANL's on-line flow-through magnetic resonance sensor technology that is currently being developed for on-line sensing and quantification of organic components. The spectrometer will incorporate a 2-Tesla permanent magnet, a highly miniaturized electronic package, an intelligent operating system, and remote setup and operation panel, and will be completely enclosed in a short, 19-inch NEMA 4 instrument rack. This technique will provide a real-time (milliseconds) non-radiometric sensing method that will operate in a high radiation environment, with immunity to contaminants, high-pH solutions, and high dissolved-salt levels. The system will be capable of monitoring Tc-99 at 10 microCuries per liter (beta decay with a half-life of 2.14  10 is equivalent to the 15 micromolar) with linearity through 5 orders of magnitude. Efforts in this program include (1) modification of ANL's magnetic resonance process controller, (2) demonstration of sensor performance on Tc-99, (3) issuance of a deployment plan for full-scale operation, (4) interaction with the user to develop operation procedures, (5) deployment of the sensor system, (6) performance validation, (7) technology transfer, and (8) issuance of report documentation :: KEYWORDS: Treatment And Remediation Technology Sys;ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT ::

Hit 87 of 277 -- Awd #: INEELDPR77SS41 
 Award Type: Extramural / Contracts / M&O DOE-Direct Tasking (Used by DOE Only)
Access/Distribution Restriction:
 Code: A - Distribution Unlimited - Unrestricted Access
Parent Organizations: DOE / DRWM / Technology development
Dates: Oct 1996 to Sep 1999
Performer: Idaho National Engineering & Environmental Laboratory (INEEL)
 Type:     Federal Government
 Contact:  Kostelnik, Kevin kvk@inel.gov, Phone: 208-526-9642
 Location: Idaho Falls,   ID
Description: TITLE: Source Term Remediation/Process Control and Monitoring :: LONG DESCR: TASK A:  Demonstrate Portable Selective Hot Spot Remediation System Develop requirements for a Hot Spot Removal System by integrating data from currently available and emerging characterization technologies onto an appropriate retrieval platform, and developing methods to present characterization information in a manner that effectively guides remediation activities. TASK B:  Dig Face Characterization (DFC) System Demonstrate the DFC technology at a radioactively contaminated site.  The objectives are to provide near real-time characterization of contamination and potential hazards for a landfill removal action and to reduce remediation costs associated with radioactive and hazardous waste removal actions through improved excavation productivity and reduced sampling and analysis costs. TASK C:  Deployment Sector Technical Integration Provide technical integration support to the Subsurface Contaminant Focus Area (SCFA) by enhancing the product line technology portfolio through the application of various kinds of technical expertise.  The deliverable is a system that provides quantified technology investment benefit information, user access to technical and regulatory requirements and site characterization information, identifies technology gaps, and recommends technology investments that are traceable, supportable, and defendable :: KEYWORDS: Treatment And Remediation Technology Sys;ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT ::

Hit 88 of 277 -- Awd #: SRTC9909114015 
 Award Type: Extramural / Contracts / M&O DOE-Direct Tasking (Used by DOE Only)
Access/Distribution Restriction:
 Code: A - Distribution Unlimited - Unrestricted Access
Parent Organizations: DOE / DRWM / Technology development
Dates: Oct 1998 to Sep 1999
Performer: Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC)
 Type:     Federal Government
 Contact:  Mickalonis, John, Phone: 803-725-3292
 Location: Aiken,   SC
Description: TITLE: WESTINGHOUSE SAVANNAH RIVER COMPANY CHARACTERIZATION AND SAFETY :: LONG DESCR: Task A: Savannah River EN Corrosion Probe Validation and Deployment The purpose is to develop and demonstrate electrochemical noise (EN) measurements as usable technique for real-time, on-line corrosion monitoring of high level waste (HLW) tanks.    The primary degradation mode of the waste tanks is corrosion, which limit the tank s lifetime and safety. Chemical control through analysis of grab samples is currently the only corrosion monitoring tool, so the actual state of corrosion in the tanks is unknown. Corrosion monitoring of underground storage tanks has typically been achieved by chemical analysis of grab samples of the supernate and examination of corrosion coupons that were immersed in the supernate. These techniques provide only historical information.    Task B: Savannah River Chemistry Species Monitor Development     The purpose is to develop and demonstrate a chemistry species probe as a viable technique for real-time, on-line monitoring of high level waste (HLW) chemistry. The chemical species probe uses both Raman spectroscopy and conductivity measurements to measure and determine the concentrations of chemical species pertinent to HLW.    Processing of the waste for cleanup will require better and more timely knowledge about the waste chemistry. Variations in waste composition occur at different locations within the tank and are not easily characterized under the present chemical control program.     Chemical control of underground storage tanks has typically been achieved by chemical analysis of grab samples of the supernate. The dynamic conditions of the waste tank during processing cannot be followed. Efficient waste processing requires that the appropriate chemical composition be obtained prior to process continuation. On-line monitoring techniques are needed to follow the dynamic conditions encountered in the tank during removal and waste processing.    Commercial in-situ probes for chemistry measurements are not available for application in the waste tank environment. A robust in-situ probe which uses Raman spectroscopy as the analysis technique, however, is capable of measuring the nitrite/nitrite concentration and the hydroxide concentration to 0.05 M. This probe needs to be demonstrated in an actual waste tank.    Task C: Metal Filters for Waste Tank Ventilation    The SRS HLW tanks are currently equipped with a ventilation system to maintain the tank contents at negative pressure (-1.0 WC). This system contains conventional disposable glass-fiber High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filter cartridges. Cleanable HEAP filters that could replace the conventional disposable filters are desired. These filters should be designed such that the cleaning could be accomplished in the process (i.e., insitu) which would eliminate personnel radiation exposure associated with removal of plugged filters.    This effort was to identify and conduct performance testing on different types of cleanable HEPA filters. Filter performance data will be used to aid in selection of an insitu cleanable HEPA filtration system.    Accomplishments    Task A:  Data analysis has focused on developing a self-organizing map with artificial neural network (SOM/ANN). The vectors which are generated from the data have been found to correspond to particular real-time noise signals. The analysis has involved evaluating if pre-selected vectors can be used to interpret the noise data. The vectors from a given set of data are being used to compare different data sets for identical corrosion environments.    Task B:  Raman Probe was tested and no unusual peaks were detected in the spectra of any waste sample. Excellent to good agreement was found between the Raman results and the standard analytical results for nitrate, nitrite and hydroxide.     Task C:  The final testing using a simulated HLW salt solution to challenge the metal filters was completed. Results will be issued in FY 2000 :: KEYWORDS: Technology Development;ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT ::

Hit 89 of 277 -- Awd #: FC2699FT40129 
 Award Type: Extramural / Cooperative Agreements / Traditional
Access/Distribution Restriction:
 Code: A - Distribution Unlimited - Unrestricted Access
Parent Organizations: DOE / FE / Extramural awards
Dates: Jun 1999 to Dec 2001
Performer: REAL-TIME ZONE INC
 Type:     Industry/Business
 Second Congressional District in New Mexico
 Location: Roswell,   NM
Description: SHORT DESCR: REAL-TIME TRACE MONITORING OF RESERVOIR STIMULATION         PROCEDURES VIA ELECTRONIC     WIRELINE AND TELEMETRY        DATA TRANSMISSION :: LONG DESCR: Not Available. ::

Hit 90 of 277 -- Awd #: NETLDEFC2699FT40129 
 Award Type: Extramural / Cooperative Agreements / Traditional
Access/Distribution Restriction:
 Code: A - Distribution Unlimited - Unrestricted Access
Parent Organizations: DOE / FE / Natural gas technologies (previously Gas - Natural gas research)
 Project: Exploration & production
Dates: Jun 1999 to Dec 2001
Performer: National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL)
 Type:     Federal Government
 Contact:  Covatch, Gary L. gcovat@fetc.doe.gov, Phone: (304) 285-4589
 Location: Morgantown,   WV
Description: TITLE: Real-Time Monitoring of Reservoir Stimulation Procedures Via Electronic Wireline and Telemetry :: LONG DESCR: The objective of this project is to develop and integrate a real-time diagnostic system with real-time stimulation innovations :: KEYWORDS: Exploration And Production;FOSSIL ENERGY ::

Hit 91 of 277 -- Awd #: ANL99272 
 Award Type: Extramural / Contracts / M&O Lab-Directed Tasking (Used by DOE Only)
Access/Distribution Restriction:
 Code: C - U.S. Federal Government and Contractors Only
 Reason: AM - Administratively Determined
Parent Organizations: DOE / LDRD /
Dates: Jan 1999 to na
Performer: Argonne National Laboratory (ANL)
 Type:     Federal Government
 Contact:  Kaufmann, E.N., Phone: 630-252-3606
 Location: Argonne,   IL
Description: TITLE: Scalable Resource Management and Fault Prediction :: LONG DESCR: This project is being carried out in three phases. During the first phase, a set of monitoring programs are being built on the IBM-SP and the Origin2000 to record application usage characteristics and correlate those with machine performance and scheduling logs. The commodity supercomputing cluster will be developed, ensuring that the platform is appropriate for monitoring and instrumentation and is capable of being tuned. A layer of abstraction will be built on top of vendor configuration systems. This layer will enable investigators to watch SNMP traps and system logging so that they can measure resource utilization and log failures that affect scientific code. benchmark suite is also being developed to mimic application code by performing differently under variable tuning characteristics, causing failures, and crashing during a system fault. ANL is using the supercomputers to study the area of large-scale resource management; to build a speculative resource management system on the commodity supercomputing cluster; and to begin research into the areas of fault prediction and real-time selective machine tuning :: KEYWORDS: NA ::

Hit 92 of 277 -- Awd #: INEELC079 
 Award Type: Extramural / Contracts / M&O Lab-Directed Tasking (Used by DOE Only)
Access/Distribution Restriction:
 Code: C - U.S. Federal Government and Contractors Only
 Reason: AM - Administratively Determined
Parent Organizations: DOE / LDRD /
Dates: Oct 1998 to na
Performer: Idaho National Engineering & Environmental Laboratory (INEEL)
 Type:     Federal Government
 Contact:  Shoaf, Debonny L., Phone: 208-526-0430
 Location: Idaho Falls,   ID
Description: TITLE: Real Time Neutron/Gamma Dosimeter :: LONG DESCR: A prototype palm-size dosimeter for monitoring neutrons and gamma rays simultaneously and in real time, has been developed at the INEEL. 6Li/7Li-loaded glass scintillators are used in combination with small photomultiplier tubes operating on small, conventional AA batteries.  Neutron detection is based on the difference in the responses of lithium-6 and lithium-7.  This dosimeter can be used in many applications, such as personnel monitoring at nuclear power plants, monitoring spent fuel storage, special nuclear materials, and detecting low-level neutrons in very high gamma-ray fields.  There is no real-time fast/thermal neutron and gamma combination dosimeter available  today.  The need for such a sensor in the health physics area is enormous :: KEYWORDS: NA ::

Hit 93 of 277 -- Awd #: INEELD165 
 Award Type: Extramural / Contracts / M&O Lab-Directed Tasking (Used by DOE Only)
Access/Distribution Restriction:
 Code: C - U.S. Federal Government and Contractors Only
 Reason: AM - Administratively Determined
Parent Organizations: DOE / LDRD /
Dates: Oct 1997 to na
Performer: Idaho National Engineering & Environmental Laboratory (INEEL)
 Type:     Federal Government
 Contact:  Shoaf, Debonny L., Phone: 208-526-0430
 Location: Idaho Falls,   ID
Description: TITLE: Real Time Neutron Monitoring Using Self-Powered Neutron Detectors (SPNDs) :: LONG DESCR: Several international test reactors currently utilize self-powered neutron detector (SPND) systems, allowing test sponsors to evaluate experiment/reactor performance in real-time and to modify parameters to obtain desired irradiation characteristics. Current SPND systems take advantage of the latest advances in electronic components, resulting in the ability to accurately monitor signals from miniature detectors that have had their responses characterized by means of experimental and calculation techniques. The INEEL Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) uses passive integral neutron monitoring in the vicinity of test specimens.  This technique does not allow monitoring of the changes in the neutron environment as a function of time and produces average neutron exposure values for the entire irradiation period.  SPNDs allow neutron monitoring in real-time in ATR locations where the neutron levels and spectral characteristics vary due to control adjustments and fuel depletion. It is not possible to make these measurements with passive integral activation monitors.  Use of SPNDs would reduce uncertainties in irradiation testing when thermocouples fail and would provide real-time information for comparison to that of operating thermocouples :: KEYWORDS: NA ::

Hit 94 of 277 -- Awd #: INEELE429 
 Award Type: Extramural / Contracts / M&O Lab-Directed Tasking (Used by DOE Only)
Access/Distribution Restriction:
 Code: C - U.S. Federal Government and Contractors Only
 Reason: AM - Administratively Determined
Parent Organizations: DOE / LDRD /
Dates: Oct 1998 to na
Performer: Idaho National Engineering & Environmental Laboratory (INEEL)
 Type:     Federal Government
 Contact:  Shoaf, Debonny L., Phone: 208-526-0430
 Location: Idaho Falls,   ID
Description: TITLE: Oil and Gas Production Sensors and Controls :: LONG DESCR: The overall project is broken into three general tasks: development of a real-time crack-growth monitoring system; development of downhole tools capable of in situ analysis of fluids; and development of next-generation borehole seismic sources.  All three of these tasks are in response to queries by industry for new technology. The major thrust of the efforts in this project will be to validate their utility for oil and gas applications, and to test modified systems as prototypes for eventual commercialization.  The described technologies also have direct application to DOE Environmental Management (EM) and industry environmental concerns.  In fact, two of the three technologies have been used in other forms for INEEL-EM projects, namely dig-face sensing and aquifer characterization at the INEEL Test Area North (TAN) as part of the subsurface sciences program :: KEYWORDS: NA ::

Hit 95 of 277 -- Awd #: INEELF112 
 Award Type: Extramural / Contracts / M&O Lab-Directed Tasking (Used by DOE Only)
Access/Distribution Restriction:
 Code: C - U.S. Federal Government and Contractors Only
 Reason: AM - Administratively Determined
Parent Organizations: DOE / LDRD /
Dates: Oct 1998 to na
Performer: Idaho National Engineering & Environmental Laboratory (INEEL)
 Type:     Federal Government
 Contact:  Shoaf, Debonny L., Phone: 208-526-0430
 Location: Idaho Falls,   ID
Description: TITLE: Imaging Laser Ultrasonics for Sheet Metal Process Monitoring :: LONG DESCR: Field measurement and control of sheet metal material properties, such as thickness, stiffness, and microstructure texture can lead to improvements in manufacturing efficiency through tighter control of processing parameters. Laser Ultrasonics is a promising technology applicable to field environments. This technology utilizes lasers to generate and detect ultrasonic waves in materials, is noncontacting, requires only optical access to the material surface, and has been shown to be applicable to moving surfaces. The DOE-Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) has identified Laser Ultrasonics as a very promising industrial workplace technology for their "Industries of the Future" initiative. Today, several vendors provide instrumentation for measurements at one point on the sheet at a time; however,  To inspect the whole sheet, scanning the laser beams is necessary. Recently, a new, novel, noncontacting laser ultrasonic detection technology capable of full-field imaging has been developed at the INEEL.  The INEEL Laser Ultrasonic Camera, offers the potential for determining the above properties throughout the sheet, and with high speed.   By imaging elastic wave motion directly without scanning, the  Laser Ultrasonic Camera  produces a real-time video image of the data which can be easily interpreted without extensive training. This project is designed to demonstrate the capabilities of the INEEL Laser Ultrasonic Camera for determining material properties both on stationary and moving sheets :: KEYWORDS: NA ::

Hit 96 of 277 -- Awd #: INEELJ220 
 Award Type: Extramural / Contracts / M&O Lab-Directed Tasking (Used by DOE Only)
Access/Distribution Restriction:
 Code: C - U.S. Federal Government and Contractors Only
 Reason: AM - Administratively Determined
Parent Organizations: DOE / LDRD /
Dates: Oct 1998 to na
Performer: Idaho National Engineering & Environmental Laboratory (INEEL)
 Type:     Federal Government
 Contact:  Shoaf, Debonny L., Phone: 208-526-0430
 Location: Idaho Falls,   ID
Description: TITLE: Rapid Portable Biological Agent Detector using Ion Mobility Spectrometry :: LONG DESCR: This project is primarily aimed at developing (e.g. proof of principle) the INEEL technical capability in ion mobility spectrometry, which has the additional benefit of opening new lines of inquiry in the field.  The system would also have other applications where microorganisms need to be identified quickly and perhaps at remote locations; these would include screening of meat for food safety purposes, monitoring of water for fecal contamination, and the screening of industrial food processing equipment for highly allergenic components after cleaning, such as aflatoxin. The threat of a biological agent attack is now omnipresent. This threat is not only a military issue, but a looming civil defense problem. The goal of this work was to design and build a laboratory prototype biological agent detector based upon electrospray ionization ion mobility spectrometry (ESI-IMS). This prototype is a proof of concept and precursor to a rugged field portable instrument. This system should easily meet US Army "want list" specifications of being single man portable and able to provide analysis on multiple agent types in less than 15 minutes. These specifications are significant, as they provide an instrument size and analysis time that surpasses most equipment used for biological agent detection that has any reasonable degree of specificity. The ESI-IMS system would provide a strong degree of specificity based upon lipoprotein and lipopolysaccharide distributions from target organisms. The collection, preparation, separation, and detection steps would take place in a continuous process, providing near real time alarm and identification capabilities for biological agents :: KEYWORDS: NA ::

Hit 97 of 277 -- Awd #: PNNLPN990181346 
 Award Type: Extramural / Contracts / M&O Lab-Directed Tasking (Used by DOE Only)
Access/Distribution Restriction:
 Code: C - U.S. Federal Government and Contractors Only
 Reason: AM - Administratively Determined
Parent Organizations: DOE / LDRD /
Dates: Oct 1998 to Sep 1999
Performer: Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNNL)
 Type:     Federal Government
 Contact:  Dana L. Woodruff, Phone: (360)681-3608
 Location: Richland,   WA
Description: TITLE: Development of Aquatic Bio-Optical Monitoring Buoy :: LONG DESCR: The purpose of this project is to develop an approach to collect bio-optical data in coastal, near-shore, or inland waters.  We used a near real-time, remotely accessible bio-optical monitoring buoy designed to validate ocean color algorithms for satellites collecting data in coastal environments. The recent successful launch of the SeaWiFs ocean color satellite and schedule launch of future ocean color sensors requires validation, modification, and development of ocean color algorithms for specific use in optically complex nearshore waters.  In situ calibration data have traditionally been collected from shipboard platforms, requiring labor-intensive field efforts.  This project will provide a streamlined, flexible approach to collect bio-optical data in geographic regions (coastal, near-shore, or inland waters) that requires further algorithm development.  A portable buoy with a unique complement of environmental and optical sensors allows a quick response monitoring capability for natural resource and/or damage assessment in inland and coastal waters :: KEYWORDS: NA ::

Hit 98 of 277 -- Awd #: SNL3502370000 
 Award Type: Extramural / Contracts / M&O Lab-Directed Tasking (Used by DOE Only)
Access/Distribution Restriction:
 Code: C - U.S. Federal Government and Contractors Only
 Reason: AM - Administratively Determined
Parent Organizations: DOE / LDRD /
Dates: Oct 1998 to na
Performer: Sandia National Laboratories (SNL)
 Type:     Federal Government
 Contact:  Charles E. Meyers, Phone: 505-844-3459
 Location: Albuquerque,   NM
Description: TITLE: A Combinatorial Microlab Investigation of Critical Copper-Corrosion Mechanisms :: LONG DESCR: Physical-based understanding of corrosion is required to predict stockpile reliability, but modeling is hindered by limited knowledge of primary corrosion mechanisms and large numbers of coupled chemical reactions, which depend on complex interactions of materials with environment and functionality. This multidimensional problem requires fundamentally new experimental approaches which can provide timely quantitative information on critical phenomena occurring in corrosion phase space.  We will combine parallel miniature experimentation with ultrasensitive microanalytical techniques to efficiently explore this phase space and identify mechanisms and kinetics for copper sulfidation.  This approach differs from convention by focusing on microscopic length scales, the relevant scale for corrosion.  Combinatorial experiments (arrays of microlabs) will quantify the direct and synergistic effects of morphological and metallurgical variables (alloying, defect density in the Cu oxide and bulk, diffusivities, porosity), environmental variables (sulfur content in air, light exposure, water droplet size and distribution versus humidity), and functionality (e.g., electric-current conduction).  Novel diagnostics will include conductivity microsensors to locally quantify pH2O and pH2S, in-situ electrical conductivity and light scattering to monitor real-time evolution of corrosion reactions, local ion-selective potentiometric monitoring of reaction products, and ultimately microcalorimetry sensors.  This project will enable a new and rapid approach to determine physical models for complex chemical processes of key importance to ASCI and other DOE technology needs :: KEYWORDS: NA ::

Hit 99 of 277 -- Awd #: SNL3506510000 
 Award Type: Extramural / Contracts / M&O Lab-Directed Tasking (Used by DOE Only)
Access/Distribution Restriction:
 Code: C - U.S. Federal Government and Contractors Only
 Reason: AM - Administratively Determined
Parent Organizations: DOE / LDRD /
Dates: Oct 1996 to na
Performer: Sandia National Laboratories (SNL)
 Type:     Federal Government
 Contact:  Charles E. Meyers, Phone: 505-844-3459
 Location: Albuquerque,   NM
Description: TITLE: Massively Parallel Sensor Arrays for Volatile Organic Detection :: LONG DESCR: We will develop a flexible chemical sensor micro-lab for detecting volatile organic compounds (VOCs) with high chemical selectivity based on large (~50 sensors) arrays of sorption-based resistors (chemiresistors).  This m-lab will comprise a massively parallel microsensor array using inexpensive, easily-fabricated polymer-coated planar interdigitated resistors/polymers are rendered conductive through admixture of conductive colloidal particles.  Using chip-based electronics, sensor-array resistance changes due to VOC exposure can be monitored inexpensively, in real time.  The response of each sensor is rapid, reversible, and repeatable; 100s of polymers with distinct sorptive characteristics are commercially available.  Limits of detection (LODs) can reach ppb levels; for high-volatility species, this is likely to require adding a preconcentrator as a front-end for this m-lab.  In contrast to separations-based m-lab concepts, this approach is analogous to spectroscopy: the rich spectrum of resistor responses enables high chemical selectivity through multivariate analyses without separations; sensor redundancy provides improved system robustness.  The detection of VOCs is a key national security concern: detection of the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction (WMD). Particular combinations of chemical precursors, solvents, and byproducts signal the production of nuclear, chemical, and biological WMD.  We will determine system preformance for WMD compounds, including various multicomponent VOC mixtures, and their relevant LODs.  In addition, DOE environmental monitoring and remediation applications, as well as industrial waste minimization, require the development of effective, inexpensive VOC m-labs; key species, many of which are potential interferants for WMD detection and must therefore be included in any case, will be addressed for these as well :: KEYWORDS: NA ::

Hit 100 of 277 -- Awd #: SNL3510730000 
 Award Type: Extramural / Contracts / M&O Lab-Directed Tasking (Used by DOE Only)
Access/Distribution Restriction:
 Code: C - U.S. Federal Government and Contractors Only
 Reason: AM - Administratively Determined
Parent Organizations: DOE / LDRD /
Dates: Oct 1998 to na
Performer: Sandia National Laboratories (SNL)
 Type:     Federal Government
 Contact:  Charles E. Meyers, Phone: 505-844-3459
 Location: Albuquerque,   NM
Description: TITLE: Thin Film Deposition Processes Incorporating In-Situ Monitoring Capabilities :: LONG DESCR: We propose to explore thin film deposition processes that combine flexible growth and in-situ,rapid-feedback diagnostic techniques.  This impacts components that require long-term film reliability by providing: techniques for tailoring film properties and the ability to monitor critical material parameters during fabrication.  This work will lead to new, robust production processes and parts having reduced numbers of defects.This project will investigate the use of ion beam-assisted deposition and reactive growth techniques for fabricating various two component thin films, including metal hydrides.  Applications of these films are found in defense programs and in many industrial applications.  It is known that ion bombardment during vapor deposition modifies film properties and performance, including microstructure, residual stress and adhesion.  We will investigate the use of ion beam sputtering and concurrent ion bombardment for tailoring film stress.  A vacuum apparatus is equipped for simultaneous operation of two ion sources with control over beam energies.  We will also research the use of ion beam-assisted techniques during reactive codeposition.  Codeposition requires lower temperatures compared with processes that react single component films after deposition.  The higher temperatures required by other multi-step processes to lock in desired phases often lead to unpredictable, catastrophic changes in structure.  Our work will research the evolution of residual stress in order to understand its relationship(s) to process parameters.  A recently developed stress monitor will be incorporated onto the deposition system.  The monitor allows accurate, real-time measurements of stress during different stages of film fabrication.  We expect our studies will increase the level of understanding of stress evolution in various materials.  A few detailed, in-situ studies of stress evolution during reactive deposition have been performed.  Attempts will be made to correlate stress with microstructure, and models will be developed to explain film growth :: KEYWORDS: NA ::

Hit 101 of 277 -- Awd #: SNL3518180000 
 Award Type: Extramural / Contracts / M&O Lab-Directed Tasking (Used by DOE Only)
Access/Distribution Restriction:
 Code: C - U.S. Federal Government and Contractors Only
 Reason: AM - Administratively Determined
Parent Organizations: DOE / LDRD /
Dates: Oct 1997 to na
Performer: Sandia National Laboratories (SNL)
 Type:     Federal Government
 Contact:  Charles E. Meyers, Phone: 505-844-3459
 Location: Albuquerque,   NM
Description: TITLE: Adaptive 3-D Sensing :: LONG DESCR: The purpose of this project is to create sensing, reasoning, and control technologies that will allow the safe and effective cooperation of humans and intelligent machines in a variety of operations. This will rely heavily on real-time 3D sensing and interpretation of the 3D data. The results of this research will include a new adaptive 3D sensing system as well as new research into dynamic object modeling, behavior recognition, and sensor-based control. The 3D sensing system will combine two existing sensing technologies in a new way to create a site monitoring system that can continuously maintain an accurate 3D model of the site and real-time estimates of the shape, location, and motion of humans and machines. A key strength of this system will be the ability to monitor simultaneous activities, such as several robots and humans working independently, while also detecting unexpected entry into the workspace. Data from this sensing system will be used to allow automated systems, such as robots, to not only safely co-exist with humans within the workspace but to also cooperate in performing tasks. This will improve the practicality and efficiency of many operations by simultaneously using the best skills of both humans and machines :: KEYWORDS: NA ::

Hit 102 of 277 -- Awd #: LANLA867 
 Award Type: Extramural / Contracts / M&O DOE-Direct Tasking (Used by DOE Only)
Access/Distribution Restriction:
 Code: A - Distribution Unlimited - Unrestricted Access
Parent Organizations: DOE / Nuclear Safeguards & Security (Defense Program) / Technology & systems development
Dates: Oct 1998 to Sep 1999
Performer: Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL)
 Type:     Federal Government
 Contact:  Scott, Sara sscott@lanl.gov, Phone: 505-665-8126
 Location: Los Alamos,   NM
Description: TITLE: GENERALIZED ANALYSIS METHODS :: LONG DESCR: LAUR-99-6475:  Large-volume CdZnTe detectors with room-temperature energy resolution that is superior to NaI are becoming available and are being applied to nuclear materials safeguards. The new detectors achieve improved energy resolution by minimizing the effect of poor-hole collection in CdZnTe using coplanar grids. The development of coplanar grids has made possible rugged, portable detectors with excellent energy resolution, efficiency and stability. The new detectors will replace NaI in numerous applications, including nuclear materials search, holdup measurements, smuggling, and unattended monitoring systems that provide real-time safeguards information. Because of the range of applications and the demands on equipment for portable and unattended measurements, there is a need for a general-spectrum analysis tool for this new generation of CdZnTe detectors. The requirements for such a tool are more restrictive than for NaI or HPGe detectors because the response is strongly dependent on factors that are highly variable, including the electronic properties of the detector material, detector design and electrode configuration, pulse-processing electronics, and parameters set by the operator for the intended application. In this project we will develop a general-spectrum analysis tool that will be applicable to a wide range of CdZnTe designs and operating conditions. There are two approaches that could be taken in the development of methods for CdZnTe spectrum analysis and calibration: The empirical approach characterizes each detector experimentally for each application (because of the variability of CdZnTe, this is a formidable task). The physics-based approach with a small number of well-defined experiments, characterize the physical properties of a detector. Then, use computer modeling, along with knowledge of detector design and operating conditions, to determine response functions needed for spectrum analysis for any subsequent detector configuration or application. The number of goals supported by this project reflects the broad applicability of the proposed work. The generalized approach to spectrum analysis will benefit a wide range of applications, including nuclear smuggling, NEST, real-time measurements of nuclear material, nuclear material holdup measurements, spent fuel analysis, nuclear materials disposition, and environmental management. The spectrum analysis tool will be developed in collaboration with industry and will be transferred to an appropriate industrial partner. The research underlying the physics-based approach to response function modeling has lead to a better understanding of basic response mechanisms and the fundamental limitations of the detector technology. This capability will directly benefit industry by reducing the R&D effort needed to optimize detectors for specific applications, making advanced detector technologies commercially available sooner :: KEYWORDS: Material Control & Accounting;NONPROLIFERATION AND NATIONAL SECURITY ::

Hit 103 of 277 -- Awd #: AMESW9605 
 Award Type: Transfers / Incoming / Reimbursable-Traditional
 Requester: National Institutes of Health
Access/Distribution Restriction:
 Code: C - U.S. Federal Government and Contractors Only
 Reason: AM - Administratively Determined
Parent Organizations: DOE / REIMB /
Dates: Oct 1995 to Sep 2003
Performer: Ames Laboratory (AMES)
 Type:     Federal Government
 Contact:  Yeung, Edward, Phone: 515-294-8062
 Location: Ames,   IA
Description: TITLE: DNA Sequencing by Multiplexed Capillary Electrophoresis :: LONG DESCR: Development of novel separation, detection, and imaging techniques for real-time monitoring in capillary electrophoresis. These techniques will be used to substantially increase the speed throughput, reliability, and sensitivity in DNA sequencing :: KEYWORDS: NA ::

Hit 104 of 277 -- Awd #: ANL002029 
 Award Type: Extramural / Contracts / M&O DOE-Direct Tasking (Used by DOE Only)
Access/Distribution Restriction:
 Code: A - Distribution Unlimited - Unrestricted Access
Parent Organizations: DOE / Science / CTR
 Project: Mathematical, information & computational sciences - Research
Dates: Oct 1997 to na
Performer: Argonne National Laboratory (ANL)
 Type:     Federal Government
 Contact:  Stevens, R.L. stevens@mcs.anl.gov, Phone: 630-252-3378
 Location: Argonne,   IL
Description: TITLE: Applied Mathematical Sciences: Clipper Environment :: LONG DESCR: The Clipper environment will provide a collection of independent but architecturally consistent service components that will enhance the ability of a variety of applications and systems to construct and use distributed, high-performance infrastructure. Such middleware supports high-speed access and integrated views for multiple data archives; resource discovery and automated brokering; comprehensive real-time monitoring and performance trend analysis of the networked subsystems, including the storage, computing, and middleware components; and flexible and distributed management of access control and policy enforcement for multi-administrative domain resources. Clipper is envisioned not so much as a "system" as a coordinated collection of services that may be flexibly employed by a variety of applications (or other middleware) to build on-demand, large-scale, high-performance, wide area, problem-solving environments. The Clipper project will act as an architectural and programmatic umbrella for a collection of NGI projects that will enable the next generation of configurable, distributed, high-performance, data-intensive systems; computational steering; and integrated instrument and computational simulation :: KEYWORDS: Advanced Computation, Communications Res ::

Hit 105 of 277 -- Awd #: Z01CL10265 
 Award Type: Intramural / In-House Project / In-House Project
Access/Distribution Restriction:
 Code: A - Distribution Unlimited - Unrestricted Access
Parent Organizations: HHS / NIH / CC
Dates: Oct 1996 to Sep 1999
Performer: CLINICAL CENTER
 Type:     Federal Government
 Contact:  FISHER, S H, Phone:
 Location: Bethesda,   MD
Description: TITLE: DEVELOPMENT OF A PCR PROCEDURE FOR QUANTITATIVE MEASUREMENT OF CMV IN BLOOD :: LONG DESCR: (NIH-Designated Clinical Research)  Cytomegalovirus (CMV) disease is a relatively frequent and often serious complication in immunocompromised CMV-infected patients. In the last few years it has become apparent that in order to differentiate between subclinical viral shedding and large scale viral replication occurring during the prodrome before the onset of active disease it is necessary to utilize sequential monitoring with a quantitative assay. Several studies have shown that CMV quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays are more sensitive than buffy coat CMV antigen detection assays. This extra sensitivity can in some cases give an additional week of warning before the onset of CMV disease in a patient. Instituting antiviral therapy at an earlier time point in the prodromal stage may decrease the chance that the patient will go on to develop active CMV disease.We have completed development of a competitive quantitative PCR assay for the detection of CMV in buffy coat cells. A standard amount of mimic of the DNA target sequence is included in the reaction mixture of each PCR tube to detect and account for variations in tube-to-tube PCR efficiency in the calculations of viral copy number made from the measured signal strength. The assay is capable of detecting as few as three to five viral genome equivalents in an amplification reaction. Preliminary comparisons of the quantitative PCR protocol with p65 antigenemia determinations in a series of patient samples demonstrates that the PCR assay has greater sensitivity and permits an earlier detection of the CMV prodrome before the onset of CMV disease. The coefficient of variance (CV) of our assay is about 40 percent, in line with other published descriptions of assays of this type.To develop an assay with improved performance, and, therefore, better potential predictive value for disease onset or progression in patients, we have worked on a Oreal-timeO PCR version of our assay. Assays of this design often have CVs of 10 percent or less.  Development of one version of a real-time PCR assay using our existing validated primers and probe sequences is complete :: KEYWORDS: blood test polymerase chain reaction microorganism culture human subject virus antigen virus DNA cytomegalovirus method development clinical research ::

Hit 106 of 277 -- Awd #: R01CA37993 
 Award Type: Extramural / Grants / Project
Access/Distribution Restriction:
 Code: A - Distribution Unlimited - Unrestricted Access
Parent Organizations: HHS / NIH / NCI
 Project: Cancer biology, detection & diagnosis (includes training)
Dates: Dec 1997 to Nov 1998
Performer: MAYO FOUNDATION
 Type:     Nonprofit (Non-Educational)
 Contact:  RIEDERER, STEPHEN J, Phone:
 First Congressional District in Minnesota
 Location: Rochester,   MN
Description: TITLE: MAGNETIC RESONANCE FLUOROSCOPY TRIGGERING FOR HIGH RESOLUTION MRA :: LONG DESCR: (NIH-Designated Clinical Research)  DESCRIPTION (Adapted from Applicant's Abstract):  The investigators propose to apply magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques developed in the previous funding cycle of this grant to MR angiography imaging.  The specific hypothesis to be tested is that high resolution arterial phase angiograms devoid of motion artifact can be reliably acquired in major vascular regions (renal, carotid, aorta, pulmonary) using intravenous contrast administration.  Despite growing interest, 3-D contrast enhanced MR angiography is limited by major physical phenomena including:  Uncertainties of timing, contamination by unwanted venous signal, limited spatial resolution, and, in the thoracic and abdominal regions, motion artifact.  These all affect the overall reliability.  The investigators propose to combine two methods to deal with these problems:  (I) an elliptical centric view order, and (ii) real-time MR fluoroscopy.  With the end product an operator will monitor the targeted vascular area with real-time MR Fluoroscopy and upon detection of contrast material immediately trigger a 3-D scan with a view order optimum for high resolution arterial phase imaging.  Specific projects to be studied are:  1.  Elliptical Centric 3DFT MR Acquisition.  The fundamental ability of the elliptical view order to distinguish arterial and venous phases will be assessed theoretically and experimentally using hypothetical and measured contrast enhancement curves.  TR times will be reduced to provide improved resolution; 2.  MR Fluoroscopic Triggering.  Imaging sequences and hardware will be developed for real-time monitoring of contrast material proximal to the targeted vasculature for the high resolution 3DFT sequence.  Means will be developed for instantaneous initiation of the 3-D scan.  Partial k-space updating with nonuniform sampling will be implemented for improved temporal resolution.  Means will be studied to facilitate positioning of the fluoroscopic plane of section; and 3.  System integration and adaptation to targeted vascular areas.  The basic technique will be adapted to specific anatomic areas.  Physical parameters to be accounted for include fast contrast passage (especially in pulmonary imaging), fine resolution in all three dimensions (carotid, renal), extended field of view (pulmonary, aorta) and multiple temporal frames (renal) :: KEYWORDS: clinical biomedical equipment biomedical equipment development angiography computer data analysis diagnosis design /evaluation human subject image enhancement image processing magnetic resonance imaging fluoroscopy fluoroscopic image intensifier method development clinical research bioimaging /biomedical imaging ::

Hit 107 of 277 -- Awd #: R01CA39063 
 Award Type: Extramural / Grants / Project
Access/Distribution Restriction:
 Code: A - Distribution Unlimited - Unrestricted Access
Parent Organizations: HHS / NIH / NCI
 Project: Cancer biology, detection & diagnosis (includes training)
Dates: Dec 1997 to Nov 1998
Performer: UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA-LOS ANGELES, BOARD O
 Type:     Public Educational Institution
 Contact:  KANGARLOO, HOOSHANG, Phone:
 23rd Congressional District in California
 Location: Los Angeles,   CA
Description: TITLE: ENGINEERING APPROACH TO INDIVIDUALLY TAILORED MEDICINE :: LONG DESCR: DESCRIPTION (Adapted from Applicant's Abstract):  Novel utilization of imaging can be an important asset to primary care physicians "objectifying" clinical findings.  Readily accessible consultation to primary care physicians can significantly improve the process of care in "difficult cases".  When a health plan is process engineered according to an individual patient's needs, an effective system, individually tailored medicine (ITM), can be developed.  The ITM system has a focused set of goals defined by a formal process model and driven by objective assessments for what is best for the patient.  This kind of systematic process model considers the patient as the most important entity in the health care plan.  All electronic infrastructure support including all requirements for telemedicine must be integrated into this systematic process model of care.  The electronic infrastructure proposed has evolved from the proposers' past experience in the development of picture archiving and communication systems (PACS), intelligent information retrieval systems, and their daily clinical experience with a transcontinental teleradiology service.  This system will feature a novel medical information processing architecture that will support fast, reliable, intelligent access to distributed patient records.  The performance of the system is enhanced compared to a generic computer network by using predictive models for user behavior and data access patterns.  Software modules that support cooperation and collaboration among teams of health care workers will be developed.  An intelligent directory will provide patient and physicians with an up-to-date view of availability of services offered by specialists around the country.  Electronic case managers will be responsible for notifying the specialist chosen, providing real time monitoring of patient status, compiling necessary patient records distributed among heterogeneous sources and communicating and coordinating results back to the referring physician.  The proposers will evaluate technical feasibility of such a system.  The technical feasibility although necessary, is not a sufficient condition for demonstrating clinical effectiveness.  The goal of the clinical evaluation study is to provide scientifically valid data for quality of care, benefit to the patients, benefit to providers and cost-effectiveness associated with the proposed system when compared to traditional care :: KEYWORDS: computer assisted medical decision m aking health care facility information sys tem telemedicine computer system design /evaluation computer program /software health care referral /consultation automated medical record system primary care physician information system analysis information retrieval model design /development health care model human data health services research tag ::

