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The North American review. / Volume 1, Note on Digital Production 0001 000
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The North American review. / Volume 1, Issue 1 North-American review and miscellaneous journal University of Northern Iowa Cedar Falls, Iowa, etc. May 1815 0001 001
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NORTHAMERICAX RI~ VIE AND MISCELLANEOUS JOURNAL YOLTT~1E FIRS BOSTON AN PUB ISH D BY W~L AN L ~ Couit-Street, 1~I!i. CONTENTS OF VOLUME FIRST. MISCELLANY. Pay. ACADEMY, American - 291 Advertisement - 23, 369 Anecdote 182 Antiquities. Western 21 Address, Judge Daviss - 370 Basaltick Culumus - - - 337 Biography, Modern - - - 328 Books relating to America 1, 147, 297 Bonaparte, Louis 131 Catharine, Empress of Russia 208 Chatelmont, Death of - - 202 Uhiuese Pictures - - - 66 Clerk, General, Anecdotes of 199 Cornet discovered - - 294 Corn Laws 130 Consumption, Cure for - 210 Credulity ~----- 161 Du Deffand, JXIadanie - - 54 Deaths - - - 140, 295, 447 Foni enelle, Anecdotes of - 44 freuch Nocels - - - 30 Lan~uage - . - 204 Franklin, Letter of - - 51 Compliments to - 53 Greek Literature Professorship 127 Grimms Memoirs - - 28, 196 Grevilles Xlaxims - 169, 353 Hours of Worship - - 14 Hubbards history - - 445 Iflseriptiou for the Oucra - 32 Page. Italian Language - - - 32 Intelligence - 136, 292, 441 Journ Is, Meteorological 122, 285, 437 Jones, Sir William - - - 2k Lead Mine, Southampton 335 Lectures, Proposed - - - 133 Letters from Ldinbur~h - 183 Literature, American - - 307 Letter, Mr. Southeys - 442 Mail Coaches 15 Merino Sheep - - - 16, 169 iXicinoirs by the Abbe Millot ~8 Modern Manners - - - 19 Montesquieu, Death of - - Newspapers, English - - 294 Opera Anecdote - - - - 55 Paintings - - - - 132, 441 Paris Friendships - - - 53 Pamphlets from St. Domingo 134 Pil~rimage to Jerusalem - 126 Pitt the elder, character - 1 7() Ramsays Universal History 4 i~ Receipts 1 7i Rouclle, Account of - - 2i)6 Rousseau, Anecdotes of - - 201 Savaae, Life of - - - - 210 Southey, Letter from - 44~ Ships C~ ptured - - - LA Steam En~ines 6 Short Sight 22 Stereotype Priritiu~ CONTEN TS. Page Smithfield Bargain - 445 Tax Return, English 24 Theories 163 Time, Regulation of - 334 Townsend, Charles, Charac ter 160 Titles, Honorary - - - 17 Trajedy of David and Bath- sheba - - - - - 37 Page. Trublet, Abbe - - - - 196 Tythingmen - - - 16, 165 Unitarianism, American - 179 University Intelligence - 442 Voltaire, Anecdote of 66, 196 Woodvilles, Elizabeth, Journal, 180 Wilkes, John, Character - 174 Youngs Night Thoughts 203 POETRY. Epigram, English - - 27 Song, 351 Epitaph 352 Sunset - - - - - - 27 Impromptu, Lord Byron - ibid. REVIEW. American Academys Papers Malthus on Corn Laws 214 370 Porters Journal - - - - 247 A Few Weeks in Paris - 91 Guy Mannering - - - 403 Cllntons Address - - - 390 United States and England 61 Iluntleys (Miss) Poems - ill Coxes Manufactures, United Lord of the Isles - - - - 275 states 234

Books relating to America 1-14

NORTH AMERICAN REVIEW AND MISCELLANEOUS JOURNAL. No. I. MAY, 1815. [The Editor, in making some researches in the history of North ~America, was induced for his own convenience, to form a rata3% ee raisoue~ of works relat- ing to it. As this may be of some utility to persons engaged in similar pur- suits, and not wholly uninterestin~ to others, he means to publish extracts from it in this journal Where the works noticed are scarce, several extracts from them will be made, which may at once serve to give a more complete idea of the books, and to relieve the dryness of a mere catalogue.] Virgo Triutnphans, or Virginia in generall; but the south part thereof in particular including the fertile Caro- lana, and the no lesse excellent island of Roanok, richly and experimentally valued. Humbly presented as the auspice of a beginning yeare to the Parliament of Eng- land and Councell of State. By Edward Williams, Gent. London, printed by Thomas harper for John Stephenso , and are to be sold at his shop on Ludgate Hill, at the signe of the sSunne, 1660, pp. 68, 4to. THIS book has two dedications anti an address to tile reader. The second dedication is, to tbe conservers and enlargers of the liberties of this nation, the Lord President and Counsell of State : The first is addi-essed to the Parliament and be~ins in this rvlanner. To the supreme authority of this nation the Parliament of England. Right Honorable This dedication in itselfe unworthy the VoL. L No. 1. I I3ooks relati~~, to .fhnerica. [May hononi ol an addresse to your Grandeurs, and of a foile too dead in shad dow to approach neere your most vigorou luster5 reposes itselfe yet upon a confidence that in imi- tation of that God of ~vhorn you arc in power the proper represents tives, who vouchsafed graciously to accept a poore paire of rrui.tles from those whose abilities could not asC:end to a more rich oblation, you will be pleased to cast a favorable aspect upon this humble offering, as proceeding from a gratefull, deere and sincere intention, whose desire being strongly passionate to present your ilonours with something more worthy the auspice of a beginning yeare, is circumscribed by a narrownesse of abilities and fortunes. The tone of servility in these dedications recalls to mind the same meanness to a greater extent shewn by some of the actors in a more modern revolution, whose termination has been equally abortive. The author is excessively zeal- ous, his praise of the ~ountry extravagant, of which he does not appear to have had a personal knowledge, and his argu- ments in favour of colonizing it, most of them farfetched and ab iiici Vii with some of the early ~vriters extended from C nv~ Cod to Florida. This writer appears to have par tieuar~v in view, what he calls the Southern part of Vir ama, oi CaroLina, under which name South Carolina, (georgia, and Florida were in former times generafly in- cludLo The following will give an idea of his descriptions. let to show that nature regards this ornament of the new world with a more indulgent eye titan she liath cast upon many other countrevs, whatever China, Persia, Japan, Cy~rus, Candy, Sicily, Greece, the South of Italy, y ~pornc, and the opposite i)arts of ./Ifica, to all of which she is parallel, may boast of, will be produced in this happy countrey. The same bounty of ~ummer, the same milde fCOil5SiOU of winter, with a more virgin and unexhausted soyle being materia Ii arguments to show that modesty and truth receive no di miitution by the comparison. Nor is the present wild nesse of it without a particular heauty, being all over a natural arove of Oakes, Pines, Cedars, Cipresse, Mulberry, Chestnut, Laurefl, Sassafras, Cherry, Plum trees, and Vines, all of so delectable an aspect, that the melanchoByost eye in the world cannot ~ looke upon it without contentment, nor content himselfe 1815.] Books relating to ./lrnerica, without admiration. No shiubs or underwoods chonke up your passage, and in its season your foot can hardly direct itseife where it ~x ~1 nor be died in the bloud of large and ~eliciois strawb n ( s Ii he rivers which every way m ocene and naviable channels, betwixt the brests of this uberous Coun~v, ann contribute to its conveniency beauty and fertility, laoaur ~x ith the multitude of their fishy inhabitants in c renter variety of species, and of a more incomparable delicacy in tast and sweetnesse than what ever the European sea can boast of Sturgeon of ten feet, Drummes of sixe in length; Con er Eeles, Trout, Salmon, Bret, Mullet, Cod, Herrings, Perc~i, Lampreycs, and what ever else can be desired to the satisfaction of the most voluptuous wishes. p. 1. rrhp Dutch would hardly assent to this writers depopo lating the Doggerbank to enliven the rivers of Georgia with Cod fish. Whatever other commodities, the novelty of inhabiting this amorous Virgin bath made it appeare defective in, as Sugar, Indigo, Cotton, Ginger, and other advanta~eous staples, we shall appeale to all who have seen this unexam- pled countrey; (we meane Roanok and the more Southerne parts, and those countreys towards the fertile Mangoack) whether it he guilty of any contrariety, distemper, or cx tremitv which might hinder their production. The Sunne, which in other countreys makes his visit in flames and (lrou~V5 heere ca~ts aus~icious fleame~ and an his ~ by innocent and complemental1 warmth, courts the bosome of this his particular favorite, hastening and (lispO5ifl~ it$ wombe for ripe productions, which salute him in an abso- lute perfection. Winter suowes, frosts, and other cx cesses, are here only remembered, never known. The purling Springs and wanton Rivers every where kissing the happy soyle into a perpetuall verdure, into an unwea- ried fertility no obstructions in your expectations, attempt and hope them, prosecute and enjoy them. p. 19. So little was known of the interiour of the country at this period, that this writer thou ht the South sea washed the Western base of the Alleghany mountains, and under this head launches out into extravagant calculations of the profit that would arise to Virginia from comniercing with China. The Indians unanimously consent that twenty two miles beyond the Falls. is a Rocke of Chrystall, and thi, 4 Books relating to wimerica. [May, they evidence by their arrowes, very many whereof are headed with it. And that 3 dayes journey from thence, is a Rocke or Hill of Silver Oare. Beyond which over a ledge of Hills, by a concurrent relation of all the Indians, is the sea, which can be no other but that sea which washes tile shore of China, & c. That this report of a great sea South West beyond tile Mountains cannot have the least of fiction or confederacy, sillee all the Indians from Canada to Florida, doe unjar- ringly a~ree in the relation, is obvious to the meanest ap- prct3en~ion. The discovery xvhereof if we fall upon it by degrees, will hee a xvorke of no long time or difficulty, but the unexpres sihie profit and glory of the action, will rayse the noble head of this above exam pie con ntiey, to such a high zenith of wealth, power and lustre, that it will be reputed a very temaikable de~ree of felicity to any nation which shall reach to such a verticall puint of glory, as to bce reputed but our second in these most noble considerations. By this means what wealth can there be in those rich- est piovinces of the world, in those countreys which na ture created for her Cabinets of excellency, which we shall not discover ? What discover, without a power of appropriation ? What opulency does China teeme with, which shall not be made our oxvne by the Midwifry, by tIle Juno Lucina of this virtuall passage ? This by a happy trausmigra tion, by an innocent ma~ick will convert that con atrey, (which by a swelling denomination, yet without not some J)retence of reason its natives call by a Title signifying aM under Heaven) into our maid of admiration and envy, Virginia. Her silke worm shall spinne for Carolana, her cloth of gold be weaved for Roanoak. The En0lish name shall keepe company with the Sunne, and those nations who owe him a particular adoration shall honour it as the next thing sacred. The Eastemne nations oppressed with the slavery of thuse illustrious horse leeches their princes, will conic under our shadox~, and by a thicke repayre to our most glorious and happy may- den, live with us in that liberty, which nature in their cre ation, intended to the noblest of his creatures mankind. And by this recourse all those curiosities of art, in which those Easterne Nations transcend Europe, will bee con veyed to us with their persons. Cattel and Horse in which 1816.] Books relating to .Eswerica. 5 they abound, will be mid to us for ndthing, for European trifles, whilest the more necessary staples of this our West- erne world, will be mid at advantages not convenient to he mentioned. The voyage short, easie, rich and pleasant. No doubling of the Line, no calentures, scurvies, or other long-passage diseases, to aSight or distast the laborious seaman; whereas now the enfeebling ad de~oylug of Mariners is almost an unavoidable consequence of those long and dangerous, rather circumferences, than voy. ages. p. 86. Those illustrious horse-leeches have indeed come under the shadow, hut not in the manner here predicted. One of his chapters compares Virginia with Persia, another with China, and on this latter he dwells the most; endea- vouring to prove the superiority of Virginia, and that it can furnish in a superiour manner all the productions of China. It is curious enough that there is nothing in modern times in Virginia, to remind us of China, except certain statesmen, who are the exclusive admirers of the policy of that coun- try. The author devotes a chapter to the silk worm, and endeavours to prove, that this might become the great staple of Virginia, aim the cultivation of vineyards, and of silke grasse, besides all the products of Trbpical climates. It is rather remarkable, that of all the objects which the san- guine expectations of early adventurers led them to consider as the great murces of the wealth of Virginia, none have hitherto been productive. IVine, silk, and silver mines were the three principal things on which the bopei of the first colo- nists were founded. There is added a list of the prices of a number of ~rvicles, at the time this book was written, which is not without interest. Virginia richly valued by the description of the maine land of florida, her noeS neighbour, out of the four. yeeres continuall travel and discouerie, for above one thousand miles East and West, of Don Ferdinando do Soto, and sire hundred able men is his companie. Wherein are truly observed the riches and fertiitie of those parts, abounding with thing. necessarie, pleasant, and profitable for .he ?jti~ of man: with the natures and dispositions 01ff the lithabitants: Written by a Portugal! Gentleman of Eluas, eraplojed in all the aflion, and trans- lated out of Portugese by Richard llaklvyt. .Et London 6 Boo/cs relating to ..qmerica. [May, printed by Felix Kyagston for .Miathew Lowucs, and are to be sold at the signe of the Bishops head in Fauls Church yard, 1609. 41o. pp. iso. Tills is a very scarce tract, as it is not to be found in the original editions of Ilackinyt, nor is it reprinted with the modern one. His object in translating it was to serve the Virginia Company, to whom it is dedicated. He particularly dwells on the commodities of the country, and the conver- sion of the natives. And this he seems to think, if gentle means fail, may be effected by harsh ones. This was the common errour of the age in which he lived ; and the habit of regarding these unfortunate savages with contempt because they were Pabans, greatly added to the cruelty of their in- vaders, and made even learned and pious men like Hackinyt, insensible to the atrocities that were acted. The conclusion of his dedication will shew his feelings on this point. To come to the second generail head, which in the be- ginning I proposed, concerning the manners and dispo- sitions of the Inhabitants among other things, I finde them here noted to be very eloquent and well spoken, as the short orations interpreted by loho Ortiz, which hued twelve yeeres amonb them, moke sufficient proofe. And the author which ~vas a gentleman of Eluas in Portugall, emoloied in all the action, whose name is not set downe, sjeaii~g of the Cacique of Tuila, saith, that as well this Cacique, as the others, and all those which came to the Governour, on their behalfe, delinered their message or 51)eech in so good order, that no Oratour could vtter th~ same more eloquently. But for all their faire and cunnin~ speeches, they are not onermuch to be trusted for they be the greatest traitors of the XVorld, as their manifold most craftie, contriued and bloody trea sons, here set (lown at large, doe enidently prone. They be also as vacon stant as the vethercock, and most readie to take all occa- sions of aduanta~es to (be miseheife. They ale great liars and dissemblers for which faults oftentimes they had their deserued paiments. And man times tb ey gone ~ (1~~(] testimoLne of their oreat valour and resolution. To handle them gently, while gentle courses may be found to seine, it will be wihout comparison the best but if 5entle polishing will not seure, then we shall not ~vant haintacrours 1815j Books relating to dmerzca. 7 and rougi) masons, eno~v, I mean our old soldiours trained vp in the Netherlands, to square and prepare them to our preachers hands. To conclude, I trust by your honours and worships xvise instructions to the noble Gouernour, the the wortLy experimented Lieutenant and Admiral], and other cheife managers of the businesse, all things shall be so prudently carried, that the painfull Preachers shall be reuerenc,ed and cherished, the valiant and forward soldiour respected, the clilKent rewarded, the coward em- boldened, the weake and sicke relicued, the mutinous sup- pressed, the reputation of the Christians among the Salu a~es preserued, our roost holy faith exalted, all Paganisme and Idolatrie by little and little vtterly extinguished. And here reposing and resting myselfe vpon this sweete hope, I cease, beseeching the Almightie to blesse this hood work in your hands to the honour and glorie of his most holy name, to the enlargement of the dominions of his sacred Maiestie, and to the generall good of all the worthie aduenterers and. vndertakers. Froto my lodging in the Colle~e of West- minister this 15. of Anrill, 1609. By one publikely and anciently denoted to Gods seruice and all yours in this so good action. Ric hARD IIAKLUYT. De Soto was one of the most adventurous and intrepid of the Spanish Banditti who first discovered and desolated Ame- rica. rlili~ following extracts, give his origin and end. The Rio Grande as the author calls it into which his body was thrown is the Mississippi. Chap. 1. XVhich declareth who Don Ferdinando de Soto wa and how he got the gonerament of Florida. Captaine Soto was the son of a Squire of Xercz of Ba- (laioz. He went into the Spanish I dies when Peter Arias of Anila was Gonernour of the West Indies and there lie was without any thin~ else of his owne, saue his sword and target and for his good qualities anti valour Peter Aiias made him Captaine of a troope of horsemen, and by his comrnancemel)t hee ~vent with Fernando Pizarro to the conquest of Peru where (as many persons of credit reported, which were there present) as well at the takiag ~ C A~. 01 Atanatipa i~ord of Peru, as at the assault of the citie of Cusco, and in all other places where they found resist- ance. whevesoener hee was present, bee passed all other S Books relating to ~1merica. [May, Captaines and principall persons. For which cause (be- sites his part of the treasure of Atabalipa) he had a good share whereby in time he gathered an hundred and foure score thousand Duckets together, with that which fell to his part: which he brought into Spaine : whereof the Em- perour borrowed a certaine parte, which he repaied againe with 60000 Rials of Plate in the rent of the silkes of Granada, and all the rest was delinered him in the contrac tation house of Shut. He tooke seruants, to wit, a steward, a Gentleman Vsher, Pages, a gentleman of the Horse, a Chamberlaine, Lakies, and at other officers that the house of a nobleman requireth. From Sijil hee went to the Court, and in the Court, there accompanied him Iohn Da- nusco of Sinil, and Lewis Moscoso dAluarado, Nunno de Tonar, and iohn Rodriguez Lobillo. Except John Danus- co all the rest came with him from Peru: and cuery one of them brought foutteene or fifteene thousand Duckets : all of them went well and costly apparrelled. And although Soto of his owne nature was not liberall, yet because that was the first time that hee was to shew hiunselfe in the Court, he spent frankely, and went accompanied with those which I haue named, and with his sernants and many other which resorted voto him. flee married with Donna Isabella de Bouadilla, dan~hter of Peter Arias of Anila, Earle of Punno en Rostro. The Emperour made him the Governour of the Isle of Cuba, and Adelantado or President of Florida, wiW a title of Marques of certaine part of the lands that ho should conquer. Chap. 30. Of the death of the Adelantado Fernando dc Soro : and how Luys Moscoso de Aluarado was elected Gonernour in his stead. The Gonernoer felt in himselfe that the houre approach- ed, wherein hee was to leaue this present life, and called for the Kin6 s officers, Captaines and principall persons, to whom he made a speech, saying That now he was to goc to gine an account before the presence of God of all his life past : and since it pleased him to take him in such a time, and that the time was come, that he knew his death, that bee his most unworthie seruant did yeeld him many thankes therefore, and desired all that were present and absent, (whom he confessed himse.ife to be much beholding voto for their singular ver ues, louc and loyaltie~ which himselfe had well tried in 1815.] Books relating to ~1rnerica. the traucis, which they had sufibred, which aiwaics in his mind he did hope to satisfie and reward, when it should please God to giue him rest, with more prosperitie of his estate,) that they would piny to God for him, that for hi2 mercie he would forgiuc him his sinnes, and recejue his~ soule into eter~ail glorie and that they would quit auC free him of the charge which hee had ouer them, and ought vnto them all, and th~ t they would pardon him fo~ some wron ~s which they rni~ht haue receiued of him: And to anoid some dinision, which vpon his death might fail out vpon the choice of his successour, he requested them to elect a principal1 person, and able to gouerae, of whom all should like well ; and when he xvas elected, they should sweare before him to obey him: and that he would thanke them very much in so doing; because the griefe that he had, would somewhat be asswa bed, and the paine that he felt, because he left them in so great confu- sion, to wit, in leauing them in a strange Countric, where they knew not where they were. Baltasar de Gallegos answered in the name of all the rest: And first of all comforting him, he set before his eies how short the life of this world was, and with how many troubles and miseries it is accompanied, and how God shewed him a singular fauor which soonest left it: telling him many other things fit for such a time. And for the last point, that since it pleased God to take him to himselfe, although his death did iustly grieue them much, yet as wel he, as aI the rest, ought of necessitie to con~ forme themselues to the will of God. And touching the Gouernour which he commanded they should elect, he besought him, that it would please his Lordship to name him which he thought fit, and him they would obey. And presently he named Luys de .Illoscoso de ~ilactrado his Captaine generall. And presently he was sworne by all that were present and elected for Gonernour. The next day, being the 21. of May, 1542. departed out of this life, the valorous, virtuous, and valiant Captaine, Don Per- nando de Soto, Gonernour of Cuba, and Adelantado of Florida: whom fortune aduanced, as it vseth to doe others, that hee might haue the higher fal. He departed in such a place, and at such a time, as in his sicknesse he had but little comfort: and the danger wherein all his people were of perishin? in tlrnt Countrie, ~vhich appeared Vol. I. No. 1 C) 10 Books 2elating to ./Imcric jIXlay, before their cics, was cause sufficient, why cuery one of them had need of comfort, and why they did not visit nor accompanie him as they ought to haue done. Lay de .Moscoso determined to conceale his death from thG Indians, because Ferdinando de Soto had made them beleene, That the Christians were immortall ; and also because they tooke him to be hardie, wise, and valiant and if they should know that he was dead, they would be bold to set vpon the Christians, though they licued peaceablie by them. in regard of their disposition, and because they were nothing constant, and beleeued all that was tolde them, the Adelantado made them beleene, that he knew some thin~s that passed in secret among them selnes, without their knowledge, how, or in what manner he came by them: and that the figure which appeared in a glasse, which he shewed them, did tell him whatsoeuer they practised and ~vent about: and therefore neither in xvord nor deed durst they attempt any thing that might bee preindiciahl vnto him. As soone as he was dead, Lids de .Moscoso commanded to put him secretly in an house, where bee remained three daies : and remoouing him from thence, commanded him to bee buried in the ni6ht at one of the gates of the towne within the wall. And as the Indians had scene him sick, and missed him, so did they suspect what might bee. And passing by the place where hee was buried, seeing the earth mooned, they looked and spake one to another. Lays de .iJJoscoso vnderstanding of it, corn manded him to he taken vp by night, and to cast a great deale of sand into the mantles, wherein he was winded vp, wherein bee was carried in a canoe, and throwne into the middest of the Riner. The Cacique of Uuackoy inq& red for him, demanding what xvas become of his brother and Lord, the Gouernour: Lays de .Aloscoso told him, that bee was gon to heauen, as many other times bee did: and because bee was to stay there certaine daics, he had left him in his place. The Caciqn~ thou ht with himselfe that he was dead; and commanded two young and well proportioned indians to be breu6ht thither ; and said, that a vse of that Countrie was, when any Lord died, to kill Indians to wait vpon him, and seine him ~y the way: and for that purpose by his commande- ment were those come thither and prayed Lays de Afos:~ 1615.] 11 Books relating to dinerica. coso to command them to be beheaded, tl1at they might attend and serue his Lord and brother. Luys de .Mos- coso told him, that the Gouernour was not dead, but gone to heauen, and that of his owne Christian souldiers, he had taken such as he needed to serue him, and praied him to command those indians to be loosed, and not to vse any such bad custome from thencefoorth straightway hee commanded them to be loosed, and to get them home to their houses. And one of them would not goe; saying, that he would not serue him, that without desert had iudged him to death, but that bee would serue him as long as bee lined, which had saued his life. There are many speeches of different Caciques, through whose territories they passed, but these are all in one uni form strain of servility, without any of the peculiarities, or raciness, that would prove them to be the real harangues of the savages. There is but one that forms an exception, and bears intrinsick marks of bein~ genuine. It is given in the chapter that precedes the account of his death. When he caine to the banks of the Mississippi, lie was very anx- ious to get to the coast, in order to build boats and embark his men to return to Cuba, or prosecute further discoveries along shore. He had sent out one or two parties, but these had returned without being able to get more than a few leagues, on account of the innumerable creeks which they had met, and the thick woods and canes. The Goucruour fell into great dumps to see how hard it was to get to the ~ Sea: and worse, because his men and horses eucry day diminished, being without succour to sustaine themselues in the country : and with that thought he fell sick. But before he tooke his bed bee sent an Indian to the Cacique of ~uigalta to tell him, that bee was the Childe of the Sunne, and that all the way that bee came all men obeyed and ~ him, that he requested him to accept of his friendship, and come vnto him; for he would be very glad to see him; and in signe of lone and obedience to bring something with him of that which in his countrie was most esteemed. That Cacique answered by the same Indian That whereas he said he was the Child of the Sunne, if he would drie vp the Riuer he would beleeue him: and touching the rest, that hee was wont to visit none; but rather that all those of whom he had notice did visit him. serued, obeqecl and paid him tributes willingly or 12 Books relating to .lmerica. [May, perforce: therefore ff he desired to see him, it were best he should come tldther: that ~f he came in. peace, he would receine him ith speciall good will ; and ff in warre, in like manner lice uould attend him in the towne where he was, and that for him or any other hee would not shrink one foote backe. They found one nation governed by a female sovereign, whose territory was situated on the River Cutifachiqui. She sent her sister when he came to the opposite bank of the river, and afterwards went to him herself. The following is the account of the interview. Within a little while the Ladie came out of the towne in a Chaire, whereon certaine of the principall Indians brought her to the Riuer. She entred into a barge, which had the sterne tilted oner, and on the floore her mat readie laied with two cushions vpon it one vpon another, where she sate her downe; and with her came her principall Indians in other barges, which did wait vpon her. She went to the place where the Gouernor was, and at her comming she made this speech following: Excellent Lord, I wish this comming of your Lord- ship into these your Countries, to be most happie: at- though my power be not answerable to my wil, and my serusces be not according to my desire, nor such as so high a Prince, as your Lordship, deserueth; yet since the good will is rather to be accepted, then all the trea sures of the world, that without it are offered, with most vufaileable and manifest affection, I offer you my person, lands, and subjects, and this small seruice. And therewithal she presented vnto him great store of clothes of the Countrie, which shee brought in other canoes; to wit, mantles and skinnes; and tooke from her owne necke a great cordon of perles and cast it about the necke of the Goucruour, entertoining him with very gra- cious speeches of loue and courtesie, and commanded canoes to be brought thither, wherein the Gouernour and his pepple passed the Riner. He then goes on to relate many other acts of kindness and presents offered by this In- dian princess. It might be supposed that for once the savage character ofde Soto would have relented, and that a woman who had thus received him would have at least escaped ill treatment. But his conduct was uniform, he took her away with many of her subjects, made her proceed on foot up 1815.1 Books relating to ~qmerTha. wards of an hundred leagues, suffering every hardship, till she had the good fortune to make her escape. The whole narrative is one continued series of the most horrible cruelty towards the natives, making slaves of them, and loading them with excessive burthens, cutting off their hands, burn- ing and murdering them in every town they came to. The Spanish party consisted originally of between 6 and 700, of whom 213 were on horses. This hand of ruffians, in the course of four years that they travelled over this country, must have destroyed many thousands, in one place, 2500 perished by their setting fire to a town. Their expedition terminated after the death of de Soto, by their constructing some frail vessels on the Mississippi, and coasting along till they came to Panuco, from whence they went to the city of Mexico. It is impossible not to admire their spirit of enterprise, their daring intrepidity, and fortitude in sup- porting the extremest hardships. But, our contempt and horrour are excited, when it is considered, that their only motive was the thirst of gold; and being the slaves of su- perstition, wherever they went, their path was marked with the blood of the wretched inhabitants. There is indeed a wonderful consistency in the Spanish character; other na- tions may have had their auto da fis in the sixteenth cen- tury, but, perhaps no other nation would have re-established the Inquisition in the nineteenth. It will be remarked, as the extracts are copied exactly, that the orthography is very uncertain. The last chapter contains a short summary 9f the different products of the country, and concludes with the following notice of the book. This relation of the discoucrie of Florida was printed in the house of ~1ndrew de Burgos, Printer and Gentle- man of the house of my Lord Cardinall the Infante. It was finished the tenth of Februa~ie in the yeere one thousand, flue hundred, fiftie and seuen, in the noble and most Io~all citi e of Euora. 14 flours of Worslulp. [May; TO TIlE EDITOR. SIR, THERE are some points of practice in religious worship, nearly similar in all the states of the Union, so far as my experience extends, and which it has been sometimes thought might be altered advantageously. As the slightest innovation in these concerns, is apt to startle even th& strongest minds, I hope that the following suggestions may be candidly appreciated, and shewn to be expedient or otherwise, after mature consideration. The first alteration I would propose, is in the hours of worship in the afternoon. It would be better that this service should commence at a later hour. The common time of dining in most of our cities, is between two and three oclock. On Sunday the din- ner is served one or two hours sooner. The moment af- ter rising from the repast, we repair to church. in sum- iner especially, the lassitude which follows is most unfriend- ly to devotion, and I have known some individuals, who have absented themselves from the second attendance, rather than incur the risk of violating the solemnity of reli- 0ious worship, by that feeling of drowsiness and languor from which very few are exempt. The fatigue and effort to a clergyman, who officiates twice after so short an inter- val, must be greater than it would be, if the second meeting were later in the day, and when in summer the extreme heat had subsided. In the next place, are two discourses necessary, or, all cjrcumstances considered, advantagcous? The introduction of protestantistn in abolishing almost all the ceremonies of religion, left a vacuum, which was advantageously filled by moral and doctrinal discourses, to excite and enlighten those who adhered to its tenets. The number of these has varied among different sects, according to their circumstances and character. The general practice, however, for which per- haps no other reason, than custom, can be assigned, has made two sermons requisite in the regular congregations of different protestant sects. Yet if there be not some par- ticular virtue in this number, why is it better than three, which are still delivered in many meetings ; or even thn practice of the proselyting sects, who operate on their ~carcrs by a mechameal process of exhaustion. Is ot