Hit 108 of 277 -- Awd #: R01CA78299 
 Award Type: Extramural / Grants / Project
Access/Distribution Restriction:
 Code: A - Distribution Unlimited - Unrestricted Access
Parent Organizations: HHS / NIH / NCI
 Project: Cancer biology, detection & diagnosis (includes training)
Dates: Apr 1998 to Jun 1999
Performer: BRIGHAM & WOMEN'S HOSPITAL
 Type:     Nonprofit (Non-Educational)
 Contact:  ZIENTARA, GARY P, Phone:
 District: Multiple congressional districts in Massachusetts
 Location: Brookline,   MA
Description: TITLE: FAST DYNAMIC 3D MRI USING ADAPTIVE SPATIAL ENCODING :: LONG DESCR: DESCRIPTION (Adapted from Applicant's Abstract):  The main goal of this project is the development of a fast dynamic 3D MRI method using adaptive spatial encoding that can acquire a high resolution MRI dates (256x256x256) operating in near real-time as possible (1 dataset per 1-2 seconds) with minimal hardware modifications to a standard MRI scanner.  This goal lies well outside the possibilities of current MRI methods like echo planar techniques that employ Fourier encoding and specialized gradient hardware.  A number of applications of interventional MRI, a focus in our hospital, have the specific requirement for dynamic 3D MRI that can operate on an "open" MR scanner with no specialized gradient coils.  The most important of these applications is the MRI monitoring of the timecourse of thermal therapies during which non-uniform heating of tissue occurs due to tissue heterogeneity and nearby vessels.  Another important application is the near real-time 3D tracking of probes and catheters used for minimally invasive therapies.  Specifically, we propose to develop, implement, test and optimize a dynamic 3D MRI method that encodes adaptively in two directions using high flip angle 2D spatially selective RF excitations to implement a minimal set of near-optimal encodes computed from the multidimensional Singular Value Decomposition (MSVD) of a 3D image estimate (formed from recently acquired data) computed per acquisition, combined with frequency encoding in the third direction.  The accomplishment of the main objective of this project is only possible due to three significant technological advances.  First, and most important regarding spatial encoding, the applicants reported recently having developed the MSVD, a powerful numerical mathematical tool that can determine near-optimal 3D spatial encoding.  Second, a simple fast numerical procedure has been developed in their laboratory for the computation of RF pulse waveforms for implementing non-Fourier encodings using high flip angles ( 90=A1) for high SNR scans.  Third, at their facility, they have the operating capability for near real-time adaptive 2D MRI using a commercial MR system with the minor modification of an additional attached workstation :: KEYWORDS: clinical biomedical equipment biomedical equipment development computer assisted patient care patient monitoring device phantom model neoplasm /cancer thermotherapy magnetic resonance imaging human data bioimaging /biomedical imaging ::

Hit 109 of 277 -- Awd #: R29CA70314 
 Award Type: Extramural / Grants / Project
Access/Distribution Restriction:
 Code: A - Distribution Unlimited - Unrestricted Access
Parent Organizations: HHS / NIH / NCI
 Project: Cancer biology, detection & diagnosis (includes training)
Dates: Jan 1998 to Mar 1999
Performer: BRIGHAM & WOMEN'S HOSPITAL
 Type:     Nonprofit (Non-Educational)
 Contact:  PANYCH, LAWRENCE P, Phone:
 District: Multiple congressional districts in Massachusetts
 Location: Brookline,   MA
Description: TITLE: OPTIMAL IMAGING METHODS FOR MRI :: LONG DESCR: (NIH-Designated Clinical Research)  In this project we propose to develop optimal methods for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).  These methods are 'optimal' in the sense that the engineering theory of feedback control is applied in the imaging acquisition strategy in order to extract maximum information for production of stable image estimates.  These methods will be applied primarily for dynamic   imaging of processes that evolve so rapidly in time that they cannot be adequately resolved both spatially and temporally with suitable volume coverage using current dynamic MRI methods.  Our hypothesis is that significant improvement in volume coverage, without loss  of image quality or temporal resolution, can be obtained if optimized methods are used.  The characterization of the MRI system within the general context of feedback control theory presents the possibility for designing imaging approaches that are truly optimal within the constraints of well defined performance criteria.  Methods will be developed to address specific dynamic MR imaging problems.  In particular we will focus on two important new applications of MRI; real-time monitoring of interventional procedures, and mapping of cerebral function :: KEYWORDS: bioengineering /biomedical engineeri ng biomedical equipment development brain mapping cerebrovascular disorder diagnosis computer simulation diagnosis design /evaluation human subject mathematical model phantom model magnetic resonance imaging clinical research bioimaging /biomedical imaging ::

Hit 110 of 277 -- Awd #: R55CA73920 
 Award Type: Extramural / Grants / Project
Access/Distribution Restriction:
 Code: A - Distribution Unlimited - Unrestricted Access
Parent Organizations: HHS / NIH / NCI
 Project: Cancer biology, detection & diagnosis (includes training)
Dates: Jul 1997 to Sep 1999
Performer: UNIVERSITY OF TEXAS AT AUSTIN
 Type:     Private Educational Institution
 Contact:  RICHARDS-KORTUM, REBECCA R, Phone:
 Location: Austin,   TX
Description: TITLE: FIBER OPTIC, IN VIVO CONFOCAL MICROSCOPY :: LONG DESCR: (NIH-Designated Clinical Research)  The objective of this project is to design, construct and test a fiber optic catheter to obtain confocal reflected light images of human epithelial tissues in vivo with several micron resolution in near real time.  The intended application of the device is to aid in the diagnosis, and potentially screening, of epithelial pre-cancers.  To demonstrate the potential clinical advantages of fiber-optic confocal imaging, we will assess the capability of our device to measure tissue morphology in vivo to aid in the recognition of pre-cancers of the uterine cervix and oral mucosa.  We believe that successful completion of this project will provide a clinical tool which could dramatically improve recognition and monitoring of epithelial precancers of the oral mucosa, uterine cervix, urinary bladder, colon, and other organs with high incidences of epithelial cancer.  We have designed and tested a prototype of this device which uses a single optical fiber and commercially available, macroscopic optical components.  However, to achieve images at near video rate through an endoscope, a small, multi-fiber device which can scan the entire epithelial thickness is required.  Our preliminary results indicate that such a device is feasible.  The goal of the proposal is to design, construct and test three multi-fiber prototypes to address the three major engineering advances required to achieve near viedeo rate images of the entire epithelial thickness with micron resolution.  The specific aims of the project to: (1) design a multi-fiber confocal system (prototype1) which uses commercially available macroscopic optics to obtain images from a 75-150 mu diameter field of view with 2-3 mu lateral resolution and 5-7 mu axial resolution in 1 second from a single focal plane depth, parallel to the tissue surface, located approximately 200 mu beneath the tissue surface, (2) to construct, and test this system using phantoms, the oral mucosa of normal volunteers, and normal and pre-cancerous cervial epithelium in a pilot study of 10 patients ith cervical intra-epithelial neoplasia (CN), (3) to study methods of contrast enhancement in vivo, (4) to design and test a 1 cm outer diameter assembly of commercially available lenses to be used with prototype 1; however, in prototype 2, the tissue plane to be imaged will not be parallel to the tissue surface, but will form a small angle with the surface so that the cells in the image plane range from the surface of the epithelium to the basement membrane, and (5) to design a third prototype, which will use custom optics so that the outer diameter of the distal section is no greater than 3 mm and it can be used in conjuction with standard endoscopy equipment to access sites other than the oral mucosa and uterine cervix :: KEYWORDS: biomedical equipment development human subject neoplasm /cancer diagnosis cervix neoplasm uterus preneoplastic state endoscopy fiber optic microscopy female confocal scanning microscopy clinical research bioimaging /biomedical imaging ::

Hit 111 of 277 -- Awd #: R29CA61977 
 Award Type: Extramural / Grants / Project
Access/Distribution Restriction:
 Code: A - Distribution Unlimited - Unrestricted Access
Parent Organizations: HHS / NIH / NCI
 Project: Cancer treatment (includes training)
Dates: Oct 1997 to Dec 1998
Performer: UNIVERSITY OF ARIZONA, COLLEGE OF MEDICINE
 Type:     Public Educational Institution
 Contact:  GROSS, EUGENE J, Phone:
 District: Multiple congressional districts in Arizona
 Location: Tucson,   AZ
Description: TITLE: OPTIMIZED APT SYSTEM FOR HYPERTHERMIC MONITORING :: LONG DESCR: Applied Potential Tomography (APT) is a noninvasive imaging tool that can be used in combination with multiple heating modalities to monitor hyperthermia.  Hyperthermia, the use of heat or treat cancer, has been plagued by the inability to recover complete temperature fields during treatment, since the measurement of temperature by a limited number of discrete thermometric probes allows, at best, only an inference of the complete temperature distributions.  Though the insertion of many sensor could alleviate the problem, this is highly invasive.  Use of a noninvasive imaging method such as APT to monitor thermal dose would greatly reduce the risk of treatment-related infections and other complications, and be less traumatic for patients.  Additionally, comparison of pre and post treatment electrical conductivities in the heated region may predict treatment outcome.  Thus, APT could potentially be used to simultaneously monitor temperature fields and therapeutic response.  The development of an APT system for real-time monitoring of conductivity changes during hyperthermia will require the formation of fast reconstruction algorithms capable of crating accurate two dimensional and three dimensional reconstructions.  In addition, rapid data acquisition system must be constructed.  The purpose of this work is to further develop, improve, and use APT as a method to monitor thermal dose in inhomogenic phantoms.  This work will involve algorithm development, numerical simulations, design and constructions of an optimized APT system, and experimental verification in phantoms.  It is hypothesized that accurate APT images can be obtained and processed in real-time by combining advanced data acquisition and signal processing with a reconstruction algorithm based on mathematical projection operations, and that changes in complex broad band conductivity distributions can be obtained in arbitrary geometries with such an APT system,.  Numerical simulations and phantom experiments will be used to test these hypothesis.  It is hoped that this work will provide a strong foundation for future clinical and experimental applications of APT :: KEYWORDS: monitoring device diagnosis quality /standard noninvasive diagnosis electrical impedance phantom model neoplasm /cancer thermotherapy tomography hyperthermia therapy design /development method development ::

Hit 112 of 277 -- Awd #: R01CA46627 
 Award Type: Extramural / Grants / Project
Access/Distribution Restriction:
 Code: A - Distribution Unlimited - Unrestricted Access
Parent Organizations: HHS / NIH / NCI
 Project: Cancer treatment (includes training)
Dates: Jan 1998 to Mar 1999
Performer: BRIGHAM & WOMEN'S HOSPITAL
 Type:     Nonprofit (Non-Educational)
 Contact:  HYNYNEN, KULLERVO H, Phone:
 District: Multiple congressional districts in Massachusetts
 Location: Brookline,   MA
Description: TITLE: HIGH TEMPERATURE ULTRASOUND THERAPY GUIDED BY MRI :: LONG DESCR: A major problem with controlling temperature both in the hyperthermia and tissue ablation ranges is the strong dependence of temperature of blood perfusion rate which can vary considerably among tumors and within a single tumor. One possible solution to this problem is to use very short heating times since the initial temperature elevation does not depend strongly upon the blood perfusion rate. In order to deliver a therapeutic thermal exposure in a short time, high temperatures (50 - 100 degrees C) have to be induced. These high temperatures require accurate delivery and control in order to avoid damage outside the target volume. At the moment focused ultrasound is the only method that can deliver such exposures in deep tissues. The research done under the first phase of this grant has established and tested the sonication parameters for inducing hyperthermia and coagulation necrosis in deep tissues. Recently, we have demonstrated a novel solution for real time monitoring and control of the focused ultrasound using online Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) to visualize the temperature elevation during sonication and delineate the tissue necrosis.  MRI has sufficient temporal and spatial resolution as well as temperature sensitivity for accurate delivery of the thermal exposure. The next phase of this research will concentrate on investigating high thermal exposure levels which produce protein coagulation and on developing a system for clinical tests. Phased arrays will be developed and optimized so that clinically relevant tumor volumes can be treated. The phased arrays will be optimized using computer models, phantoms and different tissues in vivo. In addition, different degrees of ultrasound induced tissue damage will be correlated with their MRI appearance; the safety and long term effects of the therapy will be studied; the optimal MRI sequence will be established; the planning and controlling software will be developed; and the hardware will be constructed. At the completion of this research project a device will be ready for testing noninvasive induction of protein coagulation as an alternative for surgery. The potential benefits of such noninvasive surgery are: First, high spatial accuracy due to high soft tissue contrast of MRI. Second, the temperature sensitivity of MR signal can be used to monitor the temperature elevation in surrounding normal tissues to increase safety. Third, low power test pulses can be used to verify the focal location prior to the high power exposure.  Fourth, the recovery time, hospital stay, and risk for infection and other complications could be reduced when compared with conventional surgery.  Finally, a successful implementation of such a noninvasive procedure would significantly reduce the cost of the operative procedure :: KEYWORDS: laboratory rabbit laboratory rat swine therapeutic blood vessel occlusion computer simulation biological model liver neoplasm neoplasm /cancer transplantation neoplasm /cancer thermotherapy magnetic resonance imaging ultrasound biological effect contrast media ultrasound therapy nonhuman therapy evaluation computer system hardware bioimaging /biomedical imaging ::

Hit 113 of 277 -- Awd #: R44CA68838 
 Award Type: Extramural / Grants / Project
 SBIR Award
Access/Distribution Restriction:
 Code: A - Distribution Unlimited - Unrestricted Access
Parent Organizations: HHS / NIH / NCI
 Project: Cancer treatment (includes training)
Dates: Jun 1998 to May 1999
Performer: SPECTRASONICS IMAGING, INC
 Type:     Industry/Business
 Contact:  BERNARDI, RICHARD B, Phone:
 District: Multiple congressional districts in Pennsylvania
 Location: Wayne,   PA
Description: TITLE: HIGH INTENSITY FOCUSED ULTRASOUND THERAPY SYSTEM :: LONG DESCR: This program addresses the development of practical therapeutic ultrasound systems for non-invasive treatment of diseases that present challenging problems to modern health care.  The first goal is the provision of a system for palliation and management of metastatic carcinoma in the liver, to benefit patients that are untreatable with current modalities.  A practical therapy system will be designed with complete capabilities, incorporating reliable calibration methods, clinical ease-of-use, ultrasonic imaging for aiming, and lesion monitoring.  To achieve these objectives, Spectrasonics will adapt its ultrasonic therapy system, which has received FDA Pre-Market Approval for treating refractory glaucoma.  The new unit will also integrate a diagnostic imaging device with advanced spectrum analysis capabilities, also having received 510-K FDA approval for general abdominal applications.  Spectral analysis techniques will be used to estimate sub-resolution tissue-scatterer properties (e.g., size), and to detect microstructural changes induced by clinical ultrasonic therapy.  Tissue Parameter Images will be formed to aid in identifying lesion characteristics.  The potential exists for developing a methodology to monitor and control, in real time, the course of the high intensity ultrasound treatment which improves significantly the efficacy of this therapy modality.  PROPOSED COMMERCIAL APPLICATION Spectrasonics will market these systems to clinicians and biochemical researchers who wish to investigate a broad spectrum of therapeutic applications including treatments of cancers of the pancreas, prostate, and breast.  Ultimately it is anticipated that this methodology will become an accepted minimally invasive alternative to conventional surgery :: KEYWORDS: swine clinical biomedical equipment biomedical equipment development noninvasive diagnosis liver neoplasm /cancer palliative treatmen imaging /visualization ultrasound therapy ::

Hit 114 of 277 -- Awd #: U01CA65053 
 Award Type: Extramural / Grants / Project
Access/Distribution Restriction:
 Code: A - Distribution Unlimited - Unrestricted Access
Parent Organizations: HHS / NIH / NCI
 Project: Cancer treatment (includes training)
Dates: Jul 1998 to Aug 1999
Performer: UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA-LOS ANGELES, BOARD O
 Type:     Public Educational Institution
 Contact:  CASTRO, DAN J, Phone:
 23rd Congressional District in California
 Location: Los Angeles,   CA
Description: TITLE: UTZ GUIDED MINIMALLY INVASIVE TREATMENT OF DEEP TUMORS :: LONG DESCR: Management of far advanced and recurrent head and neck cancer is a common, complex and costly clinical dilemma. One third to one half of all head and neck cancer patients will develop persistent or recurrent disease within the first five years post treatment. Once recurrent after primary treatment,, survival rates for head and neck cancers are very poor. Nearly all of these patients will die within one year, usually with severe functional and cosmetic problems. The role of chemotherapy in management of far advanced head and neck cancer who failed previous surgery and radiation therapy is not fully elucidated. The potential benefit of chemotherapy must be weighed against the potential for systemic toxicity and cost. Recent single/combination chemotherapy trials reported a median survival rate of 6.5 months. An attractive solution to these problems would be the development of a new adjunctive method combining the best features of interstitial therapy for selective tumor destruction via minimally invasive techniques for access and ultrasound (UTZ) or ultrafast magnetic resonance images (MRI) as a monitoring system of the treatment.  Interstitial tumor therapy (ITT) is a technique whereby a source of energy (laser, radiofrequency, ultrasonic, cryoenergy, etc.) is directly applied into tumors at various depths. Recent experimental studies have demonstrated the efficiency of UTZ and MRI for real and/or "near" real time tumor and vessel identification as well as monitoring and quantifying energy induced tissue damage. Review of our pilot clinical experience using UTZ guided minimally invasive interstitial Nd:YAG laser/ ultrasonic treatment of recurrent head and neck tumor reveals that the technique is feasible with a median survival rate of 18 months :: KEYWORDS: clinical trial cooperative study medical complication human subject head /neck neoplasm neoplasm /cancer relapse /recurrence neoplasm /cancer therapy combination antineoplastic therapy neoplasm /cancer thermotherapy magnetic resonance imaging laser therapy ultrasound therapy human therapy evaluation functional ability ::

Hit 115 of 277 -- Awd #: R01EY11289 
 Award Type: Extramural / Grants / Project
Access/Distribution Restriction:
 Code: A - Distribution Unlimited - Unrestricted Access
Parent Organizations: HHS / NIH / NEI
 Project: Vision research (extramural/includes training)
Dates: Jun 1998 to May 1999
Performer: MASSACHUSETTS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY
 Type:     Public Educational Institution
 Contact:  FUJIMOTO, JAMES G, Phone:
 District: Multiple congressional districts in Massachusetts
 Location: Cambridge,   MA
Description: TITLE: FEMTOSECOND LASER-TISSUE INTERACTION :: LONG DESCR: This program is a continuation of a collaborative research effort between investigators at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and the Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary.  Our program is multidisciplinary and combines state of the art laser and optical measurement technology with biomedical and medical research.  Our objective is twofold:  To explore new techniques to selectively enhance desired therapeutic laser tissue effects and to develop diagnostics of laser tissue interaction and microstructure in biological systems.  The specific aims of this program are to:  1) Investigate ultrashort pulse laser induced optical breakdown as an approach for performing highly localized surgical incisions of intraocular structures using newly developed variable pulse duration and variable high repetition rate laser technology.  Our investigation will include studies of fundamental physical incision and collateral damage using clinically relevant biological models in vitro.  Applications to intraocular surgery will be explored using a vitreal membrane model and retinal injury studies in vivo.  The basic premise of the ultrashort pulse scalpel is to use pulse duration to control collateral damage and multiple high repetition rate exposure to accumulate the desired effects of tissue incision.  The development of an intraocular laser treatment capable of highly localized incisions with minimal collateral damage would have applications for a wide range of vitreal retinal conditions.  2) Develop optical ranging using coherence interferometry as a diagnostic for use either independently or in conjunction with intraocular laser surgery.  This optical ranging technique is noncontacting, uses a compact laser diode source, requires low incident power levels (10 mu W) and provides a spatial resolution of 10 mum with sensitivity to reflected signals of 1 part in 1010.  A clinically viable optical ranging device using fiber optic technology will be developed.  Extensions of this technique such as scanning or using multiple wavelengths to distinguish differences in histological structure will be explored.  Finally, optical ranging will be applied for measurements of retinal thickness and evaluated as a diagnostic for glaucoma using an animal model.  The development of a noncontact method with superior resolution to ultrasound would permit real time monitoring of intraocular laser surgery and would have numerous medical diagnostic applications.  3) Finally as an extension of concepts demonstrated in our ultrashort pulse studies, we will perform pilot studies to explore methods for achieving highly localized thermal effects using multiple pulse exposure techniques with high power solid state IR lasers and dye enhanced absorption in a retinal vessel model :: KEYWORDS: laboratory rabbit membrane model time resolved data diagnosis design /evaluation noninvasive diagnosis vitreous body eye laser therapy retina disorder eye disorder diagnosis glaucoma test eye surgery histology biological model fiber optics endoscopy interferometry laser photography scanning photocoagulation therapy tissue Macaca fascicularis method development ::

Hit 116 of 277 -- Awd #: R01EY11507 
 Award Type: Extramural / Grants / Project
Access/Distribution Restriction:
 Code: A - Distribution Unlimited - Unrestricted Access
Parent Organizations: HHS / NIH / NEI
 Project: Vision research (extramural/includes training)
Dates: Jul 1998 to Jun 1999
Performer: UNIVERSITY OF MINNESOTA, OFFICE OF STUDENT FI
 Type:     Public Educational Institution
 Contact:  KERSTEN, DANIEL J, Phone:
 5th Congressional District in Minnesota        
 Location: Minneapolis,   MN
Description: TITLE: VISUAL INFORMATION FOR REACH AND GRASP :: LONG DESCR: (NIH-Designated Clinical Research)  DESCRIPTION:  Knowledge of how visual information determines perceived depth and shape has grown considerably in the past few decades.  We know less, however, about how this knowledge relates to performance in everyday tasks.  It is widely appreciated that perceived depth is important for determining large scale spatial layout for a variety of actions, and that shape perception is important for object recognition.  However, the visual information for depth and shape also provides critical image measurements for programming reach and grasp by the hand.  Despite the importance of vision for prehension, we know surprisingly little about how multiple sources of visual information are used for hand movements.  A central issue is the degree to which perceptual judgements of shape and depth predict measures of reaching and grasping.  A common working hypothesis is that motor planning makes use of the full perceptual "reconstruction" of the scene to program its movements.  The investigator will critically examine this assumption in a series of experiments.  In particular, he plans to 1) compare visual processing for reaching with that for conscious perceptual judgements of depth under cue conflict situations; 2) understand how multiple cues for depth, size, and orientation combine to determine reach and grasp; 3) examine the role of dependence on learned views of an object for grasping.  These studies will make use of recently acquired laboratory instrumentation which allows computer-controlled presentation of both real and synthetic visual stimuli together with real-time monitoring of movements :: KEYWORDS: computer processing of laboratory da ta visual feedback visual perception visual depth perception visual stimulus human subject neural information processing cue size perception body movement arm handbehavioral /social science research tag ::

Hit 117 of 277 -- Awd #: R01HL58013 
 Award Type: Extramural / Grants / Project
Access/Distribution Restriction:
 Code: A - Distribution Unlimited - Unrestricted Access
Parent Organizations: HHS / NIH / NHLBI
 Project: Blood diseases & resources (extramural/includes training)
Dates: Jul 1998 to Jun 1999
Performer: STANFORD UNIVERSITY
 Type:     Private Educational Institution
 Contact:  STEVENSON, DAVID K, Phone:
 12th Congressional District in California        
 Location: Stanford,   CA
Description: TITLE: TRANSCRIPTIONAL REGULATION OF HEME OXYGENASE IN NEONATAL ANIMALS :: LONG DESCR: Neonatal jaundice is a condition that effects children throughout the world.  Pathologic jaundice becomes a serious threat to the well-being of neonates in the context of hemolytic disease which is associated with increased bilirubin production.  Our laboratory's approach to this problem is to monitor bilirubin production, and assess the efficacy of therapeutic agents that inhibit the activity of key enzymes, heme oxygenase isoenzymes 1 and 2 (HO-1,2), in the catalyses of heme to bilirubin. Expression of the HO-1 isoenzyme varies both in culture and in vivo in response to metabolic cues such as changes in heme concentrations.  Metalloporphyrins, heme analogs, are clinically relevant inhibitors of HO enzymatic activity, but some have also been shown to increase HO-1 expression at the level of transcription which may offset therapeutic uses.  Here we propose to address the regulation of HO transcription in culture and living animals in the presence and absence of enzyme inhibitors. This proposal contains three specific aims.  First, full length, truncated, and condensed HO-1 promoters will be placed upstream of the luciferase coding sequence, and stable cell lines will be generated from this set of promoter-reporter gene fusions.  The activity of the HO-1 promoter will be assessed in culture and compared to previously described patterns of expression to map regions of this promoter that respond to specific stimuli. Second, a selected series of metalloporphyrins with potential clinical use will be tested for effects on HO-1 transcription and enzyme activity in culture.  Lastly, using our recently developed in vivo monitoring method, modulators of HO gene expression will be evaluated in living animals to determine the in vivo effects of inhibitors of HO enzymatic activity in real time. Differential regulation of both HO isoenzymes will be compared, first in culture and then in living animals, using luciferase reporters with two different colors of emission.  An inability to correlate in vitro or cell culture data with in vivo observations is a familiar problem in biological chemistry.  Here we attempt to address this issue using an integrated approach where the same set of reporter constructs is used in vitro and in vivo, and similarly monitored in both environments.  As such, this proposal describes analyses of HO expression that will allow more precise hypotheses about gene expression and specific pathway inhibition. We can then combine this data without knowledge of pharmacologic properties of HO inhibitors to select compounds that control hyperbilirubinemia and prevent or treat neonatal jaundice :: KEYWORDS: newborn animal laboratory mouse transgenic animal computer processing of laboratory da ta polymerase chain reaction enzyme inhibitor isozyme gene expression genetic regulation genetic transcription statistics /biometry restriction endonuclease nucleic acid sequence metalloporphyrin tissue /cell culture northern blotting southern blotting enzyme activity 3T3 cell animal genetic material tag heme oxygenase ::

Hit 118 of 277 -- Awd #: R44HL55120 
 Award Type: Extramural / Grants / Project
 SBIR Award
Access/Distribution Restriction:
 Code: A - Distribution Unlimited - Unrestricted Access
Parent Organizations: HHS / NIH / NHLBI
 Project: Blood diseases & resources (extramural/includes training)
Dates: Apr 1998 to Mar 1999
Performer: CW OPTICS, INC
 Type:     Industry/Business
 Contact:  WINCHESTER, LEONARD W, JR, Phone:
 District: Multiple congressional districts in Virginia
 Location: Hampton,   VA
Description: TITLE: NONINVASIC OPTICAL SENSOR FOR HEMOGLOBIN MEASUREMENTS :: LONG DESCR: DESCRIPTION (Adapted from applicant's abstract):  In Phase I CW Optics demonstrated the ability to apply differential absorption spectroscopy and multiple scattering techniques to the measurement of hemoglobin moieties. The objective for Phase II is the development of a noninvasive real-time blood sensor for the measurement of levels of four major hemoglobin moieties and hematocrit.  The moieties to be measured are levels of oxyhemoglobin (O2Hb) reduced or deoxyhemoglobin (RHb), carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) and methemoglobin (MetHb).  It also became evident that the approach could also be used to estimate hematocrit.  In Phase II it is planned to modify and improve the Phase I algorithms to incorporate hematocrit measurement, to manufacture prototype devices and demonstrate the efficiency of this device in a clinical study and then to explore a suitable design for a commercial instrument.  The effects of band width on the accuracy of the measurements will be examined.  It is also planned to produce an integrated sensor for noninvasive real-time monitoring of hematocrit and the individual Hb components in a clinical setting.  Such real time noninvasive monitoring of hemoglobin components and hematocrit is very attractive in that it avoids blood sampling, reduces the therapeutic decision time and also eliminates the risk of infection.  This type of instrumentation clearly has commercial potential and should be of interest to an assortment of health care providers :: KEYWORDS: biomedical equipment development biotechnology blood cell count spectrometry artificial intelligence diagnosis design /evaluation noninvasive diagnosis hemoglobin carboxyhemoglobin methemoglobin oxyhemoglobin human tissue optics ::

Hit 119 of 277 -- Awd #: R29HL57483 
 Award Type: Extramural / Grants / Project
Access/Distribution Restriction:
 Code: A - Distribution Unlimited - Unrestricted Access
Parent Organizations: HHS / NIH / NHLBI
 Project: Heart & vascular diseases (extramural/includes training)
Dates: Jan 1998 to Apr 1999
Performer: JOHNS HOPKINS UNIVERSITY
 Type:     Industry/Business
 Contact:  ATALAR, ERGIN, Phone:
 Third Congressional District in Maryland
 Location: Baltimore,   MD
Description: TITLE: INTRAVASCULAR MAGNETIC RESONANCE TECHNIQUES :: LONG DESCR: DESCRIPTION (Adapted from Applicant's Abstract):  Early diagnosis and monitoring of the progression and regression of atherosclerosis have a crucial importance in the fight against the world's number one fatal heart disease.  Magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy methods provide valuable information about the morphology and chemical composition of atherosclerotic plaques but suffer from low signal-to-noise ratio and low image resolution.  We propose to develop a new intravascular magnetic resonance imaging method that will involve using an MR probe on the tip of a catheter.  This will allow more complete characterization of atherosclerotic plaques as well as providing a novel method of monitoring interventional therapy that is not currently possible.  The specific aims of this project include the development of a novel real-time MR fluoroscopy technique (5 frames/sec) for 3-D visualization of a catheter probe, and the development of novel encoding techniques to achieve near-microscopic resolution imaging (100 microns) and highly localized spectroscopy.  The applicants proposed to validate these techniques on phantoms, dogs and on a high cholesterol-fed atherosclerotic rabbit model.  The development of intravascular magnetic resonance techniques will lead to an innovative, practical system that will be used routinely for the diagnosis of atherosclerosis as well as for monitoring various interventional techniques such as laser therapy :: KEYWORDS: dog laboratory rabbit biomedical equipment development angiography cholesterol phantom model image enhancement magnetic resonance imaging fluoroscopy atherosclerotic plaque ::

Hit 120 of 277 -- Awd #: R43HL60509 
 Award Type: Extramural / Grants / Project
 SBIR Award
Access/Distribution Restriction:
 Code: A - Distribution Unlimited - Unrestricted Access
Parent Organizations: HHS / NIH / NHLBI
 Project: Heart & vascular diseases (extramural/includes training)
Dates: May 1998 to Oct 1998
Performer: THERMAL TECHNOLOGIES, INC
 Type:     Industry/Business
 Contact:  MARTIN, GREGORY T, Phone:
 8th Congressional District in Massachusetts        
 Location: Cambridge,   MA
Description: TITLE: NONINVASIVE PERFUSION MEASUREMENT SYSTEM :: LONG DESCR: This project develop a clinical monitoring system to quantify blood flow (perfusion) continuously, in real-time, using non-invasive senors.  Perfusion quantification is now effectively unavailable, yet insuring adequate tissue blood flow is universally acknowledged as being essential to many medical procedures.  Examples include reconstructive surgery, organ transplantation, vessel grafting, bypass procedures, and burn and wound healing, each of which depends on a viable vasculature.  The perfusion monitoring system will ultimately comprise and array of multiple non-invasive surface sensors and translation electronics under control of a personal computer which also provides the user interface, data collection and management software.  This Phase I project addresses the feasibility and optimal design of the non-invasive perfusion sensor.  Prototype senors will be fabricated and evaluated, a thermal model of the sensor will be formulated to extract perfusion from raw power versus time data and preliminary validation studies will characterize sensor sensitivity, response and accuracy.  In Phase II, the non-invasive sensor design will be replicated to a sensor array designed to provide a map of the tissue perfusion distribution.  Applications will be to numerous medical procedures whose success depends on restoring and maintaining a viable tissue vasculature and to the identification of ischemic tissue leading to diagnosis and early options for management of treatment :: KEYWORDS: laboratory rat biomedical equipment development monitoring device blood flow measurement computer program /software diagnosis design /evaluation noninvasive diagnosis perfusion microcapsule ::

Hit 121 of 277 -- Awd #: R43HL60510 
 Award Type: Extramural / Grants / Project
 SBIR Award
Access/Distribution Restriction:
 Code: A - Distribution Unlimited - Unrestricted Access
Parent Organizations: HHS / NIH / NHLBI
 Project: Heart & vascular diseases (extramural/includes training)
Dates: Aug 1998 to Feb 1999
Performer: POLYCHIP, INC
 Type:     Industry/Business
 Contact:  SALZMAN, DAVID B, Phone:
 District: Multiple congressional districts in Maryland
 Location: Bethesda,   MD
Description: TITLE: REAL TIME MEASUREMENT OF HYPOPERFUSION :: LONG DESCR: NO ABSTRACT AVAILABL :: KEYWORDS: swine clinical biomedical equipment biomedical equipment development patient monitoring device telemetry hypotension electrochemistry perfusion gastric mucosa hypercapnia ::

Hit 122 of 277 -- Awd #: R43HL61903 
 Award Type: Extramural / Grants / Project
 SBIR Award
Access/Distribution Restriction:
 Code: A - Distribution Unlimited - Unrestricted Access
Parent Organizations: HHS / NIH / NHLBI
 Project: Heart & vascular diseases (extramural/includes training)
Dates: May 1998 to Oct 1998
Performer: ROBIN MEDICAL, INC
 Type:     Industry/Business
 Contact:  NEVO, EREZ, Phone:
 District: Multiple congressional districts in Maryland
 Location: Baltimore,   MD
Description: TITLE: DEVELOPMENT AND CLINICAL TEST OF QT VARIABILITY MONITOR :: LONG DESCR: (NIH-Designated Clinical Research)  Dilated cardiomyopathy is a common disease associated with high mortality rate, frequently related to lethal tachyarrhythmias. Currently there is no adequate way to predict who has high risk for arrhythmia and there is no way to warn of oncoming arrhythmias. Previous research in the John Hopkins Hospital demonstrated that QT variability is significantly altered in heart failure patients and in survivors of sudden cardiac death. The specific aims of Phase I are to further develop the hardware and software of our current patented QT monitor to enable real-time monitoring in clinical setup; to evaluate spacial and temporal distribution of QT variability along all 12 surface ECG leads to define the commercial configuration of the device; and to study additional clinical applications: early prediction of oncoming arrhythmias (by monitoring patients in the intensive cardiac care unit and hospitalized patients with frequent arrhythmias); detection of acute myocardial ischemia (by monitoring routine exercise stress test); risk stratification of sudden cardiac death failure patients  (long term follow-up after baseline QT analysis). The QT variability algorithm provides validated and robust methodology for automatic, real-time monitoring of myocardial repolarization through standard ECG signals :: KEYWORDS: biomedical equipment development patient monitoring device computer system design /evaluation computer program /software diagnostic test diagnosis design /evaluation arrhythmia myocardium disorder electrocardiography human subject computer system hardware clinical research ::

Hit 123 of 277 -- Awd #: R44HL53092 
 Award Type: Extramural / Grants / Project
 SBIR Award
Access/Distribution Restriction:
 Code: A - Distribution Unlimited - Unrestricted Access
Parent Organizations: HHS / NIH / NHLBI
 Project: Heart & vascular diseases (extramural/includes training)
Dates: Feb 1998 to Jan 1999
Performer: DEFENSE RESEARCH TECH, INC
 Type:     Industry/Business
 Contact:  DRZEWIECKI, TADEUSZ M, Phone:
 8th Congressional District in Maryland        
 Location: Rockville,   MD
Description: TITLE: FLUIDIC MULTIPLE MEDICAL GAS MONITOR :: LONG DESCR: (NIH-Designated Clinical Research)  DRT proposes to develop an innovative, low cost, reliable, clinical, fluidic multiple medical gas monitor for O2, N2, CO2, N2O and any one of six inhalation anesthetics.  Gas concentrations of an N-constituent mixture are uniquely determined by simultaneously solving the constitutive equation and N-1 equations relating measured mixture properties to concentrations.  Our successful Phase I, three-gas, proof- of concept demonstrator gas monitor will be refined in Phase II and used as a tool too develop the clinical five-gas system.  In phase II four properties will be measured fluidically: viscosity (pressure and flow across a capillary); density (pressure and flow across an orifice); specific heat (Joule-Thompson Effect/throttling nozzle); and, ratio of specific heats (speed of sound/sonic oscillator).  Measurements will be digitally processed and concentrations displayed in real time on a virtual instrumentation, full-color, CRT with clinical accuracies from 0.1 to 1-percent.  The system performance will be designed to be comparable to, or better, than that of conventional full-function monitors but will cost less than half due to replacement of complex sensors with fluidic devices.  Sensor concepts for additional independent properties, such as thermal conductivity, will be examined for possible expansion of our system :: KEYWORDS: air sampling /monitoring biomedical equipment development computer processing of clinical data biosensor computer system design /evaluation human subject nitrogen nitrous oxide oxygen fluid flow respiratory gas analyzer carbon dioxide inhalation anesthesia clinical research charcoal ::

Hit 124 of 277 -- Awd #: R15NR04488 
 Award Type: Extramural / Grants / Project
Access/Distribution Restriction:
 Code: A - Distribution Unlimited - Unrestricted Access
Parent Organizations: HHS / NIH / NINR
 Project: Extramural awards (includes training)
Dates: Jul 1997 to Aug 1999
Performer: UNIVERSITY OF TEXAS HEALTH SCIENCE CENTER AT
 Type:     Public Educational Institution
 Contact:  HANNEMAN, SANDRA K, Phone:
 7th Congressional District in Texas        
 Location: Houston,   TX
Description: TITLE: BIORHYTHMS DURING MECHANICAL VENTILATION AND WEANING :: LONG DESCR: DESCRIPTION (Adapted from the Investigator's Abstract):  The objectives of this project are to:  (1) develop an experimental model for subsequent studies on weaning from mechanical ventilation in animal and clinical populations, and (2) determine the effects of mechanical ventilation (MV) and weaning on biological time structures of hemodynamic and metabolic functions.  The aims of this study are to (1) test the feasibility of using the pig as an animal model for studying the effects of mechanical ventilation and weaning on circadian rhythms in a critical care environment, (2) determine the effect of sedation on circadian rhythms, (3) test the stress effects of mechanical ventilation and weaning, (4) characterize the biologic time structure of hemodynamic functions over time, (5) characterize the biologic time structure of metabolic functions over time, and (6) identify critical markers(s) of biologic time structure during MV and weaning.  Using chronobiologic methods and a repeated measures experimental design the investigators propose to investigate the effects of MV and weaning on hemodynamic and metabolic functions in a porcine critical care model.  Four male, adult, conditioned pigs will be synchronized over 7 days to a 12-hour light:dark cycle.  Continuous temperature will be monitored during synchronization to determine the time needed to entrain core body temperature (CBT).  Then subjects will be sedated and instrumented with an endotracheal tube and catheters for continuous real-time monitoring of mean arterial pressure, hear rate, CBT, arterial pH, arterial oxygen tension, arterial carbon dioxide tension, and arterial oxyhemoglobin saturation and periodic measurements of serum catecholamines and cortisol.  For 14 days, subjects will be cared for with a constant routine that simulates critical care.  Data will be collected consecutively during 4 days of spontaneous breathing (baseline), 4 days of MV, 2 days of weaning and 4 days of spontaneous breathing (follow up).  Mean arterial pressure, heart rate, core body temperature, arterial pH, PaO2 and SaO2 will be measured continuously throughout all study phases; serum catecholamines and cortisol will be measured two-hourly during the last 2 days of each study phase.  Single cosinor analysis, autocorrelation, and periodogram analysis will be used to determine the profile and overlap of marker rhythms, ANOVA techniques will be used to compare baseline, mechanical ventilation, weaning and follow-up rhythms :: KEYWORDS: swine bioperiodicity biological model model design /development respiratory therapy ::