Hours of Worship 14-15

14 flours of Worslulp. [May; TO TIlE EDITOR. SIR, THERE are some points of practice in religious worship, nearly similar in all the states of the Union, so far as my experience extends, and which it has been sometimes thought might be altered advantageously. As the slightest innovation in these concerns, is apt to startle even th& strongest minds, I hope that the following suggestions may be candidly appreciated, and shewn to be expedient or otherwise, after mature consideration. The first alteration I would propose, is in the hours of worship in the afternoon. It would be better that this service should commence at a later hour. The common time of dining in most of our cities, is between two and three oclock. On Sunday the din- ner is served one or two hours sooner. The moment af- ter rising from the repast, we repair to church. in sum- iner especially, the lassitude which follows is most unfriend- ly to devotion, and I have known some individuals, who have absented themselves from the second attendance, rather than incur the risk of violating the solemnity of reli- 0ious worship, by that feeling of drowsiness and languor from which very few are exempt. The fatigue and effort to a clergyman, who officiates twice after so short an inter- val, must be greater than it would be, if the second meeting were later in the day, and when in summer the extreme heat had subsided. In the next place, are two discourses necessary, or, all cjrcumstances considered, advantagcous? The introduction of protestantistn in abolishing almost all the ceremonies of religion, left a vacuum, which was advantageously filled by moral and doctrinal discourses, to excite and enlighten those who adhered to its tenets. The number of these has varied among different sects, according to their circumstances and character. The general practice, however, for which per- haps no other reason, than custom, can be assigned, has made two sermons requisite in the regular congregations of different protestant sects. Yet if there be not some par- ticular virtue in this number, why is it better than three, which are still delivered in many meetings ; or even thn practice of the proselyting sects, who operate on their ~carcrs by a mechameal process of exhaustion. Is ot 1815.] Mail Coaches. 16 delivering two sermons a week, a greater task, than most or even any clergyman can well perform, iii addition to other parochial duties? Would not a single discourse, which, it may reasonably be inferred, would be composed with more care and ability, produce more good than is now usually done by two? Does not the multiplicity of sermons, in some measure, weaken their effect? Allow me then to suggest, for the consideration of the clergy and all reflecting men, whether the time of the second service may not be changed for the better, so that it should become what it was originally intended to be, an evening ser- vice ; that the middle of the day, so oppressive in summer, should be left to meditation and repose. That the sermon should be delivered in the morning; and the evening service, commencin6 toward sunset, should have the vacancy of the sermon supplied by larger portions of the Scriptures, and of sacred musick. The hour would be more propitious to devo- tion, the closing of the day with religious exercises would be more natural and decorous, than the present arrangement, by which, in summer time particularly, the (lay is most unequal- ly divided, and the ervices inconveniently crowded together. A LAYMAN. TO THE EDITOR. SIR IT is surprising, that in a country where the spirit of i~m provement and enterprise is so strong, the estabiishmer,t of mail and other coaches, should be so miserahly wanting in every thing, for the comfort of the traveller, which is still more remarkable, because there being no post-horses on the ioads, almost all our journeying is in these vehicles. Hitherto nothing seems to have been aimed at but speed, and the ra- pidity with which the mail is transported, equals that of the most improved countries in Europe. Yet no change has been made in the coaches. In Massachusetts they are in a degree better than in other states but, when you get out of this state, they are mere inconvenient waagons, in their primitive con- struction. Certainly, the great roads from Portland to New- York, and some of the roads in Pennsylvania, will admit of oetter carriages.

Mail Coaches 15-16

1815.] Mail Coaches. 16 delivering two sermons a week, a greater task, than most or even any clergyman can well perform, iii addition to other parochial duties? Would not a single discourse, which, it may reasonably be inferred, would be composed with more care and ability, produce more good than is now usually done by two? Does not the multiplicity of sermons, in some measure, weaken their effect? Allow me then to suggest, for the consideration of the clergy and all reflecting men, whether the time of the second service may not be changed for the better, so that it should become what it was originally intended to be, an evening ser- vice ; that the middle of the day, so oppressive in summer, should be left to meditation and repose. That the sermon should be delivered in the morning; and the evening service, commencin6 toward sunset, should have the vacancy of the sermon supplied by larger portions of the Scriptures, and of sacred musick. The hour would be more propitious to devo- tion, the closing of the day with religious exercises would be more natural and decorous, than the present arrangement, by which, in summer time particularly, the (lay is most unequal- ly divided, and the ervices inconveniently crowded together. A LAYMAN. TO THE EDITOR. SIR IT is surprising, that in a country where the spirit of i~m provement and enterprise is so strong, the estabiishmer,t of mail and other coaches, should be so miserahly wanting in every thing, for the comfort of the traveller, which is still more remarkable, because there being no post-horses on the ioads, almost all our journeying is in these vehicles. Hitherto nothing seems to have been aimed at but speed, and the ra- pidity with which the mail is transported, equals that of the most improved countries in Europe. Yet no change has been made in the coaches. In Massachusetts they are in a degree better than in other states but, when you get out of this state, they are mere inconvenient waagons, in their primitive con- struction. Certainly, the great roads from Portland to New- York, and some of the roads in Pennsylvania, will admit of oetter carriages. 16 .)llierino Sheep.Tythingmen. [1\ia , In addition to more comfortable carriages, an arrangement for transmitting small parcels is exceedingly wanted. In England, this is found to be a lucrative branch of the busi- ness; every town has a coach office, where parcels are book- ed, and are transmitted daily to all parts of the kingdom, for a trifling charge ; every package is delivered immediately, and very often the persons, to whom they are addressed, re- ceive them as early as they would a letter by the mail. Such an appendage attached to any of our lines of coaches, would not fail of meeting with encoura~ement, as every person ha experienced the difficulty of transmitting small packages from one city to another. A FRIENP TO IMPROVEMENT- TO THE EDITOR. SIR, THE introduction and rapid extension of merino sheep, in this country, forms one of the most important features of our rural economy. I have heard the numbers of full-bred and half-bred now in the United States, very differently estimated. A correct idea of the actual number might be useful in many respects. I should be much obliged to any person, who would give to the publick through your journal, a calcu- lation of the present numbers of these, and if be has the ne- cessary data, of other kinds of sheep now in the country. x-Y Brooklyn. TO TIlE EDITOR. SIR, IT would much oblige one of your subseribeis, if sonm~ of your correspondents would state in your journal, the principal features, and the present practice of the laws re- specting Tythingmen, in the different states of the Union, where such laws exist. At present, from the best informa- tion I have been able to obtain, they seem to be only par- tially carried into eff~t in particular districts. I have heard of some curious ca. es of oppression by these Fa- miliars. It seems most extraordinary, that this most

Merino Sheep 16

16 .)llierino Sheep.Tythingmen. [1\ia , In addition to more comfortable carriages, an arrangement for transmitting small parcels is exceedingly wanted. In England, this is found to be a lucrative branch of the busi- ness; every town has a coach office, where parcels are book- ed, and are transmitted daily to all parts of the kingdom, for a trifling charge ; every package is delivered immediately, and very often the persons, to whom they are addressed, re- ceive them as early as they would a letter by the mail. Such an appendage attached to any of our lines of coaches, would not fail of meeting with encoura~ement, as every person ha experienced the difficulty of transmitting small packages from one city to another. A FRIENP TO IMPROVEMENT- TO THE EDITOR. SIR, THE introduction and rapid extension of merino sheep, in this country, forms one of the most important features of our rural economy. I have heard the numbers of full-bred and half-bred now in the United States, very differently estimated. A correct idea of the actual number might be useful in many respects. I should be much obliged to any person, who would give to the publick through your journal, a calcu- lation of the present numbers of these, and if be has the ne- cessary data, of other kinds of sheep now in the country. x-Y Brooklyn. TO TIlE EDITOR. SIR, IT would much oblige one of your subseribeis, if sonm~ of your correspondents would state in your journal, the principal features, and the present practice of the laws re- specting Tythingmen, in the different states of the Union, where such laws exist. At present, from the best informa- tion I have been able to obtain, they seem to be only par- tially carried into eff~t in particular districts. I have heard of some curious ca. es of oppression by these Fa- miliars. It seems most extraordinary, that this most

Tythingmen 16-17

16 .)llierino Sheep.Tythingmen. [1\ia , In addition to more comfortable carriages, an arrangement for transmitting small parcels is exceedingly wanted. In England, this is found to be a lucrative branch of the busi- ness; every town has a coach office, where parcels are book- ed, and are transmitted daily to all parts of the kingdom, for a trifling charge ; every package is delivered immediately, and very often the persons, to whom they are addressed, re- ceive them as early as they would a letter by the mail. Such an appendage attached to any of our lines of coaches, would not fail of meeting with encoura~ement, as every person ha experienced the difficulty of transmitting small packages from one city to another. A FRIENP TO IMPROVEMENT- TO THE EDITOR. SIR, THE introduction and rapid extension of merino sheep, in this country, forms one of the most important features of our rural economy. I have heard the numbers of full-bred and half-bred now in the United States, very differently estimated. A correct idea of the actual number might be useful in many respects. I should be much obliged to any person, who would give to the publick through your journal, a calcu- lation of the present numbers of these, and if be has the ne- cessary data, of other kinds of sheep now in the country. x-Y Brooklyn. TO TIlE EDITOR. SIR, IT would much oblige one of your subseribeis, if sonm~ of your correspondents would state in your journal, the principal features, and the present practice of the laws re- specting Tythingmen, in the different states of the Union, where such laws exist. At present, from the best informa- tion I have been able to obtain, they seem to be only par- tially carried into eff~t in particular districts. I have heard of some curious ca. es of oppression by these Fa- miliars. It seems most extraordinary, that this most 1815.] Inquiry concerning Piays.Thular Rewards. 17 odious branch of police should exist in a few towns only~ Is the right to stop travellers on the high-way of the state vested in each particular town ? or is this a general law, under which separate towns may act as they choose. Many reasons may he ~ivea why the publick attention should be called to these laws ; either to remedy partial oppression, or in equity and policy, to propose a system of common restraint. If the majority are of opinion, that force can serve the purposes of religion, that men will be more con- stant and devout in their attendance on publick worship from being compelled, let these regulations be universally enforced, and doubtless some useful additions might be made from a celebrated code now obsolete. The King of Spain has restored the inquisition, and it is not for us to say he has not done wisely. There is a restless spirit in man never to be contented. The Sunday, in no part of the world, is at this moment so rationally, devoutly, and deco- rously observed, as it is in a greater part of the eastern, and in many districts of the middle states. Those who are still desirous of greater perfection, without regarding the pro- pensities of human nature, would do well to recollect a cele- brated Italian epitaph on a man who took physic in health: Stavo bene, ma per star meolior, s/a qui. I was well, but to be better, I am here. C. G. TO THE EDITOR. Sin, IT would gratify my curiosity, and perhaps many of your readers, if any of your correspondents could furnish a list complete, or only partial, of the plays that have been pro- duced in this country, and performed in the different thea- tres of the United States, particularizing the number of hts they were played, and whether they have been printed. S. D. TO THE EDITOR. IT has been the policy of all nations to encourage their citizens, to the performance of great actions, by some spe- c~es of lionourable distinction. The nature of these has varied with the genius of their govcrnment~ . In rnoder!~ VOL. I. No. 1. 3

Honorary Titles 17-19

1815.] Inquiry concerning Piays.Thular Rewards. 17 odious branch of police should exist in a few towns only~ Is the right to stop travellers on the high-way of the state vested in each particular town ? or is this a general law, under which separate towns may act as they choose. Many reasons may he ~ivea why the publick attention should be called to these laws ; either to remedy partial oppression, or in equity and policy, to propose a system of common restraint. If the majority are of opinion, that force can serve the purposes of religion, that men will be more con- stant and devout in their attendance on publick worship from being compelled, let these regulations be universally enforced, and doubtless some useful additions might be made from a celebrated code now obsolete. The King of Spain has restored the inquisition, and it is not for us to say he has not done wisely. There is a restless spirit in man never to be contented. The Sunday, in no part of the world, is at this moment so rationally, devoutly, and deco- rously observed, as it is in a greater part of the eastern, and in many districts of the middle states. Those who are still desirous of greater perfection, without regarding the pro- pensities of human nature, would do well to recollect a cele- brated Italian epitaph on a man who took physic in health: Stavo bene, ma per star meolior, s/a qui. I was well, but to be better, I am here. C. G. TO THE EDITOR. Sin, IT would gratify my curiosity, and perhaps many of your readers, if any of your correspondents could furnish a list complete, or only partial, of the plays that have been pro- duced in this country, and performed in the different thea- tres of the United States, particularizing the number of hts they were played, and whether they have been printed. S. D. TO THE EDITOR. IT has been the policy of all nations to encourage their citizens, to the performance of great actions, by some spe- c~es of lionourable distinction. The nature of these has varied with the genius of their govcrnment~ . In rnoder!~ VOL. I. No. 1. 3 Scandal. [May Europe, whose institutions are principally monarchical, titles of different degrees, chiefly hereditary, are the most common mode of rewarding brilliant or useful services, and one the main supports of this form of government. The nations of antiquity whose institutions were less complicated, the Romans for instance, rewarded illustrious citizens with titles which were only an additional name, and were not heredi- tary. Names thus given accord strictly with the spirit of republicks. The lovers of economy will not object to making use of this portion of the cheap defence of na- tions: and more generous and enlarged minds would gladly decree to a statesman, or hero, a surname, which would only be a glorious distinction to him, and not being hereditary as in monarchies, would not make his descendants burthen- some to the publick. Such a name should be given only by a unanimous or nearly unanimous vote of both h6uses of Cnngress. Thus, for example, Perry Erie, Mc Donougit Champlain, Jackson Louisiana. SCIPIO AFRICANUS. Cambridge. TO THE EDITOR. SIR, PRESUMING that your pages will be open to any hints on the great questions of publick manners and morality, I pro- pose occasionally to send you brief communications on these topicks. One of the most prominent and growing evils of society, seems to me to be the love of scandal. This may in a great degree be attributed to the stagnation and absence of customary, netive employment in our cities, during the recent xvar. The return of peace, among other advantages, may afford such employment for every one in their own concerns, as may force them to relinquish in part the gra- tuitous interest they have taken in those of others. In the mean time we may gradually acquire more generous habits, and attain to manly feelings by degrees; and in imitation of the tolerant policy of a certain court, where it was one of the rules of an assembly, that no lady should get drunk before nine oclock; it might be proposed as an incipient step, that no circle of gentlemen shonld stoop to converse about such mean, insignificant details of occurrences, in private families, as kitchen maids would despise relating6 1815.] Modern Manners. 19 What I wish here to repress, is not censoriousness, but only that idle gossip and mischievous tattlir~g, the natural occupation of ignoble minds in a state of idleness. The breed of censorious people are by far too useful to be de- stroyed ; like the turkey buzzards of Carolina, who, devour-. ing the carrion of the cities, preserve them from pestilence; so this class is equally useful and pleasing, and by preying on all the moral ollences of society, serve to keep it from contamination. Voltaire has remarked, that it is difficult to know how to act with the publick; there is no way of pleasing it during ones life time, but by being profoundly unfortunate. Yet this will not always do; the terriers of scandal will not give up the scent while life remains, but pursue the victim into the most lonely and obscure retreats, in which wretchedness can seek to shelter itself in obscurity and oblivion. I will not date the place from whence I write this letter I fear it will apply to many. happy and sin- gular indeed would he the condition of that country, which was degraded by only one scandal-loving city. CHARLES SURFACE. TO THE EDITOR. SIR, THE events of the last thirty years furnish an inexhaust- ible theme for moralists, historians, and statesmen. The crumbling of ancient systems, the decomposition of civil society, the propagation of extravagant theories, the rash- ness of new experiments, and the destruction of visionary hopes, have produced many elaborate essays, and educed from human intellect, numerous consummate specimens of splendid eloquence. Nor can such topicks be exhausted, while pWlosophers possess the power of perception, com- bination and analysis, to develope, or the talent of speaking to convince, or the art of writing to demonstrate, the inevi- table tendency of rash and innovating propositions, by which the simple are coofounded, arid the wise baffled. I have not leisure, nor has your journal space sufficient to dilate these ideas to their full extei~t. It is as remote from my inclination as from my capacity, to make the attempt. Wishing to avoid a general and endless view of the subject, descend ~t once to a few of it~ particular bearings, not oui

Modern Manners 19-21

1815.] Modern Manners. 19 What I wish here to repress, is not censoriousness, but only that idle gossip and mischievous tattlir~g, the natural occupation of ignoble minds in a state of idleness. The breed of censorious people are by far too useful to be de- stroyed ; like the turkey buzzards of Carolina, who, devour-. ing the carrion of the cities, preserve them from pestilence; so this class is equally useful and pleasing, and by preying on all the moral ollences of society, serve to keep it from contamination. Voltaire has remarked, that it is difficult to know how to act with the publick; there is no way of pleasing it during ones life time, but by being profoundly unfortunate. Yet this will not always do; the terriers of scandal will not give up the scent while life remains, but pursue the victim into the most lonely and obscure retreats, in which wretchedness can seek to shelter itself in obscurity and oblivion. I will not date the place from whence I write this letter I fear it will apply to many. happy and sin- gular indeed would he the condition of that country, which was degraded by only one scandal-loving city. CHARLES SURFACE. TO THE EDITOR. SIR, THE events of the last thirty years furnish an inexhaust- ible theme for moralists, historians, and statesmen. The crumbling of ancient systems, the decomposition of civil society, the propagation of extravagant theories, the rash- ness of new experiments, and the destruction of visionary hopes, have produced many elaborate essays, and educed from human intellect, numerous consummate specimens of splendid eloquence. Nor can such topicks be exhausted, while pWlosophers possess the power of perception, com- bination and analysis, to develope, or the talent of speaking to convince, or the art of writing to demonstrate, the inevi- table tendency of rash and innovating propositions, by which the simple are coofounded, arid the wise baffled. I have not leisure, nor has your journal space sufficient to dilate these ideas to their full extei~t. It is as remote from my inclination as from my capacity, to make the attempt. Wishing to avoid a general and endless view of the subject, descend ~t once to a few of it~ particular bearings, not oui 20 ./lliodern .Alianners. [May% human society at large, but some portions of it in particular parts of certain countries. As my design from this preface must be sufficiently evi- dent, allow me to ask if the violation of decorum, the want of etiquette, the rusticity bf manners in this generation, must not he a source of exquisite regret and mortification to those, who have seen the last? What idea can the tin fortunate young people of the present d~y have of ancient polish and refinement? So extensive is the deterioration of society, so deleterious the consequences of abandoning established systems, that even the well-intentioned know not how to conduct themselves. This degradation does not exist in Europe alone, this country also deplores its extent. What are the manners of the present day? The presence among us thirty-five years ago, of the most accom- 1~lislied noblemen of the Court of Versailles, in adding a slight polish to the simplicity and frankness of our habits, formed a most pleasing and perfect system of behaviour. Since that period every thing has been new modelled, and our manners left to choke themselves with their own wild growth, without any pruning, till they have shot into the utmost exuberance of rudeness. Once in a while a vestige may be perceived of better times, some well-bred antique that shrinks from modern degeneracy ; and when seen in society recals to mind the insulated Corinthian columns, that are still erect amid the desolation of Palmnyra, or the deserted environs of the Forum. When one sees an assem- bly in the present day, straggling gmoupes of yonmig men with whiskered cheeks, and wild, uncurled, unpowdered, bewildered locks, and the innocent animated imitations of the Medicean Venus, with their thousand cork-~screw ring- lets and muslin robes roaming among them, it brings to the fancy a flock of merino lambs in a field of scrub oaks. If it comports with the plan of your journal, I wish, while any trace remains, to attempt restoring a little of former urbanity and elegance. For this purpose, I will in the present letter give a few hints that may be easily observed ; hereafter, if this essay should i~rove acceptable, I will attempt to reform more complicated evils. No gentleman is to lean back so as to support his chair on its hind legs, except in hi~ own room in a parlour with a small circle it borders on extreme familiarity, and in a 315.] ~Vestern ./lntiquiiies. 21 drawing room filled with company, it betokens a complete want of respect for society. Besides, it weakens the chairs, and with perseverance, infallibly makes a hole in the carpet. There have been circles of society, where it would have been considered impertinent, for a gentleman to sit cross- legged; but as I do not aim at impossibilities, I shall say nothing on this point: no gentleman, however, must allow himself to sit in the company of others in the following po- sition. On the edge of the chair, one leg over the other, parallel to, and leaning on the back of the chair. A position which will at once be understood by any of your readers who have seen a vessel aground, left by the sea laying on one side. No gentleman at dinner or tea time is to take out a silk handkerchief, that has been in his pocket two or three days, and lay it over his knee; if in eating toast, he is not fur- nished with a napkin to wipe his fingers, he may make use of a fresh cambrick one, if he has it, but he had better adopt the feline mode of cleansing his paws, than the practice here prohibited. if a gentleman be requested to carve a turkey, or any other fowl, he is riot to proceed as if it were a character, and cut it completely up: but take off a piece as it is wanted, and not keep a company ~vaiting, arid leave the whole bird piece-meal, when perhaps no one will taste it. N. B. This rule does not apply to a table dhote, unless the carver is willing to sacrifice himself, like Curtius, to fill the gulph of appetite around bun. ARISTIPPUS. Providence. TO THE EDITOR. SIR, I wish to propose an undertaking to the publick, which I hope some of our learned societies or liberal individuals may be disposed to prosecute. This is to explore those ancient entrenchinents that are found in the western states, more effectually than has yet been done. All the specula- tions ul)on them, that I have seen, are founded on an exam- ination of their superficial state. I have never heard of any attempt to search below the surface. it is very probable.

Western Antiquities 21-22

315.] ~Vestern ./lntiquiiies. 21 drawing room filled with company, it betokens a complete want of respect for society. Besides, it weakens the chairs, and with perseverance, infallibly makes a hole in the carpet. There have been circles of society, where it would have been considered impertinent, for a gentleman to sit cross- legged; but as I do not aim at impossibilities, I shall say nothing on this point: no gentleman, however, must allow himself to sit in the company of others in the following po- sition. On the edge of the chair, one leg over the other, parallel to, and leaning on the back of the chair. A position which will at once be understood by any of your readers who have seen a vessel aground, left by the sea laying on one side. No gentleman at dinner or tea time is to take out a silk handkerchief, that has been in his pocket two or three days, and lay it over his knee; if in eating toast, he is not fur- nished with a napkin to wipe his fingers, he may make use of a fresh cambrick one, if he has it, but he had better adopt the feline mode of cleansing his paws, than the practice here prohibited. if a gentleman be requested to carve a turkey, or any other fowl, he is riot to proceed as if it were a character, and cut it completely up: but take off a piece as it is wanted, and not keep a company ~vaiting, arid leave the whole bird piece-meal, when perhaps no one will taste it. N. B. This rule does not apply to a table dhote, unless the carver is willing to sacrifice himself, like Curtius, to fill the gulph of appetite around bun. ARISTIPPUS. Providence. TO THE EDITOR. SIR, I wish to propose an undertaking to the publick, which I hope some of our learned societies or liberal individuals may be disposed to prosecute. This is to explore those ancient entrenchinents that are found in the western states, more effectually than has yet been done. All the specula- tions ul)on them, that I have seen, are founded on an exam- ination of their superficial state. I have never heard of any attempt to search below the surface. it is very probable. Uncommon instance of short sight. [May if a trench five or six feet in depth were dug across them in different directions, or if some of the mounds near them were opened, that some remnants of tools, of warlike or do- inestick instruments, fragments of earthen vessels, & c. & c. might be discovered, that would at once decide the problem, by whom they were constructed. It is impossible that the people who are able to construct such extensive works, should not have possessed a variety of tools, and utensils of various descriptions; and it is extremely probable that fragments at least of these might be found if a civilized people had any thing to do with them, coins might perhaps be discovered. The expense of a very thorough investi-~ gation would be trifling. Five or six labourers skilfully directed for a week, would at least be sufficient to shew whether any light could be thrown on the origin of these antiquities, by making excavations. Perhaps the Antiqua- rian Society recently established here, may think this pro- posal worth their attention; or that the Historical Society wotild add to the valuable services they have rendered to the publick, by directing an effort of this nature to be made. Boston, A. B. TO THE EDITOR. SIR, THERE IS now living in Gardiner, on Kennebeck River, a gentleman about 81 years old, whose vision exhibits the following curious phenomena.Until he had passed his 79th year, his eyes had gradually undergone the change common to persons of an advanced age,requiring the ob- jects of vision to be carried more and more distant as life progressed. About two years since, his sight grew ob- scure, in respect to objects at a distance, and required them to be brought nearer his eyes, until at the present time, he can read but with difficulty, and only with the letters with- in 3 or 4 inches of them. At the (listance of 15 or 20 feet, he is unable to distinguish his most intimate acquaintances. Yet at the distance of 50 or 60 rods, he sees with tolerable accuracy, so as to tell a man from a woman, or a horse from an ox, as correctly as most persons. I have not been able to discover, that there was any in- tervention of more distinct vision, between that which wa~ too remote and that which approached too near the cv~.