Hit 125 of 277 -- Awd #: R21RR14169 
 Award Type: Extramural / Grants / Project
Access/Distribution Restriction:
 Code: A - Distribution Unlimited - Unrestricted Access
Parent Organizations: HHS / NIH / NIDDK
 Project: Diabetes, endocrinology & metabolism (extramural/includes training)
Dates: Sep 1998 to Sep 1999
Performer: UNIVERSITY OF TENNESSEE
 Type:     Nonprofit (Non-Educational)
 Contact:  SAYLER, GARY S, Phone:
 Location: Knoxville,   TN
Description: TITLE: EUKARYOTIC BIOLUMINESCENT INTEGRATED CIRCUIT SENSORS :: LONG DESCR: DESCRIPTION (Adapted from applicant's abstract): Current glucose biosensor technology relies on immobilized enzyme-based glucose oxidase bioreactors which have proven unreliable due to the presence of a glucose oxidase inhibitor in the human bloodstream. A biosensor utilizing who cells rather than just cellular constituents may prove more reliable for glucose monitoring. Additionally, white-light detection in response to glucose concentrations. Eukaryotic bioluminescent cell line containing the luxAB gene from Xenorhabadus luminescens instead of the convention luc genetic systems found in all other bioluminescent eukaryotes. In so doing, we will produce a eukaryotic cell line capable of monitoring glucose continuously, on-line and in real-time. The luxAB gene will be placed in pLPK.LucFF, a plasmid-based luc genetic system capable of sensing glucose. Once successfully constructed and tested for glucose sensitivity, the cells will be encapsulated on an integrated circuit containing a photodetector that will monitor the luminescence activity. The ultimate goal is to produce a reliable glucose sensor small enough to be used for routine implantation in diabetic patients :: KEYWORDS: patient monitoring device biosensor biotechnology eukaryote cytodiagnosis transfection plasmid gene expression glucose artificial endocrine pancreas bioluminescence cell line medical implant science ::

Hit 126 of 277 -- Awd #: R43DK54573 
 Award Type: Extramural / Grants / Project
 SBIR Award
Access/Distribution Restriction:
 Code: A - Distribution Unlimited - Unrestricted Access
Parent Organizations: HHS / NIH / NIDDK
 Project: Diabetes, endocrinology & metabolism (extramural/includes training)
Dates: Sep 1998 to Aug 1999
Performer: IBC ADVANCED TECHNOLOGIES, INC
 Type:     Industry/Business
 Contact:  KRAKOWIAK, KRZYSZSTOF E, Phone:
 Third Congressional District in Utah
 Location: American Fork,   UT
Description: TITLE: SENSING OF LI+ AND K+ IN BIOMEDICAL APPLICATIONS :: LONG DESCR: The specific aim of the proposed research is to design, prepare and test ligands for selective complexation of Li+ and K+ in the presence of Na+, Mg2+, and Ca2+. Fluorophores attached to the ligands will allow measurement of Li+ and K+ concentrations in blood plasma by chelation enhanced fluorescence. selectivity achieved for Li+ and K+ will be in the presence of Na+ concentrations typical of blood plasma, i.e., 135- 148 mmol.L-1. The Li+ ligand will be designed for use as a sensor to monitor Li+ levels in manic depressive patients being treated with Li salts. Therapeutic blood levels of Li+ are approximately 0.9-1.4 mmol.l- 1, so that the sensor ligand should display Li+ over Na+ selectivity of the order of 2000:1 to avoid interference from Na+. Rapid rises in K+ concentrations in patients undergoing surgery are a sign of the patient going into shock, so that real time monitoring of these levels is important. Blood K+ levels are about 4.5 mmol.L-1, making the targeted selectivity for K+ over Na+ about 1000:1. A long-term objective of the project is the attachment of successful ligands to optical fibers to produce probes that can simultaneously indicated pH, blood electrolyte, and blood gas levels :: KEYWORDS: monitoring device chemical synthesis electrolyte ligand lithium fiber optics fluorimetry potassium bipolar depression measurement ::

Hit 127 of 277 -- Awd #: R44DK47761 
 Award Type: Extramural / Grants / Project
 SBIR Award
Access/Distribution Restriction:
 Code: A - Distribution Unlimited - Unrestricted Access
Parent Organizations: HHS / NIH / NIDDK
 Project: Diabetes, endocrinology & metabolism (extramural/includes training)
Dates: Sep 1998 to Aug 1999
Performer: DIGIRAD
 Type:     Industry/Business
 Contact:  GORMLEY, JEROME E, Phone:
 District: Multiple congressional districts in California
 Location: San Diego,   CA
Description: TITLE: INSTRUMENT FOR REAL TIME RENAL MONITORING :: LONG DESCR: (NIH-Designated Clinical Research)  The mortality rate for acute renal failure has not changed significantly during the last 25 years. This may be due in part, to the inability to adequately predict and identify the onset and causes of acute renal failure. Current measurement techniques cannot quickly identify changes in renal function; the time for measuring renal function is typically four hours.  An accurate means for measuring renal function in real time (i.e.,measuring and seeing changes in renal function as they occur) should allow researchers to better understand the pathophysiology of acute renal failure and lead to significant reductions in mortality rate and in the number of persons requiring acute dialysis associated with acute renal failure :: KEYWORDS: clinical biomedical equipment biomedical equipment development patient monitoring device time resolved data computer data analysis human subject renal failure kidney function cadmium zinc radionuclidetechnetium glomerular filtration rate clinical research ::

Hit 128 of 277 -- Awd #: R01GM44762 
 Award Type: Extramural / Grants / Project
Access/Distribution Restriction:
 Code: A - Distribution Unlimited - Unrestricted Access
Parent Organizations: HHS / NIH / NIGMS
 Project: Biomedical research (extramural/includes training)
Dates: Sep 1998 to Aug 1999
Performer: INSTITUTE FOR CANCER RESEARCH
 Type:     Nonprofit (Non-Educational)
 Contact:  YEN, TIM J, Phone:
 District: Multiple congressional districts in Pennsylvania
 Location: Philadelphia,   PA
Description: TITLE: KINETOCHORE STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION :: LONG DESCR: The overall goal of this application is to understand the mechanical basis of chromosome segregation in human cells and the monitoring system that ensures defects in this process is corrected before chromosomes missegregate.  The immediate focus is on studying the molecular composition and functions of the proteins that form a macromolecular structure called the kinetochore.  The kinetochore is essential for chromosome segregation as it is the site of force generation, and its activity is directly monitored be a checkpoint control.  The aims of this application are directed towards analyzing the molecular function of two proteins that reside at the kinetochore of human chromosomes.  CENP-E is a molecular motor that functions to generate force for chromosome alignment.  A detailed characterization of the importance of the various domains within CENP-E that contribute to kinetochore function should establish a molecular link between this protein and chromosome segregation.  This study will test how specific mutations that are introduced into CENP-E will alter the behavior of kinetochores in real-time and thus dissect the complexity of kinetochore functions.  The second protein that will be examined is CENP-F, a novel protein that may play a role in organizing the assembly and the structure of the kinetochore complex.  The analysis of this protein will reveal how kinetochore assembly is temporally regulated during the cell cycle.  Characterization of CENP-E and CENP-F will also contribute towards defining the biochemical interactions that specify the formation of the kinetochore complex :: KEYWORDS: microtubule cell cycle polymerase chain reaction microinjection molecular cloning centromere chromosome movement chromosome aberration monoclonal antibody HeLa cell nucleic acid sequence phosphorylation gel filtration chromatography density gradient ultracentrifugation protein biosynthesis protein structure /function binding protein microtubule associated protein tissue /cell culture cell line kinesin ::

Hit 129 of 277 -- Awd #: R44GM53381 
 Award Type: Extramural / Grants / Project
 SBIR Award
Access/Distribution Restriction:
 Code: A - Distribution Unlimited - Unrestricted Access
Parent Organizations: HHS / NIH / NIGMS
 Project: Biomedical research (extramural/includes training)
Dates: Jan 1998 to Mar 1999
Performer: GINER, INC
 Type:     Industry/Business
 Contact:  SWETTE, LARRY L, Phone:
 District: Multiple congressional districts in Massachusetts
 Location: Waltham,   MA
Description: TITLE: NO AND NO2 MONITOR FOR CLINICAL MEDICINE :: LONG DESCR: (NIH-Designated Clinical Research)  Goal of this project is to develop a reliable and lightweight device for real-time monitoring of NO and NO2 in the clinical environment :: KEYWORDS: clinical biomedical equipment biomedical equipment development patient monitoring device electrochemistry electrode human subject nitrogen oxide free radical oxygen respirator respiratory toxin inhalation anesthesia nitric oxide clinical research ::

Hit 130 of 277 -- Awd #: P01MH51358 
 Award Type: Extramural / Grants / Project
Access/Distribution Restriction:
 Code: A - Distribution Unlimited - Unrestricted Access
Parent Organizations: HHS / NIH / NIMH
 Project: Extramural awards (includes training)
Dates: Apr 1998 to Mar 1999
Performer: MEDICAL COLLEGE OF WISCONSIN, INC
 Type:     Private Educational Institution
 Contact:  HYDE, JAMES S, Phone:
 District: Multiple congressional districts in Wisconsin
 Location: Milwaukee,   WI
Description: TITLE: FUNCTIONAL MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING OF THE BRAIN :: LONG DESCR: (NIH-Designated Clinical Research)  The long-term objective of this Program Project is to create a foundation for the application of functional magnetic resonance imaging (FMRI) to medicine.  It is proposed to define the physiological basis of the FMRI response (Project I) and to use FMRI to investigate the cerebral organization of vision (Project II), motor control (Project III), and audition and language (Project IV).  Project I will distinguish and quantify contributions of task-induced changes in blood oxygenation and capillary flow to FMRI contrast, using the technology of FMRI physics as well as invasive physiological studies in rats.  Project I specifically proposes strategies to distinguish parenchymal FMRI response from FMRI signals arising from changes in flow and oxygenation in collecting veins.  The three neuroscience projects (II-IV) each begin by examining the parametric relationships between stimulus and movement variables and FMRI signal change.  Project II will compare functional maps of the human and simian visual association cortex.  Projects II and III will evaluate parallel hypotheses regarding the retinotopic and somatotopic organization of the visual and motor systems.  In later years, all three projects will use complex task activation experiments to assess FMR signal changes in polymodal cortex.  Projects II and IV will collaborate in investigating polymodal spatial localization and semantic processing.  Projects III and IV will collaborate in defining the brain regions involved in timing operations associated with auditory processing and movement.  Project IV will determine the organization of auditory cortical regions specialized for speech perception.  These projects will be supported by Core A- Administration and Scanner Operation, Core B-Image Acquisition and Processing, which proposes fundamental advances in FMRI technology and signal processing in addition to providing computer services, and Core C- Subject Interface Systems, which is concerned with delivery of stimuli and monitoring of physiological and movement variables.  There are four significant technological aspects of the proposal. 1) Purchase of a powerful computer is proposed that will permit real-time display of FMRI signals. 2) Use of a unique head gradient coil with several significant benefits for FMRI. 3) Application of advanced mathematics and statistical procedures for signal analysis, and 4) comparison of FMRI signals obtained at 0.5, 1.5, and 3 T, giving a unique capability to investigate the field- strength dependence of response.  FMRI will have a major impact on the clinical disciplines of psychiatry, neurology, neurosurgery, and neuroradiology, leading to improved patient diagnosis, treatment planning, response to treatment, and monitoring of disease.  A multidisciplinary effort linking biophysics, physiology, and neuroscience is proposed in order that the technical, methodological, and neuroscientific principles of FMRI can be comprehensively defined as a basis for clinical applications :: KEYWORDS: brain visualization neural information processing functional magnetic resonance imagin ::

Hit 131 of 277 -- Awd #: R01MH51338 
 Award Type: Extramural / Grants / Project
Access/Distribution Restriction:
 Code: A - Distribution Unlimited - Unrestricted Access
Parent Organizations: HHS / NIH / NIMH
 Project: Extramural awards (includes training)
Dates: Jun 1998 to May 1999
Performer: GROUP HEALTH COOPERATIVE CENTRAL HOSPITAL
 Type:     Nonprofit (Non-Educational)
 Contact:  SIMON, GREGORY E, Phone:
 District: Multiple congressional districts in Washington
 Location: Seattle,   WA
Description: TITLE: POPULATION BASED MANAGEMENT OF DEPRESSION :: LONG DESCR: (NIH-Designated Clinical Research)  DESCRIPTION (Adapted from applicant's abstract):  Among patients treated for depression in primary care, few receive recommended intensity of treatment.  Delivery of appropriate acute-phase treatment to depressed primary care patients would significantly improve clinical outcomes.  Our previous research, however, suggests that inadequate treatment is more a consequence of inadequate practice organization and follow-up than deficits in provider knowledge.  Effective quality improvement must assure appropriate follow-up care and improve treatment adherence.  Key ingredients of a systematic practice improvement program include:  "real time" monitoring of care processes, systematic assessment of outcomes, continuous feedback to providers, and support for outreach to patients who discontinue treatment prematurely.  This proposal describes a randomized evaluation of such a population-based quality improvement program for depressed primary care patients.  We will enroll approximately 45 primary care practices at Group Health Cooperative (a staff-model HMO) and randomize practices to 3 groups.  In the "usual care" group, physicians and patients will receive no specific intervention services.  In the "process feedback only group", physicians will receive reports on the progress of patients currently receiving acute-phase antidepressant treatment (medication adherence, follow-up visit frequency, specialty mental health treatment, recommendations for changes in treatment).  In the "process/outcome feedback plus practice support" physicians will receive the above reports as well as data on clinical response to treatment.  Physicians in this group will also be supported by a "population manager" who will assist in contacting patients to assure appropriate follow-up.  A sample of patients treated by participating physicians (approximately 250 per group) will be contacted for independent, blinded assessment of clinical and functional outcomes 3 and 6 months after initiating treatment.  HMO data systems will be used to assess medication use, follow-up visit frequency, and costs of care.  Each of the intervention groups will be compared to the usual care group in terms of quality of care, clinical outcomes, functional outcomes, and treatment costs :: KEYWORDS: relapse /recurrence drug administration rate /duration pharmacy administration managed care patient care management health care service utilization health care cost /financing patient /disease registry health care personnel performance human subject interview mental health epidemiology mental health information system longitudinal human study human morbidity population survey mental disorder chemotherapy mental disorder diagnosis major depression antidepressant functional ability human data clinical research ::

Hit 132 of 277 -- Awd #: R29NS38842 
 Award Type: Extramural / Grants / Project
Access/Distribution Restriction:
 Code: A - Distribution Unlimited - Unrestricted Access
Parent Organizations: HHS / NIH / NINDS
 Project: Extramural research (includes training)
Dates: Sep 1998 to Aug 1999
Performer: MASSACHUSETTS GENERAL HOSPITAL
 Type:     Nonprofit (Non-Educational)
 Contact:  BOAS, DAVID A, Phone:
 District: Multiple congressional districts in Massachusetts
 Location: Boston,   MA
Description: TITLE: IMAGING OF INTRACRANIAL HEMATOMAS BY DIFFUSE TOMOGRAPHY :: LONG DESCR: Current imaging methods - X-ray CT, MRI, and PET - are capable of detecting most brain pathologies. CT scans and MRI are considered standard methods for anatomical brain imaging, while PET and functional MRI can assess metabolic brain activity. Optical spectroscopy (OS), a non-invasive technique for bedside monitoring for cerebral hemodynamics and oxygenation, affords continuous, in vivo, real time measurements of cerebral oxy - (HbO) and deoxy-hemoglobin (Hb) up to several centimeters in depth, and can provide crucial information on cerebral hemodynamics and oxygenation during different acute and chronic brain conditions. Using one light source and one detector, it has been demonstrated in animals and humans that optical spectroscopy is capable of detecting temporal changes in cerebral hemodynamics and oxygenation under various physiological and pathophysiological conditions (Preliminary Results Section). Using several light sources and detectors, it has been demonstrated that near-infrared light can be used to image the spatial variations of absorption and scattering properties of highly scattering brain tissue., enabling therefore both anatomical and functional brain imaging (Preliminary Results Section). New reliable continuous wave and frequency domain optical instruments have been developed paving the way for further development of diffused optical tomography (DOT). It is not likely that optical spectroscopy will achieve the anatomical resolution of CT, MRI and PET, but its non-invasive nature, low cost, portability, and capability to obtain continuous real-time information on cerebral hemodynamics and oxygenation under various physiological and pathophysiological conditions, presents its major advantage over the other techniques. To improve imaging resolution, further development of optical probes and imaging algorithms is needed. The purpose of this study is to develop diffuse optical imaging software that will optimize the resolution of anatomical and functional brain imaging. We hypothesize that our imaging software will enable real- time optical imaging with spatial resolution of 5 mm. To test our hypothesis, we are proposing the following specific aims: 1) to build an imager based on optical spectroscopy and diffuse optical tomography we are proposing the following specific aims: 1) to build an imager based on optical spectroscopy and diffuse optical tomography (years 1 and 2); 2) to develop our Photon Migration Imaging code to compare multiple algorithms (years 1-5); 3) conduct phantom studies to test the imager in-vitro (years 2 and 3); 4) conduct a pilot animal (years 2 and 3); 5) conduct a pilot human (MRI-OS-DOT validation) study test the imager in-vivo and obtain experience needed for future human studies (years 4 and 5). The new era in neurological management would be greatly advanced by the technology proposed in this proposal which will allow continuous real time imaging of cerebral hemodynamics and oxygenation, as ell as the detection and monitoring of different kinds of brain pathology :: KEYWORDS: swine biomedical equipment development brain visualization hemodynamics intracranial hematoma cerebral circulation spectrometry computer system design /evaluation computer program /software phantom model magnetic resonance imaging tomography bioimaging /biomedical imaging ::

Hit 133 of 277 -- Awd #: R44NS34630 
 Award Type: Extramural / Grants / Project
 SBIR Award
Access/Distribution Restriction:
 Code: A - Distribution Unlimited - Unrestricted Access
Parent Organizations: HHS / NIH / NINDS
 Project: Extramural research (includes training)
Dates: Sep 1998 to Aug 1999
Performer: FLINT HILLS SCIENTIFIC
 Type:     Industry/Business
 Contact:  FREI, MARK G, Phone:
 Third Congressional District in Kansas
 Location: Lawrence,   KS
Description: TITLE: SOFTWARE AND DEVICES FOR REAL TIME SEIZURE DETECTION :: LONG DESCR: (NIH-Designated Clinical Research)  During Phase I, Flint Hills Scientific developed an algorithm for real time quantitative seizure detection which performs with sensitivity and specificity equal to expert visual analysis. Of even greater value is the capability of this algorithm to predict seizure onset by 13.6 seconds (mean), in its generic mode. Preliminary studies indicate that with automated individualized adaptation, prediction time can be increased to 180 seconds or longer. To the best of our knowledge no other system in existence has achieved this level of success. These results lay the ground for the fulfillment of "seizure prediction, early recognition and blockage of seizures," the number one AES research priority :: KEYWORDS: bioengineering /biomedical engineeri ng monitoring device epilepsy brain electrical activity electroencephalography artificial intelligence computer program /software health care cost /financing humansubject digital imaging clinical research portable biomedical equipment ::

Hit 134 of 277 -- Awd #: N43AA82005 
 Award Type: Extramural / Contracts / Not Otherwise Specified
 SBIR Award
Access/Distribution Restriction:
 Code: A - Distribution Unlimited - Unrestricted Access
Parent Organizations: HHS / NIH / NIAAA
 Project: Alcohol biomedical & behavioral research (extramural/includes training)
Dates: Oct 1997 to Sep 1999
Performer: GINER, INC.
 Type:     Not specified
 Contact:  SWETTE, LARRY, Phone:
 Location: Waltham,   MA
Description: TITLE: MINIATURIZED WEARABLE TRANSDERMAL ALCOHOL MONITOR :: LONG DESCR: The primary objective of this SBIR Phase I contract is to develop a non- invasive alcohol measurement device that can improve upon existing models both in ease of use and wearability.  Desired features include portability, miniaturized components and use of materials to increase acceptability and comfort for long-term use, tamper resistance, capacity to record in real time, sensitivity and stability, and ease of obtaining and interpreting data.  Phase I will include the design and construction of a prototype device with the desired features :: KEYWORDS: alcoholic beverage consumption bioengineering /biomedical engineeri ng clinical biomedical equipment biomedical equipment development monitoring device ::

Hit 135 of 277 -- Awd #: F37LM00053 
 Award Type: Extramural / Grants / Project
Access/Distribution Restriction:
 Code: A - Distribution Unlimited - Unrestricted Access
Parent Organizations: HHS / NIH / NLM
 Project: Extramural awards (includes training)
Dates: Sep 1998 to Aug 1999
Performer: VANDERBILT UNIVERSITY HOSPITAL, CHILDREN'S RE
 Type:     Nonprofit (Non-Educational)
 Contact:  NORRIS, PATRICK R, Phone:
 5th Congressional District in Tennessee        
 Location: Nashville,   TN
Description: TITLE: THERAPEUTIC GOALS IN INTELLIGENT ICU MONITORING :: LONG DESCR: (NIH-Designated Clinical Research)  This research will test the hypothesis that decision support in critical care is enhanced by incorporating the concept of therapeutic goals into data collection and interpretation strategies. Since a w variety of information is available and a large amount of processing can be done in critical care environments, some strategy is needed to prioritize data collection and reasoning tasks, as equipment limitations may preclude real-time interpretation of all information.  "Intelligent monitoring" is used to describe the task c adapting the data collection and reasoning strategies in response to changes in the observed system. The above hypothesis will be tested by implementing a goal-based intelligent monitoring system in the intensive care unit and evaluating it's performance in clinical use. Several specific aims have been defined to support this objective. First, necessary data will be integrated on a bedside computing platform in the medical intensive care unit in real time. Next, knowledge base requirements for storing a test set of therapeutic goals will be defined, and a software representation of the test goals will be developed to facilitate implementation of a goal-based reasoning module. This module interfaces with an existing bedside intelligent monitoring system and synthesizes data from the monitors, hospital information system, and clinical staff to infer therapeutic goals and support the intelligent monitoring tasks. Evaluation of the system in clinical use is an objective. Finally, maintaining patient safety and confidentiality is an overall specific aim. These aims allow successful evaluation of the ability of therapeutic goals to facilitate intelligent monitoring in critical care decision support. The insight which results from this testing has the potential  to improve the design  and development of systems  to enhance  clinical decision-making, thereby  improving quality of care :: KEYWORDS: computer assisted medical decision m aking computer processing of clinical data health care facility information sys tem computer program /software health care quality critical care patient care management data collection data collection methodology /evaluat ion decision making human data clinical research behavioral /social science research tag ::

Hit 136 of 277 -- Awd #: R29LM06235 
 Award Type: Extramural / Grants / Project
Access/Distribution Restriction:
 Code: A - Distribution Unlimited - Unrestricted Access
Parent Organizations: HHS / NIH / NLM
 Project: Extramural awards (includes training)
Dates: May 1998 to Apr 1999
Performer: BETH ISRAEL HOSPITAL
 Type:     Nonprofit (Non-Educational)
 Contact:  RUTLEDGE, GEOFFREY W, Phone:
 11th Congressional District in Massachusetts        
 Location: Boston,   MA
Description: TITLE: ADVANCED COMPUTER METHODS FOR ICU CARE :: LONG DESCR: (NIH-Designated Clinical Research)  Critically ill patients in the intensive-care unit (ICU) are treated by ICU staff, who must reassess patients frequently and interpret patient observations from bedside monitors, mechanical ventilators and laboratory tests. The prodigious amount of real-time data causes information overload, which leads to errors in patient care. ICU-patient care will be improved if we develop and apply better methods of ICU-data analysis and interpretation :: KEYWORDS: clinical biomedical equipment biomedical equipment development computer assisted diagnosis computer assisted medical decision m aking computer assisted patient care patient monitoring device cardiovascular function computer simulation emergency care intensive care model design /development health care model mathematical model respirator respiratory function postoperative state human data ::

Hit 137 of 277 -- Awd #: R43LM06679 
 Award Type: Extramural / Grants / Project
 SBIR Award
Access/Distribution Restriction:
 Code: A - Distribution Unlimited - Unrestricted Access
Parent Organizations: HHS / NIH / NLM
 Project: Extramural awards (includes training)
Dates: Sep 1998 to Mar 1999
Performer: INTELLIGENT MEDICAL OBJECTS
 Type:     Industry/Business
 Contact:  KALINYAK, JUDITH E, Phone:
 District: Multiple congressional districts in Illinois
 Location: Northbrook,   IL
Description: TITLE: INTRANET SYSTEM FOR CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE PREVENTION :: LONG DESCR: (NIH-Designated Clinical Research)  DESCRIPTION:  Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the number one killer in the United States regardless of gender or ethnicity.  Health care expenditures for the treatment of heart disease in the U.S. are in excess of $150 billion dollars annually.  Many Health Care Organizations are searching to find approaches for health care delivery that minimize adverse disease outcomes such as CVD by using disease prevention approaches that are cost effective. In addition, many payers are in desperate need of tools that can help determine the value of services delivered, track costs, and provide valid data that can be used to compare the same service delivered by a variety of providers.  This proposal designs and tests the utility of a patient/clinician cardiovascular disease specific Intranet information system for the management/prevention of cardiovascular disease.  This Intranet/web enabled computerized patient information gathering system called "I CAN Prevent Heart Disease" (an Interactive Clinical Assessment Network to Prevent Heart Disease) contains an underlying database which will:  a) possess a high quality patient/clinician interface for the input of data, b) provide real-time graphic feedback to depict CVD risk, progress in a variety of data points such as blood pressure and exercise using the data input by patients; and c) provide rapid and accurate retrieval of patient data.  This system will provide an automated delivery of patient education materials each time the participant logs into the system to input data.  In addition, we will determine whether interaction with the I CAN Prevent Heart Disease system:  1) alters participant motivation in learning about and changing behaviors for CVD risk reductions; 2) facilitates clinicians developing an individualized approach to CVD risk reduction; and 3) assists clinicians in monitoring patient progress.  Finally, the investigator will explore the frequency patients might use the I CAN Prevent Heart Disease system to communicate with their clinicians :: KEYWORDS: telemedicine cardiovascular disorder prevention computer program /software disease /disorder proneness /risk patient care management human subject computer network method development clinical research ::

Hit 138 of 277 -- Awd #: Z01OD10418 
 Award Type: Intramural / In-House Project / In-House Project
Access/Distribution Restriction:
 Code: A - Distribution Unlimited - Unrestricted Access
Parent Organizations: HHS / NIH / OD
 Project: Intramural research
Dates: Oct 1998 to Sep 1999
Performer: OFFICE OF THE DIRECTOR, NIH
 Type:     Federal Government
 Contact:  SUNG, C, Phone:
 Location: Bethesda,   MD
Description: TITLE: TRANSPORT OF MACROMOLECULES :: LONG DESCR: Delivery of macromolecules to targeted tissues is a major problem which has prevented realization of their full potential as pharmacological agents. By means of cell culture and animal models, in conjunction with mathematical models, we are studying the transport of macromolecules such as growth factors, ribonucleases, protein toxins, albumin, streptavidin, immunotoxins, and monoclonal antibodies. The following are recent examples: (1) Transferrin receptor is overexpressed on many neoplastic cells and hence is an important cancer target. Ribonucleases have the potential to be cytotoxic agents by degrading RNA and thus preventing protein synthesis. However, the presence of cytosolic ribonuclease inhibitor limits their cytotoxicity. Examination of the crystal structure of the complex of ribonuclease and ribonuclease inhibitor led to identification of an amino acid which makes an important contact with the inhibitor but is distal from the ribonucleolytic site. By site-directed mutagenesis of ribonucleases and chemical conjugation to transferrin, we endowed two human inhibitor- sensitive ribonucleases with 5000-fold higher cytotoxicity by increasing their resistance to inhibitor and adding a targeting function. (2) At present, it is difficult to accurately measure the volume of brain tissue that is treated during high-flow microinfusion of immunotoxin (an experimental treatment for glioblastoma multiforme). We are evaluating a number of novel CT and MRI contrast agents to determine if one of them may be used as a surrogate marker for immunotoxin and thereby allow real-time monitoring of the volume of distribution of treated tissue. (3) Spatially distributed pharmacokinetic models have been developed to simulate the experimental characteristics of in vivo radiolabeling of antibodies for imaging and treatment of metastatic cancer. These protocols involve combined use of a modified antibody and a rapidly diffusible radiolabeled substance that binds to the antibody.  The model includes plasma kinetics, transcapillary transport, interstitial diffusion, cellular binding and internalization, and lymphatic flow. Recent use of finite element numerical analysis has allowed the examination of more complex geometries and boundary conditions. (This is a continuation of Intramural Research Project Z01-RR-10418-05 BEI. :: KEYWORDS: biological transport pharmacokinetics site directed mutagenesis growth factor human tissue immunoconjugate monoclonal antibody immunotoxicity mathematical model macromolecule neoplasm /cancer pharmacology exoribonuclease pancreatic ribonuclease albumin binding protein contrast media transferrin receptor tissue /cell culture toxin biotin ::

Hit 139 of 277 -- Awd #: Z01OD11019 
 Award Type: Intramural / In-House Project / In-House Project
Access/Distribution Restriction:
 Code: A - Distribution Unlimited - Unrestricted Access
Parent Organizations: HHS / NIH / OD
 Project: Intramural research
Dates: Oct 1998 to Sep 1999
Performer: OFFICE OF THE DIRECTOR, NIH
 Type:     Federal Government
 Contact:  SMITH, PAUL D, Phone:
 Location: Bethesda,   MD
Description: TITLE: Instrumentation and Bioengineering Development and Application :: LONG DESCR: Development of unique instrumentation often using novel approaches is, in many i nstances, a necessary attribute to the success of biomedical engineering. 1) Las er flash photolysis of ligands bound to hemeproteins enables kinetic binding con stants to be evaluated for use in understanding the mechanism of action of hemep roteins. Electronic instrumentation has been developed to control the sub-micros econd sequencing and operation of experimental procedures and to capture optical  signals monitoring the reaction kinetics. 2) The ability to perform real time f untional infra-red imaging in patients undergoing craniotomy permits reliable lo calization of lesions with a non-invasive approach. Synchronization of infra-red  image video frames to stimuli, ECG, or brain electrical discharge allows signal  intensity changes to be correlated with physiological parameters such as perfus ion that enable tumor lesion identification. 3) Development of electronic and el ectro-mechanical systems for production of non-standard stimuli for electroretin ography has allowed advances in diagnostic testing and research protocols. 4) Me chanical and optical designs to gather simultaneous optical and chemical fractio ns enhances the utility of macromolecular sedimentation equilibria established b y ultracentrifugation analysis. 5) Measuring steady state and dynamic performanc e characteristics of various instruments is utilized for cardiovascular research . 6) Spectrofluorometric methods have been developed for characterization of neu rotransmitter regulation. - hemeprotein, photolyis, craniotomy, infra-red, imagi ng, electroretinography, ultracentrifugation, macromolecul :: KEYWORDS: bioengineering /biomedical engineeri ng biomedical equipment development fluorescence spectrometry electroretinography electrocardiography heme image processing imaging /visualization ultracentrifugation flash photolysis video recording system structural biology bioimaging /biomedical imaging ::

Hit 140 of 277 -- Awd #: FL267001 
 Award Type: Extramural / Grants / Project
Access/Distribution Restriction:
 Code: A - Distribution Unlimited - Unrestricted Access
Parent Organizations: DOT / FTA / Extramural awards
Dates: Jul 1995 to na
Performer: MIAMI MDTA
 Type:     Other Government
 Contact:  Pamela J. Levin, Phone: 305/375-3204 FAX: 30
 District: Multiple congressional districts in Florida
 Location: Miami,   FL
Description: TITLE: Automated Passenger Information System - Miami :: SHORT DESCR: AUTOMATED PASSENGER INFOR SYSTEM    ATUOMATED PASSENGER INFORMATION SYSTE :: LONG DESCR: Metropolitan Dade County is unique in that a multimodal transportation service exists consisting of Metrorail, Metromover, Metrobus, and demand-responsive service. The County has equipped its vehicle fleet with automatic vehicle location and monitoring equipment and can offer real-time passenger information to their customers using the existing infrastructure. This project supports the efforts of the Metro-Dade Transit Agency to provide customers with an automated trip planning capability, including real-time, online route and schedule information. For this purpose, information kiosks will be established at major rail and bus transfer points ::

Hit 141 of 277 -- Awd #: 110413 
 Award Type: Intramural / In-House Project / In-House Project
Access/Distribution Restriction:
 Code: A - Distribution Unlimited - Unrestricted Access
Parent Organizations: DVA / Medical & Prosthetic Research / VA Medical Center - (Boston, MA)
Dates: Oct 1995 to Sep 1999
Performer: VA Medical Center - (Boston, MA)
 Type:     Federal Government
 Contact:  Sarma, Jaydev, M.D., Phone:
 Location: Boston,   MA
Description: TITLE: Monitoring of Fluid Absorption During TURP and TUVAP Using 1% Alcohol Tagged Irrigant Solutions :: LONG DESCR:    MONITORING OF FLUID ABSORPTION DURING TURP AND TUVAP USING 1% ALCOHOL TAGGED IRRIGATING FLUIDS.                                                 OBJECTIVES:                                                             Fluid absorption during Prostatectomy operations increases the morbidity and mortality in elderly patients who also have concurrent cardiovascular and other systemic abnormalities. Recently a new method of performing prostatectomy operations was introduced. It is called Transurethral Vaporization of the prostate (TUVAP). The advantage claimed over the older Transurethral Resection of Prostate (TURP) is that fluid absorption is less with TUVAP though this claim has never been substantiated. We have experience of monitoring fluid absorption during such operations using alcohol tagged solutions and this is a well established, routinely practiced method in Scandinavian Countries.                                    RESEARCH PLAN:                                                          Twenty patients will have their prostatectomy operation done using a TURP or TUVAP method. Alcohol 1% will be used to tag irrigant solutions. Alcohol does not alter the optical qualities of the irrigants nor is it absorbed through the intact bladder mucosa. Any alcohol absorbed intravenously can be detected in the expired breath. There is constant breath:blood ratio of 1:2100 and by using a specific nomogram we can compute the amount of fluid absorption. This is simple, non-invasive way of detecting fluid absorption and it will give us real-time values and can be repeatedly used to determine fluid absorptions. Fluid absorptions of 150 cc. in ten minute period can be detected by this method, making it the most sensitive monitoring modality. We will also calculate absorptions by the volumetric method and serum sodium estimations.                         METHODOLOGY: Twenty patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia will be randomly divided into two groups to undergo TURP or TUVAP under spinal anesthesia. Irrigant fluids used during surgery will be 2% Sorbitol with 1% Alcohol. The patient will be asked to blow into a Breathalyser type of device every 5 minutes and the concentrations will be noted. Measurements will continue into the recovery period until no alcohol is detectable in the expired breath Volumetric fluid balance: The volumetric fluid balance will be calculated every ten minutes. The irrigant bags will be weighed before and after every ten minute period. The bladder will be emptied and the total fluid collected in the ten minute period will be weighed. The amount of blood loss will be calculated using a Hemoglobin photometer apparatus. This volume of blood will be subtracted from the volume recovered and the difference between the starting volume and the final volume recovered is the amount of fluid absorbed in that ten minute interval. Serum Sodium and serial Hematocrits will be drawn every ten minutes during the operation and correlations derived :: KEYWORDS: PROSTATECTOMY; MONITORING, PHYSIOLOGIC; ALCOHOL, ETHYL ::

Hit 142 of 277 -- Awd #: 115802 
 Award Type: Intramural / In-House Project / In-House Project
Access/Distribution Restriction:
 Code: A - Distribution Unlimited - Unrestricted Access
Parent Organizations: DVA / Medical & Prosthetic Research / VA Medical Center - (Durham, NC)
Dates: Oct 1996 to Sep 1999
Performer: VA Medical Center - (Durham, NC)
 Type:     Federal Government
 Contact:  Krucoff, Mitchell W., M.D., Phone:
 Location: Durham,   NC
Description: TITLE: The Impact of Real Time vs. Standard Intra-Aortic Balloon Counterpulsation During and After High Risk PTCR :: LONG DESCR:    OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study is to compare real time IABP support with standard IABP support during PTCR to determine if there is a lower total ischemic burden with one or the other                          RESEARCH PLAN: High risk and critically ill patients scheduled for IABP supported PTCR will be screened and enrolled. They will then be randomized 1 :1, and the PTCR will be performed. ST monitoring will be utilized for evaluating ischemic events. The two balloon pumps being compared are both commercially available, therefore there is no additional risk to the patient. Data will be analyzed comparing total ischemic burden in real time support with total ischemic burden in standard support.          METHODOLOGY: All patients who meet the inclusion/exclusion criteria and have signed consent will be considered eligible for this trial. It is estimated that 60 patients will be enrolled in the nine to twelve month duration of the trial. Balloon pump support will be maintained throughout PTCR and following as determined by the attending physician based on what is in the patients best interest. Continuous 12 lead ST monitoring will continue throughout the duration of the balloon pump. PTCR procedures and adjunctive medical therapy will be applied in the usual fashion. All patients will be taken to the CCU following the procedure.             Clinical Relevance/Findings: PTCR in patients with severely compromised left ventricular function, multivessel coronary artery disease, degenerated vein grafts, acutely thrombotic stenoses and acute coronary syndromes, diffuse calcification and AHA/ACC class C lesion morphology remains high risk for acute complications. The prophylactic use of IABP during and after PTCR is suggested. There have been recent developments in technology and hardware resulting in a new "real time" balloon pump on the market. This is an algorithmic approach to IABP timing using high frequency surveillance to approach an automated "real time" or virtual beat sequencing. While of theoretical fascination, actual clinical data in high risk and/or critically ill patients has never been reported. In this protocol, these patient populations are randomized to real time or standard IABP support in a 1:1 prospective trial design. Using continuous digital 12-lead ischemia monitoring, CPK enzymes and clinical follow up, the incidence, severity, extent, and total ischemic "burden" these two treatment strategies are subjected to quantitative comparison using blindly analyzed endpoints :: KEYWORDS: ISCHEMIA; INTRA-AORTIC BALLOON PUMPING; COUNTERPULSATION; CORONARY DISEASE; ANGIOPLASTY ::

Hit 143 of 277 -- Awd #: 120222 
 Award Type: Intramural / In-House Project / In-House Project
Access/Distribution Restriction:
 Code: A - Distribution Unlimited - Unrestricted Access
Parent Organizations: DVA / Medical & Prosthetic Research / VA Medical Center - (Iowa City, IA)
Dates: Oct 1997 to Sep 1999
Performer: VA Medical Center - (Iowa City, IA)
 Type:     Federal Government
 Contact:  Wibbenmeyer, Lucy, M.D., Phone:
 Location: Iowa City,   IA
Description: TITLE: The Evaluation of Markers of Myocardial Ischemia in Patients Undergoing NonCardiac Surgery :: LONG DESCR:    Myocardial ischemia occurs frequently in the perioperative setting an d is often clinically silent. We will delineate the occurrence of postop erative myocardial ischemia using troponin I (T-I), a sensitive and spec ific serologic marker for myocardial ischemia that does not elevate with  muscle damage. The study will be blinded, except when the primary team  orders the tests. Patients will be studied immediately preoperatively an d four days postoperatively, or for the length of their stay if shorter.  Blood will be drawn daily for T-I determination. Myocardial ischemia pr edates overt unstable angina and myocardial infarction. We will use holt er monitoring or real time ST bedside monitors postoperatively to detect  ischemia and thus identify appropriate candidates for prophylactic phar macologic intervention. Daily electrocardiograms will also be obtained.  We will also evaluate the use of electron beam computed tomography (EBCT ) to detect patients at risk for myocardial injury preoperatively. EBCT  quantitatives the amount of calcium in the coronary circulation which co rrelates well angiographic stenoses. This will enable us to identify a s ubset of patients that would benefit most from intensive perioperative m onitoring and ischemia prophylaxis. Finally, we will determine the short - and long- term cardiac morbidity resulting from perioperative myocardi al ischemia. We thus will determine the need for pharmacologic and cardi ac intervention/follow-up :: KEYWORDS: PERIOPERATIVE NURSING; MYOCARDIAL ISCHEMIA; ELECTROCARDIOGRAPHY, AMBULATORY; ANGINA PECTORIS ::