Short Sight 22-23

Uncommon instance of short sight. [May if a trench five or six feet in depth were dug across them in different directions, or if some of the mounds near them were opened, that some remnants of tools, of warlike or do- inestick instruments, fragments of earthen vessels, & c. & c. might be discovered, that would at once decide the problem, by whom they were constructed. It is impossible that the people who are able to construct such extensive works, should not have possessed a variety of tools, and utensils of various descriptions; and it is extremely probable that fragments at least of these might be found if a civilized people had any thing to do with them, coins might perhaps be discovered. The expense of a very thorough investi-~ gation would be trifling. Five or six labourers skilfully directed for a week, would at least be sufficient to shew whether any light could be thrown on the origin of these antiquities, by making excavations. Perhaps the Antiqua- rian Society recently established here, may think this pro- posal worth their attention; or that the Historical Society wotild add to the valuable services they have rendered to the publick, by directing an effort of this nature to be made. Boston, A. B. TO THE EDITOR. SIR, THERE IS now living in Gardiner, on Kennebeck River, a gentleman about 81 years old, whose vision exhibits the following curious phenomena.Until he had passed his 79th year, his eyes had gradually undergone the change common to persons of an advanced age,requiring the ob- jects of vision to be carried more and more distant as life progressed. About two years since, his sight grew ob- scure, in respect to objects at a distance, and required them to be brought nearer his eyes, until at the present time, he can read but with difficulty, and only with the letters with- in 3 or 4 inches of them. At the (listance of 15 or 20 feet, he is unable to distinguish his most intimate acquaintances. Yet at the distance of 50 or 60 rods, he sees with tolerable accuracy, so as to tell a man from a woman, or a horse from an ox, as correctly as most persons. I have not been able to discover, that there was any in- tervention of more distinct vision, between that which wa~ too remote and that which approached too near the cv~. 1815.] Curious .fldvertisement. 23 A severe attack of fever, which happened a year ago, ap- peared to hasten the change very considerably. His other faculties, except a slight deafness of long stand- ing, are more than usually perfect, for his time of life. His muscular strength and activity are such as to enable him to walk 4 or 5 miles from home, and return the same day. E. H. FOR THE NORTH-AMERIcAN JOURNAL. THE following curious English advertisement appeared in the Times and .Miorning Chronicle in June, 1813. One who has lived, thus far, for others, would fain do, at length though late, a little for himself. A created being, more trespassed upon than the Advertiser, never, perhaps, had existence. By his efforts, two millions and a half of property, distributed among more than fifteen hundred own- ers, has been bettered full 50 per cent: whilst the honest factor for this great concern (shining in borrowed robes, and appropriating to himself a series of documents address- ed to Parliament, to Government, and to publick Boards, the whole composed by the Advertiser,) never darkened the doors of the latter, from the moment his purpose was answeredsilent scorn being the only emotion which pride would permit in the author of the improvement. By the Advertisers means, high distinctions have been attained by individuals, who, after reiterated failure on their own parts, had relinquished all hopethe benefitted never troubling the benefactor, with a single question as to the state of his treasury. A healer of ill bloods and composer of quarrels, the Advertisers rule has ever been (bating tim egotism) to do, in all cases, the most good and least harm (the circle of the obliged comprehending no less a person- age than the present Ruler of this Empire :) yet, is the history of the returns he has met with a practical compen- dium of all that was ever said or sung of short memory succeeding service. After wasting a rather lengthened career in the uses and abuses of other people, the Adverti- ser finds himself, at not a very early epoch, in a pEght of fortune, which is, indeed, very susceptible of melioration.

Advertisement 23-24

1815.] Curious .fldvertisement. 23 A severe attack of fever, which happened a year ago, ap- peared to hasten the change very considerably. His other faculties, except a slight deafness of long stand- ing, are more than usually perfect, for his time of life. His muscular strength and activity are such as to enable him to walk 4 or 5 miles from home, and return the same day. E. H. FOR THE NORTH-AMERIcAN JOURNAL. THE following curious English advertisement appeared in the Times and .Miorning Chronicle in June, 1813. One who has lived, thus far, for others, would fain do, at length though late, a little for himself. A created being, more trespassed upon than the Advertiser, never, perhaps, had existence. By his efforts, two millions and a half of property, distributed among more than fifteen hundred own- ers, has been bettered full 50 per cent: whilst the honest factor for this great concern (shining in borrowed robes, and appropriating to himself a series of documents address- ed to Parliament, to Government, and to publick Boards, the whole composed by the Advertiser,) never darkened the doors of the latter, from the moment his purpose was answeredsilent scorn being the only emotion which pride would permit in the author of the improvement. By the Advertisers means, high distinctions have been attained by individuals, who, after reiterated failure on their own parts, had relinquished all hopethe benefitted never troubling the benefactor, with a single question as to the state of his treasury. A healer of ill bloods and composer of quarrels, the Advertisers rule has ever been (bating tim egotism) to do, in all cases, the most good and least harm (the circle of the obliged comprehending no less a person- age than the present Ruler of this Empire :) yet, is the history of the returns he has met with a practical compen- dium of all that was ever said or sung of short memory succeeding service. After wasting a rather lengthened career in the uses and abuses of other people, the Adverti- ser finds himself, at not a very early epoch, in a pEght of fortune, which is, indeed, very susceptible of melioration. 24 Tax return in England. [Mayr It is such melioration he now aims at. What has hitherto been given gratis, would in future be devoted to thrift ; and the change is not impossible that a course of anterior knight-errantry might terminate in sordidness for he can neither work cheap nor trust muchThe man who has seen more of the world and its ways than the Advertiser OUGHT NOT to be a novice ; and strange it would be, if, in extra professional exigencies, which alone are those contem- plated in this publication, his experience should be found wholly useless. Rare must be the grievance, singular the pursuit, to which the Advertisers attention could be dedi- cated without effect ;and most arduous, if ihey equal in difficulty many which he has mastered. how often are ob- jects of the first magnitude lost from ignorance what to do? How decisive of success is a well chosen auxiliary? The perfection of advice frequently isby whom to be advised. No particular line of proffered utility is here chalked out. With the seeker after right ends, or the sufferer under wrongs, the presumption is left, whether the description of co-operator inferrible from this advertisement may be worth cultivating. It remains only to be added, that the Advertiser will meddle with nothing immoral or illegal and that, ho ever legal or moral, he must be allowed to decline what is disagreeable.To frank applications the frankest answers will be given ; whilst it is hinted to the merely curious, that their research may chance to turn out not the safest experirnent.Direct by letter only, and pos paid, to A. B. C. No. 17, Piccadilly. FOR THE NORTH-AMERICAN JOURNAL. THE following is the return of a workman, in an English manufacturing town, a year or two since, to the commission- ers of taxes. The words in Italicks are those contained in the printed form, which is given out to every individual. It is copied verbatim from the original. It will serve to give an idea of the means of living of people of that descrip- tion. But the wages are Thove the average. Where they are only 20s. or, as frequently the case, 18s. per week, it will he easy to see how much the comforts must be diminishc~i. The meat and beer must both be dispensed with.

English Tax Return 24-26

24 Tax return in England. [Mayr It is such melioration he now aims at. What has hitherto been given gratis, would in future be devoted to thrift ; and the change is not impossible that a course of anterior knight-errantry might terminate in sordidness for he can neither work cheap nor trust muchThe man who has seen more of the world and its ways than the Advertiser OUGHT NOT to be a novice ; and strange it would be, if, in extra professional exigencies, which alone are those contem- plated in this publication, his experience should be found wholly useless. Rare must be the grievance, singular the pursuit, to which the Advertisers attention could be dedi- cated without effect ;and most arduous, if ihey equal in difficulty many which he has mastered. how often are ob- jects of the first magnitude lost from ignorance what to do? How decisive of success is a well chosen auxiliary? The perfection of advice frequently isby whom to be advised. No particular line of proffered utility is here chalked out. With the seeker after right ends, or the sufferer under wrongs, the presumption is left, whether the description of co-operator inferrible from this advertisement may be worth cultivating. It remains only to be added, that the Advertiser will meddle with nothing immoral or illegal and that, ho ever legal or moral, he must be allowed to decline what is disagreeable.To frank applications the frankest answers will be given ; whilst it is hinted to the merely curious, that their research may chance to turn out not the safest experirnent.Direct by letter only, and pos paid, to A. B. C. No. 17, Piccadilly. FOR THE NORTH-AMERICAN JOURNAL. THE following is the return of a workman, in an English manufacturing town, a year or two since, to the commission- ers of taxes. The words in Italicks are those contained in the printed form, which is given out to every individual. It is copied verbatim from the original. It will serve to give an idea of the means of living of people of that descrip- tion. But the wages are Thove the average. Where they are only 20s. or, as frequently the case, 18s. per week, it will he easy to see how much the comforts must be diminishc~i. The meat and beer must both be dispensed with. Enaland Tax return in Description. 5 feet 5 1-2 in. very thin, by rea- son of banyan days. .dge. 40 IVhefhe~ ~w~mpt or any chil I not exempt dren an- from miii- der 14. f tia~ Three under 14, and stakes 4. Has (as) you like it. Ii. 8 per week is my wages, six in family. 2 peck flour 7 lb. breast mutton - - Baking bread B~rin or yeast Sometimes a sheeps head and pluck - House rent 1-2 lb butter a Sunday - Coals 1 ounce of tea 1 lb. sugar - - - 1-2 lb. soap make shift 1-2 lb. candles 1 1-2 peck of potatoes - 1 lb. salt - - - Skim milk every morning 7 quarts of beer at 3d. per quart - Remains for cloathing, schooI~ng, enjoying a friend, ick club, and several other things too tedious to mention N. B. Plc~ se send this to government, for it is bold facts. -88 - - 41 -1 - 11-2 -14 - - 2101-2 - - 91-2 - - 2 6 9 - 61-2 -1 Cursed are they that withhold the bread from the poor, and all the people s~iall say Amen. I trust some of you, gentlemen, will acquaint the members of the county of the dearness of bread and beer and meat, chees, that they may lay it before oth houses of parliament, and they before the king, and not doubt but pro- visions and beer will soon he reasonable, and then will the royal Jays sin Rule Bri~~ unia fifteen notes higher. JOSEPH REYNOLDS JAY, a royal subject. I lived well seven years while a royal marine on board the Fox friaate and Northumberland 74, but must not go a~ain on account of the young Jays. Say, do I live, or exist? He only lives who life enjoys Sing ti de di dere, VOL. 1. No. 1. 4 1815.] Front or bee/c houses. Front. Names. Joseph Rey- nolds Jay. 6 1-2 4 101-2 19 16 3 19 18 26 Steam En cries. [May. FOR THE NORTH-AMERICAN JOURNAL. As the use of steam engines for various purposes is in- creasing in this country, the following memoranda of the price, consumption of coals, water, & c. may be acceptable to some readers. The minutes were given by an Irish engine- maker, and the prices are in the currencv* of that country, and are about 20 per cent. less than those of Boulton & XX att. it would he a curious subject of inquiry, to ascertain the quantity of power in men added to the English nation by the use of steam engines, the power of sixteen men equivalent to one horse, is the common calculation. it would certainly be found to add millions. ~0 ~-. ~- -~ . 5 0 0 0 . .~ -~ ~- ~ ~ Q L. 0 0 ~ 0 ~0 ~ 09 . a 2 2 a Ce - a ~ Q. I in. It. in. ft. in~ 11. ifl.~ft. in.~ cwt. gallon. lb. I 1~0 41-4 1 6 6 4 8 360 18 N 71-16 8 5 12 720 36 3 298 91-4 2 6 8 66 15 1080 A 4 3i0 101-4 3 6 9 6 6~ 18 1440 72 . 430 12 3 103 6 9 67 20 1800 90 0 4J0 13 El 7 6 24 2160 108 7 544 14 10 6 8 28 2520 126 S 603 15 ii 8 ~ 32 2880 144 9 640 16 11 619 36 3240 162 10 ~00 17 3-4 4 5 4 12 110 40 3600 180 11 7V 18 1-8 Ii 44 3960 198 J) 781 19 1-8 12 6 12 48 4320 216 13 81~ 20 13 50 4780 234 14 892 20 3-4 13 14 56 5040 252 l~ 8i8 21 1-8 5 4 6 60 5400 270 16 92o 22 13 6 15 66 5760 288 17 958 22 1-2 16 72 6120 302 18 994 23 3-8 14 17 76 6840 316 20 1065 24 ~ 7 5 14 6 18 80 7200 320 22 1136 24 3-4 15 19 6 86 7920 344 24 1205 26 1-s 22 92 8640 358 20 127(1 27 24 98 9360 372 30 1390 30 5 6 16 126 104 1o800 400 35 1540 33 6 S 16 6 2 boil 110 12600 414 40 1691) 36 7 6 17 17 14400 428 45 184(1 40 7 6 18 18 16200 442 Irish currency is abou 8 per cent. Jo er than sterling.

Steam Engines 26-27

26 Steam En cries. [May. FOR THE NORTH-AMERICAN JOURNAL. As the use of steam engines for various purposes is in- creasing in this country, the following memoranda of the price, consumption of coals, water, & c. may be acceptable to some readers. The minutes were given by an Irish engine- maker, and the prices are in the currencv* of that country, and are about 20 per cent. less than those of Boulton & XX att. it would he a curious subject of inquiry, to ascertain the quantity of power in men added to the English nation by the use of steam engines, the power of sixteen men equivalent to one horse, is the common calculation. it would certainly be found to add millions. ~0 ~-. ~- -~ . 5 0 0 0 . .~ -~ ~- ~ ~ Q L. 0 0 ~ 0 ~0 ~ 09 . a 2 2 a Ce - a ~ Q. I in. It. in. ft. in~ 11. ifl.~ft. in.~ cwt. gallon. lb. I 1~0 41-4 1 6 6 4 8 360 18 N 71-16 8 5 12 720 36 3 298 91-4 2 6 8 66 15 1080 A 4 3i0 101-4 3 6 9 6 6~ 18 1440 72 . 430 12 3 103 6 9 67 20 1800 90 0 4J0 13 El 7 6 24 2160 108 7 544 14 10 6 8 28 2520 126 S 603 15 ii 8 ~ 32 2880 144 9 640 16 11 619 36 3240 162 10 ~00 17 3-4 4 5 4 12 110 40 3600 180 11 7V 18 1-8 Ii 44 3960 198 J) 781 19 1-8 12 6 12 48 4320 216 13 81~ 20 13 50 4780 234 14 892 20 3-4 13 14 56 5040 252 l~ 8i8 21 1-8 5 4 6 60 5400 270 16 92o 22 13 6 15 66 5760 288 17 958 22 1-2 16 72 6120 302 18 994 23 3-8 14 17 76 6840 316 20 1065 24 ~ 7 5 14 6 18 80 7200 320 22 1136 24 3-4 15 19 6 86 7920 344 24 1205 26 1-s 22 92 8640 358 20 127(1 27 24 98 9360 372 30 1390 30 5 6 16 126 104 1o800 400 35 1540 33 6 S 16 6 2 boil 110 12600 414 40 1691) 36 7 6 17 17 14400 428 45 184(1 40 7 6 18 18 16200 442 Irish currency is abou 8 per cent. Jo er than sterling. 1815.] Poetry. FO~ TH~ NORTH-AMERICAN JOURNAL. Mr. Wall of West Bromwich was, many years since, land steward to J. C. Jer- voise, Esq. a large landed proprictor, in Warwickshire; and l)y his vexatious and oppressive conduct, had occasioned much uneasiness among the inhahi- tants. Mr. C. of the Admiralty, then a young alan, was on a visit to the clergyman of the parish, and, entering into the grief of the people, wrote the following sarcastick lines. XVaIl and Mr. Jervoise were very much enraged, and offered five hundred pounds for the discovery of the author. The lines ave never beers printc(l. MUttUs AHENEUS EST. WILL Shakespear of old for the pleasure of all, Presented a man in the shape of a Wall; Our landlord, alas ! for a different plan, flas dressed up a Wall in the shape of a man: Of such rude materials, so heavy and thick, With a heart of hard stone and a facing of brick, That tis plain from its blundering form and its features, Twas built by some journeyman mason of Natures; And spoilt by its masters continued neglect, Oppresses the land it was meant to protect. This XVall, this cursd Wall, ever since it was raised, With quarrels and squabbles the country has teazed, And its office thereby it performs with precision, For the grand use of walls we all know is divz.sson. Some people maintain that no l)rospect is good, But the varied expanse of plain water and wood; Our hopes are confined, our taste is but small, For we only request to behold a dead Wall. The trees on the wall they are pleasant to see, Much more so to us were the WaIl on the tree, And if to exalt it would please Mr. Jervoise, Any tree in the parish is much at his service. SUN-SET. WHERE lS the hand to paint in colours bright The vivid splendour of the western sky, That sparkling flood of evanescent light, Pure and transparent, deepening in its dye~ Elysian bowers and isles of rest on high

English Epigram 27

1815.] Poetry. FO~ TH~ NORTH-AMERICAN JOURNAL. Mr. Wall of West Bromwich was, many years since, land steward to J. C. Jer- voise, Esq. a large landed proprictor, in Warwickshire; and l)y his vexatious and oppressive conduct, had occasioned much uneasiness among the inhahi- tants. Mr. C. of the Admiralty, then a young alan, was on a visit to the clergyman of the parish, and, entering into the grief of the people, wrote the following sarcastick lines. XVaIl and Mr. Jervoise were very much enraged, and offered five hundred pounds for the discovery of the author. The lines ave never beers printc(l. MUttUs AHENEUS EST. WILL Shakespear of old for the pleasure of all, Presented a man in the shape of a Wall; Our landlord, alas ! for a different plan, flas dressed up a Wall in the shape of a man: Of such rude materials, so heavy and thick, With a heart of hard stone and a facing of brick, That tis plain from its blundering form and its features, Twas built by some journeyman mason of Natures; And spoilt by its masters continued neglect, Oppresses the land it was meant to protect. This XVall, this cursd Wall, ever since it was raised, With quarrels and squabbles the country has teazed, And its office thereby it performs with precision, For the grand use of walls we all know is divz.sson. Some people maintain that no l)rospect is good, But the varied expanse of plain water and wood; Our hopes are confined, our taste is but small, For we only request to behold a dead Wall. The trees on the wall they are pleasant to see, Much more so to us were the WaIl on the tree, And if to exalt it would please Mr. Jervoise, Any tree in the parish is much at his service. SUN-SET. WHERE lS the hand to paint in colours bright The vivid splendour of the western sky, That sparkling flood of evanescent light, Pure and transparent, deepening in its dye~ Elysian bowers and isles of rest on high

Sunset 27-28

1815.] Poetry. FO~ TH~ NORTH-AMERICAN JOURNAL. Mr. Wall of West Bromwich was, many years since, land steward to J. C. Jer- voise, Esq. a large landed proprictor, in Warwickshire; and l)y his vexatious and oppressive conduct, had occasioned much uneasiness among the inhahi- tants. Mr. C. of the Admiralty, then a young alan, was on a visit to the clergyman of the parish, and, entering into the grief of the people, wrote the following sarcastick lines. XVaIl and Mr. Jervoise were very much enraged, and offered five hundred pounds for the discovery of the author. The lines ave never beers printc(l. MUttUs AHENEUS EST. WILL Shakespear of old for the pleasure of all, Presented a man in the shape of a Wall; Our landlord, alas ! for a different plan, flas dressed up a Wall in the shape of a man: Of such rude materials, so heavy and thick, With a heart of hard stone and a facing of brick, That tis plain from its blundering form and its features, Twas built by some journeyman mason of Natures; And spoilt by its masters continued neglect, Oppresses the land it was meant to protect. This XVall, this cursd Wall, ever since it was raised, With quarrels and squabbles the country has teazed, And its office thereby it performs with precision, For the grand use of walls we all know is divz.sson. Some people maintain that no l)rospect is good, But the varied expanse of plain water and wood; Our hopes are confined, our taste is but small, For we only request to behold a dead Wall. The trees on the wall they are pleasant to see, Much more so to us were the WaIl on the tree, And if to exalt it would please Mr. Jervoise, Any tree in the parish is much at his service. SUN-SET. WHERE lS the hand to paint in colours bright The vivid splendour of the western sky, That sparkling flood of evanescent light, Pure and transparent, deepening in its dye~ Elysian bowers and isles of rest on high 2$ Poetry.Grimms .Memoirs. [May~ Float oer the amber tide, and pass away; E ich moment changing to the raptured eye. Alas ! no mortal hand can that blest vision stay, G,,idos nor Titians art can fix that fading ray. 0! I have gazed, when silent and alone, Till I forgot the globe my feet have prest Have seen the shores of some bright world unknown, And souls amid the mansions of the blest Scnes not for man, nor mortal senses drest: Bright rosy meads, and seas of waving light And fairy barks that on those waters rest; They darken, they are gone; as fades the light, And leave me still on earth enveloped all in night So fade the prospects early fancy forms When lfe is fresh, and all the world is new Bright are the clouds which soon must meet in storms, Bright all with hope, too happy to be true. Soon sets the beam, and darkness bounds the view, So the etherial soul which did this body move Leaves the (lull clod on earth from which it grew Glances away, wheue sister souls above Bloom in immortal youth, immottal light and love. FOR THE NORTH-AMERICAN JOURNAL. THE collection of memoirs, anecdotes and criticism pub- lished at Paris last year, as the correspondence of the Baron de Grimm and Diderot, with the Duke of Saxe Gotha, is known to most of our readers, through the different Euro- pean journals, which have reviewed them. The collection consisted of sixteen large volumes in octavo ; an edition re- ducing these to seven, was published in London, and it is from that, we have made the following translations. This very amusing and interesting correspondence, was first com~ roenced by the Abbe Raynal, in 1753, and two years after, he gave it up to the Baron de Grimm, who continued it to the year 1790. It was addressed to different sovereigns; the Empress of Russia, the Qneen of Sweden, the King of Poland, the duchess of Saxe Gotha, and others of the Ger.~

Grimm's Memoirs 28-30

2$ Poetry.Grimms .Memoirs. [May~ Float oer the amber tide, and pass away; E ich moment changing to the raptured eye. Alas ! no mortal hand can that blest vision stay, G,,idos nor Titians art can fix that fading ray. 0! I have gazed, when silent and alone, Till I forgot the globe my feet have prest Have seen the shores of some bright world unknown, And souls amid the mansions of the blest Scnes not for man, nor mortal senses drest: Bright rosy meads, and seas of waving light And fairy barks that on those waters rest; They darken, they are gone; as fades the light, And leave me still on earth enveloped all in night So fade the prospects early fancy forms When lfe is fresh, and all the world is new Bright are the clouds which soon must meet in storms, Bright all with hope, too happy to be true. Soon sets the beam, and darkness bounds the view, So the etherial soul which did this body move Leaves the (lull clod on earth from which it grew Glances away, wheue sister souls above Bloom in immortal youth, immottal light and love. FOR THE NORTH-AMERICAN JOURNAL. THE collection of memoirs, anecdotes and criticism pub- lished at Paris last year, as the correspondence of the Baron de Grimm and Diderot, with the Duke of Saxe Gotha, is known to most of our readers, through the different Euro- pean journals, which have reviewed them. The collection consisted of sixteen large volumes in octavo ; an edition re- ducing these to seven, was published in London, and it is from that, we have made the following translations. This very amusing and interesting correspondence, was first com~ roenced by the Abbe Raynal, in 1753, and two years after, he gave it up to the Baron de Grimm, who continued it to the year 1790. It was addressed to different sovereigns; the Empress of Russia, the Qneen of Sweden, the King of Poland, the duchess of Saxe Gotha, and others of the Ger.~ 1815.] Grtmms .Jlfemovrs. man princes. The following remarks from the preface to the edition, published in London, are very just. These three volumes of the first part of the correspon- deuce acquaint us with an epoch, about which we have few authentick documents. At that period, Fontenelle, Moutesquieu, l3uffon, Jean Jacques Rousseau, and Vol- taire still lived ; and the most celebrated writers of the eighteenth century, published many of the ~vorks that have established their reputation and their glory. The ~ ater part of these works are criticised in the corres- pondence of M. de Grimm, with a sagacity, an impartiali- ty, that must sometimes astonish the reader of the present age. Observations on manners, laws, and philosophy, will be found, that have appeared to us well calculated to throw a strong light on the spirit of the eighteenth century; and which should not escape from the history of the times when so many great events which we have witnessed, were prepared in silence, and as it were, without the knowledge of their cotemporarles. What particularly excites the curiosity of the reader in this correspondence, is the frankness with which it is written. The Baron de Grimm and the men of letters who were associated in his labours did not dream of en- lightening the publick. They were not restrained by the complaisance of friendship, nor the fear of wounding any self love ; they expressed their opinion with so much the more liberty, as it could not offend any one, a total abnega tion of those considerations, and restraint, which is found in books destined for the press, will be remarked. In a word, this correspondence should be so touch the better received by the publick, as it was not intended for it. These remarks are very just, parti2ularly as they apply to Voltaire, Rousseau and some others. The only exception is Diderot. Grimm often discovers his particular partiality for him, and exalts him more highly than posterity will allow. As a picture of society, morals and literature, during a most interesting period, it is invaluable. We have selected parts of it for translation without any order or method. The figures at the head of the articles dive the year, when they ~vere written, and the interest of many of the observations is much increased by attending to the period. when they ~vcre to ade. 30 Grimms .Memoirs. [May, Grimm was born at Ratisbon in 1723, and died at Gotha in 1807. lIe was born of poor parents, who gave him a good education. Lie afterwards made his own fortune. The Duke of Saxe Gotha made him his minister plenipotentiary at the court of France, in 1776, which post he retained, till the troubles of the Revolution forced him to retire from Paris, when Catharine, Empress of Russia, gave him the same situation to the states of Lower Saxony. 1753. The English have a kind of domestick novels, which are altogether unknown to the French. I allude to the novels of Fieldin~, an excellent author whom they now possess; he has just published a new novel in English, under the title of .lmelia. This writer, who doubtless merits a distinguished place among the celebrated authors of England, is very original, a great painter, always natural, and sometimes as sublime as Moliere. His Tom Jones, Charlotte Somers, and above all Joseph Andrews and Abraham Adams, are excellent of their kind, and full of character and genius. It seems astonishing at first that the French, who have many good romances in their language, should have none that paint their domestick manners: but, on a little reflection, it will be found that they have no subjects in this way, and that it is not for want of a painter, but, the ~vant of originals. When our petits-maitres and petztes-maitresses are described, we have nearly exhausted our matter, and put all that is national, that it is possible to place in a French novel. Such are the works of the younger Crebillon, which may be properly styled the do- mostick novels of the nation. Romances like those of the Abb& Pr& ost are in a different class ; I should willingly compare them to trage(ly ; this is nearly the same among every people, because the great passions belong immedi- ately to humanity, and have every where the same springs. But comedy and the domestick novels ought necessarily to be different among different people, because they hold to the manners and particular character of this or that people, who do not resemble each other at all. It may then per- haps be said with truth, that the French have no domestick novels, and that they have no comedy since the time of Moliere, because they h~~ve no manners ;* and going fur- Mo.~ur~.