Hit 144 of 277 -- Awd #: 126002 
 Award Type: Intramural / In-House Project / In-House Project
Access/Distribution Restriction:
 Code: A - Distribution Unlimited - Unrestricted Access
Parent Organizations: DVA / Medical & Prosthetic Research / VA Medical Center - (Little Rock, AR)
Dates: Oct 1998 to Sep 1999
Performer: VA Medical Center - (Little Rock, AR)
 Type:     Federal Government
 Contact:  Harms, Steven E., M.D., Phone:
 Location: Little Rock,   AR
Description: TITLE: Interstitial Laser Photocoagulation for the Treatment of Fibroadenomas of the Breast :: LONG DESCR:    OBJECTIVES: Fibroadenomas are the most common of benign breast tumors. The majority can be accurately diagnosed using a combination of clinical examination, imaging and needle biopsy. Consequently the routine excision of fibroadenomas has been questioned and recent studies have confirmed the safety of conservative (non-operative) management of such breast lumps. However, the patient acceptability of non-operative treatment has varied widely from 21% to 90% opting for such treatment. This is in part due to the uncertain natural history of untreated fibroadenomas. In light of the above pitfalls in conventional management, there is a need for a simple and more precise technique that can safely destroy the tumor and also achieve maximal cosmesis, and reduce morbidity. The purpose of this study is to determine the feasibility of Interstitial Laser Photocoagulation (ILP) as a new non- operative percutaneous technique for the localized ablation of fibroadenomas of the breast.                         RESEARCH PLAN AND METHODS: All patients seen in the breast clinic with a palpable breast lump which is proven on clinical examination, needle biopsy, and imaging to be a benign fibroadenoma will be eligible to participate in the study provided they are between the ages of 18 and 40, and have a mass S 2cm. Patients can opt for conservative treatment or surgical excision. Participation of patients is completely voluntary. Patients must sign the consent form.                                            ILP technique The tumor will be localized using suitable imaging technique (ultrasound or MR imaging). The skin at the site of needle(s) insertion and the peritumoral region is infiltrated with 1% lidocaine. The introducer needle(s) are inserted percutaneously into the center of the tumor and the optical fibers are then passed through the needle. A semiconductor diode laser will be used to deliver the laser energy until the changes seen on imaging suggest complete tumor ablation. The progress of the treatment is determined using real-time MR imaging. The laser device is FDA approved for interstitial treatments.                              Follow-up and assessment of response to ILP treatment The change in tumor size following treatment will be monitored using serial ultrasonographic examination at 2 weeks, 4 weeks, and 3 monthly intervals. Ultrasonography is useful in monitoring tumor size but is inaccurate in determining the extent of cell death. Thus a pre- and a post-treatment MR scan will be obtained in each patient to assess the effectiveness of ILP in achieving complete tumor ablation. Patients with a significant residual tumor after ILP may require repeat treatment.                                RESULTS: One patient was entered and has been followed for 4 months. The fibroadenoma is not palpable. A small focus of the ablation zone remains on MRI and ultrasound. No residual fibroadenoma remains. This study is ending as we now have a DOD funded trial that has been initiated :: KEYWORDS: LIGHT COAGULATION; LASERS; BREAST ::

Hit 145 of 277 -- Awd #: 126781 
 Award Type: Intramural / In-House Project / In-House Project
Access/Distribution Restriction:
 Code: A - Distribution Unlimited - Unrestricted Access
Parent Organizations: DVA / Medical & Prosthetic Research / VA Medical Center - (Long Beach, CA)
Dates: Oct 1998 to Sep 1999
Performer: VA Medical Center - (Long Beach, CA)
 Type:     Federal Government
 Contact:  Carlson, Gregory, M.D., Phone:
 Location: Long Beach,   CA
Description: TITLE: Reversible Hemodynamic Factors in Spinal Cord Injury :: LONG DESCR:    Permanent paralysis after spinal cord injury is a major disorder in the VA patient population. Every year, spinal cord injuries leave up to 10,000 people in the United States partly or totally paralyzed. The personal costs suffered by the veteran as well as the medical costs shouldered by the VA are extremely high due to the prevalence of injury in a younger population and longer patient survivals. Early treatment and improved patient care have increased overall survival with only minor gains thus far in neurologic functional recovery.                                   Morphologic injury and neurologic outcomes vary with force of impact, acceleration, kinetic energy, displacement and duration of compression. Spinal cord trauma usually involves an initial impact followed by residual spinal cord displacement and disruption of normal spinal cord blood flow and oxygen utilization.                                               For this project a precision spinal cord compression model was developed to accurately model the biomechanical interaction between dynamic compression and the following sustained cord compression after the initial dynamic event. A special loading device, with real time spinal cord interface pressure feedback, is rigidly suspended over a laminectomy defect in a canine. The spinal cord is loaded under constant velocity until evoked potentials decline by 50% when the piston is stopped and sustained compression maintained for varying time periods. After spinal cord decompression, monitoring for functional recovery of evoked potential conduction is performed. This model incorporates a fluorescent microsphere technique of regional blood flow measurement. Topographic intracellular pH is measured with color film histophotometry of neutral red. Energy metabolites, glucose, glycogen, lactate, phosphocreatine, ATP, ADP, and ANP, are measured with microquantitative histochemistry.                         The aims of this project are to determine: 1) the importance of early spinal cord decompression on recovery of functional evoked potential conduction; 2) if residual spinal cord blood flow during compression and reperfusion blood flow associated with decompression can be correlated with electrophysiologic recovery; 3) if spinal cord blood flow is reduced to an ischemic threshold during compression and to measure the metabolic and electrophysiologic recovery after decompression; and 4) if manipulating the level of residual blood flow, either higher or lower through systemic hemodynamic mechanisms during sustained cord compression, will improve electrophysiologic recovery after decompression.                     The results of this project will seek to answer the clinical question of whether spinal cord decompression is of va1ue in modifying secondary injury and if so when is it most effective. In addition, this project will address the role of ischemia and long or short-term energy failure associated with sustained cord compression and recovery after decompression. Finally, changes in blood flow and metabolism associated with passive regional spinal cord blood flow manipulation will be studied to consider innovative pharmacological, surgical, and hemodynamic strategies for neural preservation after spinal cord injury :: KEYWORDS: SPINE; SPINAL CORD INJURIES; METABOLIC PROCESSES ::

Hit 146 of 277 -- Awd #: 45578 
 Award Type: Intramural / In-House Project / In-House Project
Access/Distribution Restriction:
 Code: A - Distribution Unlimited - Unrestricted Access
Parent Organizations: DVA / Medical & Prosthetic Research / VA Medical Center - (Miami, FL)
Dates: Oct 1992 to Sep 1999
Performer: VA Medical Center - (Miami, FL)
 Type:     Federal Government
 Contact:  Miller, Joshua, M.D., Phone:
 Location: Miami,   FL
Description: TITLE: Living-Related Donor Bone Marrow Immunoregulation in Kidney Transplants :: LONG DESCR:    Project 1: OBJECTIVES: 1) to define and compare mouse-derived murine monoclonal anti-CD3 idiotypic cascades with the polyclonal idiotypic network antibodies induced in the human and dog and 2) to investigate the idiotypic cascades engendered by the administration in the dog of a mAb specific for a kidney epitope. RESEARCH PLAN: The study seeks to examine the connection between viral infection and mAb immunosuppressive therapy, measuring humoral and cellular responses to anti-T cell mAbs and anti-kidney cell mAbs, i.e., the induced anti-idiotypic cascades, in transplant patients and dogs receiving kidney allografts. METHODOLOGY: To use murine mAb to self component T cell surface CD3 molecules and kidney specific antigen (canine) KTl for induction of regulatory anti-idiotypic mAb cascades in humans (anti-CD3) and dogs (anti-T cell KTl). To determine the effect of the above derived anti-idiotypic cascades on kidney allograft survival.                                                               RESULTS: Immune monitoring of transplant patients to define optimal immunosuppression continues to be important, since rejection occurs despite adjustment of dosaging of cyclosporine (CsA) or even FK506 to achieve "therapeutic-range" blood levels. Because CsA is known to inhibit regulation of IL-2 mRNA transcription, we prospectively sequentially measured (induced) IL-2mRNA in PHA stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) cultures from transplant recipients of kidneys from living-related donors (n=15) using a quantitative PCR assay with a potential 24 hr turnaround time, to define immunological events in real time. Reproducible individual patient sensitivity or refractoriness to CsA was determined pretransplant, by adding a range of CsA concentrations to the PBMC cultures and constructing induced IL-2 mRNA regression inhibition curves. However, this was not predictive of rejection episodes, but did correlate well with individual differences in IL-2 mRNA levels post-transplant despite similar maintenance trough blood concentrations of CsA between patients. In this prospective study, seven patients experienced rejection episodes despite therapeutic CsA trough levels. Three of these, plus one not receiving CsA therapy, who happened to be prospectively tested at the time that rejection was clinically diagnosed, had a decrease in induced IL-2 mRNA before treatment was instituted. As a correlation to this observation in patients, induced IL-2 mRNA levels in unmodified rejection were sequentially measured in PBMC cultures in autologous vs. allogeneic canine renal transplants and IL-2, IL-10 TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma mRNA were also measured in kidney biopsies. Sequential PHA lymphoproliferation assays of 3H-thymidine incorporation on patient and dog PBMC cultures were also performed. Similar to the observations in patients, unmodified rejection in the canine renal allograft model also was accompanied by a decline of PHA induced IL-2 mRNA in PBMC as the serum creatine concentrations became elevated. In the dog kidney biopsies at later phases of rejection, IL-10 mRNA levels were also significantly elevated (p=0.032) :: KEYWORDS: KIDNEY TRANSPLANTATION; IMMUNOSUPPRESSION; BONE MARROW ::

Hit 147 of 277 -- Awd #: 118928 
 Award Type: Transfers / Incoming / Reimbursable-Traditional
 Requester: Not Specified
Access/Distribution Restriction:
 Code: A - Distribution Unlimited - Unrestricted Access
Parent Organizations: DVA / Medical & Prosthetic Research / VA Medical Center - (Minneapolis, MN)
Dates: Oct 1997 to Sep 1999
Obligations (federal, FY avg):  $0.0; $0.0
Performer: VA Medical Center - (Minneapolis, MN)
 Type:     Federal Government
 Contact:  Landis, George H., M.D., Phone:
 Location: Minneapolis,   MN
Description: TITLE: Tobacco Abstinence and Microcirculation :: LONG DESCR:    OBJECTIVE: Clinical and animal studies have highlighted the morbidity  of cigarette smoking on wound healing and surgical flaps. The etiology  is multi factorial including catacholamine stimulation, increased carbox yhemoglobin, increased vasopressin, increased platelet aggregation, incr eased fibrinogen, increased blood viscosity, decreased prostacyclin prod uction, microangiopathy (endothelial damage) and arterial wall thickenin g. The objective of our project is to determine a clinically relevant ti me interval for a chronic smoker to abstain from tobacco use prior to su rgery to minimize the morbidity of tobacco use on surgical flaps and mic ro circulation.                                                            RESEARCH PLAN/METHODOLOGY: Healthy volunteers participating in a smok ing cessation program will serve as the subjects. Subjects at varying st ages of the program will be followed longitudinally for 10 weeks. Monito ring will include digital laser Doppler monitoring and cutaneous postisc hemic reactive hyperemia testing. Reactive hyperemia is an important mec hanism for limiting tissue damage following ischemia. Smokers have a wel l documented delay in this phenomenon. This response will be exploited f or provocative testing to both establish baselines for the two populatio ns and to study the transition from smoker to nonsmoker among the smokin g abstinence subjects. The laser Doppler provides a sensitive and accura te real-time measurement of micro circulatory flow cells within the oute r 2 mm of the skin. The system is completely non invasive and causes no  pain or discomfort. The probe is merely taped to the subject's skin duri ng monitoring. For the cutaneous postischemic reactive hyperemia test, b aseline blood flow is monitored for five minutes. A pneumatic cuff on th e upper arm is inflated to 300 mmHg for four minutes and then deflated.  Readings continue through the inflation and for ten additional minutes.  Studies have shown that in smokers the recovery time from reactive hyper emia is significantly longer 10+/-3.9 minutes compared to nonsmokers 7+/ -2.1 (p<0.01). The goal is determine the average number of weeks require d for the cutaneous postischemic reactive hyperemia test to reach a plat eau value (presumably close to the nonsmoking value). Smoking abstinence  will be monitored by urine cotinine assay.                                CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: Although the adverse effects of smoking in the  surgical patient are well established, an important clinical question r emains unanswered. For a chronic smoker is there an identifiable preoper ative period of abstinence which significantly reduces the morbidity of  previous tobacco use? In the literature no one has documented a sustaine d decrease in cutaneous blood flow in chronic smokers (when the subject  is not actively smoking). Clinically we know there must be some sustaine d physiologic alteration because of the increased morbidity smokers suff er in flap surgery and replantation. Our plan is to elucidate this diffe rence using careful measurements of the cutaneous micro circulation. Thi s study will help determine when the effects of chronic smoking on micro  circulation are no longer clinically relevant. The mean time to plateau  represents the interval after which further delay in elective surgery m ay not result in a clinically significant improvement in micro circulato ry status :: KEYWORDS: TOBACCO; NICOTINE; MICROCIRCULATION; LASER-DOPPLER FLOWMETRY ::

Hit 148 of 277 -- Awd #: 113266 
 Award Type: Intramural / In-House Project / In-House Project
Access/Distribution Restriction:
 Code: A - Distribution Unlimited - Unrestricted Access
Parent Organizations: DVA / Medical & Prosthetic Research / VA Medical Center - (Nashville, TN)
Dates: Oct 1996 to Sep 1999
Performer: VA Medical Center - (Nashville, TN)
 Type:     Federal Government
 Contact:  Christman, John W., M.D., Phone:
 Location: Nashville,   TN
Description: TITLE: Pulse Oximetry Plethysmography as an Indicator of Auto-PEEP :: LONG DESCR:    The overall objective of this study is to document the observations of one of the investigators that thee is a predictable sinusoidal variation to the pulse oximetry tracing that corresponds to the degree of auto-PEEP. As the pulse oximetry tracing is always available in continuous real time for all patients in the MICU this may be of clinical utility in allowing health care providers to recognize the presence of auto-PEEP.     The data collection for this study would include only tracings and recording of measurements that are part of the routine care of a patient in the Medical Intensive Care Unit with cardio-pulmonary disease.           This study will involve recording data on MICU patients which is routinely collected. The below represent routinely collected data for all patients admitted to the Medical Intensive Care Unit with cardio-pulmonary disease:                                                                  1. Blood pressure                                                       2. Pulsus paradoxus - a systolic blood pressure measurement difference occurring during breathing.                                              3. Pulse oximetry data (oxygen saturation monitoring technique)         4. Respiratory rate data                                                5. Auto-PEEP (for patients being mechanically ventilated). Patients on mechanical ventilation will have the degree of auto-PEEP determined by a gauge on the ventilator.                                                The following represent data that may or may not be available for each patient, but if available will be recorded:                              1. Arterial line waveform tracing                                       2. Swan-Ganz catheter data                                              3. Esophageal lead tracing                                              We are continuing to collect data at this time :: KEYWORDS: POSITIVE-PRESSURE RESPIRATION; PLETHYSMOGRAPHY; OXIMETRY ::

Hit 149 of 277 -- Awd #: 121077 
 Award Type: Intramural / In-House Project / In-House Project
Access/Distribution Restriction:
 Code: A - Distribution Unlimited - Unrestricted Access
Parent Organizations: DVA / Medical & Prosthetic Research / VA Medical Center - (Oklahoma City, OK)
Dates: Oct 1997 to Sep 1999
Performer: VA Medical Center - (Oklahoma City, OK)
 Type:     Federal Government
 Contact:  Greenwood, Beverley, Ph.D., FACG., Phone:
 Location: Oklahoma City,   OK
Description: TITLE: Study to Access the Effects of Atropine, Cisapride, Bethanechol, & Erythromycin on Colonic Motility & Stool Consistency in Yucatan Mini-Pig :: LONG DESCR:    Many drugs are known to have effects on gastrointestinal motility, ne vertheless the relative inaccessibility of the proximal colon has preven ted studies of the effects of drugs on colonic motility. The motility of  the colon is a significant factor in GI conditions such as diarrhea and  constipation. In collaboration with Procter and Gamble we have develope d a model that will enable long-term observation of motility in the prox imal colon of an ambulatory animal, the Yucatan mini-pig. These animals  have been fitted with a cecal-fistula to provide access to the nonprepar ed colon, allowing easy probe placement and extended term monitoring (da ys instead of hours). The primary aim of our study is to investigate fou r compounds, atropine, cisapride, bethanechol, and erythromycin: on prox imal colonic motility. A secondary aim of the study will be to determine  how the four drugs effect fecal viscosity, fecal output, and transit ra te to examine correlations between these factors and colonic motility. T he first drug, atropine, a competitive antagonist of muscarinic receptor s, causes inhibitory effects on GI musculature. Whereas, Cisapride is a  prokinetic agent and mediates the release of acetylcholine from postgang lionic nerve terminals in the myenteric plexus. Bethanechol, a muscarini c agonist, increases GI activity; tone and secretions. Finally, erythrom ycin, an antibiotic that is known to cause GI distress including diarrhe a, will be investigated. Each drug will be administered, on separate occ asions, and the motility of the proximal colon will be observed and reco rded for 24 hours. Motility will be recorded via a solid state probe (6  pressure ports spaced 10cm apart) inserted through the cecal fistula, an d real time ambulatory manometric data will be obtained via a telemetric  recording system. The viscosity of the stool samples will be measured r heololgically using a Steven's QTS 25 texture analyzer calibrated for co mpression, and data will be read as peak force for extrusion (g). From t his study we will carefully characterize for the first time the effects  of atropine, cisapride, bethanechol, and erythromycin on proximal coloni c motility which we anticipate will result in the development of new com pounds for the treatment of diarrhea and constipation :: KEYWORDS: ERYTHROMYCIN; BETHANECHOL; ATROPINE ::

Hit 150 of 277 -- Awd #: 114443 
 Award Type: Intramural / In-House Project / In-House Project
Access/Distribution Restriction:
 Code: A - Distribution Unlimited - Unrestricted Access
Parent Organizations: DVA / Medical & Prosthetic Research / VA Medical Center - (Palo Alto, CA)
Dates: Oct 1996 to Sep 1999
Performer: VA Medical Center - (Palo Alto, CA)
 Type:     Federal Government
 Contact:  Sabelman, Eric E., Ph.D., Phone:
 Location: Palo Alto,   CA
Description: TITLE: Advanced Accelerometric Motion Analysis System (design/development) :: LONG DESCR:    OBJECTIVES: Accurately assessing balance and mobility impairment is important for diagnosing and reducing risk of falls, formulating individualized therapies, and monitoring patients' progress. Our prior Merit Review projects have led to the creation of a wearable instrument with wide potential as a diagnostic and therapeutic tool. This proposal will support (1) building and testing several sets of newly-designed post-second ("2+") generation equipment, (2) developing software for extracting clinically useful information from its data, (3) comparing results with those obtained using the earlier version, and (4) enlisting support of a commercial partner in further development via a Co-operative R&D Agreement (CRADA). A design/development approach to bringing the accelerometry system up-to-date is essential to commercialization of the methodology.       BACKGROUND: Under Merit Review project E601 "Upper Body Motion Analysis for Amelioration of Falls in the Elderly", we tested subjects as they performed 65 standardized activities, including standing, reaching, bending, walking and simulated activities of daily living. Algorithms were developed using accelerometric data directly, rather than calculating velocity or position. A continuation proposal has been approved to establish reliability and validity compared to laboratory-based motion analysis, in a large population of normal fit and deconditioned older subjects. However, this research-oriented proposal does not provide for comparison of alternative wearable computers, for developing software to make full use of the system's new capabilities, nor for testing of the advanced system by potential commercial manufacturers and distributors.              SIGNIFICANCE: Reducing the number and severity of fall-related injuries, and increasing the mobility and independence of older veterans are the ultimate goals of this research. VA gerontologists, physiatrists and therapists (at Cleveland, Ann Arbor, Zablocki, Sepulveda, Durham and Miami VAMCs, as well as locally) concerned with improving veterans' gait and balance have expressed need for better methods for identifying individuals at risk for falls and for monitoring efficacy of interventions. The technology has commercial possibilities in clinical diagnosis of fall risk of patients in nursing homes and hospitals, and in addition, has potential uses in athletic and occupational injury prevention and rehabilitation. The accelerometric method overcomes deficiencies of current laboratory and qualitative mobility diagnosis using cutting-edge technology, and as such is appropriate to the Rehabilitation R&D Service mission.      RESEARCH PLAN: We propose to continue development of accelerometric body motion analysis by means of the following pre-commercialization activities: (1) '2+ "-generation construction and testing - The new system will be tested using the same methods as the first system (sensor drift, sensitivity to misalignment, etc.). Attention will be paid to alternative methods of sensor and computer mounting on the body, to accommodate users with special needs. Results from normal subjects will be compared to the first generation database and to conventional measures (force platform, goniometry, qualitative gait and balance score). A multi-link simulator will be built so that complex body motions like sit-to-stand can be reproduced without artifacts due to human subjects. (2) Software adaptation - Software for extracting sway angle, time to completion, etc., from standard tasks will be rewritten and installed in the new system. Programs using the new system's capabilities (real-time alarms, interaction with therapist, etc.) will be written. (3) System replication - Two additional sets of "2+"-generation equipment will be assembled. Training literature and videotapes will be updated to reflect changes from the first generation. The second system will be given to the Technology Transfer Section for demonstration to selected users and manufacturers. The third system will be available to a CRADA partner for pre-production trials and modifications. (4) Technology transfer - Palo Alto Rehabilitation R&D has contacted over 50 companies in the fields of industrial motion/vibration analysis and physical therapy/diagnostic equipment. We also plan to contact companies in the new field of wearable computers, who typically need non-military markets for their products. During the first year a CRADA will be negotiated with one of these companies. During the second and third years, the CRADA partner may assume at least half the cost of this project :: KEYWORDS: PHYSICAL THERAPY; GAIT; ACCIDENTAL FALLS; ACCELERATION ::

Hit 151 of 277 -- Awd #: 115346 
 Award Type: Transfers / Incoming / Reimbursable-Traditional
 Requester: Not Specified
Access/Distribution Restriction:
 Code: A - Distribution Unlimited - Unrestricted Access
Parent Organizations: DVA / Medical & Prosthetic Research / VA Medical Center - (Palo Alto, CA)
Dates: Oct 1996 to Sep 1999
Obligations (federal, FY avg):  $5.4; $2.9
Performer: VA Medical Center - (Palo Alto, CA)
 Type:     Federal Government
 Contact:  Geller, Eran, M.S., M.D., Phone:
 Location: Palo Alto,   CA
Description: TITLE: Oxygen Transport Derived From the Real-Time oxygen Analyzed :: LONG DESCR:    Objective of the project                                                The Real-Time Oxygen Dynamics Analyzer (RODA) is a non-invasive monitoring system being developed to provide on-line measurement and display of oxygen transport (DO2) using values obtained from an arterial line. The objective of this study is to evaluate the accuracy of DO2 determined by RODA with DO2 determined via standard methods of measurement.          Research Plan/Methodology                                               The Real-Time Oxygen Dynamics Analyzer is a non-invasive monitoring system electrically isolated from the patient that provides a continuous (beat-to-heat) measurement of cardiac output, using the pressure signal from an indwelling catheter placed in a peripheral artery. RODA computes cardiac output on a beat-to-heat basis using an algorithm that simulates the behavior of the human aorta and arterial system using a three-element. nonlinear model of aortic input impedance. It then uses values of hemoglobin and arterial blood gases to calculate DO2. It also predicts the mixed venous oxygen concentration from these values.                     In this study, up to 20 subjects may be enrolled either for measurements both during surgery and postoperatively, or only postoperatively. Males or females scheduled to undergo elective, non-emergency surgery (expected to last at least 2 hours) under general anesthesia for which placement of an arterial line and pulmonary artery catheter are indicated, or patients who have undergone such surgeries who are scheduled for recovery in the ICU (i.e., post-surgical patients with arterial lines and PA catheters s) will be asked to participate in this study. Cardiac output determined by standard thermodilution technique will be compared with that computed by RODA. In addition, blood for hemoglobin determination and for measurement of arterial and venous blood gases will he drawn simultaneously for computation of oxygen transport and comparison with the values calculated by RODA. Each patient will have approximately 24 measurements and blood samples drawn. Values obtained intra-operatively will he at varying inspired oxygen concentrations. Values obtained post-operatively will he at whatever inspired oxygen concentration is administered by the primary care team. No additional invasive procedures will be performed on these patients.                                                      It is expected that RODA will provide continuous oxygenation and cardiovascular information in the surgical, postoperative, and intensive care unit (ICU) settings, in a manner less invasive than that required to obtain this information in current clinical practice.                       FINDINGS: Results or Conclusions to date                                A European pilot study has been completed with reasonable correlation between values calculated by RODA and those obtained by standard techniques :: KEYWORDS: RESPIRATORY TRANSPORT; OXYGEN; INTENSIVE CARE ::

Hit 152 of 277 -- Awd #: 126527 
 Award Type: Transfers / Incoming / Reimbursable-Traditional
 Requester: Private Donor
Access/Distribution Restriction:
 Code: A - Distribution Unlimited - Unrestricted Access
Parent Organizations: DVA / Medical & Prosthetic Research / VA Medical Center - (Palo Alto, CA)
Dates: Oct 1998 to Sep 1999
Obligations (federal, FY avg):  $51.0; $51.0
Performer: VA Medical Center - (Palo Alto, CA)
 Type:     Federal Government
 Contact:  Gaba, David M., M.D., Phone:
 Location: Palo Alto,   CA
Description: TITLE: Investigation of Clinicians During Realistic Simulations :: LONG DESCR:    OBJECTIVE: To study a variety of aspects of the performance of clinicians during realistic simulations of patient care. The sub-components of the study are: a) Assessment of heart rate effect on clinician of participating in simulations; b) Evaluation of performance assessment metrics and tools; c) Evaluation of team leadership as correlated with personality and with performance shaping factors during simulations; d) Evaluation of the feasibility of supervising clinical care by "telementoring"      RESEARCH PLAN: Subjects will be recruited from participants in on-going clinical education sessions in simulation-based training. Informed consent will be obtained. The methods for each component are described as follows: a) Heart rate: Standard clinical Holter monitor units will be placed on subjects to record heart rate before, during, and after simulation sessions. The effect of the simulation session on heart rate will be assessed; b) Performance assessment tools: Subjects' performance during simulation sessions will be scored either in real-time or off-line using videotapes of the simulation sessions. Different scoring systems and tools will be used and compared to each other; c) Team leadership: Subjects will complete portions of a personality questionnaire to assess the "dominance" trait. A simulation session will be conducted involving a stat Cesaerean section. The physician playing the role of "obstetrician" will act either in a supportive manner or a non-supportive manner, chosen by the study randomization. After the simulation session the participants, instructors, and "obstetrician" will complete Team Leadership Profile sheets evaluating the team leadership in the simulation session; d) Telementoring: During simulation sessions the primary clinician can call for help. Using wireless headsets this help can be obtained by two way voice communication with a "mentor" who has multiple video views (and audio) of the clinical environment and patient monitoring data.                 FINDINGS: Project and subcomponents are just starting so there are no results to date :: KEYWORDS: TELEMEDICINE; HEART RATE; COMPUTER SIMULATION ::

Hit 153 of 277 -- Awd #: 118100 
 Award Type: Intramural / In-House Project / In-House Project
Access/Distribution Restriction:
 Code: A - Distribution Unlimited - Unrestricted Access
Parent Organizations: DVA / Medical & Prosthetic Research / VA Medical Center - (Salt Lake City, UT)
Dates: Oct 1997 to Sep 1999
Performer: VA Medical Center - (Salt Lake City, UT)
 Type:     Federal Government
 Contact:  Swenson, Jeffrey D., M.D., Phone:
 Location: Salt Lake City,   UT
Description: TITLE: Transesophageal Echocardiography: An Objective Tool in Defining Ventricular Response to Fluid Therapy :: LONG DESCR:    OBJECTIVES                                                              Ventricular preload is an important determinant of cardiac function w hich is indirectly measured in the clinical setting by the pulmonary cap illary wedge pressure (PCWP). Transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) is  rapidly gaining acceptance as a monitor of ventricular function. Althoug h it provides high resolution images of cardiac structures, clinical ass essment of ventricular preload using TEE has been largely subjective, si nce quantitative measurements have been difficult to obtain in a timely  fashion.                                                                   A relatively new technology, automated border detection (ABD), has be en well validated for obtaining real time cavity area measurements in th e clinical setting. Ventricular end diastolic area (EDA) as measured by  ABD has been shown to be superior to PCWP in predicting maximal ventricu lar response to fluid therapy in an animal model. Although TEE has been  anecdotally shown to be valuable in diagnosing hypotension under conditi ons of altered pressure-volume relationships, the ability to define maxi mum response to volume loading using EDA in humans with compromised vent ricular function has not been studied. RESEARCH PLAN                       To study this technology, we propose recording these data for patient s during separation from cardiopulmonary bypass. This patient population  is characterized by gradual fluid loading after separation from bypass  to achieve acceptable volume status and cardiac performance as measured  by thermodilution cardiac output. TEE has become a standard monitoring m odality in cardiac surgery, this would not involve a change in regular p atient care. METHODS                                                       During separation from cardiopulmonary bypass, changes in ventricular  EDA in response to fluid loading would be compared to changes in left v entricular stroke work and cardiac output. Because EDA is a direct measu re of ventricular cavity size, it is unaffected by compliance and other  factors which may influence the PCWP as an indicator of ventricular prel oad. By observing these changes in future patients, decisions regarding  the appropriate end point for fluid administration can be made. FINDINGS      The significance of end diastolic area or pulmonary capillary wedge  pressure in relation to changes in cardiac output and left ventricular  stroke work will be determined using multiple regression with mixed mode l analysis of variance. A P value 0.05 will be considered significant :: KEYWORDS: VENTRICULAR FUNCTION; FLUID THERAPY; ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY, TRANSESOPHAGEAL ::

Hit 154 of 277 -- Awd #: 129653 
 Award Type: Transfers / Incoming / Reimbursable-Traditional
 Requester: Dept of Defense
Access/Distribution Restriction:
 Code: A - Distribution Unlimited - Unrestricted Access
Parent Organizations: DVA / Medical & Prosthetic Research / VA Medical Center - (San Diego, CA)
Dates: Oct 1998 to Sep 1999
Obligations (federal, FY avg):  $5.5; $5.5
Performer: VA Medical Center - (San Diego, CA)
 Type:     Federal Government
 Contact:  Andre, Michael P., Ph.D., Phone:
 Location: San Diego,   CA
Description: TITLE: Evaluation of Optical Sonography for Real-Time Breast Imaging and Biopsy Guidance :: LONG DESCR:    OBJECTIVES Conventional real-time pulse-echo ultrasound is a an excellent cost-effective imaging tool for a wide variety of applications in medicine. However, it is limited by several technical and practical issues. New approaches to ultrasound imaging were studied in the past based on ultrasound transmission through the object of interest. Although promising laboratory research was accomplished, these methods have, for the most part, not seen continued development. One of these methods--acoustical holography--provided very large field of view and real-time imaging capability in a format similar to x-ray fluoroscopy. We recently developed a new prototype based on this technique which incorporates significant improvements in acoustical and optical design. This system is being evaluated for potential clinical application in the musculoskeletal system, interventional radiology, pediatrics, monitoring of tumor ablation, vascular imaging and breast imaging.                                          RESEARCH DESIGN The following improvements were made to the system for this study: 1) unique single-element large area transducers, 2) manipulations of the transducer position and pulse timing to reduce out-of-focal-plane interference, 3) improved CCD detector, 4) improved optical reconstruction system, 5) improved acoustic lens technology to reduce aberrations, reflections and attenuation in the acoustic path, 6) acoustic zoom feature to magnify object features without increased blur, and 7) improved system alignment. Large (77.4 sq cm) single-element transducers provide uniform planar acoustic fields, two for the object beam, one separate element for the reference field. All three transducers are precisely pulsed at the identical frequency for a given image. Subsequent images are formed at different frequencies from approximately 2.5-3 MHz over a bandwidth of 600 kHz. An interference pattern is generated at the detector by combining the object and reference beams. This pattern is illuminated by a laser and viewed with a high-resolution CCD camera on a monitor. Up to 30 images per second may be recorded by this method. A new type of patient interfaces was implemented in which the body segment is placed between two liquid-filled pillows that help to stabilize and immobilize it. The focal plane of the image is selectively translated through the object by varying the position of large solid acoustic lenses in the water path.                                                                  FINDINGS System limiting resolution was estimated using a line-pair target with decreasing line thickness and separation. For a swept frequency beam from 2.6-3.0 MHz, the minimum resolved line separation was 0.5 mm. Apatite crystals were suspended in castor oil to approximate breast microcalcifications. Crystals from 0.425-1.18 mm in diameter were well-resolved in the acoustic zoom mode. Needle visibility was examined with both a 14 gauge biopsy needle and a 0.6 mm needle. The needle tip was clearly visible throughout the dynamic imaging sequence as it was slowly inserted into a RMI tissue-equivalent breast biopsy phantom. A selection of human images was acquired in several volunteers: a 25 year-old female volunteer with normal dense breast tissue, a lateral view of the elbow joint showing muscle fascia and tendon insertions, and the superficial vessels in the forearm.                                                       CLINICAL RELATIONSHIPS These preliminary investigations with the new prototype acoustical holography system show it to be suitable for further clinical study. The new patient interfaces will facilitate orthopedic soft tissue evaluation, study of superficial vascular structures and potentially breast imaging :: KEYWORDS: ULTRASONOGRAPHY; RADIONUCLIDE IMAGING; COMPUTERS; BREAST; BIOPSY ::

Hit 155 of 277 -- Awd #: 97761 
 Award Type: Intramural / In-House Project / In-House Project
Access/Distribution Restriction:
 Code: A - Distribution Unlimited - Unrestricted Access
Parent Organizations: DVA / Medical & Prosthetic Research / VA Medical Center - (San Diego, CA)
Dates: Oct 1993 to Sep 1999
Performer: VA Medical Center - (San Diego, CA)
 Type:     Federal Government
 Contact:  Weinger, Matthew B., M.D., Phone:
 Location: San Diego,   CA
Description: TITLE: Task and Workload Analysis of Practicing Anesthesiologists :: LONG DESCR:    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of these studies is: a) to develop and validate an objective real-time methodology for evaluating the clinical performance of anesthesia providers; 2) to study the impact of relevant human, equipment, and environmental factors (so-called "performance shaping factors") on anesthesiologists' task performance, vigilance, and workload during actual cases.                                                        BACKGROUND: The impact of patient disease and surgical factors on clinical outcome in anesthesia has been well studied. However, thousands of patients die or are injured each year due to preventable anesthetic mishaps attributable to human error. Scientific study of the role of the anesthesia provider in anesthesia patient safety is only in its infancy and the development of objective tools to assess provider performance is essential to this endeavor. Research in other high-risk fields (e.g., aviation) have demonstrated the value of a variety of human factors methodologies for elucidating the role of human, system and equipment factors in performance and to demonstrate improved outcomes after evidence-based redesign of jobs or systems. The PI and several other investigators have begun to apply these human factors tools to the anesthesia task with some initial success.                                                        RESEARCH DESIGN: These are prospective randomized controlled studies in which anesthesia care providers are the subjects. The dependent measures of interest are well-defined indices of their clinical performance during actual anesthesia cases.                                             ,                                                                       METHODOLOGY: Baseline demographic data are obtained from consenting anesthesia providers. They are then studied while performing a standardized balanced general anesthetic for routine surgical cases on healthy patients. An observer is present in the operating room to collect task data on a computer. The observer also measures workload and vigilance using standardized methodologies including subjective workload assessment (Borg scales), secondary task probing, and physiological monitoring. The subject's activities may also be videotaped for subsequent off-line analysis.                                                                         In the most recent experiment, 5 senior residents were studied while performing 2 uncomplicated general anesthetics: 1) at night during a 24 hr on-call shift and 2) during a regular day shift. The cases were matched for surgical type, duration, and patient ASA status. This study is designed to test the hypothesis that sleep deprivation produces clinically significant changes in task patterns, vigilance, and subjective workload.                                                                         FINDINGS: Day cases began at 10:30 am (+59 min) while night cases began at 00:33 am (_87 min). The residents had awakened 5+1 hr before the start of the day cases and 14+4 hr prior to the night cases. Residents reported feeling more "tired" or "drowsy" during the night vs. day cases (P<0.05). The subjects' temperatures were significantly lower at night. At night, more time was spent on mask ventilation, intubation and observing the monitors and less time doing nothing at all (idle time). Residents also spent longer (dwell time) at night on individual tasks (e.g., 22+7 sec night vs. 12+4 sec day for intubation; P<0.05). Workload was higher during night vs. day cases (11.4_0.4 vs. 10.3+0.4, respectively; P<0.05). These results are consistent with the need, under sleep deprived conditions, for greater perceptual and cognitive resources to process data and accomplish tasks.                                                      SIGNIFICANCE: The ability to scientifically describe anesthesiologist performance during actual patient care will improve our understanding of the anesthesiologist's job and provide a rational basis for the optimal design of training strategies, work schedules, and anesthesia devices (and for cost-effective implementation of new technology), thereby leading to enhanced patient safety :: KEYWORDS: WORKLOAD; TECHNOLOGY ASSESSMENT, BIOMEDICAL; TASK PERFORMANCE AND ANALYSIS; ANESTHESIOLOGY ::

Hit 156 of 277 -- Awd #: 124532 
 Award Type: Intramural / In-House Project / In-House Project
Access/Distribution Restriction:
 Code: A - Distribution Unlimited - Unrestricted Access
Parent Organizations: DVA / Medical & Prosthetic Research / VA Medical Center - (Washington, DC)
Dates: Oct 1998 to Sep 1999
Performer: VA Medical Center - (Washington, DC)
 Type:     Federal Government
 Contact:  Blackford, Kathryn, R.N., M.S., Phone:
 Location: Washington,   DC
Description: TITLE: Pressure Notification System to Prevent Pressure Ulcers :: LONG DESCR:    Pressure Notification System to Prevent Pressure Ulcers                 The development of a pressure notification system (PNS) is proposed for use as a practical adjunct in prevention of pressure ulcers. The overall health care costs for the treatment of pressure ulcers is estimated to be $3.5 billion to $7 billion annually. Despite the enormity of information available on the causes, prevention, and management of pressure ulcers, incidence rates remain unacceptably high. Factors contributing to this continuing public health problem include a diminished use of skilled nursing care due to a growing need to provide quality care in a cost-effective manner and a lengthened life span of seriously ill patient.      The PNS alerts the patient and/or staff of prolonged localized pressure in areas predisposed to ulcer formation. This time-based monitoring strategy could augment existing schedule-based repositioning protocols by providing nursing staff with real-time status of their patients. The phase I effort will be divided into device development and a prospective pilot study. Understanding the relationship between exposure to pressure and healing rates of stage I or II pressure ulcers is the focus of this study and will provide valuable information about the ulcer healing process. The long-term goal of this research is to develop a low-cost, technology-assisted prevention strategy to benefit bed and chair-bound patients predisposed to pressure ulcers in nursing homes, long-term care, and home care environments. A dramatic cost reduction to the general health care system could be realized with the successful development, commercialization, and implementation of the proposed system.                       The data collection has been compled with 9 subjects at the Washington, VAMC. G. Ortega is currently analyzing this data to determine outcomes. After this completion, Mr. Ortega will discuss future directions for study and the possiblity for a Phase II program :: KEYWORDS: PREVENTIVE MEDICINE; JOINT COMMISSION ON ACCREDITATION OF HEALTHCARE ORGANIZATION; DECUBITUS ULCER ::

Hit 157 of 277 -- Awd #: 101148 
 Award Type: Transfers / Incoming / Reimbursable-Traditional
 Requester: Not Specified
Access/Distribution Restriction:
 Code: A - Distribution Unlimited - Unrestricted Access
Parent Organizations: DVA / Medical & Prosthetic Research / VA Medical Center - (West Haven, CT)
Dates: Oct 1994 to Sep 1999
Obligations (federal, FY avg):  $0.0; $2.3
Performer: VA Medical Center - (West Haven, CT)
 Type:     Federal Government
 Contact:  Thomson, J. Grant, M.D., Phone:
 Location: West Haven,   CT
Description: TITLE: Surgical Reconstruction: Monitoring and Analysis of Ischemic Flaps :: LONG DESCR:    Objective of the Project:                                               Flap Monitoring                                                         Microdialysis is a technique that was developed to measure neurotransmitters and metabolic products in brain tissue, but it has never been used to study skeletal muscle ischemia, myocutaneous flap metabolism, or skin metabolism.                                                            Preconditioning                                                         Recently research in the field of cardiovascular surgery has shown that repeated brief episodes of coronary artery occlusion followed by reperfusion result in improved myocardial muscle survival when the muscle is subsequently subjected to prolonged ischemia. Preliminary studies from our laboratory indicate that reconditioning of skin and myocutaneous flaps can improve survival in a rat model.                                    The objectives of this study are, in a pig flap model:                  1.) To measure the sensitivity and specificity of microdialysis monitoring for arterial and venous compromise. 2.) To measure the metabolic parameters during arterial ischemia, venous compromise, and reperfusion. 3.) To determine if preconditioning is effective in improving flap survival following prolonged ischemia. 4.) To investigate the metabolic changes in preconditioning using microdialysis.                                 Research Plan                                                           The research will be divided into three experiments: I.a) Correlation of microdialysis with tissue biopsy; I.b) determination of the threshold necessary for detection of vascular occlusion and prediction of flap necrosis; II. Real time flap monitoring using microdialysis: III. Investigation of the metabolic changes involved in preconditioning using microdialysis.                                                                   (c) Methods                                                             I.a.) Validation                                                        Skin, muscle, and myocutaneous flaps will be raised on ten SUS/scrofa pigs,. Microdialysis will be analyzed for ATP, LDH, and phosphocreatine, and compared with direct tissue biopsy during periods of arterial ischemia, venous occlusion, and reperfusion.                                   I.b.) Detection Threshold                                               Thirty flaps in ten animals will be subjected to eight hours of arterial ischemia, and the same number will undergo eight hours of venous occlusion. The levels of metabolites measured by microdialysis that are statistically significant for prediction of vascular occlusion will be determined using ROC curves.                                                   II. Real-time monitoring                                                fif5een flaps in five animals will be subjected to random episodes of vascular occlusion. Locate will be measures on line using flow through fluorometer. Microdialysis monitoring will be compared to clinical monitoring for the time to detection of vascular occlusion.                     III. Preconditioning and Microdialysis                                  Ten pigs will undergo preconditioning of the flaps prior to a prolonged period of ischemia; Ten pigs will undergo ischemia of the flaps without preconditioning. Microdialysis will be performed and analyzed for Na+, Ca2+, K+- pH, ATP, LDH, creatine kinase, and phosphocreatine. The levels of these compounds, and the flap survival area will be compared between the two groups using ANOVA.                                             FINDINGS: The study has not received funding. Therefore, no animals have been used, and no results have been obtained.                          (d) Clinical Relevance:                                                 Flap Monitoring                                                         Free tissue transfer has now become an accepted part of the armamentarium of reconstructive surgeons in many disciplines. Vascular complications requiring re-exploration occur in 12-17% of cases. The success of re-exploration is inversely proportional to the time between clinical recognition of vascular compromise and surgery. The typical cost per case of microvascular tissue transplantation is approximally $30,000, so every flap salvaged represents a significant savings for our dwindling health care budgets. Improved postoperative monitoring should alert us earlier to impending problems and improve salvage rates of compromised tissue transfers.                                                                   Preconditioning                                                         During the transfer period of free flap surgery, the flap is ischemic for two to six hours, and sometimes longer. The longer the period of ischemia, the higher the failure rate. Improving the tolerance of the tissue to ischemia should improve the success rate of reconstructive procedures.                                                                       Abstract updated :: KEYWORDS: SURGICAL FLAPS; SURGERY; PLASTICS ::

Hit 158 of 277 -- Awd #: 42165 
 Award Type: Intramural / In-House Project / In-House Project
Access/Distribution Restriction:
 Code: A - Distribution Unlimited - Unrestricted Access
Parent Organizations: DVA / Medical & Prosthetic Research / VA Medical Center - (White River Jct, VT)
Dates: Oct 1992 to Sep 1999
Performer: VA Medical Center - (White River Jct, VT)
 Type:     Federal Government
 Contact:  Selikowitz, Stuart M., M.D., Phone:
 Location: White River Junction,   VT
Description: TITLE: Analysis and Reduction of Electrosurgical Hazards During Transurethral Resection :: LONG DESCR:    (a) OBJECTIVE and (b) PLAN: Hazard reduction at electrosurgical procedures is being accomplished by analysis of pathways and mechanisms with electronic monitoring equipment in both the ex-vivo and in-vivo situation.                                                                         (c) METHODOLOGY: An electrosurgical contour map during simulated TURP is being constructed. Electrosurgical wave-form experiments are being carried out with use of specially constructed cutting force dyne-ometer and wave form generators. We are presently designing and utilizing new electrosurgical electrodes in an ex-vitro system.                            (d) FINDINGS RESULTS OR CONCLUSIONS REACHED TO DATE: Major myoneural stimulation patterns have been defined during electrosurgery. We have recently presented/published several abstracts: Selikowitz, S.M., LaCourse, J.R.: Spectral distribution of current during electrosurgery. Proceedings 17th Annual Northeastern Bio-engineering Conference; Fox, M.D., Epstein, M.A.F., Davis, R.B., Alward, T.M. (eds), pg 257-258, Mar 1991, Hartford, CT; Selikowitz, S.M., LaCourse, J.R., Gerhard, G.C.: High frequency current distribution during transurethral resection, Proceedings 67th Western Section AUA, Vancouver, BC, August 1991, p 172; LaCourse JR, Rothwell, A.D., Selikowitz, S.M.: Modeling the Electrosurgical Arc, AAMI Anaheim, CA, May-June 1992; Rothwell, A.D., LaCourse, J.R. and Selikowitz, S.M.: Real Time Acquisition of Electrosurgical Data, IEEE Instrumentation/Measurement Technology, Meadowlands, NY, May 1992; Selikowitz, S.M., Johnson D.C., Rothwell, A.D., LaCourse, J.R.: Development of Bipolar Electrodes for Endoscopy and Laparoscopy, 10th World Congress on Endourology and ESWL, Sept 1992, Singapore; LaCourse, J.R., Rothwell, A.D., Selikowitz, S.M.: Development of Electrosurgery: A Historical Perspective, 19th NE Bioengineering Conference, March 1993, Newark, NJ; LaCourse, JR., Rothwell, A.D., Selikowitz, S.M.: Voltage-Current Characteristics of an AC Arc for Different Electrode Separations with Application to Electrosurgery, 19th NE Bioengineering Conference, p 37-39, March 1993, Newark, NJ; Rothwell, A.D., LaCourse, J.R., Selikowitz, S.M.: Acquisition of Electrosurgical Data Using the IEEE-488, 19th Bioengineering Conference, March 1993, Newark, NJ; LaCourse, J.R., Rothwell, A.D., Selikowitz, S.M.: The Voltage-Current Characteristics of an AC Arc with Application to Electrosurgery, Invited Abstract, AMMI Conference, May 1993, Boston, MA.        (e) CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Electrosurgery and its concomitant hazards are present in practically all modern surgical operating situations throughout the world. Electrosurgery continues to be one of the most cost-effective technologies for operating rooms use :: KEYWORDS: PROSTATECTOMY; PROSTATE; ELECTRIC STIMULATION ::

Hit 159 of 277 -- Awd #: R825391 
 Award Type: Extramural / Grants / Project
Access/Distribution Restriction:
 Code: A - Distribution Unlimited - Unrestricted Access
Parent Organizations: EPA / Research and Development / Extramural awards
Dates: Nov 1996 to Nov 1999
Performer: MASSACHUSETTS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLO
 Type:     Private Educational Institution
 District: Multiple congressional districts in Massachusetts
 Location: Boston College,   MA
Description: SHORT DESCR: FEDERAL DEMONSTRATION PARTNERSHIP (FDP)--REAL TIME ANALYSIS OF PAH BOUND TO SIZE-RESOLVED ATMOSPHERI :: LONG DESCR: Fine particles and the associated organic compounds are of  current concern because of their putative health effects.  Of particular concern are polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons  (PAH) which are mutagenic air pollutants formed as by- products of combustion. They are a subset of Polycyclic  Organic Matter listed as hazardous air pollutants in the  Clean Air Act. In the atmosphere, PAH partition among the  gas phase and atmospheric particles. Measurements of the  amount of PAH associated with different aerosol size  fractions are critical for a complete understanding of the  environmental fate of and human exposure to fine particles  and the associated PAH. Current methods to quantify PAH  bound to size-segregated atmospheric particles require long  sampling times (* 100 h) and laborious chemical analysis (*  1000 man-hours). The goal of the proposed research is to  develop and demonstrate an instrument able to quantify PAH  associated with individual size-segregated atmospheric  particles in real time. We propose a new approach that will  combine a particle mass spectrometer that is under  development at Aerodyne Research, Inc., with sensitive PAH  detection. Particles will be vaporized on a heated filament  and a pulsed ultraviolet excimer laser will be focused into  the vapor plume to selectively and sensitively ionize PAH  species via resonant enhanced multiphoton ionization  (REMPI). A second TOF MS, triggered after the ionization  laser pulse, will mass analyze the molecular ions,  providing PAH molecular distribution data for each  vaporized particle. Detailed modeling of the dynamics of  particle vaporization will be used to optimize  filament/laser coupling for maximum sensitivity and  selectivity of the PAH detection process. The instrument  will be calibrated using well characterized emissions from  three combustors, a flat flame burner, jet stirred  reactor/plug flow reactor, and diesel engine. The  instrument will be demonstrated for ambient particle  sampling and analysis using parallel particle collection  with a cascade impactor followed by GC/MS analysis. The  prototype field portable instrument will then be available  for future novel measurements of particulate PAH in the  atmosphere. Successful demonstration of ambient aerosol PAH  sampling and analysis will provide the basis for commercial  instrumentation for monitoring of atmospheric particulate  PAH distributions, deployable on fixed site or mobile  platforms, with the fine temporal and spatial resolution  needed to better understand the risks to human health  resulting from PAH emissions. Supplemental Keywords:  particle, aromativ hydrocarbon, emission, atmosphere,  ambient, aerosol, instrument, field, environmental fate,  air pollutan ::

Hit 160 of 277 -- Awd #: R825870 
 Award Type: Extramural / Grants / Project
Access/Distribution Restriction:
 Code: A - Distribution Unlimited - Unrestricted Access
Parent Organizations: EPA / Research and Development / Extramural awards
Dates: Jan 1996 to Dec 1998
Performer: UNIVERSITY OF MINNESOTA
 Type:     Public Educational Institution
 District: Multiple congressional districts in Minnesota
 Location: Minneapolis,   MN
Description: SHORT DESCR: DEVELOPMENT AND EVALUATION OF MULTI-SCALE MECHANISTIC INDICATORS OF DEVELOPMENT AND EVALUATION OF MU :: LONG DESCR: Effective ecological monitoring requires specific knowledge  of the target ecosystem and the factors that regulate  ecosystem's dynamics. Indicators that accurately  characterize ecosystem integrity must integrate those  aspects of landscapes that influence the movement of  energy, materials and organisms within and between  ecosystems, the local availability of nutrients and other  resources, the structure of biological communities, and the  composition and juxtaposition of ecosystem elements.  Investigators propose to develop suites of ecological  indicators that cross spatial scales, mechanistically  reflect ecosystem states and processes, are statistically  robust, and are applicable across regional landscapes. In  addition, these indicators will be based on readily- accessible information available in a real-time framework.  To accomplish this, the investigators propose the following  objectives: Develop predictive models which integrate  landscape-scale factors with reach-scale physical and  chemical stream attributes to i) quantify key compositional  and structural attributes of stream biota, and ii) derive  ecosystem indicators at multiple spatial scales Evaluate  the appropriate scale of terrestrial and aquatic data  necessary to resolve regional and local aquatic resource  questions. Improve on the ability to distinguish and  quantify natural variation in indicators from that derived  from anthropogenic stressors. Assess the extent to which  regional and local-scale indices (including standard  indices of ecological integrity, e.g., IBI) reflect  fundamental ecosystem processes and structural properties  of stream habitats and biota. Quantify confidence limits  and evaluate the geographic transferability of regional and  local-scale indicators developed above. Approach: To  develop, evaluate, and integrate indicators across multiple  spatial scales, investigators will employ a multi-tiered  sampling and modeling strategy, integrating data collected  at regional scales via satellite imagery, local scales via  low-altitude imagery, and site scales via field sampling.  These data will be used to identify indicators at each  scale that reflect critical ecosystem process or state  variables related to the integrity and sustainability of  those ecosystems. Investigators will develop and test  indicators representing fundamental driving variables and  processes at multiple spatial scales, and integrate them  into a system for identifying positive or negative trends  in the health of ecosystems in regions heavily dominated by  agriculture and mixed land uses. Expected Benefits: The  results of this research will significantly increase the  ability of practitioners to quantify features of  terrestrial ecosystems in strongly altered landscapes.  Models of processes that integrate features existing at  different scales will be developed. Transferability of  methods between ecoregions will be evaluated, and validity  of statistical techniques will be assessed using existing  databases. A rigorous analysis of the uncertainty  associated with indices at all spatial scales, including  natural stochasticity, measurement error, parameter error  and model error will be performed. These estimates of  statistical confidence will improve the utility of  ecological indicators for local and regional assessments.  Supplemental Keywords: water, watershed, stream, ecological  effects, sensitive populations, stressor, cumulative  effect, indicators, ecosystem, scaling, regionalization,  terrestrial, aquatic, habitat, integrated assessment,  macroinvertebrate, fish, primary production, coarse woody  debris, nutrients, dissolved solids, suspended sediments,  restoration, environmental assets, ecology, hydrology,  geology, EMAP, modeling, analytical, surveys, measurement  methods, satellite, Landsat, remote sensing, Midwest, EPA  Region 5, agricultur ::

Hit 161 of 277 -- Awd #: R826184 
 Award Type: Extramural / Grants / Project
Access/Distribution Restriction:
 Code: A - Distribution Unlimited - Unrestricted Access
Parent Organizations: EPA / Research and Development / Extramural awards
Dates: Feb 1998 to Feb 2001
Performer: TUFTS UNIVERSITY
 Type:     Private Educational Institution
 District: Multiple congressional districts in Massachusetts
 Location: Boston College,   MA
Description: SHORT DESCR: REMOTE SAMPLING PROBE WITH FAST GC/MS ANALYSIS:  SUBSURFACE DETECTION OF ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINANTS :: LONG DESCR: Objectives/Hypotheses: The nation has spent more than $26  billion cleaning its hazardous waste sites. Traditional  sample collection and analysis programs involve collecting  subsurface soil samples and sending them off-site for  analysis. This static approach has resulted in significant  cost. The proposed research is aimed at developing tools  that will result in a more dynamic process. We propose to  thermally extract organic compounds bound to soil and  transport them above ground for fast gas  chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis. The goal  is to collect and analyze contaminants on-site as near  real-time as possible both volatile organics (VOC) and  semi-VOCs. Approach: Subsurface contaminants will be  collected by heating the soil to 400 C, with the hot vapor  freeze trapped above ground and subsequent introduction  into the GC/MS. Initial experiments show that  Polychlorinated Biphenyls and Polycyclic Aromatic  Hydrocarbons can be extracted from soil up to distances of  70-ft. Research aimed at determining material balance and  thermal extraction efficiencies as a function of soil- moisture content and soil type for the US EPA Soil  Screening Level (SSL) organics will be investigated at the  20 DAF concentrations. The mathematical algorithms  developed to deconvolute complex MS signals can provide  unambiguous identification and good concentration estimates  for the SSL organics in under 7min. Fast GC/MS with sample  introduction by thermal desorption (TD) and membrane  transport is proposed. This combination should result in  improved performance of the MS by reducing film deposit.  The combined tools should provide unmatched sample  throughput rates and low detection limits. TECPP and  TDGC/MS method detection limit, measurement precision and  accuracy studies will be made and compared with the 20 DAF  concentration. Field vs. laboratory results will be  compared to decide optimum system performance. Expected  Results: No technology exists today that can accomplish  this goal without bringing samples to the surface. This  research should provide the tools necessary to collect and  analyze subsurface contaminants as near to real-time as  possible. Experience has shown that 50% cost savings can be  achieved by incorporating a dynamic process into site  cleanup efforts. Supplemental/Keywords: soil, in situ  analysis, on-line monitoring, on-site decision making,  expedited site characterization, dynamic workplan ::

Hit 162 of 277 -- Awd #: R826190 
 Award Type: Extramural / Grants / Project
Access/Distribution Restriction:
 Code: A - Distribution Unlimited - Unrestricted Access
Parent Organizations: EPA / Research and Development / Extramural awards
Dates: Feb 1998 to Feb 2001
Performer: NEW JERSEY INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY
 Type:     State or Local Government
 10th Congressional District in New Jersey        
 Location: Newark,   NJ
Description: SHORT DESCR: AN INTEGRATED NEAR INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY SENSOR FOR IN-SITU ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING: DEVELOP A COMP :: LONG DESCR: Objectives/Hypotheses: The monitoring of environmental  organic contaminants currently involves off-site methods  which prohibit optimal usage. In this program, we combine  the principles of interferometry with that of near infrared  evanescent wave absorption spectroscopy to produce a novel  integrated sensor technology capable of monitoring and  determining in-situ the concentration of numerous organic  analyte species simultaneously. This program will focus on  the development of a novel sensor that is based on well  established physical principles and one that is non- intrusive for deployment at sites in order to obtain  accurate, rapid, and cost effective data. The overall  instrument will be compact, portable, rugged, and suitable  for real time monitoring of organics. Approach: Operation  of the sensor is based on the detection of refractive index  changes on waveguide surfaces which are caused by the  presence of contaminants in the environment. These changes  are measured by exposing one arm of a symmetric Mach- Zehnder interferometer to the analyte. Selectivity of such  a sensor will be achieved by utilizing evanescent wave  absorption spectroscopy in the near infrared, a technique  which measures wavelength dependent refractive index  changes. Expected Results: This proposed program will be  performed over a period of 3 years. During the first year,  the effort will focus on the fabrication and evaluation of  a laboratory scale integrated optical sensor based on  microfabrication processes which have already been  developed at NJIT. During the second year, the emphasis  will shift towards development of prototype systems which  can readily be field tested. Results of these tests will be  used in an iterative fashion to optimize sensor design and  fabrication techniques. During the third year, the work  will be directed towards the miniaturization of discrete  components of the monitoring system. Supplemental Keywords:  remote sensing, innovative technolog ::

Hit 163 of 277 -- Awd #: R826235 
 Award Type: Extramural / Grants / Project
Access/Distribution Restriction:
 Code: A - Distribution Unlimited - Unrestricted Access
Parent Organizations: EPA / Research and Development / Extramural awards
Dates: Dec 1997 to Nov 2000
Performer: UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA
 Type:     Public Educational Institution
 District: Multiple congressional districts in California
 Location: Riverside,   CA
Description: SHORT DESCR: FEDERAL DEMONSTRATION PARTNERSHIP (FD)-INVESTIGATIONS OF THE CHEMISTRY OF SECONDARY AEROSOL FORMATIO :: LONG DESCR: Objectives/Hypotheses: Understanding the effects of fine  atmospheric aerosol particles on human health and the  environment, and developing strategies for controlling fine  particle concentrations, will require much more information  on aerosol chemistry than is currently available. In this  project a newly developed thermal desorption particle beam  mass spectrometer (TDPBMS) that is capable of real-time,  quantitative chemical analysis of particles as small as  0.01  m in diameter will be used in conjunction with other  tools for environmental chamber studies of the chemistry of  secondary aerosol formation. The objectives of the project  are to: (1) investigate the products, kinetics, and  mechanisms of secondary aerosol formation resulting from  the photochemical reactions of selected VOC of  anthropogenic and biogenic origin with OH, NO3, and O3 (2)  investigate the effects of SO2, NH3, H2O and seed particles  on the chemistry of secondary aerosol formation in these  VOC/oxidant systems, and (3) compile a thermal desorption  particle beam mass spectral library of compounds found in  secondary aerosol. Approach: Environmental chamber studies  will be carried out by adding controlled amounts of VOC,  oxidants, and other gases to an 7000 liter chamber and then  monitoring gas concentrations and particle properties in  real-time. Particle composition will be measured in real- time using TDPBMS, the particle size distribution will be  monitored using a scanning electrical mobility  spectrometer, the hygroscopic properties of the particles  will be investigated using a tandem differential mobility  analyzer, and size-segregated particle samples will be  collected with a filter or microorifice uniform deposit  impactor for off-line analysis by gas chromatography-mass  spectrometry.   Expected Results: The results of this research will help  to elucidate the fundamental chemical and physical  processes involved in secondary aerosol formation in the  atmosphere. This includes the kinetics, products, and  mechanisms of gas-phase reactions by which key atmospheric  oxidants convert the major classes of atmospheric VOC to  condensable species, and also the heterogeneous (surface or  liquid phase) reactions, condensation, and homogeneous  nucleation processes involved in gas-to-particle  conversion. Knowledge gained concerning the formation of  particulate organics, sulfates, and nitrates can be used  for the development of more sophisticated models of  secondary aerosol formation and behavior. Such models can  be included as modules in airshed models, which can in turn  be used to estimate the effects of human activities  (including pollution control strategies) on air quality.  Information on the chemical composition of the aerosol will  also be valuable for understanding the effects of fine  particles on human health by identifying chemical compounds  that should be screened for potential toxicity.  Supplemental Keywords: absorption, adsorption,  environmental chemistry, gas-particle partitioning,  measurement methods, particulates, tropospheric ::

Hit 164 of 277 -- Awd #: R826240 
 Award Type: Extramural / Grants / Project
Access/Distribution Restriction:
 Code: A - Distribution Unlimited - Unrestricted Access
Parent Organizations: EPA / Research and Development / Extramural awards
Dates: Feb 1998 to Jan 2001
Performer: UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA
 Type:     Public Educational Institution
 District: Multiple congressional districts in California
 Location: Riverside,   CA
Description: SHORT DESCR: FEDERAL DEMONSTRATION PARTNERSHIP (FDP) - REAL-TIME MONITORING OF INDIVIDUAL ATMOSPHERIC AEROSOL PAR :: LONG DESCR: Objectives/Hypotheses: Information on real-time variations  of atmospheric aerosols is essential to developing  appropriate control strategies and designing relevant  health effect studies for particulates. Information from  previous aerosol studies is limited by the long sampling  times inherently required for off-line chemical analysis.  The goal of the proposed research is to monitor changes in  the particle size and chemical speciation of individual  atmospheric aerosol particles over relatively short time  intervals. Correlations will be established between  fluctuations in aerosol particle size/composition  distributions, gas phase measurements (i.e. NOx, ozone,  NH3, HNO3), and meteorological conditions (wind speed,  direction, relative humidity, temperature). Approach: The  proposed studies will involve using a unique aerosol  analysis method developed in our laboratory, aerosol time- of-flight mass spectrometry (ATOFMS), to monitor real-time  variations in the size and chemical composition of  individual aerosol particles. ATOFMS is currently the only  real-time analysis method capable of providing precise  aerodynamic size (+/- 1%) and correlated chemical  composition information on polydisperse aerosol samples.  Standard commercial gas phase measurement equipment and a  weather station will be used for simultaneously measuring  ozone and NOx concentrations and meteorological conditions.  Denuder sampling and wet chemical analysis methods will be  used for the analysis of various gas phase species.  Expected Results: Recently, we demonstrated how ATOFMS can  be used to obtain compositionally-resolved particle size  distributions for atmospheric aerosols. The goal of the  proposed research will be to establish how such  distributions evolve over time for particles in the fine  and coarse size modes (0.1-10 microns). Depending on  atmospheric particle concentrations, between 2 and 10  particles per second can be analyzed using ATOFMS, thus  providing representative real-time "snap-shots" of  atmospheric aerosol size and chemical speciation over time  intervals of several minutes. Using these real-time  measurement capabilities, we will characterize temporal and  spatial variations of atmospheric aerosol particles. These  variations will be correlated with gas phase species  concentrations, time of day, and meteorological conditions,  leading to the first data detailing temporal variations in  the size and chemical speciation of individual atmospheric  aerosol particles. Supplemental Keywords: ambient air,  atmosphere, environmental chemistry, analytical,  measurement methods, pollution, aerosol, source allocation,  real-time, chemical analysi ::

Hit 165 of 277 -- Awd #: R826730 
 Award Type: Extramural / Grants / Project
Access/Distribution Restriction:
 Code: A - Distribution Unlimited - Unrestricted Access
Parent Organizations: EPA / Research and Development / Extramural awards
Dates: Oct 1998 to Sep 2001
Performer: UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA
 Type:     Private Educational Institution
 29th Congressional District in California        
 Location: Los Angeles,   CA
Description: SHORT DESCR: FEDERAL DEMONSTRATION PARTNERSHIP (FDP) - REAL-TIME, ULTRASENSITIVE MEASUREMENT OF PROCESS EMISSIONS :: LONG DESCR: Objectives and Approach: Real time measurement of process  emissions is important for undertaking rational pollution  prevention and risk reduction strategies. The selective  measurement of gaseous species, usually at trace levels, in  a complex background mixture is of particular concern  because many toxic pollutants are present at parts per  trillion (ppt) to parts per million (ppm) levels in process  effluents. Consequently there is a growing need for the  development of highly sensitive and selective techniques to  continuously monitor the concentrations of a broad range of  compounds. In this proposal we would like to exploit recent  advances made in resonance enhanced multiphoton ionization  (REMPI) and time of flight (TOF) mass spectrometry (MS) for  the development of real time and ultrasensitive detection  techniques to monitor a wide range of molecules in the gas  phase. An important and challenging chemical reaction  process where the REMPI-TOF/MS should have a major impact  is in combustion. This is because combustion of fossil  fuels is a highly complex, exothermic and high temperature  reaction process which is associated with the production of  trace levels of aromatics, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons  (PAH), dioxins and their derivatives, some of which are  highly toxic. We believe the development of the REMPI- TOF/MS technology to monitor emissions in a harsh  combustion environment should readily be adaptable to  chemical manufacturing processes, such as catalytic  cracking of petroleum, that generally operate under milder  conditions. The proposed program has two specific  objectives: 1. Molecular spectroscopy, excited state  dynamics and REMPI-TOF/MS detection of large PAH and 2.  REMPI-TOF/MS measurements of PAH concentration profiles in  laboratory flames. Our program have already received  significant industry interest and support as noted in the  attached letter of endorsement from Chevron.Expected  Results: The proposed program, when completed, will provide  information on two fronts: First, fundamental REMPI spectra  for large PAH that are of significant health concern, such  as benzo(a)pyrene and dibenz(a,h)anthracene, will be  generated for use in the development of optimal REMPI  strategies for the real time detection of these species.  Second, the applicability and limitations of REMPI-TOF/MS  for the real time measurements of large PAH in hot  combustion gases will be established. Improvement in Risk  Assessment or Risk Management: The development of the  REMPI- TOF/MS technology should accelerate the progress in  pollution prevention on several fronts. First, because real  time ultrasensitive measurements would be a useful risk  screening tool, it should help in the development of new  products and processes that are less polluting in the first  place. Second, the development of this technology should  enable the implementation of active control methods to  minimize the formation and emission of trace pollutants  from existing processes. Supplemental Keywords: Continuous  emissions monitoring, laser diagnostics, risk management ::

Hit 166 of 277 -- Awd #: R826767 
 Award Type: Extramural / Grants / Project
Access/Distribution Restriction:
 Code: A - Distribution Unlimited - Unrestricted Access
Parent Organizations: EPA / Research and Development / Extramural awards
Dates: Oct 1998 to Sep 2001
Performer: UNIV. OF NORTH CAROLINA AT CHAPEL H
 Type:     Public Educational Institution
 District: Multiple congressional districts in North Carolina
 Location: Orange,   NC
Description: SHORT DESCR: FEDERAL DEMONSTRATION PARTNERSHIP (FDP) - AEROSOL PARTITIONING AND HETEROGENEOUS CHEMISTRY - TO COMB :: LONG DESCR: Objectives/Hypotheses: The focus of these studies is on the  development of the in situ spectroscopic methods necessary  to characterize gas-particle systems under ambient  conditions and to apply these to better understand the  nature of atmospheric particulates. This research  specifically addresses the problem of characterizing and  monitoring the fine fraction of atmospheric aerosols  (particulate matter of diameters 2.5mm or less: PM2.5) that  are linked to health effects and now subject to regulation.  The semi-volatile nature of these particles makes their  detailed characterization difficult, since all sampling  methods tend to perturb the delicate equilibrium that  exists between the gas and particle phases.  Approach: The  basic approach is to combine time-resolved Fourier  Transform infrared (FTIR) and diode laser (TDL)  spectroscopies with laser evaporation methods to determine  the partitioning of semi-volatile species between the gas  and particle phases. A pulsed CO2 laser, with adjustable  output intensities, is being used to heat the cross-section  of an aerosol stream flowing through a sample cell equipped  with a White Cell optical configuration for enhanced  detection. Concurrently, a step-scan FTIR or TDL system  provides a measurement of gas phase concentrations on the  nanosecond time scale as the particle evaporates. Through  collaborations that are already in place with the  Environmental Sciences Department at UNC, we will have the  opportunity to interface these new methods with a smog  chamber for quantitative comparison with more traditional  methods. Ultimately, although not part of this proposal, it  is our goal to apply these new methods to ambient  particles. In the present grant period, we will evaluate  the conditions under which the proposed methods could be  used for real-time field measurements.  Expected Results:  The experiments are laboratory based and focus on the  characterization of the aerosols through the development of  new in situ spectroscopic methods.  Measurements as a  function of laser fluence are beginning to provide  information on (1) the composition of the particles, (2)  the partitioning of various species between the two phases,  (3) the rates of evaporation of the various species, which  in turn will provide information on the layered structure  of the particles and (4) the rates of re-equilibration  after the heating cycle, providing insights into the uptake  of semi-volatiles on short time scales.  Improvement in  Risk Assessment or Risk Management: Reliable risk  assessment with respect to particles requires better  methods for their characterization and a better overall  understanding of their properties. In the work proposed  here we will address these two issues by first developing  new in situ methods for monitoring the gas and particle  phases and second by providing a data base of compositional  and rate information that will improve our understanding of  the complex processes associated with these semi-volatile  systems.  Supplemental Keywords: atmosphere, absorption,  chemical transport, bioavailability, chemicals, toxics,  organics, environmental chemistry, analytical, measurement  methods, Urban Areas ::

Hit 167 of 277 -- Awd #: R826783 
 Award Type: Extramural / Grants / Project
Access/Distribution Restriction:
 Code: A - Distribution Unlimited - Unrestricted Access
Parent Organizations: EPA / Research and Development / Extramural awards
Dates: Oct 1998 to Sep 2000
Performer: PUBLIC HEALTH INSTITUTE
 Type:     Nonprofit (Non-Educational)
 District: Multiple congressional districts in California
 Location: Berkeley,   CA
Description: SHORT DESCR: RELATIONSHIP OF AMBIENT PARTICULATE MATTER TO HEART RATE VARIABILITY & CARDIAC ARRHYTHMIAS IN ELDERL :: LONG DESCR: Objectives/Hypothesis: The mechanisms underlying reported  associations between exposures to ambient particulate  matter (PM) and daily mortality are unknown. The work  proposed would examine associations between PM and two  intermediate, potentially explanatory outcomes related to  the electrical activity of the heart. Specifically, this  study would examine whether, in older adults with coronary  artery disease, exposures to elevated levels of ambient  PM10, PM2.5, the coarse fraction (PM10 minus PM2.5), and  ultrafine particles are associated with: (1) altered  cardiac autonomic nervous system regulation, as measured by  decreased heart rate variability (HRV), and (2) increases  in the number and frequency of serious cardiac arrhythmias.  Approach: Adults (aged 65-80) with coronary artery disease  will be recruited from a large cardiology practice in the  Coachella Valley, CA, an area where the PM mass is  dominated by coarse particles and which has been designated  to be in serious nonattainment with the 24-hour PM10  national ambient air quality standard (NAAQS). Health data  will consist of subjects' responses to a structured  interview, supplemented with abstraction of their medical  records, pulmonary function testing and, to assess HRV and  cardiac arrhythmias, serial 24-hour Holter monitoring.  These monitors will be run at weekly intervals for up to 12  consecutive weeks from April - June 2000, when seasonal  trends favor high ambient levels of PM. The methods to be  used will be pilot-tested in spring 1999, allowing an  assessment of the feasibility of 24-hour versus shorter  intervals of Holter monitoring, among other things.  Exposure measures will consist of real-time monitoring of  ambient PM10, PM2.5, ultrafine particles, ozone, nitrogen  dioxide, and carbon monoxide. The exposure assessment will  be refined with PM measurements inside and outside of study  subjects' homes. Analysis will use statistical methods  developed for analyzing longitudinal data using linear  mixed models (SAS Proc Mixed procedure) to account for  within-subject correlation.   Expected Results: This study will test the hypotheses that  several measures of PM (PM10, PM2.5, coarse particles and  ultrafine particles) are associated with two outcomes that  may help explain PM-mortality associations: decreased HRV  and increased ventricular arrhythmias in a potentially  vulnerable subpopulation. Improvements in Risk Assessment  or Risk Management: This project will help elucidate the  relative roles (if any) of exposure to several subfractions  of PM10 in an area in which the particulate mass is  dominated by coarse particles. As indicated in the U.S.  EPA's recent review and revision of the PM NAAQS, there are  almost no studies of the relationships of coarse or  ultrafine particles to morbidity or mortality: the proposed  study offers the opportunity to investigate the relative  importance of both. Supplemental Keywords: ambient air,  epidemiology, California, CA, sensitive populations,  elderly, health effects, human health, heart rat ::

Hit 168 of 277 -- Awd #: R826787 
 Award Type: Extramural / Grants / Project
Access/Distribution Restriction:
 Code: A - Distribution Unlimited - Unrestricted Access
Parent Organizations: EPA / Research and Development / Extramural awards
Dates: Oct 1998 to Sep 2001
Performer: RESEARCH TRIANGLE INSTITUTE
 Type:     Nonprofit (Non-Educational)
 Location: Durham,   NC
Description: SHORT DESCR: TESTING OF A MODEL TO PREDICT HUMAN EXPOSURES TO ALDEHYDES ARISING  FROM MOBILE AND POINT SOURCES - :: LONG DESCR: Objectives/Hypotheses: The main objective of the proposed  program is to estimate human exposure to target aldehydes  (formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acrolein, propionaldehyde,  butyraldehyde, crotonaldehyde, glyoxal, methylglyoxal) by  means of microenvironmental and personal exposure  monitoring for two urban areas. The main hypothesis to be  tested is that a mathematical model (pHAP) can be used to  predict personal exposure distribution to aldehydes.  Additional hypotheses to be tested are that (a) personal  exposure levels of aldehydes exceed outdoor concentrations;  (b) indoor aldehyde concentrations exceed outdoor  concentrations; and (c) the composition of oxygenated fuel  results in significant differences in population exposures  to aldehydes. Approach: The primary objective of this study  is to estimate the distribution of aldehyde exposures to  residents living in two areas to determine if they are or  are not impacted differently by the choice of oxygenated  fuels used by mobile sources. Milwaukee, Wisconsin (because  of the use of ethanol in the gasoline) and Sacramento,  California (because of the use of methyl t-butyl ether or  MTBE) have been chosen for the field studies. These two  field studies, to be conducted for approximately 40 days  each during the summers of 1999 and 2000, are both directed  towards acquiring representative personal monitoring data  which will be used to estimate the exposures of urban and  suburban residents to selected aldehydes, VOCs, and carbon  monoxide (CO). Aldehydes will be sampled using DNPH silica  cartridges, VOCs (ethanol, MTBE, benzene, toluene, xylenes)  will be sampled using sorbent tubes, and CO will be  measured using real-time monitors. Through the collection  and analysis of VOCs and CO in addition to the aldehydes,  the design will permit a source apportionment of the  aldehyde contribution to exposure that originates from  direct emissions from mobile sources, those which are  photochemically produced from mobile source emissions,  combustion processes, and contributions of other sources  and environments which also contribute to these exposures.  The field design is model-based, that is, the monitoring  field data are gathered for input into the model or to test  and validate modeled predictions. Measured and predicted  exposures will be compared for determining uncertainties of  the modeled exposures. Each field study will have two  components. In the first component, integrated personal  exposures for 40 volunteers will be measured once during a  summer season. This study is similar in design to other  personal exposure studies except that the volunteers will  be randomly chosen according to selection criteria related  to location of residence. The study population will be  matched to the extent possible by age, race, sex as  determined by the Census Bureau statistics, and according  to spatial gradients away from the downtown area. Twenty  four-hour measurements of the corresponding indoor and  outdoor concentrations at the residence of each subject  will also be made. In the second component the exposures of  a technician to the same set of pollutants will be measured  as the technician follows a set of prepared instructions,  called scripts, to follow throughout the day. These scripts  outline the activities and microenvironments to which the  technician will be exposed on a given day, e.g., commuting  downtown, driving in street canyons, walking inside,  walking outdoors around a commercial area away from a  roadway. The script provides instructions to the technician  specifying (1) the duration of an air sample to be taken  during each sampling period, (2) the general and  microenvironmental location during the sampling period, and  (3) the general activities undertaken during the period.  Personal exposure monitors (aldehyde-DNPH, VOCs, and CO)  will be used to measure 1-hr and 12-hr exposures to each  compound as the technician simulates the activity patterns  of typical city residents. Using the data generated from  the scripted study and information about the activities of  the study participants in the personal monitoring study,  the exposures will be predicted using pHAP and compared to  those measured. Expected Results: Results of this research  will be a characterization of aldehydes in urban  microenvironments important to potential human exposure,  information about the sources of aldehydes in the various  microenvironments, information about personal exposures of  individuals to aldehydes, the linkage of microenvironmental  aldehyde concentrations to human exposures using a  mathematical model, and suggesting improvements to the  model. Improvement in Risk Assessment or Risk Management:  The personal exposure data and the microenvironmental data  collected during the study will provide information about  aldehyde exposures otherwise not available in the  scientific literature, determine the extent to which these  exposures might pose a health risk, and based on the study  design, address the uncertainties of modeled exposures  based on microenvironmental concentration data.  Supplemental Keywords: exposure, air, mobile sources,  monitoring, aldehydes, VOC, modelin ::

Hit 169 of 277 -- Awd #: R827065 
 Award Type: Extramural / Grants / Project
Access/Distribution Restriction:
 Code: A - Distribution Unlimited - Unrestricted Access
Parent Organizations: EPA / Research and Development / Extramural awards
Dates: Nov 1998 to Oct 2000
Performer: CITY OF DENTON
 Type:     State or Local Government
 District: Multiple congressional districts in Texas
 Location: Denton,   TX
Description: SHORT DESCR: REAL TIME AND NEAR REAL TIME MONITORING FOR PUBLIC INFORMATION, DECISION MAKING AND EDUCATION--  THR :: LONG DESCR: Not Available. ::