French Novels 30-32

30 Grimms .Memoirs. [May, Grimm was born at Ratisbon in 1723, and died at Gotha in 1807. lIe was born of poor parents, who gave him a good education. Lie afterwards made his own fortune. The Duke of Saxe Gotha made him his minister plenipotentiary at the court of France, in 1776, which post he retained, till the troubles of the Revolution forced him to retire from Paris, when Catharine, Empress of Russia, gave him the same situation to the states of Lower Saxony. 1753. The English have a kind of domestick novels, which are altogether unknown to the French. I allude to the novels of Fieldin~, an excellent author whom they now possess; he has just published a new novel in English, under the title of .lmelia. This writer, who doubtless merits a distinguished place among the celebrated authors of England, is very original, a great painter, always natural, and sometimes as sublime as Moliere. His Tom Jones, Charlotte Somers, and above all Joseph Andrews and Abraham Adams, are excellent of their kind, and full of character and genius. It seems astonishing at first that the French, who have many good romances in their language, should have none that paint their domestick manners: but, on a little reflection, it will be found that they have no subjects in this way, and that it is not for want of a painter, but, the ~vant of originals. When our petits-maitres and petztes-maitresses are described, we have nearly exhausted our matter, and put all that is national, that it is possible to place in a French novel. Such are the works of the younger Crebillon, which may be properly styled the do- mostick novels of the nation. Romances like those of the Abb& Pr& ost are in a different class ; I should willingly compare them to trage(ly ; this is nearly the same among every people, because the great passions belong immedi- ately to humanity, and have every where the same springs. But comedy and the domestick novels ought necessarily to be different among different people, because they hold to the manners and particular character of this or that people, who do not resemble each other at all. It may then per- haps be said with truth, that the French have no domestick novels, and that they have no comedy since the time of Moliere, because they h~~ve no manners ;* and going fur- Mo.~ur~. IS 15.] (%rimrns ..lIiernoir~. ther, that they have no manners, because there are none but free nations who have any. How many people of dif- ferent characters were contained in that little region called Greece? What was there more diverse than an Athenian, a Spauan, a Theban, and a iViacedonian? All these nations tiowever lived under the same climate liberty, and their laws of which it was the basis, not only distinguished them from one another, but brought out the character of each individual. They did not know the constraint of societies they dared to be themselves, and did not strive to resemblc others, according to the laws of propriely,* which we have established, it is these laws, and dissipation becomin; general, which is the cause that we have no longer either manners or distinct character among us. Le~ any one enter a circle of fifteen people, let him remain three hours toge- ther, he will hardly be able to disting~iish the fool from the man of sense. Every body has the same sayings in th~ same jargon all are resembling, that is to say, we have x~othinb original this is the reason that we shall never have domestick novels. Add to this, that all situations are confounded in society ; that the nobleman, the magistrate. the financier, the man of letters, the artist, are all treated ha the same way ; that there remains, then, no other conditioa in a countiy like this, but that of a man of the world, and, of consequence, no other ridicule but that of a fop. The En glish, on the contrary, have preserved with their liberty the privilege of being, each in particular, such as nature has formed him, not to conceal his opinions, nor the prejudices and habits of the profession he exercises it is on this ac- count, that their domestick novels are so ag ecable, even to strangers who have never liad an opportunity of beroinin acquainted with their manners for when a portrait is ~vel drawn, we perceive its merit, its truth and resemblance, even without knowing the original. A little novel that has just appeared has furnished rue these Peflections, it is enti- tled Le voyage & Abates, ou (cv vacances de A . The hero of this novel is a young provii~c~al, destined by his father for the bar. With this desi ~n he is placed with a solicitor at Paris, to learn his practice ; the solicitor has a wife, daughters, and clerks. The vacations come round, ~he solicitor passes them at Mantes with all his family, an~ * I3ieixeanee 32 Grimms .Miemoirs. [May, that of the young man. There happens to this last some amorous adventures, whieh make the subject of the novel. Here then is a domestick novel, that no one however can read the reason is, that independently of the want of talent in the author, the personages of the novel are all people who have no existence in society,* and whose adventures, of consequence, cannot interest us. The quarter of la Halle, and la. place .Maubert, have their manners, and without donbt very marked ones; but these are not the manners of the nation therefore they (10 not merit a description. On~ is disgusted, for instance, with that quarrel of the dressmaker and the coachman, in the .Marianne of XI. de Marivaux nothing can be more truly rendered after nature, and in a more detestable taste than the picture I here cite. The foiloxving inscription was suggested by M. Diderot for the new curtain which it is supposed must be made for the theatre of the opera. Hic Marsyas Apollinem. 1755. The Abb~ Pr6vost has given in the Journal t~trauger, of which he has taken the direction, an introduc- tIon to the historical part, which treats of the lanmi ~ cg~ and literature of italy ; and in which he every moment con- founds, what belon~s only to the first, with what is the do- main of the latter. A man of sense remarked, that the piece xvas extremely well written, (as is every thing that comes from the pen of the Ahb~ Provost) that it had only one fault, which was, that there was not a word of trinh in all he had advanced. We shall point out some of the falsi- ties winch the Italians in this country have the most ex- claimed against. The Abb~ Pr6vost commences with great praise of the Italian language. After having allowed all the qualities which it has the most incontestably, he says, that it. cannot he so soft and pleasing, without wanting energy antI force. This might be true, on supposition, if the contrary could not be proved, as we shall now see. No known tongue is more distant from the suhlime, nor less suited to expressing the great movements of the soul. It is precisely the contrary of this proposition that is true, and ~ Observations of this kind, and indirect attusions to the various prejo- dice; of society in France, which are very frequent in these anccdotes of & rimrn, taken in coonexjon with the period they were written in, and the vents stat have since happened. biroish copious tn~ teris~ts for reflction

Inscription for the Opera 32

32 Grimms .Miemoirs. [May, that of the young man. There happens to this last some amorous adventures, whieh make the subject of the novel. Here then is a domestick novel, that no one however can read the reason is, that independently of the want of talent in the author, the personages of the novel are all people who have no existence in society,* and whose adventures, of consequence, cannot interest us. The quarter of la Halle, and la. place .Maubert, have their manners, and without donbt very marked ones; but these are not the manners of the nation therefore they (10 not merit a description. On~ is disgusted, for instance, with that quarrel of the dressmaker and the coachman, in the .Marianne of XI. de Marivaux nothing can be more truly rendered after nature, and in a more detestable taste than the picture I here cite. The foiloxving inscription was suggested by M. Diderot for the new curtain which it is supposed must be made for the theatre of the opera. Hic Marsyas Apollinem. 1755. The Abb~ Pr6vost has given in the Journal t~trauger, of which he has taken the direction, an introduc- tIon to the historical part, which treats of the lanmi ~ cg~ and literature of italy ; and in which he every moment con- founds, what belon~s only to the first, with what is the do- main of the latter. A man of sense remarked, that the piece xvas extremely well written, (as is every thing that comes from the pen of the Ahb~ Provost) that it had only one fault, which was, that there was not a word of trinh in all he had advanced. We shall point out some of the falsi- ties winch the Italians in this country have the most ex- claimed against. The Abb~ Pr6vost commences with great praise of the Italian language. After having allowed all the qualities which it has the most incontestably, he says, that it. cannot he so soft and pleasing, without wanting energy antI force. This might be true, on supposition, if the contrary could not be proved, as we shall now see. No known tongue is more distant from the suhlime, nor less suited to expressing the great movements of the soul. It is precisely the contrary of this proposition that is true, and ~ Observations of this kind, and indirect attusions to the various prejo- dice; of society in France, which are very frequent in these anccdotes of & rimrn, taken in coonexjon with the period they were written in, and the vents stat have since happened. biroish copious tn~ teris~ts for reflction

Italian Language 32-36

32 Grimms .Miemoirs. [May, that of the young man. There happens to this last some amorous adventures, whieh make the subject of the novel. Here then is a domestick novel, that no one however can read the reason is, that independently of the want of talent in the author, the personages of the novel are all people who have no existence in society,* and whose adventures, of consequence, cannot interest us. The quarter of la Halle, and la. place .Maubert, have their manners, and without donbt very marked ones; but these are not the manners of the nation therefore they (10 not merit a description. On~ is disgusted, for instance, with that quarrel of the dressmaker and the coachman, in the .Marianne of XI. de Marivaux nothing can be more truly rendered after nature, and in a more detestable taste than the picture I here cite. The foiloxving inscription was suggested by M. Diderot for the new curtain which it is supposed must be made for the theatre of the opera. Hic Marsyas Apollinem. 1755. The Abb~ Pr6vost has given in the Journal t~trauger, of which he has taken the direction, an introduc- tIon to the historical part, which treats of the lanmi ~ cg~ and literature of italy ; and in which he every moment con- founds, what belon~s only to the first, with what is the do- main of the latter. A man of sense remarked, that the piece xvas extremely well written, (as is every thing that comes from the pen of the Ahb~ Provost) that it had only one fault, which was, that there was not a word of trinh in all he had advanced. We shall point out some of the falsi- ties winch the Italians in this country have the most ex- claimed against. The Abb~ Pr6vost commences with great praise of the Italian language. After having allowed all the qualities which it has the most incontestably, he says, that it. cannot he so soft and pleasing, without wanting energy antI force. This might be true, on supposition, if the contrary could not be proved, as we shall now see. No known tongue is more distant from the suhlime, nor less suited to expressing the great movements of the soul. It is precisely the contrary of this proposition that is true, and ~ Observations of this kind, and indirect attusions to the various prejo- dice; of society in France, which are very frequent in these anccdotes of & rimrn, taken in coonexjon with the period they were written in, and the vents stat have since happened. biroish copious tn~ teris~ts for reflction 1315.1 Grimms Afemoirs. it is nearly with this precaution, that the discour e of the Abb~ Pr~vost must I e read, to admit alt ost every where as true, the contrary of what he advances. XViII it not be said, that he has never opened any one of the poets of Italy? Take up at hazard Tasso, Ariosto, Metastasio even, and you will find in every pa~e sublime, stron6, energetick traits, which, if they excite our admiration for the genius of those poets, are not the less suited to make us admire the happy genius of their language ; which can express every thing with a simplicity, a grace, a force, in fine, that cannot he approached by any other living language. It is generally thought here, that the airs which terminate the scenes of the opera in Italy, are couplets merely to furnish the musi clan an occasion to make an arietta, this is the way they talk ; they are little madrigals, it is said, that the poet gives the musician, who repeats ten times the same words. Such is the decision of ignorance, that speaks with confidence of every thing, without ever having reflected on any thing. At the first examination it may be remarked, that the chief airs of an opera are almost always consecrated to the ex- pression of the great roovenients of the soul ; and how could it he so, if, as the Abh& Pr~vost pretends, the language and the words were not proper? How could the musician then succeed in drawin0 from us cries of grief, in rending our hearts with his words, soft and harmonious indeed, hut aestitute of force and energy, and of course very ridiculously declaimed ? For I know nothing that is more ridiculous than to declaim with fire and force, what is cold and feeble. But let us see these words so little suited to express the great movements of the soul. I open the Ezio of Metastasio heres a passage Au non son in che parlo, E ii barbaro dolnre Che mi divide il core, Che (lelirar mi fii. it is a woman beset on all sides who speaks, who com- mences the scene with very bitter complaints on her lot, which becomes extremely cri:ical ; she finishes by losing her mind, and by giving hersehf up to all the delirium of ttrief. Now, see I beg of you, if these words are not exactly the same, that grief would draw from you on a simila occe \ ~L 1. No~ 1. 5 44 (Jrimnts .IIiernotrs. [Maya sion, if you could find any more simple, more energetick, more poetical as to the situation, or less poetical as to colouring and expression ? Ah ! cries Fulvia, it is not I that speak, it is this barbarous grief, that tears my heart, and makes me rave. This is the literal translation of the words, which would not be much prized in French Why? Because that language has neither simplicity nor grace and it may well be said of it, that if on one side, it is very exact and very severe, above all in what relates to taste and style; on the other, we know of none more distant from the true sublime. The quil mourat of the elder Iloratius is sublime in all languages, because the beauty of the phrase does not depend on the language, it belongs to the poet only. The sublimity of the Italian poets very often cannot be translated, because it is connected with the charm of the language, which gives it a grace and force unknown to the other languages of Europe. But it is dwelling too long on a point which may be verified a thousand times a day, m opening at random the best, and even the inferiour Italian authors. I have often made a remark that has proved to rue strongly, the difference between the French and Italian Ian ~ nages, which is, that dulness in French is so frank, so decided, that it produces its efi~ct upon you at once, and without restriction ; the book falls from your hands, and you have not the courage to take it up again. Dulness in Italian has a quite contrary effect; it makes you impatient, it vexes you, it attaches you in spite of yourself, because being enveloped in so beautiful and harmonious a language, it gives you pleasure even when the author who speaks to you is insipid and I always finish by bating the author because his language makes me encounter the fatigue that his silliness has prepared for me. We need not take the trouble of refuting the Abb~ Pr~vost, if he does not think the commencement of the famous scene of .IIUrope, very powerful, very energetick, and above all, very far from that indolent softness, that he so improperly imputes to that a ngu age. Oh Dci qual mi sorpre ~de insohito terror, Qual per Ic vene gchido scorre il sangue iQ tutta rende laaso shi ottita The Abb~ Pr~vost is nor more fortunate in the general principles that he advances, than in the application ho IS 15.] Grimms .Memoirs. makes to the Italian. Languages, says he, like the arts, are without any known bounds. If it be true that they take the character of those who speak them, they ought to rise with men of genius witness the French tongue, xvhich owes perhaps all its force and energy to the great Corn ejile. Here are many mistakes in a few lines. The arts so far from not knowing any limits, are circumscribed by such knoxvn and narrow bounds, that children may designate them. Sculpture can never charm by the magick of col- ours painting can never operate upon us with the enchant- ment of musick: never can the celestial sou ~ds of Hasse and Buranello paint to us the surprisin~ effects of light and chia?~o oscuro. It is genius that knows no limits drawn by instinct into a career, it bounds, it clears with a vigorous audacity, the limits which a timid and severe taste would prescribe to it. It astonishes by its spring ; it creates and produces new thin s without ceasing. The comparison of languages with the arts is very just, that is to say, the one is as much limited as the other. Should we approve of a painter, who in wishing to mark the contours of his princi- pal figures, should stick on a very fine bas relief en that part of the canvas ? We should say the man ~vas as much wanting in genius as in taste. Taste prohibits our con- founding the bounds of each art, and genius consists not in eluding the but in vanquishing obstacles. It would be the same, for instance, with a man who, to be a poet, should begin by writing in a taste altogether opposed to that of his language, and should transfer for instance into French all the license of Italian l)oetry. The man of genius does not undertake to change his lanjmge ; it is a chimera but he knows how to make his way through the diflicultics it Op~ l)oses to him. 1 find many of our philosophers in an errour on this point. They imagine, that the language depends absolutely on the literature and state of the arts in the country. It is the people by whom it is spoken, that must controul the language, and not the men of letters who write it. If a people began by hem0 learned, enlightened, 1)hilosOphick, there would be reason in supposing their language superiour to all others : it would be, without (loubt, exact, luminous, simple, smooth, masculine, ener getick, & c. but we have all commenced by being barbarians; ages have been necessary for us to get, by imperceptible degrees, from barbarity and ignorance, to letters and the 86 Grimms ~icmozrs. [Ma~, pleasin~ arts. The genius of every tongue was formed be- fore it had a single writer. Reason and taste may indeed free a language from any little defects which disfigure it, but they cannot take away any essential nIt as you may take from any figure a bad piece of drapery that degrades it, but the f~ults that are in the structure of the body, xviii on] ybe seen the more. If Pierre Corncille had been the only ~reaV man of his age, the French language would have owed him nothing in the sense of the Abb~ Pr6vost. But Moliere, Racine, and La Fontaine, who have spokcu that lan~uage divinely, each in his own manner, do not certainly owe it to the great Corneilie. The man of genius owes every thing to himself. Montaigne and Amyot knew long before Corneille, how to write this language with admirable force and energy, and xvhich we should seek for in vain among modern authors. The genius more or less happy of a lan~uage belongs to such abstract causes, that it is very difficult to give the history of it, still more so to make it understood by men in general. But the question of fact is not doubtful with principles and good faith, it may be soon seen that the Italian language is the only living one that has no essential defect ; that i~ beads to all the characters which a man of genius would give to it ; that it is susceptible of every beauty ; that it is the natural idiom of poetry, of muAck, of eloquence, of history and reason. It would not be difficult to fill many sheets with observations on the discourse of the Abb~ Pr~vost. He says, in regard to history, that Jta!XT has no model to oflbr us~ ~XT1)at then is Machiavelli ? and Davila ? and, above all. Guicehardini .~ February, 1755. Charles de Steondat, Baron de Mon- tesquien, died at Paris, the 10th of this month, after having honoured humanity by his admirable writings, and by a vlrtuous and irreproachable life, durin~ the course of sixty five years If it were not much pleasanter to forget our faults, and to shut our eyes to evils that we cannot cure, we should say, to the shame of the nation, that this great man, to xvhom France xviii owe all the happy effects, that xviii result from the revolution which his works have caused in our minds, quitted life witb~ut the publick, as it were, ~ ceiving it. His funeral was inattended Al. Diderot was the only man of letters who was present. Louis 15th hon- oured himself in giving to the dying sage, marks of bis