Hit 170 of 277 -- Awd #: R827084 
 Award Type: Extramural / Grants / Project
Access/Distribution Restriction:
 Code: A - Distribution Unlimited - Unrestricted Access
Parent Organizations: EPA / Research and Development / Extramural awards
Dates: Oct 1998 to Aug 2001
Performer: UNIVERSITY OF MARYLAND
 Type:     Public Educational Institution
 District: Multiple congressional districts in Maryland
 Location: Baltimore,   MD
Description: SHORT DESCR: ECOHAB DINOFLAGELLATE MOLECULAR ECOLOGY - AN OBJECTIVE OF THIS PROJECT IS TO REFINE A NEWLY DEVELOPE :: LONG DESCR: Objectives/Hypotheses/Approach: The recent association of  Pfiesteria-like dinoflagellates with fish kill events and  adverse human health effects has highlighted the need for  research aimed at predicting, mitigating, and preventing  such occurrences. However, the unique life cycle of  Pfiesteria like dinoflagellates, the absence of axenic  culture for their study, and the biohazard associated with  attempted culture of toxin-producing organisms have  hampered progress in these endeavors. To address some of  these inherent difficulties, we have adapted molecular  methods for the detection of known and novel dinoflagellate  species. In Phase-1 of the proposed project the  investigators will use a molecular ecological approach to  determine dinoflagellate diversity in Maryland, North  Carolina, and South Carolina estuarine sites and, using SSU  (18s rDNA) gene sequences, analyze phylogenetic  relationships among those organisms. Qualitative changes in  species diversity will be measured utilizing  ?dinoflagellate specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR)  primers (18s rRNA), heteroduplex mobility assay (HMA) to  gauge diversity within the amplified pool of dinoflagellate  cDNA, and heteroduplex tracking assay (HTA) to identify  characterized and novel dinoflagellate gene sequences  within the sampled community. Changes in dinoflagellate  community structure in selected waterways over time will be  correlated with estuarine physicochemical and biological  parameters. The investigators will assay specifically for  Pfiesteria piscicida and correlate the presence or absence  of this species with environmental parameters and effects.  The proposed approach, while having demonstrated capability  to detect specific species such as P. piscicida, will also  be used to identify novel dinoflagellate gene sequences  (i.e., species) associated with environmental events such  as fish kills. A library of estuarine dinoflagellate 18s  rDNA gene sequences will be constructed, and  correlated/validated with direct sequencing of cultures  generated by collaborating laboratories. This strategy will  also provide an assessment of the clonality of  dinoflagellate cultures, enhancing efforts by culture  facilities to generate clonal dinoflagellate cultures for  detailed genetic and biochemical analyses. Utilizing  sequence data already available and novel sequence data  generated through the above analyses, species specific  quantitative PCR detection using kinetic thermal cycling  assays will be developed. The kinetic thermal cycling assay  system will utilize fluorogenic probes in the 5?exonuclease  assay to determine target sequence copy numbers in assayed  samples. In Phase I of the proposed study, this assay will  be laboratory based. In Phase II, the assay will be adapted  to newly developed battery powered miniaturized analytical  thermal cycling instruments (MATCI) with field testing  capability. Significant effort will be exerted in  developing DNA extraction methods for both water and  sediment that can support such field analyses. Utilizing  this technology, a quantitative PCR assay for Pfiesteria  piscicida will be developed, and field tested both in  Maryland and North Carolina. These studies will be carried  out in parallel with longitudinal cohort studies of  individuals with occupational exposure to the same  waterways (thus, at potential risk for Pfiesteria-related  illness). In pilot study epidemiological analyses, results  of qualitative PCR assays for the presence of planktonic  Pfiesteria piscicida will be correlated with observed  health effects in exposed individuals (as well as with  environmental events such as fish kills). The quantitative  PCR assay will be field tested in the context of the  ongoing Maryland cohort study in an effort to help define  ?significant exposures to Pfiesteria piscicida. Expected  Results: 1) Development of PCR/heteroduplex mobility based  assays permitting rapid assessment of dinoflagellate  culture clonality. 2) Identification of characteristic HMA  patterns (molecular fingerprints) associated with specific  estuarine heterotrophic dinoflagellate dinoflagellates. 3)  SSU sequence determination for Pfiesteria piscicida and  Pfiesteria-like dinoflagellates (HMA directed sequence  discovery). 4) Expansion of an estuarine dinoflagellate SSU  sequence matrix, permitting: 5) Development of species  specific PCR primer/probe combinations for environmental  monitoring. 6) Development of species specific quantitative  PCR utilizing fluorogenic probe hybridization strategies  (5?-3? exonuclease assay). 7) Deployment of quantitative  assays in a portable real-time, PCR device that can be used  in-situ for assessment of harmful algal blooms. 8)  Correlation of environmental monitoring for Pfiesteria  piscicida and related dinoflagellates with results of an  ongoing Pfiesteria-related illness cohort study among  Maryland Chesapeake Bay watermen. Supplemental  Keywords:Pfiesteria piscicida, toxin-producing  dinoflagellates, harmful algal blooms, phytoplankton,  phycology, real-time PCR, MATCI (miniaturized analytic  thermal cycling instruments), heteroduplex mobility assays,  SSU sequences ::

Hit 171 of 277 -- Awd #: R827122 
 Award Type: Extramural / Grants / Project
Access/Distribution Restriction:
 Code: A - Distribution Unlimited - Unrestricted Access
Parent Organizations: EPA / Research and Development / Extramural awards
Dates: Jan 1999 to Dec 2001
Performer: WILLIAM MARSH RICE UNIVERSITY
 Type:     Public Educational Institution
 District: Multiple congressional districts in Texas
 Location: Houston,   TX
Description: SHORT DESCR: FEDERAL DEMONSTRATION PARTNERSHIP (FDP)-- DEVELOPMENT OF A NEW GAS SFEDERAL DEMONSTRATION PARTNERSHI :: LONG DESCR: Objectives/Hypotheses: Spectroscopic methods for the  sensing and identification of gases have shown great  promise, owing to their inherent non-invasive nature,  relative simplicity, and high selectivity. The use of far- infrared or terahertz (1 THz = 1012 Hz, corresponding to a  wavelength of ~300  m) radiation for sensing purposes,  though extremely valuable as a complement to well  established mid-infrared technologies, has not achieved  great success. This is largely due to the complexity of the  instrumentation required for generation and detection of  terahertz radiation, which renders existing spectrometers  impractical for most real-world sensing applications. The  objective of this research is to build a portable broadband  spectrometer based on the recently developed technique of  terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS). Approach: The  task of constructing a rugged, reliable, and portable THz- TDS system can be divided into two broad areas, both of  which are addressed in this proposal. The first deals with  hardware aspects, particularly the femtosecond laser system  required for THz generation. The THz-TDS technique must be  adapted for operation with a mode-locked fiber laser. This  will require the development of new methods for THz  generation, involving either new semiconductor materials or  efficient frequency doubling of the fiber laser. Also,  novel chirped-pulse electro-optic sensing techniques will  be developed for compatibility with fiber coupling. The  second involves the development of algorithms for signal  processing of the THz waveforms. Methods based on wavelet  processing are expected to be particularly well suited for  these signals, owing to the strong resemblance of the  measured waveforms to elements of a wavelet basis. Expected  Results: A portable and reliable far-infrared spectrometer  will be built and tested. This system will be driven by a  mode-locked fiber laser, and will therefore be largely  insensitive to external perturbation, optical alignment  issues, etc. The newly developed signal processing  procedures will be incorporated into the software used to  drive the real-time data acquisition system. Collection of  training data on a number of gases of interest will begin.  This will be useful for subsequent tests for determining  the sensitivity of the system, as well as for an assessment  of the progress of this project. This prototype system will  be suitable for field tests in a wide range of industrial  environments. Improvement in Risk Assessment or Risk  Management: The development of a commercially viable far- infrared gas sensing system will be very much complementary  to the well established techniques based on vibrational  spectroscopy. Whereas those systems are extremely good at  sensing numerous smaller molecules, such as many greenhouse  gases, they often find difficulty in identifying larger  molecules, for which the vibrational  fingerprint' region  exhibits highly complex and structured spectra. The far- infrared spectra of these molecules are often far less  complicated, as only the rotational degrees of freedom are  involved. As a result, identification based on terahertz   fingerprint' spectroscopy is often easier with larger  polar molecules. Many candidate molecules are commonly used  in industrial applications, including solvents such as  acetonitrile, acetone, and trichloroethane, halogenated  benzenes, and many chlorofluorocarbons. Industrial users  are required to monitor the release of these species into  the environment, and will undoubtedly benefit from the  availability of a real-time monitoring system such as the  one whose development is proposed here. Supplemental  Keywords: innovative technology, engineering, monitorin ::

Hit 172 of 277 -- Awd #: NAG81352 
 Award Type: Extramural / Grants / Project
Access/Distribution Restriction:
 Code: A - Distribution Unlimited - Unrestricted Access
Parent Organizations: NASA / Life and Microgravity Science / Microgravity research
 Project: Research and analysis
Dates: Jun 1997 to Nov 2000
Performer: UNIV IOWA [Marshall]
 Type:     Public Educational Institution
 First Congressional District in Iowa
 Location: Iowa City,   IA
Description: LONG DESCR: FOR RESEARCH "REAL TIME MONITORING OF PROTEIN CONCENTRATION IN SOLUTION TO CONTROL NUCLEATION.. ::

Hit 173 of 277 -- Awd #: VN870354 
 Award Type: Transfers / Incoming / Reimbursable-Traditional
 Requester: DOD
Access/Distribution Restriction:
 Code: C - U.S. Federal Government and Contractors Only
 Reason: AD - Administrative or Operational Use Data
Parent Organizations: NASA / REIMB /
Dates: Oct 1992 to na
Performer: NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION. AMES RESEARCH CENTER
 Type:     Federal Government
 Contact:  CARLE, G C, Phone: 415-694-5765
 10th Congressional District in California        
Description: TITLE: DATA ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES: ADVANCED DATA HANDLING STUDIES FOR LIFE SCIENCES FLIGHT EXPERIMENTS :: LONG DESCR: THE OBJECTIVE OF THIS RTOP IS TO PROVIDE ADVANCED DATA ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES FOR FUTURE LIFE SCIENCES FLIGHT EXPERIMENTS IN EARTH ORBIT AND IN SOLAR SYSTEM EXPLORATION. WHILE LIFE SCIENCES ENCOMPASSES MANY DIVERSE SCIENCE DISCIPLINES RANGING FROM EXOBIOLOGY TO BIOMEDICINE, THERE IS A UNIVERSAL NEED AMONG THESE DISCIPLINES TO CONDUCT FLIGHT EXPERIMENTS TO MEET THE GOALS OF EACH PARTICULAR PROGRAM. BY DEVELOPING NEW AND MORE EFFICIENT ANALYTICAL APPROACHES BASED ON ADVANCED COMPUTATIONAL TECHNIQUES FOR THESE MISSIONS, FLIGHT EXPERIMENTS WHICH FOCUS ON EACH PROGRAM'S INTERESTS CAN BE MORE EFFECTIVE IN COMPETING FOR THE LIMITED SPACE ON AVAILABLE MISSIONS AS WELL AS MAKE BETTER USE OF THE COLLECTED FLIGHT DATA. IN THE AREA OF EXOBIOLOGICAL SOLAR SYSTEM EXPLORATION EXPERIMENTS, THESE LIMITATIONS ARE PARTICULARLY SEVERE. THEREFORE, NEW ANALYTICAL APPROACHES BASED ON ADVANCED COMPUTATIONAL TECHNIQUES WILL BE DEVELOPED WHICH WILL SIGNIFICANTLY INCREASE THE DATA RETURNED FROM A FLIGHT EXPERIMENT WITHOUT INCREASING THE REQUIREMENTS FOR SPACECRAFT RESOURCES. IN THE AREA OF EARTH ORBIT FLIGHT ANIMAL AND BIOMEDICAL EXPERIMENTS, THERE ARE A NUMBER OF REQUIREMENTS FOR MONITORING A WIDE VARIETY OF PHYSIOLOGICAL PARAMETERS DURING MISSIONS. TO MEET THESE REQUIREMENTS, AN AGENCY-WIDE FLIGHT DATA HANDLING AND ANALYSIS SYSTEM FOR FUTURE SPACELAB LIFE SCIENCES EXPERIMENTS WILL BE DEVELOPED. THIS SYSTEM WILL ALLOW FOR REAL-TIME DATA ANALYSIS AND EXPERIMENTER/EXPERIMENT INTERACTION IN FUTURE MISSIONS. ADDITIONALLY, TO AID IN FLIGHT PHYSIOLOGICAL STUDIES, ACCURATE MATHEMATICAL MODELS OF PHYSIOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF MICROGRAVITY WILL BE DEVELOPED :: KEYWORDS: ACCURACY;AEROSPACE MEDICINE;ANIMALS;BIOMEDICINE;COMPUTATIONS;DATA PROCESSING;EARTH ORBITS;EFFICIENCY;FLIGHT;FLIGHT TESTING;GRAVITY;INFLIGHT;INFORMATION SYSTEMS;LABORATORIES;LIFE SCIENCES;MATHEMATICAL MODELS;MECHANICS;MEDICINE;METHODOLOGY;OPERATION;PARAMETERS;PHYSIOLOGICAL EFFECTS;PHYSIOLOGY;RANGE FINDING;REAL TIME;REDUCTION;REQUIREMENTS;RESOURCES;SOLAR SYSTEM;SPACE BIOLOGY;SPACE EXPLORATION;SPACE STATIONS;SPACECRAFT;AEROSPACE MEDICINE;ANIMALS;BIOMEDICAL DATA;DATA SYSTEMS;EARTH ORBITS;EXOBIOLOGY;FLIGHT MECHANICS;GRAVITATIONAL EFFECTS;LIFE SCIENCES;MATHEMATICAL MODELS;MEDICAL SCIENCE;PHYSIOLOGICAL EFFECTS;RANGEFINDING;REAL TIME OPERATION;REDUCED GRAVITY;SPACE EXPLORATION;SPACELAB ::

Hit 174 of 277 -- Awd #: VN270725 
 Award Type: Transfers / Incoming / Reimbursable-Traditional
 Requester: DOD
Access/Distribution Restriction:
 Code: C - U.S. Federal Government and Contractors Only
 Reason: AD - Administrative or Operational Use Data
Parent Organizations: NASA / REIMB /
Dates: Oct 1992 to na
Performer: NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION. GODDARD SPACE FLIGHT CENTER
 Type:     Federal Government
 Contact:  MANDL, DAN, Phone: 301-286-4323
 5th Congressional District in Maryland        
 Location: Greenbelt,   MD
Description: TITLE: MISSION OPERATIONS TECHNOLOGY :: LONG DESCR: CONTROL CENTER SYSTEMS ARE BECOMING MORE SOPHISTICATED AND SPACECRAFT OPERATIONS ARE BECOMING MORE COMPLEX WITH THE ADVENT OF SOPHISTICATED ON-BOARD SPACECRAFT COMPUTERS. TYPICAL FUNCTIONS PERFORMED BY A FLIGHT OPERATIONS TEAM (FOT) UNDER THE PRESSURE OF A TIMELINE ARE TO: MONITOR AND ANALYZE LARGE AMOUNTS OF TELEMETRY DATA FROM A HOST OF INSTRUMENTS AND PLATFORMS; DIAGNOSE AND PREDICT SUBSYSTEM FAILURES; AND DEVELOP STRATEGIES FOR CORRECTIVE ACTION. EXPERT SYSTEMS AND OTHER AUTOMATION TECHNIQUES HAVE BEEN DEVELOPED TO HELP THE FOT PERFORM THEIR INCREASINGLY COMPLEX TASKS RELIABLY AND QUICKLY. EXAMPLES OF SUCH SYSTEMS ARE THE GRAPHICAL SPACECRAFT MONITORING SYSTEM (GSMS), AND THE BACKUP CONTROL MODE AND ANALYSIS SYSTEM (BCAUS), TWO SYSTEMS DEVELOPED FOR THE GAMMA RAY OBSERVATORY (GRO) PAYLOAD OPERATIONS CONTROL CENTER (POCC). THESE SYSTEMS USE A STATE-OF-THE-ART TWO AND THREE DIMENSIONAL REAL-TIME COLOR GRAPHICS, EXPERT SYSTEM :: KEYWORDS: AIRBORNE;AUTOMATIC;AUTOMATION;BACKUP SYSTEMS;COMPUTER GRAPHICS;COMPUTERS;CONTROL;CONTROL CENTERS;CONTROL SYSTEMS;EXPERT SYSTEMS;FLIGHT;GAMMA RAYS;GRAPHICS;INSTRUMENTATION;MISSIONS;MONITORING;OBSERVATORIES;ONBOARD;OPERATION;PAYLOAD;PREDICTIONS;REAL TIME;SPACE FLIGHT;SPACEBORNE;SPACECRAFT;TEAMS(PERSONNEL);TELEMETER SYSTEMS;TELEMETERING DATA;AIRBORNE/SPACEBORNE COMPUTERS;AUTOMATIC CONTROL;COLOR;COMPUTER GRAPHICS;EXPERT SYSTEMS;FLIGHT OPERATIONS;GAMMA RAY OBSERVATORY;PAYLOAD CONTROL;PREDICTION ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES;REAL TIME OPERATION;SPACE FLIGHT;SPACECRAFT INSTRUMENTS;TELEMETRY ::

Hit 175 of 277 -- Awd #: VN070681 
 Award Type: Transfers / Incoming / Reimbursable-Traditional
 Requester: DOD
Access/Distribution Restriction:
 Code: C - U.S. Federal Government and Contractors Only
 Reason: AD - Administrative or Operational Use Data
Parent Organizations: NASA / REIMB /
Dates: Oct 1992 to na
Performer: Not specified
 Type:     Not specified
 Contact:  MURATORE, J F, Phone: 713-483-0796
 Location: Not Specified  
Description: TITLE: SPACE SHUTTLE MISSION OPERATIONS EFFECTIVENESS :: LONG DESCR: THE PURPOSE OF THIS RTOP IS TO IMMEDIATELY IMPROVE THE MISSION EFFECTIVENESS OF SPACE SHUTTLE FLIGHT CONTROLLERS BY PLACING REAL TIME EXPERT SYSTEMS INTO MISSION CONTROL TO PERFORM AUTOMATED TELEMETRY MONITORING AND SUBSYSTEM FAULT DIAGNOSIS. UNDER THIS EFFORT (AND RELATED RTOP'S FROM OAST AND OSS) THREE REAL TIME EXPERT SYSTEMS HAVE BEEN PLACED IN MISSION CONTROL AND USED BY FLIGHT OPERATIONS PERSONNEL TO MONITOR TELEMETRY AND ASSIST IN FLIGHT DECISION MAKING. EXPERT SYSTEMS PROCESSING REAL TIME TELEMETRY FROM THE COMMUNICATIONS SYSTEMS AND THE SPACE SHUTTLE MAIN ENGINES WERE USED DURING THE STS-26 FLIGHT. DURING STS-29 A MECHANICAL EXPERT SYSTEM WAS USED TO MONITOR THE SHUTTLE'S HYDRAULIC, LANDING GEAR AND BRAKE SYSTEMS. ADDITIONALLY DURING STS-29, A NEW APPLICATION DEVELOPED UNDER THIS RTOP WAS ADDED TO MISSION CONTROL WHICH USED TELEMETRY TO RECONSTRUCT THE SHUTTLE PILOT'S FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS ON A COLOR GRAPHICS CRT. THIS ENABLES FLIGHT CONTROLLERS ON THE GROUND TO VIEW THE FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS FROM THE PILOT'S PERSPECTIVE, ENHANCING COMMUNICATION BETWEEN THE FLIGHT CREW AND MISSION CONTROL :: KEYWORDS: AUTOMATION;BRAKES;CATHODE RAY TUBES;COLORS;COMMUNICATION AND RADIO SYSTEMS;COMPUTER GRAPHICS;CONTROL;DECISION MAKING;DIAGNOSIS(GENERAL);ENGINES;EXPERT SYSTEMS;FAULT TOLERANCE;FAULTS;FLIGHT;FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEMS;FLIGHT CREWS;FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS;GRAPHICS;LANDING GEAR;MECHANICAL COMPONENTS;MISSION PROFILES;MISSIONS;MONITORING;OPERATION;PERSONNEL;PILOTS;REAL TIME;ROCKET ENGINES;SPACE FLIGHT;SPACE MISSIONS;SPACE SHUTTLES;TELEMETER SYSTEMS;COMPUTER GRAPHICS;DECISION MAKING;EXPERT SYSTEMS;FAULT TOLERANCE;FLIGHT CONTROL;FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS;FLIGHT OPERATIONS;MISSION PLANNING;REAL TIME OPERATION;SPACE SHUTTLE MAIN ENGINE;SPACE SHUTTLE MISSIONS;SPACE SHUTTLES;TELEMETRY ::

Hit 176 of 277 -- Awd #: VN170467 
 Award Type: Transfers / Incoming / Reimbursable-Traditional
 Requester: DOD
Access/Distribution Restriction:
 Code: C - U.S. Federal Government and Contractors Only
 Reason: AD - Administrative or Operational Use Data
Parent Organizations: NASA / REIMB /
Dates: Oct 1992 to na
Performer: Not specified
 Type:     Not specified
 Contact:  HEINDEL, T A, Phone: 713-983-2639
 Location: Not Specified  
Description: TITLE: SPACE SHUTTLE MISSION OPERATIONS EFFECTIVENESS :: LONG DESCR: THE PURPOSE OF THIS RTOP IS TO IMMEDIATELY IMPROVE THE EFFECTIVENESS OF SPACE SHUTTLE FLIGHT CONTROLLERS BY PLACING REAL TIME EXPERT SYSTEMS INTO MISSION CONTROL TO PERFORM ESTIMATED TELEMETRY MONITORING AND SUBSYSTEM FAULT DIAGNOSIS. TELEMETRY PROCESSORS ARE CURRENTLY INSTALLED IN MISSION CONTROL AND REAL TIME SPACE SHUTTLE TELEMETRY DATA IS BEING ROUTED INTO EXPERT SYSTEMS WHICH HAVE BEEN DEVELOPED BY FLIGHT CONTROLLERS. INITIAL RESULTS OF THIS RTOP DEMONSTRATED THAT THE QUALITY OF FLIGHT DECISION MAKING IS SUBSTANTIALLY IMPROVED BY THE USE OF THE EXPERT SYSTEMS TO ENHANCE THE MONITORING CAPABILITIES OF FLIGHT CONTROLLERS. ADDITIONALLY, TRAINING TIME IS REDUCED AND A SMALL MANPOWER REDUCTION IS POSSIBLE THROUGH THE USE OF THESE SYSTEMS. THE SYSTEMS ARE DEVELOPED USING STANDARD TECHNIQUES AND COMMERICALLY-AVAILABLE TECHNOLOGIES SUCH THAT THEY ARE PORTABLE AMONG BOTH EXISTING AND PLANNED REAL TIME ENVIRONMENTS :: KEYWORDS: CONTROL;DECISION MAKING;DIAGNOSIS(GENERAL);ENVIRONMENTS;ERROR ANALYSIS;ESTIMATES;EXPERT SYSTEMS;FAULTS;FLIGHT;FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEMS;MANPOWER;MISSIONS;MONITORING;OPERATION;PERSONNEL;REAL TIME;REDUCTION;SPACE FLIGHT;SPACE MISSIONS;SPACE SHUTTLES;SPACE TRANSPORTATION;TELEMETER SYSTEMS;TIME;TRAINING;DECISION MAKING;EDUCATION;ERROR ANALYSIS;ESTIMATING;EXPERT SYSTEMS;FLIGHT CONTROL;REAL TIME OPERATION;SPACE MISSIONS;SPACE SHUTTLES;SPACE TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM FLIGHTS;TELEMETRY ::

Hit 177 of 277 -- Awd #: VN270148 
 Award Type: Transfers / Incoming / Reimbursable-Traditional
 Requester: DOD
Access/Distribution Restriction:
 Code: C - U.S. Federal Government and Contractors Only
 Reason: AD - Administrative or Operational Use Data
Parent Organizations: NASA / REIMB /
Dates: Oct 1992 to na
Performer: Not specified
 Type:     Not specified
 Contact:  HEALEY, K J, Phone: 713-483-4776
 Location: Not Specified  
Description: TITLE: ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE :: LONG DESCR: THE OBJECTIVES OF THIS RTOP ARE TO CONTINUE AND EXPAND THE APPROPRIATE APPLICATION OF ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE, IN THE AREAS OF (1) GROUND OPERATIONS, (2) SOFTWARE PERFORMANCE TESTING, (3) PROJECT SCHEDULING, AND (4) ASSISTANCE AND GUIDELINES FOR DESIGN OF INTELLIGENT SYSTEMS AND THEIR HUMAN INTERFACES FOR EFFECTIVE HUMAN INTERACTION. THE APPROACH FOR (1) IS TO CONTINUE PLACING REALTIME EXPERT SYSTEMS INTO MISSION CONTROL TO PERFORM TELEMETRY MONITORING AND SUBSYSTEM FAULT DIAGNOSIS. THE APPROACH FOR (2) IS TO DEVELOP AND APPLY ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE TECHNOLOGIES TO MISSION - CRITICAL SPACE SHUTTLE FLIGHT SOFTWARE REGRESSION TEST ANALYSIS. THE APPROACH FOR (3) IS TO ENHANCE THE COMPASS (COMPUTER AIDED SCHEDULING SYSTEM) SCHEDULING TOOL TO PROVIDE RESOURCE CONSTRAINED PROJECT SCHEDULING CAPABILITIES. THE APPROACH FOR (4) IS TO CONTINUE AND REFINE THE IDENTIFICATION OF DESIGN PROCESSES AND APPLICATION CONSTRAINTS, LESSONS LEARNED, DESIGN ISSUES, AND CANDIDATE GUIDELINES AND HELPFUL EXAMPLES FOR INTELLIGENT SYSTEMS AND THEIR HUMAN INTERFACES :: KEYWORDS: ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE;COMPUTER AIDED DESIGN;COMPUTER PROGRAMS;COMPUTERS;CONTROL;DIAGNOSIS(GENERAL);ERROR ANALYSIS;EXPERT SYSTEMS;FAULTS;FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEMS;GROUND LEVEL;HUMANS;IDENTIFICATION;INSTRUCTIONS;INTERACTIONS;INTERFACES;LESSONS LEARNED;MAN COMPUTER INTERFACE;METHODOLOGY;MISSIONS;MONITORING;PERFORMANCE TESTS;REAL TIME;REGRESSION ANALYSIS;SCHEDULING;SPACE FLIGHT;SPACE SHUTTLES;SPACE TRANSPORTATION;TELEMETER SYSTEMS;TOOLS;VERIFICATION;APPLICATIONS PROGRAMS (COMPUTERS);COMPUTER PROGRAMS;COMPUTER TECHNIQUES;DESIGN ANALYSIS;ERROR ANALYSIS;EXPERT SYSTEMS;FLIGHT CONTROL;GROUND OPERATIONAL SUPPORT SYSTEM;MAN-COMPUTER INTERFACE;PERFORMANCE TESTS;PROGRAM VERIFICATION (COMPUTERS);REGRESSION ANALYSIS;SCHEDULING;SPACE SHUTTLES;SPACE TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM FLIGHTS;TELEMETRY ::

Hit 178 of 277 -- Awd #: VN270745 
 Award Type: Transfers / Incoming / Reimbursable-Traditional
 Requester: DOD
Access/Distribution Restriction:
 Code: C - U.S. Federal Government and Contractors Only
 Reason: AD - Administrative or Operational Use Data
Parent Organizations: NASA / REIMB /
Dates: Oct 1992 to na
Performer: Not specified
 Type:     Not specified
 Contact:  KALVELAGE, TOM, Phone: 713-483-0790
 Location: Not Specified  
Description: TITLE: REAL TIME DATA SYSTEM (RTDS) :: LONG DESCR: THE PURPOSE OF THIS RTOP IS TO IMMEDIATELY IMPROVE THE EFFECTIVENESS OF SPACE SHUTTLE FLIGHT CONTROLLERS BY PLACING REAL TIME EXPERT SYSTEMS INTO MISSION CONTROL TO PERFORM TELEMETRY MONITORING AND SUBSYSTEM FAULT DIAGNOSIS. TELEMETRY PROCESSORS ARE CURRENTLY INSTALLED IN MISSION CONTROL AND REAL TIME SPACE SHUTTLE TELEMETRY DATA IS BEING ROUTED INTO EXPERT SYSTEMS WHICH HAVE BEEN DEVELOPED BY FLIGHT CONTROLLERS. INITIAL RESULTS OF THIS RTOP DEMONSTRATED THAT THE QUALITY OF FLIGHT DECISION MAKING IS SUBSTANTIALLY INCREASED BY THE USE OF THE EXPERT SYSTEMS TO ENHANCE THE MONITORING CAPABILITIES OF FLIGHT CONTROLLERS. ADDITIONALLY, TRAINING TIME IS REDUCED AND A SMALL MANPOWER REDUCTION IS POSSIBLE THROUGH THE USE OF THESE SYSTEMS. THE SYSTEMS ARE DEVELOPED USING STANDARD TECHNIQUES AND COMMERCIALLY AVAILABLE TECHNOLOGIES SUCH THAT THEY ARE PORTABLE AMONG BOTH EXISTING AND PLANNED REAL TIME ENVIRONMENTS :: KEYWORDS: CONTROL;DECISION MAKING;DIAGNOSIS(GENERAL);ENVIRONMENTS;EXPERT SYSTEMS;FAULTS;FLIGHT;FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEMS;GROUND BASED;GROUND SUPPORT;INFORMATION SYSTEMS;MANPOWER;MISSIONS;MONITORING;OPERATION;PERSONNEL;REAL TIME;REDUCTION;SPACE FLIGHT;SPACE SHUTTLES;SPACECRAFT;TELEMETER SYSTEMS;TIME;TRAINING;DATA SYSTEMS;EXPERT SYSTEMS;GROUND BASED CONTROL;GROUND SUPPORT SYSTEMS;REAL TIME OPERATION;SPACE SHUTTLES;SPACECRAFT CONTROL;TELEMETRY ::

Hit 179 of 277 -- Awd #: VN870112 
 Award Type: Transfers / Incoming / Reimbursable-Traditional
 Requester: DOD
Access/Distribution Restriction:
 Code: C - U.S. Federal Government and Contractors Only
 Reason: AD - Administrative or Operational Use Data
Parent Organizations: NASA / REIMB /
Dates: Oct 1992 to na
Performer: Not specified
 Type:     Not specified
 Contact:  MURATORE, J F, Phone: 713-483-0796
 Location: Not Specified  
Description: TITLE: CSTI - AUTONOMOUS SYSTEMS :: LONG DESCR: THE OBJECTIVE OF THIS PROJECT IS TO INTRODUCE EMERGING INFORMATION SYSTEMS TECHNOLOGIES IN A REAL OPERATIONAL ENVIRONMENT FOR MONITORING THE SHUTTLE. THESE TECHNOLOGIES WILL BE EVALUATED FOR THEIR UTILITY IN BOTH REDUCING REQUIRED MANPOWER FOR MONITORING THE SHUTTLE AND FOR INCREASING THE QUALITY OF THE FLIGHT DECISION-MAKING PROCESS. THE TECHNOLOGIES SELECTED INCLUDE RULE BASED EXPERT SYSTEM TECHNOLOGY, HIGH RESOLUTION COLOR GRAPHICS, COMMERCIAL OFF-THE-SHELF UNIX BASED WORKSTATION AND DATA EVALUATION TOOLS, AND TELEMETRY PROCESSING AND DISPLAY EQUIPMENT. ALL OF THESE TECHNOLOGIES WILL BE INTEGRATED INTO A FLIGHT CONTROLLER WORKSTATION. THIS WORKSTATION WILL BE CAPABLE OF AUTONOMOUSLY PERFORMING A SIGNIFICANT PERCENTAGE OF THE SHUTTLE MONITORING TASK. THE WORKSTATION WILL INITIALLY BE DEMONSTRATED IN THE LABORATORY, AND THEN MOVED TO THE FLIGHT CONTROL ROOM IN MISSION CONTROL FOR EVALUATION IN MISSION SIMULATION AND ACTUAL FLIGHT. THE EXPERT SYSTEM WILL BE DIRECTLY CONNECTED TO REAL-TIME TELEMETRY INFORMATION SO THAT IT MAY PERFORM ON-LINE DIAGNOSTIC TASKS IN REAL TIME. ANOTHER MAJOR ELEMENT OF THIS APPROACH WILL BE THE USE OF CONVENTIONALLY PROGRAMMED FAULT DETECTION ALGORITHMS TO SCREEN DATA PRIOR TO ITS USE BY THE EXPERT SYSTEM. JOHNSON SPACE CENTER WILL DEVELOP THE SYSTEM AND EVALUATE IT IN REAL-TIME OPERATIONS. AMES RESEARCH CENTER WILL PROVIDE GUIDANCE ON SELECTION OF EXPERT SYSTEM TECHNOLOGIES FOR USE IN THE WORKSTATION :: KEYWORDS: ALGORITHMS;COLORS;COMMERCE;COMPUTER GRAPHICS;COMPUTER PROGRAMMING;CONTROL;CONTROL CENTERS;DATA MANAGEMENT;DATA PROCESSING EQUIPMENT;DECISION MAKING;DETECTION;DISPLAY SYSTEMS;EXPERT SYSTEMS;FAULTS;FLIGHT;FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEMS;FLIGHT SIMULATION;GRAPHICS;GROUND BASED;HIGH RESOLUTION;INFORMATION SYSTEMS;INTEGRATED SYSTEMS;MANPOWER;MISSIONS;MONITORING;MONITORS;OFF THE SHELF EQUIPMENT;ONLINE SYSTEMS;OPERATION;PROCESSING;REAL TIME;RESEARCH FACILITIES;SELF OPERATION;SIMULATION;SPACE SHUTTLES;SPACE TRANSPORTATION;TELEMETER SYSTEMS;TEST AND EVALUATION;TOOLS;WORK STATIONS;ALGORITHMS;AUTONOMY;COMPUTER GRAPHICS;CONTROL SIMULATION;DATA PROCESSING EQUIPMENT;DECISION MAKING;DETECTION;ERRORS;EXPERT SYSTEMS;FLIGHT CONTROL;FLIGHT SIMULATION;GROUND BASED CONTROL;INFORMATION SYSTEMS;INTEGRATED MISSION CONTROL CENTER;MANPOWER;MONITORS;ON-LINE SYSTEMS;REAL TIME OPERATION;SELF TESTS;SPACE TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM ::

Hit 180 of 277 -- Awd #: VN170106 
 Award Type: Transfers / Incoming / Reimbursable-Traditional
 Requester: DOD
Access/Distribution Restriction:
 Code: C - U.S. Federal Government and Contractors Only
 Reason: AD - Administrative or Operational Use Data
Parent Organizations: NASA / REIMB /
Dates: Oct 1992 to na
Performer: NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION. JOHN F. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER
 Type:     Federal Government
 Contact:  HEARD, A, Phone: 407-867-2780
 5th Congressional District in Florida        
 Location: Cocoa Beach,   FL
Description: TITLE: ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE :: LONG DESCR: THE OBJECTIVE OF THIS RTOP IS TO PROVIDE TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT SUPPORT FOR APPLICATION OF KNOWLEDGE-BASED SYSTEMS TO STS PROCESSING AT KSC. THE PROJECT GOAL IS TO EMULATE THE EXISTING DISTRIBUTED PROCESSING SYSTEM USED FOR THE KSC LAUNCH PROCESSING SYSTEM (LPS) BY DEMONSTRATING A DISTRIBUTED SET OF KNOWLEDGE-BASED SYSTEMS COOPERATING TO PROVIDE SYSTEM ANALYSIS, FAULT MONITORING, DIAGNOSIS, AND TASK PLANNING AND SCHEDULING SUPPORT FOR STS PROCESSING OPERATIONS. THIS GOAL WILL BE ACCOMPLISHED BY PRODUCTION OF A DISTRIBUTED ARCHITECTURE SHELL ALLOWING INTEGRATION OF INDEPENDENTLY DEVELOPED INTELLIGENT APPLICATIONS INTO A UNIFIED INTELLIGENT OPERATIONS SUPPORT TOOL SHARING RESOURCES SUCH AS REAL-TIME DATA AND KNOWLEDGE BASE ACCESS. KNOWLEDGE BASED SYSTEMS TO BE INCLUDED IN THIS ENVIRONMENT ARE TEST ENGINEER (KATE) ADVISORY SYSTEM SHELL WHICH WILL BE REFINED TO SUPPORT ADDITIONAL VEHICLE SUBSYSTEMS. THIS RESULTING DEMONSTRATION ENVIRONMENT, AN EXPERT SYSTEM FOR OPERATIONS DISTRIBUTED USERS (EXODUS), WILL FACILITATE DEPLOYMENT OF INTELLIGENT SYSTEMS FOR KSC OPERATIONS BY STREAMLINING DATA INTERFACE REQUIREMENTS, ALLOWING INCREMENTAL APPLICATION ADDITIONS AND OFFERING A LOW RISK VEHICLE FOR VALIDATION AND ASSESSMENT OF VALUE-ADDED AUTOMATION ENHANCEMENTS OFFERED BY THE VARIOUS KNOWLEDGE-BASED SYSTEMS. INCORPORATION OF PROJECT GOALS SHOULD IMPROVE THE EFFICIENCY AND RELIABILITY AND REDUCE COSTS OF THE CURRENT KSC LAUNCH PROCESSING TASKS TO BETTER ACCOMMODATE PLANNED LAUNCH RATE INCREASES. IN ADDITION, PROJECT DEVELOPED CONCEPTS ARE APPLICABLE TO DEVELOPMENT OF AUTONOMOUS SYSTEMS FOR BOTH SPACE STATION AND FUTURE LAUNCH VEHICLE GROUND AND ON-BOARD SYSTEMS :: KEYWORDS: ACCESS;ADDITION;ADVISORY ACTIVITIES;ARCHITECTURE;ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE;COSTS;DATA BASES;DEMONSTRATIONS;DEPLOYMENT;DISTRIBUTED DATA PROCESSING;DISTRIBUTION;ENGINEERS;ENVIRONMENTS;ERROR ANALYSIS;EXPERT SYSTEMS;FAULTS;GROUND LEVEL;GROUND STATIONS;INTERFACES;KNOWLEDGE BASED SYSTEMS;LAUNCH VEHICLES;LAUNCHING;MONITORING;ONBOARD;OPERATION;PLANNING;PROCESSING;PRODUCTION;RATES;REAL TIME;REDUCTION;RELIABILITY;REQUIREMENTS;RISK;SCHEDULING;SELF OPERATION;SHELLS(STRUCTURAL FORMS);SPACE STATIONS;SPACE TRANSPORTATION;SPACECRAFT;SYSTEMS ANALYSIS;TEST AND EVALUATION;UTILIZATION;VALIDATION;VEHICLES;ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE;AUTONOMY;COST REDUCTION;DATA BASES;DEPLOYMENT;DISTRIBUTED PROCESSING;ERROR ANALYSIS;EXPERT SYSTEMS;GROUND STATIONS;LAUNCH VEHICLES;REAL TIME OPERATION;RELIABILITY;RISK;SCHEDULING;SPACE TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM;SPACECRAFT LAUNCHING;SUPPORT SYSTEMS;SYSTEMS ANALYSIS;TECHNOLOGY UTILIZATION ::