Death of Montesquieu 36-37

86 Grimms ~icmozrs. [Ma~, pleasin~ arts. The genius of every tongue was formed be- fore it had a single writer. Reason and taste may indeed free a language from any little defects which disfigure it, but they cannot take away any essential nIt as you may take from any figure a bad piece of drapery that degrades it, but the f~ults that are in the structure of the body, xviii on] ybe seen the more. If Pierre Corncille had been the only ~reaV man of his age, the French language would have owed him nothing in the sense of the Abb~ Pr6vost. But Moliere, Racine, and La Fontaine, who have spokcu that lan~uage divinely, each in his own manner, do not certainly owe it to the great Corneilie. The man of genius owes every thing to himself. Montaigne and Amyot knew long before Corneille, how to write this language with admirable force and energy, and xvhich we should seek for in vain among modern authors. The genius more or less happy of a lan~uage belongs to such abstract causes, that it is very difficult to give the history of it, still more so to make it understood by men in general. But the question of fact is not doubtful with principles and good faith, it may be soon seen that the Italian language is the only living one that has no essential defect ; that i~ beads to all the characters which a man of genius would give to it ; that it is susceptible of every beauty ; that it is the natural idiom of poetry, of muAck, of eloquence, of history and reason. It would not be difficult to fill many sheets with observations on the discourse of the Abb~ Pr~vost. He says, in regard to history, that Jta!XT has no model to oflbr us~ ~XT1)at then is Machiavelli ? and Davila ? and, above all. Guicehardini .~ February, 1755. Charles de Steondat, Baron de Mon- tesquien, died at Paris, the 10th of this month, after having honoured humanity by his admirable writings, and by a vlrtuous and irreproachable life, durin~ the course of sixty five years If it were not much pleasanter to forget our faults, and to shut our eyes to evils that we cannot cure, we should say, to the shame of the nation, that this great man, to xvhom France xviii owe all the happy effects, that xviii result from the revolution which his works have caused in our minds, quitted life witb~ut the publick, as it were, ~ ceiving it. His funeral was inattended Al. Diderot was the only man of letters who was present. Louis 15th hon- oured himself in giving to the dying sage, marks of bis 1815.] Grnnrizs .Memoirs. ..) I esteem, and in sending the Duke de Nivernois to inquire about him. But if we had merited being the contempora- iies of so great a man, leaving our vain and frivolous plea- sures, we should have wept over his tomb; and the nation in mourning would have shewn to Europe, an example of the homage, that an enlightened and susceptible people ren- dered to genius and to virtue. Au ust, 1755. 1 have sought an occasion for some time, to talk to you about a literary phenomenon, which was first discovered the last year, and which merits to be better known, particularly in a country, where they are so fond of laughing, and where pleasantry has so many claims on th~ amusements of the publick. This phenomenon is a tragedy printed at Ronen, and of which there have never been more than four or five copies brought to Paris. It is entitled David and Batkslte& a; its author the Abbe Petit, is curate of Mont Chauvet, in Lower Normandy. To give you an idea of this sinbular l)roduction, and of the curate. still more singular, I shall transcribe a letter which I wrote upon tiw ubject. This form will suit it perfectly. Letter to 31. de S. L. Lrcnecille. You are in the right, sir, to inquire the news of our laster holidays, and to regret not having passed them witt us. You would have played your part very well in scene which took place on Sunday, and which they* wish I should relate to you, though I was not present, for I ~va~ detained on the road, my chaise having broken very un- luckily at Soissons, so that in spite of my exertions I conki not reach Paris. it was this misfortune that has drawc mc, the honour of bein~ the histor upon b ian, of the illustrious curate of Mo~it Chauvet. All the others having been ac tors in the piece, I was the only one, that could be an im- lialtial judge of both sides. But I must take things at the beginning, anti, after the example of my brethren the modern historians, I must not begin upon the subject till I have given the portrait of my hero, which, like them, I am the better ble to do, as I have not seen the personage I am to l)aint. 1 ask your indulgence therefore far this first attempt, and if my portrait is not a master The ~ocietv aesera~ hA at ISa;m Ilciba

Trajedy of David and Bathsheba 37-44

1815.] Grnnrizs .Memoirs. ..) I esteem, and in sending the Duke de Nivernois to inquire about him. But if we had merited being the contempora- iies of so great a man, leaving our vain and frivolous plea- sures, we should have wept over his tomb; and the nation in mourning would have shewn to Europe, an example of the homage, that an enlightened and susceptible people ren- dered to genius and to virtue. Au ust, 1755. 1 have sought an occasion for some time, to talk to you about a literary phenomenon, which was first discovered the last year, and which merits to be better known, particularly in a country, where they are so fond of laughing, and where pleasantry has so many claims on th~ amusements of the publick. This phenomenon is a tragedy printed at Ronen, and of which there have never been more than four or five copies brought to Paris. It is entitled David and Batkslte& a; its author the Abbe Petit, is curate of Mont Chauvet, in Lower Normandy. To give you an idea of this sinbular l)roduction, and of the curate. still more singular, I shall transcribe a letter which I wrote upon tiw ubject. This form will suit it perfectly. Letter to 31. de S. L. Lrcnecille. You are in the right, sir, to inquire the news of our laster holidays, and to regret not having passed them witt us. You would have played your part very well in scene which took place on Sunday, and which they* wish I should relate to you, though I was not present, for I ~va~ detained on the road, my chaise having broken very un- luckily at Soissons, so that in spite of my exertions I conki not reach Paris. it was this misfortune that has drawc mc, the honour of bein~ the histor upon b ian, of the illustrious curate of Mo~it Chauvet. All the others having been ac tors in the piece, I was the only one, that could be an im- lialtial judge of both sides. But I must take things at the beginning, anti, after the example of my brethren the modern historians, I must not begin upon the subject till I have given the portrait of my hero, which, like them, I am the better ble to do, as I have not seen the personage I am to l)aint. 1 ask your indulgence therefore far this first attempt, and if my portrait is not a master The ~ocietv aesera~ hA at ISa;m Ilciba 38 Grimms .Me)flOtrs. [May, piece of antithesis, remember it i. not in the power of every body to produce one. Our curate who is called the ~K1bb~ Petit is not very ])Ctit, (f~ ith, this is not a bad beginning) be is youn ~, and the most remarkable thing in his appear- ance is his nose, which is extremely long. The dominant qualities in his character are an excessive flatness and a vanity without bounds ; every thing either wounds or flat- ters him. He reddens alternately with anger, or he turns pale with delight at being praised. His nose is in perpetual movement, to inhale the incense which the jesters offer, (and which he always receives well,) or to mark his dis- dain for his censors, or his enemies, of whom he thinks he has a great many. Last summer, Diderot met one day at the Luxembourg, with one of his old friends, the Abb~ Basset, professor of philosophy at the college of Harcourt, and thc curate of Mont Chanvet in company. The curate is fond of talking; the conversation was soon in train. I am very unfortunate, said he, after many other things, to be the cu- rate of Mont Chauvet, the most dismal place in the world, where my talents are buried, and where there is no one that has any mind but myself. There is no society, and my only resource is the schoolroaster, who is a pea- sant dressed in black. At last, however, I have got here, and I am delighted to have made acquaintance with a man of your reputation, in order to ask your opinion of a mad- riaal of about seven hundred v~rses, that I have composed. A madrigal of seven hundred lines, exclaimed Diderot, good heavens on what subject ? Why, answered the cu- rate whb a cunning smile, my valet has had the misfortune to make the servant girl a mother, and this has given inc a flue field as you shall see. In saying which, he drew from his pocket a whcde quire of paper. M. Diderot frightened at the idea of this reading~ said to him, I think you are very wrong, sir, to employ your leisnie npon such subjects. When a man has genius so decided as yours, he ought to write tragedies, and not amuse himself xvith madrigals. Permit me then to tell you, that I will not listen to a single verse of youi~ making, till you have brought me a tragedy. You axe in the right, replied the curate, but I am too timid. In this way Diderot got rid of the madrigal but what wa: his surprise to see the curate of Mont Chauvet conic in, about a fortnight a go, with the tragedy of David and Bath slieba. There was no backing out ; it was necessary to ~815.] (irimrns .Memoir~. 39 undergo the reading of it; and to render it more amusing, ft was resolved to accord ihe curate a complete sitting, in the society of Sunday evening, lie re then was the poor curate in the midst of fifteen or twenty ninnies, all ready to jest and to finish rendering him mad, if any thing were yet wanting. Rousseau alone, with his well tried probity, was determined to play the part of an honest man, and, in fact succeeded so well, that the curate has conceived for him the most inexpressible hatred. I do not doubt but the pe- rusal of David and Baths/teba will amuse you infinitely: but the criticisms that were made during the reading, and the manner in which the curate answered them would have pleased you still more. In the preface, he alleges his rea- sons, for not placing the scene in the bath of Bathsheba, and after~vards defends himself against the resemblance, which there was said to be between his style, and that of the great Corneille, and solemnly protests that he has been guilty of no plagiarism. After which he tells in the most amusing way, why he had made angoisse and trislesse rhyme to- gether, a rhyme which Rousseau had attacked. He finish- es by sayin0 that some persons had objected to the word Hanon, as a word that sounded badly, apparently on ac- count of its ridiculous confusion with that of d4non, an ani- mal so common and well known. I think, says he, that a name, in itself, has nothing to offend ; that the scripture has made use of it, whose ears are as delicate as ours. The whole preface was composed expressly against the society, with whom he was extremely discontented, though be dis- scmubled it; for, with all his vanity-, he has a great stock of deceit. The icading had henan, every body ranged in a circle listened attentively. M. de Ia Condamine* among ib rest, had taken the cotton from his cars to hear like others, but his patience was at an end in the first scene. In the second, David appears, and complains that love torments him night and day, and keeps him from sleeping. He has however enoubh to employ him: lie has new enemies he says Qaatre rois, vive Dien, cidevant nies an is. Vine Dien, cried Ia Condamine, and why not ventre Dien? and replacing the cotton in his ea~s, pushed out of the room. There, said the curate coldly, is a man who does not kno ]XI. de Ia Condarni~~c was troj,bhd whh de~fues~, 40 Grimms .Memoirs. [May, that vice Diem is the oath of the Hebrews. In another place, l3athsheha being pressed by David to make him happy, wishes to rouse his honour, and reminds him of his great actions in past times; ~he says: Vous sutes arracher Saul Li ses furies, Ou cc Prince vainqucur de mule incirconcis, Fremissait que David en efit dix milk occis. Oh heavens! what lines, exclaimed Rousseau, but why occis? why not tue? I might, said the curate coldly, answer you that tu~ does not rhyme with incirconsis: but apparently you imagine that tu~ and oceis are synonymous; you must learn sir, that they are not. We say every day such a man kills me with his discourses, but we are not occided for that. I agree, said Rousseau, that it would be very disagreeable to be occided, but I should not like even to be killed. In another place Bathsheba says, Le roi ne m offre plus que ~ charmes. But, sir, said they to him, charrne is masculine. Oh, you take it in that way, gentlemen. XVeII, in the following scene you will find it masculine. I have tried to satisfy every body. In another place he had rhymed supeifim and plus. That rhyme is not exact, said they. Ah ! why not? he asked. Because supeifim is in the singular, and in conse- quence has no s. Pardon me, said the curate, I have put one to it. These are some specimens of the genius and wit of the curate ; what makes them truly droll is, that there is nothing exaggerated, and nothing to me is more precious than a character frankly original. In spite of the severity of the critici5ms they loaded him with praises ; but his vanity was wounded, and he went away, very discon- tented with the society. Three days afterwards he met with one of our friends who had been outrageously his champion, during the reading, as had been agieed upout beforehand. lie complained very much. If I frequented, said he, the society of those gentlemen, I should fini~h by suspecting my verses were flat: however, I am very sure of the contrary, and they have only to examine their observa- tions with as much severity as my tragedy, and they will see what is flat. After all, it is not their criticism the frightens me; 1 do not regard my piece as a servile author~ I have made each verse triple. so that I can, as you sec 1S15.] Grimms .Memoirs. sacrifice as many of them as I please without being worse off. Our friend assured him that he had left the society in the greatest admiration at his talents, but he would not be- lieve it. In fact, one of our friends, NI. Gauffecourt, con- cealing his laughter with his hands, the curate said to him suddenly, You laugh, sir. Me, sir ? answered he with the greatest seriousness, I never laughed in my life. In short, said he to our friend, I see how it is : those gentlemen dread works of a certain description, and which might fi~ the at- tention of the publick: they have nothing in their head but their Encyclopedia; they fear my success may injure theirs. But the publick will know how to do justice to us all. It was with these sentiments, that our dear curate resumed the road to Lower Normandy. He has since written a letter to the Abb~ Basset, which I have the honour to send you. You will see what he thinks about us. That there may be nothing obscure for you in it, you must know that he had put at the head of his tragedy, a dedication to madame de Pompadour, which commenced with the following singular verse Rentrez dans he neant, race de mendians. It was to blame poets, who make dedications to catch money: he afterwards says, Point denfant dApollon, sil ne rime gratis. This commencement appeared so singular, that they feared for him the consequences of a misunderstanding, if he sent his dedication. He however did not fail, believing that from jealousy, they wished to prevent his obtaining the suffrage of madame de Pompadour. In the same dedica- tion, and which unfortunately is not printed, there were these lines Tout ainsi comme Icare parcourant la humi~re Dans un rayon brfdant vit fondre sa carriere. Here, said they, is an admirable verse : but such kind of verses must be very difficult to come across. That is true, answered the curate, turning pale with joy and vanity: and therefore one is very content when they find them. But I return to the letter, here it is. Vor~