Hit 181 of 277 -- Awd #: VN270149 
 Award Type: Transfers / Incoming / Reimbursable-Traditional
 Requester: DOD
Access/Distribution Restriction:
 Code: C - U.S. Federal Government and Contractors Only
 Reason: AD - Administrative or Operational Use Data
Parent Organizations: NASA / REIMB /
Dates: Oct 1992 to na
Performer: NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION. JOHN F. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER
 Type:     Federal Government
 Contact:  HEARD, A E, Phone: 407-867-2780
 5th Congressional District in Florida        
 Location: Cocoa Beach,   FL
Description: TITLE: ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE :: LONG DESCR: THE OBJECTIVE OF THIS RTOP IS TO PROVIDE TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT SUPPORT FOR APPLICATION OF KNOWLEDGE BASED SYSTEMS TO SPACE TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM (STS) PROCESSING AT KENNEDY SPACE CENTER. THE PROJECT GOAL IS TO EMULATE THE EXISTING DISTRIBUTED PROCESSING SYSTEM USED FOR THE KSC LAUNCH PROCESSING SYSTEM (LPS) BY DEMONSTRATING A DISTRIBUTED SET OF KNOWLEDGE-BASED SYSTEMS COOPERATING TO PROVIDE SYSTEM ANALYSIS, FAULT MONITORING, DIAGNOSIS, AND TASK PLANNING AND SCHEDULING SUPPORT FOR STS PROCESSING OPERATIONS. THIS GOAL WILL BE ACCOMPLISHED BY PRODUCTION OF A DISTRIBUTED ARCHITECTURE SHELL ALLOWING INTEGRATION OF INDEPENDENTLY DEVELOPED INTELLIGENT APPLICATIONS INTO A UNIFIED INTELLIGENT OPERATIONS SUPPORT TOOL SHARING RESOURCES SUCH AS REAL-TIME DATA AND KNOWLEDGE BASE ACCESS. KNOWLEDGE BASED SYSTEMS TO BE INCLUDED IN THIS ENVIRONMENT ARE CAPABILITIES FOR AUTOMATED PLANNING AND SCHEDULING AS WELL AS THE KNOWLEDGE BASED AUTONOMOUS TEST ENGINEER (KATE) ADVISORY SYSTEM SHELL WHICH WILL BE REFINED TO SUPPORT ADDITIONAL VEHICLE SUBSYSTEMS. THIS RESULTING DEMONSTRATION ENVIRONMENT, THE EXPERT SYSTEM FOR OPERATIONS DISTRIBUTED USERS (EXODUS), WILL FACILITATE DEPLOYMENT OF INTELLIGENT SYSTEMS FOR KSC OPERATIONS SUPPORT BY STREAMLINING DATA INTERFACE REQUIREMENTS, ALLOWING INCREMENTAL APPLICATION ADDITIONS AND OFFERING A LOW RISK VEHICLE FOR VALIDATION AND ASSESSMENT OF VALUE-ADDED AUTOMATION ENHANCEMENTS OFFERED BY THE VARIOUS KNOWLEDGE-BASED SYSTEMS. INCORPORATION OF PROJECT GOALS SHOULD IMPROVE THE EFFICIENCY AND RELIABILITY AND REDUCE COSTS OF THE CURRENT KSC LAUNCH PROCESSING TASKS TO BETTER ACCOMMODATE PLANNED LAUNCH RATE INCREASES. IN ADDITION, PROJECT DEVELOPED CONCEPTS ARE APPLICABLE TO DEVELOPMENT OF AUTONOMOUS SYSTEMS FOR BOTH SPACE STATION AND FUTURE LAUNCH VEHICLE GROUND AND ON-BOARD SYSTEMS :: KEYWORDS: ACCESS;ADDITION;ADVISORY ACTIVITIES;ARCHITECTURE;ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE;AUTOMATION;COSTS;DATA BASES;DEMONSTRATIONS;DEPLOYMENT;DISTRIBUTED DATA PROCESSING;DISTRIBUTION;ENVIRONMENTS;EXPERT SYSTEMS;FAULTS;GROUND LEVEL;INTERFACES;KNOWLEDGE BASED SYSTEMS;LAUNCH VEHICLES;LAUNCHING;MONITORING;ONBOARD;OPERATION;PLANNING;PROCESSING;PRODUCTION;RATES;REAL TIME;REDUCTION;RELIABILITY;REQUIREMENTS;RISK;SCHEDULING;SELF OPERATION;SHELLS(STRUCTURAL FORMS);SPACE STATIONS;SPACE TRANSPORTATION;SPACECRAFT;SYSTEMS ANALYSIS;UTILIZATION;VALIDATION;VEHICLES;COST REDUCTION;DATA BASES;DISTRIBUTED PROCESSING;EXPERT SYSTEMS;LAUNCH VEHICLES;LAUNCHING;PLANNING;REAL TIME OPERATION;RISK;SCHEDULING;SPACE TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM;SPACECRAFT LAUNCHING;SUPPORT SYSTEMS;SYSTEMS ANALYSIS;TECHNOLOGY UTILIZATION ::

Hit 182 of 277 -- Awd #: VN070568 
 Award Type: Transfers / Incoming / Reimbursable-Traditional
 Requester: DOD
Access/Distribution Restriction:
 Code: C - U.S. Federal Government and Contractors Only
 Reason: AD - Administrative or Operational Use Data
Parent Organizations: NASA / REIMB /
Dates: Oct 1992 to na
Performer: JET PROPULSION LAB., CALIF. INST. OF TECH.
 Type:     Federal Government
 Contact:  MELBOURNE, W, Phone: 818-354-9627
 25th Congressional District in California        
 Location: Pasadena,   CA
Description: TITLE: GPS PERMANENT GEODETIC NETWORK :: LONG DESCR: THE OBJECTIVES OF THIS RTOP ARE: (1) TO DEPLOY AND OPERATE A PILOT GLOBAL POSITIONING SYSTEM (GPS) BASED GEODETIC NETWORK FOR CONTINUOUSLY MONITORING REGIONAL EARTH CRUST DEFORMATION WITH FEW-MILLIMETER ACCURACY OVER DISTANCES FROM TENS TO HUNDREDS OF KILOMETERS; (2) TO CARRY ON A PROGRAM OF TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT TO IMPROVE THE PERFORMANCE, SIMPLIFY THE OPERATION, INCREASE THE SPATIAL DENSITY, EXTEND THE RANGE OF APPLICATIONS, AND REDUCE THE COST OF CONTINUOUS GPS MONITORING; AND (3) TO ANALYZE THE SCIENTIFIC DATA PRODUCED BY THE PILOT NETWORK WITH THE GOAL OF IMPROVING OUR UNDERSTANDING OF CRUSTAL STRAIN PHENOMENA ON THE TIME SCALE OF HOURS TO MONTHS AND THE IMPLICATIONS FOR CRUSTAL RHEOLOGY AND EARTHQUAKE PROCESSES. THE APPROACH FOR THE RTOP IS TO DEVELOP AND IMPLEMENT A PERMANENT, CONTINUOUSLY OPERATING AND RECORDING, REMOTELY MONITORED AND CONTROLLED NETWORK OF 12 GPS RECEIVERS IN SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA. INITIALLY, DATA WILL BE ANALYZED WITH BOTH THE JPL-DEVELOPED GENERALIZED INFORMATION PROCESSING SYSTEM (GIPSY) AND THE MIT-DEVELOPED GAMIT SOFTWARE. KEY TASKS INCLUDE: (1) DEVELOPMENT OF AUTOMATED REAL-TIME DATA EDITING AND COMPRESSION IN THE RECEIVER; (2) DEVELOPMENT OF INTEGRATED COMMUNICATION, COMMAND AND CONTROL; (3) DEVELOPMENT OF EFFICIENT SOFTWARE FOR OFFLINE DATA ANALYSIS, MANAGEMENT AND ARCHIVING; (4) DEPLOYMENT OF A PROGRAM OF FIELD EXPERIMENTS IN SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA; AND (5) ANALYSIS OF THE RESULTING DATA FOR THE STRAIN PERIODS OF INTEREST :: KEYWORDS: AUTOMATION;CALIFORNIA;COMMAND AND CONTROL SYSTEMS;COMMUNICATION AND RADIO SYSTEMS;COMPUTER PROGRAMMING;COMPUTER PROGRAMS;COSTS;DATA COMPRESSION;DATA MANAGEMENT;DATA PROCESSING;DEFORMATION;DENSITY;EARTH CRUST;EARTHQUAKES;EDITING;EFFICIENCY;FIELD TESTS;GEODESY;GLOBAL POSITIONING SYSTEM;INFORMATION PROCESSING;INFORMATION SYSTEMS;INTEGRATED SYSTEMS;NETWORKS;OFFLINE SYSTEMS;OPERATION;PILOT STUDIES;PILOTS;REAL TIME;RECEIVERS;RHEOLOGY;SCALE;SOUTH(DIRECTION);SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION;TIME;COMMAND AND CONTROL;COMPUTER PROGRAMS;DATA COMPRESSION;DATA PROCESSING;DEFORMATION;DEPLOYMENT;EARTH CRUST;EARTHQUAKES;GEODESY;GLOBAL POSITIONING SYSTEM;REAL TIME OPERATION;RECEIVERS;RHEOLOGY ::

Hit 183 of 277 -- Awd #: VN070645 
 Award Type: Transfers / Incoming / Reimbursable-Traditional
 Requester: DOD
Access/Distribution Restriction:
 Code: C - U.S. Federal Government and Contractors Only
 Reason: AD - Administrative or Operational Use Data
Parent Organizations: NASA / REIMB /
Dates: Oct 1992 to na
Performer: JET PROPULSION LAB., CALIF. INST. OF TECH.
 Type:     Federal Government
 Contact:  MALEKI, L, Phone: 818-354-3688
 25th Congressional District in California        
 Location: Pasadena,   CA
Description: TITLE: FREQUENCY AND TIMING RESEARCH :: LONG DESCR: THE OBJECTIVE OF THIS RTOP IS TO DEVELOP AND DEMONSTRATE THE TECHNOLOGY OF PRECISE FREQUENCY AND TIMING FOR DSN MISSION AND SCIENCE SUPPORT ACTIVITIES. THE GOAL OF FREQUENCY STABILITY PURSUED IN THE RTOP IS THE DEMONSTRATION OF ONE PART IN 10(EXP 16) AT AVERAGING INTERVALS BETWEEN 1 AND 10(EXP 4) SECONDS IN THE GOLDSTONE COMPLEX, BY 1990. THE LONG TERM GOAL IS THE DEMONSTRATION OF PARTS IN 10(EXP 17) CAPABILITY FOR AVERAGING INTERVALS BETWEEN 1 SECOND AND 10(EXP 5) SECONDS IN THE 1990'S. THE WORK PLANNED IS IN THREE AREAS: (1) THE GENERATION OF PRECISE FREQUENCIES THROUGH THE DEMONSTRATION OF THE TRAPPED MERCURY ION FREQUENCY SOURCE, AND GENERATION OF SPECTRALLY PURE SIGNALS AT GHZ FREQUENCIES WITH THE SUPERCONDUCTING MASER OSCILLATOR, AND THE SAPPHIRE DIELECTRIC RESONATOR OSCILLATOR; (2) THE DISTRIBUTION OF FREQUENCIES WITH STABILITY OF PARTS IN 10(EXP 17) WILL BE DEMONSTRATED THROUGH THE DEVELOPMENT OF FIBER-OPTICS SYSTEMS INCLUDING ELECTRONICALLY STABILIZED FIBER OPTIC CABLES. A SYSTEM WILL BE DEVELOPED TO DISTRIBUTE REFERENCES WITHIN THE COMPLEX AND UP THE ANTENNA, WHERE IMMUNITY TO TEMPERATURE AND VIBRATION SENSITIVITY IS REQUIRED; AND (3) WORK WILL BE PERFORMED TO DEVELOP THE CAPABILITY FOR FREQUENCY AND PHASE STABILITY CHARACTERIZATION AND MONITORING ON AN END-TO-END BASIS IN A DEEP SPACE STATION. THIS EFFORT WILL PROVIDE NEAR REAL TIME INFORMATION ON THE STATUS OF THE STABILITY OF PRECISE FREQUENCIES GENERATED, DISTRIBUTED, AND USED THROUGHOUT A DSS :: KEYWORDS: CAVITY RESONATORS;DEEP SPACE;DEMONSTRATIONS;DIELECTRICS;DISTRIBUTION;FIBER OPTICS;FIBER OPTICS TRANSMISSION LINES;FREQUENCY;IMMUNITY;IONS;MASERS;MEASUREMENT;MERCURY;METALS;MICROWAVE FREQUENCY;NETWORKS;OPERATION;OSCILLATORS;PARTICLES;PARTS;PHASE;PRECISION;PURITY;REAL TIME;RESONATORS;SAPPHIRE;SENSITIVITY;SIGNALS;SPACE STATIONS;SPECTRA;STABILITY;STABILIZATION;SUPERCONDUCTIVITY;SUPERCONDUCTORS;TEMPERATURE;TIME;TRAPPING(CHARGED PARTICLES);VIBRATION;CAVITY RESONATORS;DEEP SPACE NETWORK;DIELECTRICS;FIBER OPTICS;FREQUENCY STABILITY;MASERS;MERCURY (METAL);METAL IONS;MICROWAVE FREQUENCIES;OSCILLATORS;REAL TIME OPERATION;SAPPHIRE;SPACE STATIONS;SUPERCONDUCTIVITY;TEMPERATURE EFFECTS;TIME MEASUREMENT;TRAPPED PARTICLES;VIBRATION ::

Hit 184 of 277 -- Awd #: VN070665 
 Award Type: Transfers / Incoming / Reimbursable-Traditional
 Requester: DOD
Access/Distribution Restriction:
 Code: C - U.S. Federal Government and Contractors Only
 Reason: AD - Administrative or Operational Use Data
Parent Organizations: NASA / REIMB /
Dates: Oct 1992 to na
Performer: JET PROPULSION LAB., CALIF. INST. OF TECH.
 Type:     Federal Government
 Contact:  KUO, N R, Phone: 818-354-0475
 25th Congressional District in California        
 Location: Pasadena,   CA
Description: TITLE: DSN DATA PROCESSING AND PRODUCTIVITY :: LONG DESCR: THE OBJECTIVES OF THIS RTOP ARE TO DEVELOP AND DEMONSTRATE DATA HANDLING CAPABILITIES FOR THE DSN AND TO DEVELOP NEW SOFTWARE DESIGN TECHNOLOGIES THAT WILL RESULT IN IMPROVED NETWORK CAPABILITY TO MEET USER NEEDS AND REDUCED DEVELOPMENT COSTS. THE WORK THAT IS PLANNED CAN BE DIVIDED INTO TWO GENERAL AREAS. (1) REAL-TIME SYSTEM METHODOLOGY: MAJOR FUNCTIONS IN THE DSN SUCH AS DATA ACQUISITION, MONITOR AND CONTROL, DATA COMMUNICATION, AND DATA ARCHIVING AND RETRIEVAL ARE DISTRIBUTED AMONG SUBSYSTEM CONTROLLERS WITHIN A NETWORK THAT MUST RESPOND TO REAL-TIME EVENTS. EMERGING NETWORK MANAGEMENT STANDARDS OFFER THE OPPORTUNITY TO REDUCE DEVELOPMENT COSTS FOR REAL-TIME MONITOR AND CONTROL APPLICATIONS AND ASSOCIATED RISKS THROUGH THE USE OF COMMERCIALLY AVAILABLE PRODUCTS. ONE WORK UNIT IN THIS RTOP WILL ADDRESS THE ISSUE INVOLVED IN UNDERSTANDING EMERGING INTERNATIONAL NETWORK STANDARDS IN REGARD TO THEIR APPLICABILITY IN THE DSN. A SECOND WORK UNIT WILL DEVELOP THE LONG-TERM DATA HANDLING STRATEGY, AND ALGORITHMS NEEDED TO MANAGE THE DATA FLOW, ARCHIVING, AND RETRIEVAL AT THE SIGNAL PROCESSING CENTERS. (2) SOFTWARE SCHEDULING AND DESIGN: A GROWING FRACTION OF THE TOTAL COST TO IMPLEMENT AND MAINTAIN DSN CAPABILITIES IS ATTRIBUTABLE TO SOFTWARE. THE INABILITY TO RELIABLY PREDICT SOFTWARE DEVELOPMENT SCHEDULES JEOPARDIZES MISSION SUPPORT AND TRANSLATES INTO INCREASED COSTS SUCH AS CRASH EFFORTS MOUNTED IN ORDER TO MEET SCHEDULES. ONE WORK UNIT IN THIS RTOP WILL EVALUATE DEVELOPMENT TOOLS THAT ARE AVAILABLE WITH MODERN COMPUTER LANGUAGES AND OFFER THE POTENTIAL OF REDUCING SOFTWARE LIFE-CYCLE COSTS. ANOTHER WORK UNIT WILL DEVELOP EFFECTIVE SOFTWARE SCHEDULING METHODS THAT WILL ENABLE BOTH PROGRAM MANAGERS AND SOFTWARE DEVELOPERS TO MAKE ACCURATE ASSESSMENTS OF SCHEDULES AND PROJECT PLANS :: KEYWORDS: ALGORITHMS;COMPUTER PROGRAMMING;COMPUTER PROGRAMS;CONTROL;COSTS;DATA ACQUISITION;DATA PROCESSING;DATA TRANSMISSION SYSTEMS;DEEP SPACE;FLOW;INFORMATION EXCHANGE;INFORMATION RETRIEVAL;INTERNATIONAL;LIFE CYCLE COSTS;LONG RANGE(TIME);MANAGEMENT;MISSIONS;MONITORING;MONITORS;NETWORKS;OPERATION;PLANNING;PRODUCTIVITY;PROGRAMMING LANGUAGES;REAL TIME;REDUCTION;SCHEDULING;SIGNAL PROCESSING;SOFTWARE ENGINEERING;STANDARDS;STRATEGY;SYSTEMS ANALYSIS;USER NEEDS;ALGORITHMS;COMPUTER PROGRAMMING;CONTROLLERS;COST REDUCTION;DATA ACQUISITION;DATA PROCESSING;DATA RETRIEVAL;DATA TRANSMISSION;DEEP SPACE NETWORK;INFORMATION FLOW;LIFE CYCLE COSTS;MONITORS;PRODUCTIVITY;PROGRAMMING LANGUAGES;REAL TIME OPERATION;SCHEDULING;SIGNAL PROCESSING;SOFTWARE ENGINEERING ::

Hit 185 of 277 -- Awd #: VN170105 
 Award Type: Transfers / Incoming / Reimbursable-Traditional
 Requester: DOD
Access/Distribution Restriction:
 Code: C - U.S. Federal Government and Contractors Only
 Reason: AD - Administrative or Operational Use Data
Parent Organizations: NASA / REIMB /
Dates: Oct 1992 to na
Performer: JET PROPULSION LAB., CALIF. INST. OF TECH.
 Type:     Federal Government
 Contact:  DOYLE, RICHARD J, Phone: 818-354-6476
 25th Congressional District in California        
 Location: Pasadena,   CA
Description: TITLE: ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE :: LONG DESCR: THE OBJECTIVES ARE TO APPLY AND EXTEND MATURE AI BASED SOLUTIONS IN THE AREAS OF SCHEDULING, MONITORING, DIAGNOSIS AND DATA ANALYSIS, AND DEMONSTRATE TECHNOLOGICAL READINESS FOR ADDRESSING CURRENT MISSION OPERATIONS AND SCIENTIFIC DATA ANALYSIS NEEDS; AND TO PUSH THE STATE-OF-THE-ART IN AI IN SCHEDULING, PLANNING, AND MODEL-BASED REASONING TO ADDRESS LONG-TERM JPL AND NASA NEEDS. THE APPROACH CONSISTS OF (1) MISSION OPERATIONS ASSISTANCE, COMPRISING THE PLANNER EVALUATION TECHNIQUES TASK, WHICH WILL PRODUCE A FRAMEWORK FOR CLASSIFYING PLANNING PROBLEMS AND SOLUTIONS; THE GROUND DATA SYSTEMS AUTOMATION TASK WHICH WILL DEVELOP AND DEMONSTRATE MONITORING AND CONTROL TECHNOLOGY FOR GROUND DATA SYSTEMS IN SPACE FLIGHT OPERATIONS AND DEEP SPACE NETWORK, AND THE SPACE OPERATIONS MISSION PLANNER TASK, WHICH WILL PROVIDE CAPABILITIES FOR GENERATING SCHEDULES FOR OVER-SUBSCRIBED DOMAINS AND MODIFYING THEM IN REAL-TIME TO ACCOMMODATE UNANTICIPATED EVENTS AND CHANGES IN RESOURCE CONFIGURATION. (2) DATA ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES, WHICH CONSIST OF THE SCIENTIFIC ANALYSIS ASSISTANT TASK USING AI TECHNIQUES TO UNIFY DATA ACCESS, MANAGEMENT, ANALYSIS AND GRAPHIC PRESENTATION CAPABILITIES IN A SET OF SOFTWARE TOOLS TO SUPPORT SCIENTISTS ANALYZING LARGE VOLUMES OF DATA. (3) AUTONOMOUS CONTROL, WHICH CONSISTS OF THE SELECTIVE PROCESSING IN MONITORING TASK WHICH WILL GENERATE AND EVALUATE METHODS OF MONITORING SYSTEMS WHERE COMPLEXITY AND RESOURCE LIMITATIONS PRECLUDE EXHAUSTIVE VERIFICATION :: KEYWORDS: ACCESS;ADDRESSING;ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE;AUTOMATIC;CLASSIFICATION;COMPUTER PROGRAMS;CONFIGURATIONS;CONTROL;DATA ACQUISITION;DATA BASES;DATA MANAGEMENT;DATA PROCESSING;DEEP SPACE;FLIGHT;GROUND LEVEL;INFORMATION SYSTEMS;LIMITATIONS;LONG RANGE(TIME);MANAGEMENT;METHODOLOGY;MISSIONS;MONITORING;NETWORKS;OPERATION;OPERATIONAL READINESS;PLANNING;PROBLEM SOLVING;PROCESSING;REAL TIME;RESOURCES;SCHEDULING;SOLUTIONS(GENERAL);SPACE FLIGHT;SPACE MISSIONS;SYSTEMS ANALYSIS;TEST AND EVALUATION;VERIFICATION;ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE;AUTOMATIC CONTROL;AUTONOMY;DATA ACQUISITION;DATA MANAGEMENT;DATA SYSTEMS;DEEP SPACE NETWORK;DIAGNOSIS;FLIGHT OPERATIONS;GROUND TESTS;MANAGEMENT ANALYSIS;REAL TIME OPERATION;SCHEDULES;SCHEDULING;SOFTWARE TOOLS ::

Hit 186 of 277 -- Awd #: VN170328 
 Award Type: Transfers / Incoming / Reimbursable-Traditional
 Requester: DOD
Access/Distribution Restriction:
 Code: C - U.S. Federal Government and Contractors Only
 Reason: AD - Administrative or Operational Use Data
Parent Organizations: NASA / REIMB /
Dates: Oct 1992 to na
Performer: JET PROPULSION LAB., CALIF. INST. OF TECH.
 Type:     Federal Government
 Contact:  TRALLI, D M, Phone: 818-354-1835
 25th Congressional District in California        
 Location: Pasadena,   CA
Description: TITLE: HAYWARD FAULT SURVEILLANCE PROJECT: REAL-TIME ON-LINE SEISMIC AND GPS DIAGNOSTIC MONITORING SYSTEM :: LONG DESCR: THE COMBINED USE OF LONG-PERIOD SEISMIC INSTRUMENTATION AND HIGH-PRECISION GLOBAL POSITIONING SYSTEM (GPS) GEODETIC MEASUREMENTS IS PROPOSED TO MONITOR STRAIN CHANGES ON THE HAYWARD FAULT, CALIFORNIA, ASSOCIATED WITH CREEP AND POTENTIAL LARGE-SCALE FAULT FAILURE. NEAR-FIELD STRAIN MEASUREMENTS, GEODETIC DATA, AND LOW-FREQUENCY SEISMIC DATA ARE REQUIRED TO DETECT DEFORMATION EVENTS IN THE LOW REGION OF THE CHARACTERISTIC RUPTURE VELOCITY SPECTRUM. THE SPATIAL AND TEMPORAL RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN SLOW DEFORMATION AND ORDINARY RUPTURES ARE NOT CLEAR. STUDIES OF LOW-FREQUENCY SEISMIC EVENTS ADDRESS QUESTIONS ON EARTHQUAKE NUCLEATION, AND FALL WITHIN THE SCOPE OF EARTHQUAKE PREDICTION. INCORPORATING A GPS MONITORING NETWORK INTO AN ARRAY OF LONG-PERIOD AND DIGITAL BROADBAND SEISMOMETERS OFFERS AN OPPORTUNITY TO OBSERVE PORTIONS OF THE DEFORMATION WITH DATA OF OVERLAPPING LOW-FREQUENCY RESPONSE, WITH THE HIGH-FREQUENCY RESPONSE CONSTRAINED BY NEAR-FIELD DOWNHOLE SEISMOMETERS TO IMAGE THE ONSET OF FAILURE. NASA SUPPORT IS REQUESTED FOR A FIXED GPS MONITORING NETWORK AS AN ELEMENT OF A COMPREHENSIVE FAULT SURVEILLANCE EFFORT, WHICH INCLUDES SEISMIC INSTRUMENTATION SUPPORTED BY THE U.S. GEOLOGICAL SURVEY AND STATE OF CALIFORNIA (IN ADDITION TO SUPPORT FOR GEODETIC MONITORING). THE GPS NETWORK WOULD BE ESTABLISHED AT A LEVEL OF 4 PERMANENT SITES PER YEAR FOR TWO YEARS, EXPANDING TO A TARGET GOAL OF 15 FIXED SITES IN 3 YEARS. THE GPS DATA FROM THE MONITORING SITE WILL BE TELEMETERED TO A CENTRAL FACILITY OF THE BERKELEY SEISMOGRAPHIC STATIONS AND LAWRENCE BERKELEY LABORATORY, IN CONJUNCTION WITH SEISMOGRAPHIC DATA (WHICH IS ALREADY CARRIED OUT ROUTINELY). THE JET PROPULSION LABORATORY WILL HELP SET UP THE GEODETIC MONITORING NETWORK, ESTABLISH THE ON-LINE REAL-TIME GPS DATA PROCESSING CAPABILITIES, AND COLLABORATE ON THE INTERPRETATION OF RESULTS :: KEYWORDS: ARRAYS;BROADBAND;CALIFORNIA;CREEP;DATA PROCESSING;DEFORMATION;DIGITAL SYSTEMS;EARTHQUAKES;FACILITIES;FAILURE;FAULTS;FAULTS(GEOLOGY);GEODESICS;GEODESY;GEODETIC SURVEYS;GEOLOGICAL SURVEYS;GLOBAL POSITIONING SYSTEM;HIGH FREQUENCY;IMAGES;LONG RANGE(TIME);LOW FREQUENCY;MEASUREMENT;MONITORING;NETWORKS;NUCLEATION;ONLINE SYSTEMS;OPERATION;PRECISION;PREDICTIONS;REAL TIME;REGIONS;RESPONSE;RUPTURE;SEISMIC DATA;SEISMIC WAVES;SEISMOGRAPHS;SEISMOLOGY;SEISMOMETERS;SITES;SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION;SPECTRA;SURVEILLANCE;VELOCITY;CALIFORNIA;CREEP PROPERTIES;DATA PROCESSING;DEFORMATION;EARTHQUAKES;GEODESY;GEODETIC SURVEYS;GEOLOGICAL FAULTS;GEOLOGICAL SURVEYS;GLOBAL POSITIONING SYSTEM;ON-LINE SYSTEMS;PREDICTIONS;REAL TIME OPERATION;SEISMOGRAPHS;SEISMOLOGY;SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION;SPECTRA;STRAIN MEASUREMENT;SURVEILLANCE ::

Hit 187 of 277 -- Awd #: VN170439 
 Award Type: Transfers / Incoming / Reimbursable-Traditional
 Requester: DOD
Access/Distribution Restriction:
 Code: C - U.S. Federal Government and Contractors Only
 Reason: AD - Administrative or Operational Use Data
Parent Organizations: NASA / REIMB /
Dates: Oct 1992 to na
Performer: JET PROPULSION LAB., CALIF. INST. OF TECH.
 Type:     Federal Government
 Contact:  MALEKI, L, Phone: 818-354-3688
 25th Congressional District in California        
 Location: Pasadena,   CA
Description: TITLE: FREQUENCY AND TIMING RESEARCH :: LONG DESCR: THE OBJECTIVE OF THIS RTOP IS TO DEVELOP AND DEMONSTRATE THE TECHNOLOGY OF PRECISE FREQUENCY AND TIMING FOR DEEP SPACE NETWORK (DSN) MISSION AND SCIENCE SUPPORT ACTIVITIES. THE GOAL OF FREQUENCY STABILITY PURSUED IN THE RTOP IS THE DEMONSTRATION OF ONE PART IN 10(EXP 16) AT AVERAGING INTERVALS BETWEEN 1 AND 10(EXP 4) SECONDS IN THE GOLDSTONE COMPLEX, BY 1991. THE LONG TERM GOAL IS THE DEMONSTRATION OF PARTS IN 10(EXP 17) CAPABILITY FOR AVERAGING INTERVALS BETWEEN 1 SECOND AND 10(EXP 5) SECONDS IN THE LATE 1990'S. THE WORK PLANNED IS IN THREE AREAS: (1) THE GENERATION OF PRECISE FREQUENCIES THROUGH THE DEMONSTRATION OF THE TRAPPED MERCURY ION FREQUENCY SOURCE, AND GENERATION OF SPECTRALLY PURE SIGNALS AT GHZ FREQUENCIES WITH THE SUPERCONDUCTING MASER OSCILLATOR, AND THE SAPPHIRE DIELECTRIC RESONATOR OSCILLATOR; (2) THE DISTRIBUTION OF FREQUENCIES WITH STABILITY OF PARTS IN 10(EXP 17) WILL BE DEMONSTRATED THROUGH THE DEVELOPMENT OF FIBER-OPTICS SYSTEMS INCLUDING ELECTRONICALLY STABILIZED FIBER OPTIC CABLES. A SYSTEM WILL BE DEVELOPED TO DISTRIBUTE REFERENCES WITHIN THE COMPLEX AND UP THE ANTENNA, WHERE IMMUNITY TO TEMPERATURE AND VIBRATION SENSITIVITY IS REQUIRED; AND (3) WORK WILL BE PERFORMED TO DEVELOP THE CAPABILITY FOR FREQUENCY AND PHASE STABILITY CHARACTERIZATION AND MONITORING ON AN END-TO-END BASIS IN A DEEP SPACE STATION (DSS). THIS EFFORT WILL PROVIDE NEAR REAL TIME INFORMATION ON THE STATUS OF THE STABILITY OF PRECISE FREQUENCIES GENERATED, DISTRIBUTED, AND USED THROUGHOUT A DSS :: KEYWORDS: DEEP SPACE;DEMONSTRATIONS;DIELECTRICS;DISTRIBUTION;FIBER OPTICS;FIBER OPTICS TRANSMISSION LINES;FREQUENCY;IMMUNITY;IONS;MASERS;MEASUREMENT;MERCURY;METALS;MICROWAVE FREQUENCY;NETWORKS;OPERATION;OSCILLATORS;PARTICLES;PARTS;PHASE;PRECISION;PURITY;REAL TIME;RESONATORS;SAPPHIRE;SENSITIVITY;SIGNALS;SPACE STATIONS;SPECTRA;STABILITY;STABILIZATION;SUPERCONDUCTIVITY;SUPERCONDUCTORS;TEMPERATURE;TIME;TRAPPING(CHARGED PARTICLES);VIBRATION;CHARACTERIZATION;DEEP SPACE NETWORK;DIELECTRICS;FIBER OPTICS;FREQUENCY STABILITY;MASERS;MERCURY (METAL);METAL IONS;MICROWAVE FREQUENCIES;OSCILLATORS;REAL TIME OPERATION;RESONATORS;SUPERCONDUCTIVITY;TEMPERATURE EFFECTS;TIME MEASUREMENT;TRAPPED PARTICLES;VIBRATION ::

Hit 188 of 277 -- Awd #: VN270146 
 Award Type: Transfers / Incoming / Reimbursable-Traditional
 Requester: DOD
Access/Distribution Restriction:
 Code: C - U.S. Federal Government and Contractors Only
 Reason: AD - Administrative or Operational Use Data
Parent Organizations: NASA / REIMB /
Dates: Oct 1992 to na
Performer: JET PROPULSION LAB., CALIF. INST. OF TECH.
 Type:     Federal Government
 Contact:  DOYLE, RICHARD J, Phone: 818-354-6476
 25th Congressional District in California        
 Location: Pasadena,   CA
Description: TITLE: ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE :: LONG DESCR: THIS RTOP DESCRIBES ALL WORK BEING PERFORMED AT JPL AS PART OF THE NASA OAET ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE PROGRAM. THE MAIN OBJECTIVES ARE: (1) TO APPLY AND EXTEND MATURE AI TECHNOLOGIES IN THE AREAS OF SCHEDULING, MONITORING, DIAGNOSIS, DESIGN, DATA ANALYSIS, SOFTWARE REUSE, AND INFRASTRUCTURE, AND DEMONSTRATE TECHNOLOGY READINESS FOR ADDRESSING CURRENT MISSION OPERATIONS AND SCIENTIFIC DATA ANALYSIS NEEDS; AND (2) TO PUSH THE STATE-OF-THE-ART IN AI IN SCHEDULING, PLANNING, MODEL-BASED REASONING, AND MACHINE LEARNING TO ADDRESS LONG-TERM JPL AND NASA NEEDS. THE OBJECTIVES OF THE ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE RTOP WILL BE MET BY: (1) DEVELOPING AND DEMONSTRATING MONITORING AND CONTROL TECHNOLOGY FOR GROUND DATA SYSTEMS IN FLIGHT PROJECT AND DEEP SPACE NETWORK OPERATIONS; (2) PROVIDING CAPABILITIES FOR GENERATING SCHEDULES FOR OVER-SUBSCRIBED DOMAINS AND ACCOMMODATING CHANGES IN TASKING OR RESOURCES IN A MINIMALLY DISRUPTIVE MANNER; (3) APPLYING AI TECHNIQUES TO SOFTWARE CLASSIFICATION AND RETRIEVAL THROUGH HYPERMEDIA INTERFACES; (4) DEVELOPING AI-BASED SOFTWARE TOOLS OF SUPPORT SCIENTISTS IN THE PREPARATION, ACCESSING, AND ANALYSIS OF LARGE SCIENTIFIC DATA SETS; (5) APPLYING KNOWLEDGE-BASED AND HYPERMEDIA TECHNOLOGY TO AN INFRASTRUCTURE APPLICATION; AND (6) GENERATING AND EVALUATING AI-BASED METHODS TO SUPPORT REAL-TIME SENSOR INTERPRETATION DURING MONITORING AND EVALUATION OF SENSOR PLACEMENTS DURING DESIGN FOR COMPLEX SYSTEMS :: KEYWORDS: ADDRESSING;ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE;CLASSIFICATION;COMPUTER PROGRAMS;CONTROL;DATA ACQUISITION;DATA PROCESSING;DEEP SPACE;DETECTORS;EMPLACEMENT;FLIGHT;GROUND LEVEL;INFORMATION SYSTEMS;KNOWLEDGE BASED SYSTEMS;LEARNING MACHINES;LONG RANGE(TIME);MISSIONS;NETWORKS;OPERATION;OPERATIONAL READINESS;REAL TIME;SCHEDULING;SCIENTISTS;TEST AND EVALUATION;ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE;CLASSIFICATIONS;COMPLEX SYSTEMS;COMPUTER PROGRAMS;DATA ACQUISITION;DATA SYSTEMS;DEEP SPACE NETWORK;DIAGNOSIS;DOMAINS;FLIGHT OPERATIONS;GROUND TESTS;KNOWLEDGE BASES (ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE);MACHINE LEARNING;REAL TIME OPERATION;SCHEDULES;SOFTWARE TOOLS;TECHNOLOGY ASSESSMENT ::

Hit 189 of 277 -- Awd #: VN370091 
 Award Type: Transfers / Incoming / Reimbursable-Traditional
 Requester: DOD
Access/Distribution Restriction:
 Code: C - U.S. Federal Government and Contractors Only
 Reason: AD - Administrative or Operational Use Data
Parent Organizations: NASA / REIMB /
Dates: Oct 1992 to na
Performer: JET PROPULSION LAB., CALIF. INST. OF TECH.
 Type:     Federal Government
 25th Congressional District in California        
 Location: Pasadena,   CA
Description: TITLE: INFORMATION AND CONTROLS RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY :: LONG DESCR: THIS RTOP COVERS RESEARCH IN A DIVERSE ARRAY OF AREAS THAT ARE CRITICAL TO FUTURE NASA SPACE SYSTEMS. THE OBJECTIVE IS TO DEVELOP ADVANCED TECHNOLOGIES RELEVANT TO NASA APPLICATIONS IN THE AREAS OF COMPUTER SCIENCE, DATA SYSTEMS, PHOTONICS, SCIENCE SENSORS, CONTROL SYSTEMS, ROBOTICS, AND ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE, WHICH WILL PROVIDE NEW CAPABILITIES AND/OR GREATER PERFORMANCE OVER THE CURRENT STATE-OF-THE-ART. COMPUTER SCIENCE RESEARCH WILL DEMONSTRATE AN EASY TO USE AND INEXPENSIVE CATALOGUING TECHNIQUE TO FACILITATE SOFTWARE REUSE AND RETRIEVAL. A VERSATILE TOOL NAMED 'HILITE' IS BEING DEVELOPED TO DO THIS BY INTEGRATING THE TECHNOLOGIES OF HYPERMEDIA, GRAPHICAL USER INTERFACE, KNOWLEDGE ENGINEERING, AND OBJECT-ORIENTED DATA BASE MANAGEMENT. DATA SYSTEMS WORK WILL DEVELOP APPLICATION SPECIFIC ELECTRONIC NEUROPROCESSOR BUILDING BLOCKS THAT WILL BE USED TO DEMONSTRATE REAL-TIME FUNCTIONALITY OF NEUROPROCESSING VIA A VEHICLE HEALTH MONITORING APPLICATION FOR THE SPACE SHUTTLE IMPROVED AUXILLIARY POWER UNIT. PHOTONICS WORK WILL DEVELOP INP BASED OPTOELECTRONICS INTEGRATED CIRCUITS (OEIC) FOR INTEGRATED OPTIC SPECTROMETERS, FIBER OPTIC RING SENSORS, OPTICAL DISK READ/WRITE HEADS, AND INTEGRATED TRANSMITTER/RECEIVER APPLICATIONS. SENSORS RESEARCH WILL DEVELOP UNIQUE WAVELENGTH SEMICONDUCTOR LASERS FOR INJECTION SEEDING OF SOLID STATE LASERS. OTHER RESEARCH WILL PRODUCE HIGH TEMPERATURE SUPERCONDUCTING DEVICES WITH OPTIMIZED MICROWAVE RESPONSE PROPERTIES FOR NASA APPLICATIONS SUCH AS ADVANCED SENSORS AND LOW-LOSS MICROWAVE COMPONENTS. CONTROL RESEARCH WILL PRODUCE SEVERAL ADVANCED TECHNOLOGIES. NEW COMPUTATIONAL DESIGN TOOLS WILL BE DEVELOPED TO REDUCE THE TIME AND COST REQUIRED TO DESIGN AND TEST SPACECRAFT CONTROL SYSTEMS. ADVANCED METROLOGY CONCEPTS WITH NANOMETER LEVEL PERFORMANCE WILL BE DEMONSTRATED FOR APPLICATIONS LIKE OPTICAL SPACE INTERFEROMETERS. AN ADVANCED STAR TRACKER CONCEPT WILL BE DEVELOPED FOR REAL-TIME AUTONOMOUS SPACECRAFT ATTITUDE DETERMINATION. SYSTEM IDENTIFICATION AND ADAPTIVE CONTROL RESEARCH WILL DEVELOP TECHNIQUES AND SOFTWARE TO ENABLE AUTOMATED MONITORING OF SYSTEM PERFORMANCE AND ROBUST CONTROL SYSTEM SELF-TUNING, AND AUTONOMOUS COMPENSATION OF DYNAMIC UNCERTAINTIES AND/OR SPACECRAFT CONFIGURATION CHANGES. ROBOTICS RESEARCH WILL DEVELOP LONG RANGE TECHNOLOGIES IN THE AREAS OF: AUTOMATED SURFACE INSPECTION TECHNIQUES TO DETECT AND CLASSIFY FLAWS AND MONITOR CHANGES IN SPACE STRUCTURES; COMPLEX TELEROBOTIC WORK EVENTS AND CONDITIONS USING SPECIAL GRAPHIC FORMATS AND DISPLAYS; MICROROVER NAVIGATION SENSING AND CONTROL STRATEGIES THAT CAN BE APPLIED TO PLANETARY EXPLORATION MISSIONS; AND MOBILE ROBOT ARCHITE.TURES  :: KEYWORDS: ADAPTIVE CONTROL SYSTEMS;AEROSPACE SYSTEMS;ARRAYS;ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE;AUTOMATION;COMPENSATION;COMPUTATIONS;COMPUTER PROGRAMS;COMPUTERS;CONFIGURATIONS;CONTROL;CONTROL SYSTEMS;CONTROL THEORY;COST ANALYSIS;COSTS;DATA BASES;DATA MANAGEMENT;DETECTION;DETECTORS;ELECTROMAGNETIC PROPERTIES;ELECTROOPTICS;EXPERT SYSTEMS;FIBER OPTICS;FORMATS;FREQUENCY;GRAPHICS;HEALTH;HIGH TEMPERATURE;IDENTIFICATION;INFORMATION SYSTEMS;INJECTION;INJECTION LASERS;INSPECTION;INTEGRATED CIRCUITS;INTEGRATED SYSTEMS;INTERFACES;INTERFEROMETERS;LONG RANGE(DISTANCE);LONG RANGE(TIME);LOW LOSS;METROLOGY;MICROWAVE EQUIPMENT;MICROWAVES;MODULAR CONSTRUCTION;MONITORING;NAVIGATION;OPERATION;OPTICS;OPTIMIZATION;PLANETS;ADAPTIVE CONTROL;AEROSPACE SYSTEMS;ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE;ATTITUDE (INCLINATION);CONTROL THEORY;COST ANALYSIS;DATA BASE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS;DATA SYSTEMS;ELECTRO-OPTICS;EXPERT SYSTEMS;FIBER OPTICS;INFORMATION SYSTEMS;INJECTION LASERS;INTEGRATED CIRCUITS;INTERFEROMETERS;METROLOGY;MICROWAVE EQUIPMENT;MICROWAVES;PHOTONICS;REAL TIME OPERATION ::

Hit 190 of 277 -- Awd #: VN870113 
 Award Type: Transfers / Incoming / Reimbursable-Traditional
 Requester: DOD
Access/Distribution Restriction:
 Code: C - U.S. Federal Government and Contractors Only
 Reason: AD - Administrative or Operational Use Data
Parent Organizations: NASA / REIMB /
Dates: Oct 1992 to na
Performer: JET PROPULSION LAB., CALIF. INST. OF TECH.
 Type:     Federal Government
 Contact:  SCHOBER, DAVID, Phone: 818-354-2555
 25th Congressional District in California        
 Location: Pasadena,   CA
Description: TITLE: CSTI - AUTONOMOUS SYSTEMS :: LONG DESCR: THE OBJECTIVE OF THIS TASK IS TO DEVELOP AND DEMONSTRATE TECHNOLOGIES WHICH ENABLE AND ENHANCE THE MULTI-MISSION CAPABILITIES OF GROUND DATA SYSTEMS FOR SPACECRAFT AND SCIENTIFIC INSTRUMENTS. THIS TASK WILL DEVELOP AUTOMATED TOOLS COMMONLY APPLICABLE TO SPACECRAFT TELEMETRY AND OPERATIONS GROUND DATA SYSTEMS. TECHNIQUES WILL BE DEVELOPED FOR AUTOMATED REAL-TIME MONITORING AND DIAGNOSIS FUNCTIONS. A LONG TERM OBJECTIVE IS TO DEVELOP TECHNOLOGY WHICH ENABLES INTEGRATION OF UPLINK AND DOWNLINK OPERATIONS. THE LONG-TERM TASK IS DIVIDED INTO TWO STEPS: THE DEVELOPMENT OF AUTOMATED TELEMETRY MONITORING FUNCTIONS, AND THE APPLICATION OF THESE FUNCTIONS TO SPACECRAFT SUBSYSTEMS IN A DEMONSTRATION PARALLEL TO OPERATIONS. A SERIES OF DEMONSTRATIONS OF INCREASING AUTOMATED CAPABILITY ARE PLANNED. WITH THE OBJECTIVE OF A DEMONSTRATION DURING THE VOYAGER ENCOUNTER OF NEPTUNE, INITIAL WORK WILL FOCUS ON AUTOMATED MONITORING OF SPACECRAFT TELEMETRY WITH SUBSEQUENT EXTENSION TO GROUND DATA SYSTEMS AND SPACECRAFT INSTRUMENTS. THE PRODUCTS OF THE TASK WILL BE SOFTWARE DEMONSTRATIONS OF AUTOMATED MONITORING AND DIAGNOSIS CAPABILITY WHICH ARE READY FOR OPERATIONAL USE. THE DEMONSTRATIONS WILL PROVIDE TECHNOLOGY WHICH MAY BE EXTENDED TO REMOTE OPERATIONS OF SCIENTIFIC INSTRUMENTS :: KEYWORDS: AEROSPACE SYSTEMS;AUTOMATIC;AUTOMATION;COMPUTER PROGRAMS;CONTROL;DATA ACQUISITION;DEMONSTRATIONS;DIAGNOSIS(GENERAL);DOWNLINKS;FUNCTIONS;GROUND LEVEL;GROUND SUPPORT;INFORMATION SYSTEMS;INSTRUMENTATION;INTEGRATION;LONG RANGE(TIME);MONITORING;MONITORS;MULTIMISSION;OPERATION;PARALLEL ORIENTATION;REAL TIME;REMOTE SYSTEMS;SELF OPERATION;SPACECRAFT;TELEMETER SYSTEMS;TEST AND EVALUATION;TOOLS;UPLINKS;AEROSPACE SYSTEMS;AUTOMATIC CONTROL;AUTONOMY;COMPUTER PROGRAMS;DATA ACQUISITION;DATA SYSTEMS;DIAGNOSIS;DOWNLINKING;GROUND SUPPORT SYSTEMS;GROUND TESTS;MONITORS;NEPTUNE (PLANET);REAL TIME OPERATION;SELF TESTS;SPACECRAFT DESIGN;SPACECRAFT INSTRUMENTS;TELEMETRY;UPLINKING;VOYAGER PROJECT ::

Hit 191 of 277 -- Awd #: VN870393 
 Award Type: Transfers / Incoming / Reimbursable-Traditional
 Requester: DOD
Access/Distribution Restriction:
 Code: C - U.S. Federal Government and Contractors Only
 Reason: AD - Administrative or Operational Use Data
Parent Organizations: NASA / REIMB /
Dates: Oct 1992 to na
Performer: JET PROPULSION LAB., CALIF. INST. OF TECH.
 Type:     Federal Government
 Contact:  ATKINSON, D, Phone: 818-397-9521
 25th Congressional District in California        
 Location: Pasadena,   CA
Description: TITLE: AUTOMATION TECHNIQUES FOR SCIENCE MISSIONS :: LONG DESCR: THE LONG-TERM OBJECTIVE IS TO DEVELOP CAPABILITIES WHICH SUPPORT THE OPERATIONS OF REMOTE SCIENCE USERS. A MAJOR OBJECTIVE OF THIS TEST IS TO DEVELOP AND DEMONSTRATE TECHNOLOGIES WHICH ENABLE AND ENHANCE THE MONITORING AND DIAGNOSIS CAPABILITIES OF GROUND DATA SYSTEMS FOR UNMANNED SPACECRAFT AND THEIR INSTRUMENT PAYLOADS. A FURTHER OBJECTIVE IS TO DEVELOP TOOLS WHICH ARE COMMONLY APPLICABLE TO THE AUTOMATED MONITORING AND DIAGNOSIS OF SPACECRAFT TELEMETRY AS WELL AS SPACE FLIGHT OPERATIONS GROUND DATA SYSTEMS. THE LONG-TERM TASK IS DIVIDED INTO TWO PRINCIPLE STEPS: THE DEVELOPMENT OF AN AUTOMATED SPACECRAFT TELEMETRY MONITORING WORKSTATION, AND THE APPLICATION OF THIS WORKSTATION TO ACTUAL SPACECRAFT SUBSYSTEMS IN A DEMONSTRATION PARALLEL TO ACTUAL OPERATIONS. ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE TECHNIQUES FOR AUTOMATED REAL-TIME MONITORING OF SUBSYSTEM STATUS AND TROUBLE-SHOOTING WOULD BE DEVELOPED AND UTILIZE ADVANCED HUMAN INTERFACES. A MAJOR CONSIDERATION IN THE DESIGN OF THE SYSTEM WILL BE THE NEED TO SUPPORT REMOTE SCIENCE USERS AND SCIENCE OPERATIONS IN FUTURE EXTENSIONS OF THE WORKSTATION. THESE ADDED CAPABILITIES WOULD INCLUDE SUPPORT FOR REMOTE PLANNING AND SCHEDULING OF SCIENCE ACTIVITIES ON THE SPACECRAFT. EFFECTIVE REMOTE SCIENCE PLANNING AND SCHEDULING REQUIRES TIMELY AND COMPLETE INFORMATION ABOUT THE STATE OF THE SPACECRAFT, AVAILABLE RESOURCES, THE STATUS OF THE INSTRUMENT'S HEALTH, AND ACHIEVEMENT OF CURRENT OBSERVATION OF EXPERIMENT GOALS. THE INITIAL EFFORT IN MONITORING AND DIAGNOSIS HELPS MEET THESE REQUIREMENTS :: KEYWORDS: ADAPTERS;ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE;AUTOMATIC;AUTOMATION;CONTROL;DATA ACQUISITION;DIAGNOSIS(GENERAL);FLIGHT;GROUND LEVEL;HEALTH;HUMANS;INFORMATION SYSTEMS;INSTRUMENTATION;INTERFACES;LONG RANGE(TIME);MAN COMPUTER INTERFACE;MISSIONS;MONITORING;OBSERVATION;OPERATION;PAYLOAD;PROBLEM SOLVING;REAL TIME;SPACECRAFT;TELEMETER SYSTEMS;TEST AND EVALUATION;UNMANNED SPACECRAFT;WORK STATIONS;ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE;AUTOMATIC CONTROL;DATA ACQUISITION;DATA SYSTEMS;FLIGHT OPERATIONS;GROUND TESTS;MAN-COMPUTER INTERFACE;PAYLOADS;PROBLEM SOLVING;REAL TIME OPERATION;SCHEDULING;SPACECRAFT DESIGN;TELEMETRY;UNMANNED SPACECRAFT;WORKSTATIONS ::

Hit 192 of 277 -- Awd #: VN970115 
 Award Type: Transfers / Incoming / Reimbursable-Traditional
 Requester: DOD
Access/Distribution Restriction:
 Code: C - U.S. Federal Government and Contractors Only
 Reason: AD - Administrative or Operational Use Data
Parent Organizations: NASA / REIMB /
Dates: Oct 1992 to na
Performer: JET PROPULSION LAB., CALIF. INST. OF TECH.
 Type:     Federal Government
 Contact:  SCHOBER, WAYNE R, Phone: 818-354-2555
 25th Congressional District in California        
 Location: Pasadena,   CA
Description: TITLE: AUTONOMOUS SYSTEMS :: LONG DESCR: THE OBJECTIVE OF THIS TASK IS TO DEVELOP AND DEMONSTRATE TECHNOLOGIES WHICH ENABLE AND ENHANCE THE MULTI-MISSION CAPABILITIES OF GROUND DATA SYSTEMS FOR SPACECRAFT. THIS TASK WILL DEVELOP AUTOMATED TOOLS COMMONLY APPLICABLE TO SPACECRAFT TELEMETRY AND OPERATIONS GROUND DATA SYSTEMS. TECHNIQUES WILL BE DEVELOPED FOR AUTOMATED REAL-TIME MONITORING AND DIAGNOSIS FUNCTIONS. A LONG TERM OBJECTIVE IS TO DEVELOP TECHNOLOGY WHICH ENABLES INTEGRATION OF UPLINK AND DOWNLINK OPERATIONS. THE LONG-TERM TASK IS DIVIDED INTO TWO STEPS: THE DEVELOPMENT OF AUTOMATED TELEMETRY MONITORING FUNCTIONS, AND THE APPLICATION OF THESE FUNCTIONS TO SPACECRAFT SUBSYSTEMS IN A DEMONSTRATION PARALLEL TO OPERATIONS. A SERIES OF DEMONSTRATIONS OF INCREASING AUTOMATED CAPABILITY ARE PLANNED. WITH THE OBJECTIVE OF A DEMONSTRATION DURING THE VOYAGER ENCOUNTER OF NEPTUNE, ON-GOING WORK WILL FOCUS ON AUTOMATED MONITORING OF SPACECRAFT TELEMETRY WITH SUBSEQUENT EXTENSION TO GROUND DATA SYSTEMS. THE PRODUCTS OF THE TASK WILL BE SOFTWARE DEMONSTRATIONS OF AUTOMATED MONITORING AND DIAGNOSIS CAPABILITY WHICH ARE READY FOR TRANSITION TO OPERATIONAL USE. ONE SPECIFIC GOAL OF THE DEMONSTRATIONS IS TO SHOW THE POTENTIAL FOR PRODUCTIVITY ENHANCEMENT IN MISSION OPERATIONS :: KEYWORDS: AUTOMATIC;AUTOMATION;COMPUTER PROGRAMS;COMPUTERS;CONTROL;DATA ACQUISITION;DEMONSTRATIONS;DIAGNOSIS(GENERAL);DOWNLINKS;FUNCTIONS;GROUND LEVEL;INFORMATION SYSTEMS;INTEGRATION;LONG RANGE(TIME);MISSIONS;MONITORING;MULTIMISSION;OPERATION;PARALLEL ORIENTATION;PRODUCTIVITY;REAL TIME;SELF OPERATION;SPACECRAFT;TELEMETER SYSTEMS;TEST AND EVALUATION;TOOLS;TRANSITIONS;UPLINKS;AUGMENTATION;AUTOMATIC CONTROL;AUTONOMY;COMPUTER PROGRAMS;COMPUTER SYSTEMS PROGRAMS;DATA ACQUISITION;DATA SYSTEMS;DIAGNOSIS;DOWNLINKING;GROUND TESTS;PRODUCTIVITY;REAL TIME OPERATION;SPACECRAFT DESIGN;TELEMETRY;UPLINKING;VOYAGER PROJECT ::

Hit 193 of 277 -- Awd #: VN970634 
 Award Type: Transfers / Incoming / Reimbursable-Traditional
 Requester: DOD
Access/Distribution Restriction:
 Code: C - U.S. Federal Government and Contractors Only
 Reason: AD - Administrative or Operational Use Data
Parent Organizations: NASA / REIMB /
Dates: Oct 1992 to na
Performer: JET PROPULSION LAB., CALIF. INST. OF TECH.
 Type:     Federal Government
 Contact:  KUO, N R, Phone: 818-354-0475
 25th Congressional District in California        
 Location: Pasadena,   CA
Description: TITLE: NETWORK DATA PROCESSING AND PRODUCTIVITY :: LONG DESCR: THE OBJECTIVE OF THIS RTOP IS TO IMPROVE THE DEEP SPACE NETWORK (DSN) DATA PROCESSING CAPABILITY IN ANTICIPATION OF GREATER DSN USER DEMAND AND TO DEMONSTRATE THE SOFTWARE TECHNOLOGY WHICH WILL LEAD TO IMPROVEMENTS IN DSN SOFTWARE PRODUCTIVITY. THE WORK PLANNED WILL INVOLVE FIVE SOFTWARE ENGINEERING AREAS: (1) REAL-TIME SYSTEM METHODOLOGY - MOST OF THE DSN SYSTEM IS REAL-TIME APPLICATIONS: DATA ACQUISITION, DATA MONITORING, DATA COMMUNICATION, AND DATA ANALYSIS. RESEARCH OF REAL-TIME METHODOLOGY WILL MAKE IMPROVEMENTS IN THE DSN SYSTEM PERFORMANCE RELIABILITY, MAINTAINABILITY, AND OPERABILITY; (2) SOFTWARE DESIGN TECHNIQUE - THE SOFTWARE DESIGN DETERMINES MANY OF THE CRUCIAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE FINAL SYSTEM. IMPROVEMENT OF DSN SYSTEM CAPABILITY CAN BE ACHIEVED BY INTRODUCING NEW DESIGN TECHNIQUES; (3) PROGRAMMING LANGUAGES - MODERN CONSTRUCTS OF TASKING, PACKAGING, INFORMATION HIDING AND SOPHISTICATED DATA TYPES ARE INCLUDED IN NEW PROGRAMMING LANGUAGES. PROGRAMMING METHODS USING ADA AND C(++) FOR REAL-TIME SYSTEMS WILL BE INVESTIGATED TO DETERMINE THEIR VALUE TO DSN APPLICATIONS; (4) SOFTWARE SCHEDULING - AN EFFECTIVE SOFTWARE DEVELOPMENT SCHEDULING METHOD WILL ENABLE THE TDA PROGRAM MANAGERS AND THE SOFTWARE DEVELOPERS TO MAKE ACCURATE ASSESSMENTS OF SCHEDULES AND PROJECT PLANS; (5) SOFTWARE DOCUMENTATION TECHNIQUES - THE DSN SOFTWARE SYSTEMS ARE BECOMING INCREASINGLY COMPLEX; DOCUMENTATION FOR MAINTENANCE AND OPERATIONS PERSONNEL MUST BE MORE INFORMATIVE, UP-TO-DATE, AND EASIER TO USE. EFFECTIVE TECHNIQUES WILL ENSURE THAT THE TRANSITION TO BETTER DOCUMENTATION SYSTEMS GOES SMOOTHLY :: KEYWORDS: COMPUTER PROGRAM DOCUMENTATION;COMPUTER PROGRAMMING;COMPUTER PROGRAMS;COMPUTERS;DATA ACQUISITION;DATA MANAGEMENT;DATA PROCESSING;DATA TRANSMISSION SYSTEMS;DEEP SPACE;MAINTAINABILITY;METHODOLOGY;MONITORING;NETWORKS;OPERATION;PACKAGING;PERSONNEL;PLANNING;PRODUCTIVITY;PROGRAMMING LANGUAGES;REAL TIME;RELIABILITY;SCHEDULING;SOFTWARE ENGINEERING;SYSTEMS ANALYSIS;USER NEEDS;COMPUTER PROGRAMS;COMPUTER SYSTEMS PROGRAMS;DATA ACQUISITION;DATA PROCESSING;DATA TRANSMISSION;DEEP SPACE NETWORK;PERSONNEL;PROGRAMMING LANGUAGES;REAL TIME OPERATION;RELIABILITY ANALYSIS;SCHEDULING;SOFTWARE ENGINEERING ::

Hit 194 of 277 -- Awd #: VN070669 
 Award Type: Transfers / Incoming / Reimbursable-Traditional
 Requester: DOD
Access/Distribution Restriction:
 Code: C - U.S. Federal Government and Contractors Only
 Reason: AD - Administrative or Operational Use Data
Parent Organizations: NASA / REIMB /
Dates: Oct 1992 to na
Performer: Not specified
 Type:     Not specified
 Contact:  CHENEVERT, DONALD J, Phone: 601-688-3126
 Location: Not Specified  
Description: TITLE: FUGITIVE GAS DETECTION SYSTEM :: LONG DESCR: COMMERCIAL GAS SENSOR TECHNOLOGY DOES NOT ADDRESS THE SCALE OR ENVIRONMENTAL EXTREMES TYPICAL OF NASA'S FACILITIES. THE GOAL OF THIS EFFORT IS TO DEVELOP NEW TECHNOLOGY TO PRESENT A REALISTIC PICTURE OF HAZARDOUS GAS CONDITIONS IN LIQUID PROPULSION TEST AND LAUNCH FACILITIES. MULTIPLE SMART SENSORS WILL BE NETWORKED WITH A SYSTEM THAT GRAPHICALLY DEPICTS THE LOCATION OF THE SENSOR AND THE CONDITION OF ITS ENVIRONMENT. A RAPID RESPONSE HYDROGEN GAS SENSING DEVICE WITH A RESPONSE TIME OF LESS THAN 15 SECONDS HAS RECENTLY BEEN DEVELOPED AT SSC. THE SYSTEM IS CAPABLE OF PERFORMING IN HARSH ENVIRONMENTS, CONTINUOUSLY COMPENSATING FOR DYNAMIC CONDITIONS, HAS SELF DIAGNOSTICS, AND REMOTE DIGITAL AND ANALOG COMMUNICATIONS CAPACITY. THE SPECIFIC OBJECTIVE OF THIS PROJECT IS THE INCORPORATION OF AN IMPROVED VERSION OF THIS DEVICE WITH NEW TECHNOLOGY THAT INTEGRATES A NETWORK OF SENSORS TO A GRAPHIC INTERFACE. THE SENSOR DESIGN WILL BE IMPROVED TO INCORPORATE SURFACE MOUNT AND/OR HYBRID ELECTRONICS TO INCREASE RELIABILITY AND REDUCE SIZE AND COST. SOFTWARE WILL BE DEVELOPED TO SUPPORT NETWORKING AND AN INTERFACE TO THE IMPROVED SENSORS. A GRAPHICALLY PROGRAMMABLE INTERFACE WILL BE DEVELOPED TO PROVIDE REAL-TIME STATUS, TRENDING, CONCENTRATION CONTOURS, EXPERT SYSTEM SHELL, AND ESTIMATION OF LEAK LOCATION. AN OPERATIONAL TEST AREA WILL BE INSTRUMENTED USING THE MULTISENSOR NETWORK TO TEST SYSTEM PERFORMANCE AND EVALUATE SYSTEM EFFECTIVENESS :: KEYWORDS: COMMERCE;COMPENSATION;COMPUTER PROGRAMMING;COMPUTER PROGRAMS;CONTINUITY;COSTS;DETECTORS;DIAGNOSIS(GENERAL);DYNAMICS;ELECTRONICS;ENGINEERING;ENVIRONMENTS;ESTIMATES;EXPERT SYSTEMS;GAS DETECTORS;GASES;GRAPHICS;HAZARDS;HYBRID SYSTEMS;HYDROGEN;INTERFACES;LAUNCHING SITES;LIQUID ROCKET FUELS;LIQUID ROCKET PROPELLANTS;MONITORING;MOUNTS;MULTISENSORS;NETWORKS;OPERATION;OPERATIONAL EFFECTIVENESS;POSITION(LOCATION);PROPULSION SYSTEMS;RANGE(EXTREMES);REACTION TIME;REAL TIME;REDUCTION;RELIABILITY;ROCKET PROPULSION;SURFACES;TEST AND EVALUATION;TEST FACILITIES;COMPUTER PROGRAMS;COST REDUCTION;ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING;EXPERT SYSTEMS;GAS DETECTORS;HYDROGEN;LAUNCHING BASES;LEAKAGE;LIQUID ROCKET PROPELLANTS;MULTISENSOR APPLICATIONS;PROPULSION SYSTEM PERFORMANCE;REAL TIME OPERATION;RELIABILITY ENGINEERING ::

Hit 195 of 277 -- Awd #: VN070670 
 Award Type: Transfers / Incoming / Reimbursable-Traditional
 Requester: DOD
Access/Distribution Restriction:
 Code: C - U.S. Federal Government and Contractors Only
 Reason: AD - Administrative or Operational Use Data
Parent Organizations: NASA / REIMB /
Dates: Oct 1992 to na
Performer: Not specified
 Type:     Not specified
 Contact:  CHENEVERT, DONALD J, Phone: 601-688-3126
 Location: Not Specified  
Description: TITLE: COMBINED SPECTRAL AND VIDEO MONITORING OF SSME PLUMES :: LONG DESCR: THE OVERALL OBJECTIVES OF THIS RESEARCH ARE TO DEVELOP TECHNIQUES FOR SIMULTANEOUS VIDEO AND SPECTRAL EMISSION MONITORING OF SPACE SHUTTLE MAIN ENGINE (SSME) PLUMES DURING GROUND TESTING ON ASPIRATED TEST STANDS AND TO DEVELOP IMPROVED METHODS FOR DATA ACQUISITION AND ANALYSIS. SPECIAL FIBER OPTIC PROBE SYSTEMS INCORPORATING BOTH COHERENT AND SINGLE FIBER CABLES WILL BE DESIGNED AND FABRICATED. THESE PROBES WILL PENETRATE THE DIFFUSER AREA OF THE TEST STAND TO PROVIDE OPTICAL ACCESS TO THE EXHAUST PLUME. COMMERCIALLY AVAILABLE OPTICAL MULTICHANNEL ANALYZER (OMA) AND VIDEO SYSTEMS WILL BE MODIFIED TO ALLOW INTERFACING TO THE FIBER OPTIC SYSTEMS. KNOWLEDGE OF THE SPECTRAL EMISSION CHARACTERISTICS OF THE PLUME CAN PROVIDE IMPORTANT INFORMATION ON THE HEALTH OF THE ENGINE. VIDEO COVERAGE IS NEEDED TO AID INTERPRETATION OF THE SPECTRAL DATA, AS WELL AS PROVIDE ADDITIONAL INFORMATION ABOUT THE PLUME/DIFFUSER INTERACTION. NEW METHODS FOR DATA ACQUISITION AND ANALYSIS WILL BE DEVELOPED TO ALLOW NEAR REAL TIME EVALUATION AND DISPLAY OF PLUME EMISSION DATA IN THE TEST CONTROL CENTER :: KEYWORDS: ACCESS;ANALYZERS;CABLES;COHERENCE;CONTROL CENTERS;DATA ACQUISITION;DATA REDUCTION;DIFFUSERS;EMISSION;EMISSION SPECTRA;ENGINES;EXHAUST DIFFUSERS;EXHAUST PLUMES;FIBER OPTICS;FIBERS;GROUND LEVEL;INTERACTIONS;MONITORING;MULTICHANNEL;OPTICAL EQUIPMENT;OPTICAL PROPERTIES;PLUMES;REAL TIME;ROCKET ENGINES;ROCKET EXHAUST;SPACE SHUTTLES;SPECTRA;SPECTRAL EMITTANCE;SPECTRUM ANALYSIS;SYNCHRONISM;TEST AND EVALUATION;TEST FACILITIES;TEST METHODS;TEST STANDS;VIDEO SIGNALS;DATA ACQUISITION;DATA REDUCTION;EMISSION SPECTRA;ENGINE TESTS;EXHAUST DIFFUSERS;FIBER OPTICS;GROUND TESTS;ROCKET EXHAUST;SPACE SHUTTLE MAIN ENGINE;SPECTRAL EMISSION;SPECTRUM ANALYSIS;TEST FACILITIES;VIDEO EQUIPMENT ::

Hit 196 of 277 -- Awd #: 9602508 
 Award Type: Extramural / Grants / Project
Access/Distribution Restriction:
 Code: A - Distribution Unlimited - Unrestricted Access
Parent Organizations: NSF / BIO / BIR
 Project: Biological research resources
Dates: Jan 1997 to Dec 1998
Performer: U OF CAL DAVIS
 Type:     Public Educational Institution
 Contact:  Peter G Connors, Phone: 916/752-2075
 Third Congressional District in California
 Location: Davis,   CA
Description: TITLE: FSML: Oceanographic and Meteorological Monitoring System at Bodega Marine Laboratory :: SHORT DESCR: FHL: MARINE BIOCHEMICAL/MOLECULAR LABORATORY :: LONG DESCR:  The Bodega Marine Laboratory (BML) is a research unit of the  University of California (UC)located on the Sonoma coast 70  miles north of San Francisco. Since 1966 the Laboratory has  provided unique opportunities for field research on a rich  flora and fauna in close proximity to the Laboratory  buildings.  BML has well-equipped laboratories, strong on- site support staff and a firm commitment from the Davis  campus to continue developing  the facilities and support  needed by the growing number of resident and visiting  researchers. The Laboratory is located on the Bodega Marine  Reserve (BMR), a 362-acre protected field site with a diverse set of marine and terrestrial coastal habitats.  Adjacent subtidal areas are protected and available for  study within the Bodega Marine Life Refuge.    Oceanographic and meteorological data are essential  components of many of the field studies conducted at the  site.  Environmental monitoring systems at BML have incurred  problems in recent years, and now require replacement and  upgrades to improve reliability, flexibility and accessibility to researchers.  The oceanographic pressure  sensor, operating in the severely adverse conditions of a  shallow water, high energy nearshore environment, has been  inoperable since winter storms two years ago.  This project  will significantly improve the monitoring system to provide  automated, quality-controlled, oceanographic and meterological data and a processing and management system  providing improved access to researchers.    System will provide researchers with measurements of wind  speed and direction, air temperature, relative humidity,  barometric pressure, rainfall, total solar radiation, photosynthetically active radiation, surface seawater  temperature, and seawater salinity, all in real time.  With  data logger technology, tidal heights, directional waves,  directional currents, bottom temperature, and bottom  salinity will be monitored nearshore where such measurements  are important to intert idal and shallow subtidal  investigations.  In deeper water, an Acoustic Doppler  Current Profiler will monitor the ocean currents responsible  for transport of sediments, plankton, and larvae. Re-  engineered data acquisition and management systems will  increase the number of variables surveyed, improve the  quality and reliability of data collected, and provide  researchers with greater access to on-line and archived data  via modem, local area network, and the Internet/World Wide Web :: KEYWORDS: Health ::

Hit 197 of 277 -- Awd #: 9724014 
 Award Type: Extramural / Grants / Project
Access/Distribution Restriction:
 Code: A - Distribution Unlimited - Unrestricted Access
Parent Organizations: NSF / BIO / IBN
 Project: Physiology & ethology
Dates: Aug 1997 to Jul 2000
Performer: OHIO STATE UNIVERSITY
 Type:     Private Educational Institution
 Contact:  Desh Pal S Verma   Verma.1@osu.edu, Phone: 614/422-6446
 15th Congressional District in Ohio        
 Location: Columbus,   OH
Description: TITLE: Role of Phragmoplastin in Cell Plate Formation in Plants :: SHORT DESCR: ROLE OF PHRAGMOPLASTIN IN CELL PLATE FORMATION IN PLANTS :: LONG DESCR:  9724014  Verma  Cell plate formation is a unique and important process in plants because - unlike in animals - plant cells do not migrate.  The orientation of the original cell plate determines the direction of growth. Several mutations have been obtained which alter the orientation of the cell plate. The focus is on the function of a protein, phragmoplastin, with homology to animal dynamin, that is associated with early events in plant cell plate formation. The work includes the analysis of phragmoplastin synthesis, ER- and Golgi-transport and insertion into the developing cell plate by monitoring GFP-phragmoplastin fusion proteins. This provides a real-time, live-cell, high-resolution picture of the event. Associated experiments will dissect the domain structure of phragmoplastin, determining the dynamics of cell plate formation, and monitoring of the exocytotic capacity that accompanies cell plate formation :: KEYWORDS: Other Applications NEC ::

Hit 198 of 277 -- Awd #: 9904802 
 Award Type: Extramural / Grants / Project
Access/Distribution Restriction:
 Code: A - Distribution Unlimited - Unrestricted Access
Parent Organizations: NSF / BIO / MCB
 Project: Cell biology
Dates: Sep 1999 to Aug 2001
Performer: U OF COLORADO HSC
 Type:     Public Educational Institution
 Contact:  Alexander D Sorkin   alexander.sorkin@uchsc.edu, Phone:
 First Congressional District in Colorado
 Location: Denver,   CO
Description: TITLE: Analysis of Protein-Protein Interactions of Eps15 Using Fluo rescence Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) :: SHORT DESCR: ANALYSIS OF PROTEIN-PROTEIN INTERACTIONS OF EPS15 USING FLUORESCENCE RESONANCE ENERGY TRANSFER (FRET) :: LONG DESCR:  Endocytosis, the process whereby cells internalize regions of their cell surfaces (plasma membranes), is a critical property of living cells.  For single-celled organisms, endocytosis is an important mechanism for sampling the environment and for ingesting microbial food.  Cells that are part of a multicellular organism must communicate with one another in order to coordinate their activities.  Often, such communication is in the form of signaling molecules, such as hormones, that are produced by one cell type and that bind to specific receptors on other (target) cell types.  Endocytosis of the receptor-signal complex is generally then a necessary second step in order for the target cell to respond appropriately to the signal.  Endocytosis is also the means whereby cell surface components that are no longer needed are removed from the surface.  Because of the critical importance of endocytosis to the lives of cells and organisms, the mechanism of endocytosis has been an important focus of cell biological research.  This project addresses a very specific molecular aspect of the endocytic machinery of cells. Eps15 is a recently identified component of the cellular internalization machinery. Eps15 is constitutively associated with the a-adaptin subunit of clathrin adaptor protein AP-2, and is located in the plasma membrane clathrin-coated pits and vesicles. The importance of Eps15 in the clathrin-mediated process has been demonstrated in functional studies that used dominant-negative Eps15 mutants and microinjection techniques.  However, the precise function of Eps15 in clathrin vesicle formation is unknown.  Eps15 is a prototype of the large family of proteins containing the EH (for Eps15 Homology) domain, conserved protein-protein interaction modules that are found in mammals, frog, fly, nematode and yeast proteins. EH domains of Eps15 bind several proteins containing Asp-Pro-Phe (NPF) sequence motifs.  The role of EH domain interactions in endocytosis remains to be determined.  Eps15 is also constitutively dimerized/tetramerized, although the mechanism of Eps15 oligomerization is not fully understood.  Elucidation of the molecular details of Eps15 interactions is essential for understanding the function of this protein. The goal of the project is to analyze the Eps15 interactions that are important for the steps of endocytosis regulated by Eps15. New technical approaches will be developed to study the dynamics of Eps15 complexes in living cells. A high-resolution microscopic technique called Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) will be used to investigate protein interactions. FRET is based on the transfer of energy between two proximate fluorochromes. Recent development of green fluorescent proteins (GFP) with different spectral characteristics allows utilization of chimeric proteins tagged with such molecules as tools for the analysis of near-neighbor protein interactions in live cells.  Dr. Sorkin has already constructed and characterized a GFP-Eps15 chimera for use in a FRET-based assay.  Additional chimeric Eps15 constructs tagged with yellow (YFP) or cyan fluorescent protein (CFP) will be constructed and co-expressed in the same cells to study the mechanisms of dimerization and tetramerization of Eps15. To analyze the interactions of Eps15 with cargo receptors and the components of the internalization machinery, Eps15-CFP will be co-expressed with YFP-tagged epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor, clathrin adaptors, clathrin assembly lymphoid myeloid (CALM) protein or intersectin. In FRET experiments, CFP, when excited by low energy light of an appropriate wavelength, can transfer the energy directly to YFP if the YFP is located in close proximity, thus allowing the emission of higher energy photons by YFP. The measurements of FRET efficiency on a pixel-by-pixel basis will permit monitoring the protein-protein interactions of Eps15 in live cells in real time, and will also permit the precise determination of where in the cell these interactions occur. In addition to providing important specific information about Eps15 interactions with other Eps15 molecules and other proteins, the development of this sensitive assay to study protein:protein interactions in living cells using Eps15 macromolecular complexes as a model system may lead to a breakthrough in the analysis of the interactions involving various other protein complexes and cellular machineries in living cells :: KEYWORDS: Other Applications NEC ::

Hit 199 of 277 -- Awd #: 9702401 
 Award Type: Extramural / Grants / Project
Access/Distribution Restriction:
 Code: A - Distribution Unlimited - Unrestricted Access
Parent Organizations: NSF / CISE / ASC & ACI
 Project: Advanced computational research (includes equipment)
Dates: Mar 1997 to Feb 2001
Performer: U OF ALABAMA HUNTSVILLE
 Type:     Public Educational Institution
 Contact:  Timothy S Newman   tnewman@cs.uah.edu, Phone: 205/895-6120
 5th Congressional District in Alabama        
 Location: Huntsville,   AL
Description: TITLE: CAREER: Parallel Feature Extraction and Dataset Registration for Volumetric Visualization :: SHORT DESCR: CAREER: PARALLEL FEATURE EXTRACTION AND DATASET REGISTRATIONFOR VOLUMETRIC VISUALIZATION :: LONG DESCR:  Extraction of structures in volumetric images is an important early task in visualization.  Following structure extraction, the structures can be rendered for final display for scientists or clinicians.  Dataset registration is also important for monitoring change and assessing intervention strategies.  This project will focus on visualization of tomographic data, although the methods developed are likely to be useful for related problems in other volumetric data domains. The project will empirically test the PI's methods on other (non medical) volumetric datasets to examine the general utility of the methods.  In traditional medical applications, tomographic data has not been thoroughly exploited.  A key part of this research is support of more effective utilization of volumetric data.  In particular, for medical application, the visualization stages addressed in this proposal must be accomplished in near real-time to support diagnosis, treatment planning, intervention guidance, and treatment assessment :: KEYWORDS: Other Applications NEC ::

Hit 200 of 277 -- Awd #: 9628818 
 Award Type: Extramural / Grants / Project
Access/Distribution Restriction:
 Code: A - Distribution Unlimited - Unrestricted Access
Parent Organizations: NSF / CISE / NCR & ANI
 Project: Advanced networking research
Dates: Sep 1996 to Aug 1999
Performer: U OF CAL BERKELEY
 Type:     Public Educational Institution
 Contact:  Jean C Walrand   wlr@eecs.berkeley.edu, Phone: 415/642-6000
 9th Congressional District in California        
 Location: Berkeley,   CA
Description: TITLE: On-line Estimation for ATM Networks :: SHORT DESCR: ON-LINE ESTIMATION FOR ATM NETWORKS :: LONG DESCR:  The principal investigator will develop on-line statistical techniques for  the operations and management of ATM networks.  The statistical techniques  include: estimating the quality of service, estimating the spare resources,  and improving network operations.  The motivation for this work is: 1)  user-network contracts specify a quality of service that is difficult to  verify and 2) the network needs to monitor its performance in real time to  improve its operations.    Some users will want to monitor the QoS that the network provides.  For  instance, if the user is a service reseller, he may want to protect himself  against complaints from subscribers.  Similarly, the network will use such monitoring for quality control and also for improving its operations. Given the likely penetration of ATM networks, improving the operations and management of these networks is an important objective.    The statistical properties of quality of service estimators are difficult  to analyze on realistic models.  Consequently, this research will combine  analysis, simulation, and actual experiments to develop the on-line  techniques :: KEYWORDS: Telecommunications ::

Hit 201 of 277 -- Awd #: 9714700 
 Award Type: Extramural / Grants / Project
Access/Distribution Restriction:
 Code: A - Distribution Unlimited - Unrestricted Access
Parent Organizations: NSF / CISE / NCR & ANI
 Project: Advanced networking research
Dates: Jan 1998 to na
Performer: SAN JOSE STATE UNIV FDN
 Type:     Public Educational Institution
 Contact:  W. Melody   Moh   moh@cs.sjsu.edu, Phone: 408/924-1400
 District: Multiple congressional districts in California
 Location: San Jose,   CA
Description: TITLE: Traffic Management in Wireless ATM Networks :: SHORT DESCR: TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT IN WIRELESS ATM NETWORKS :: LONG DESCR: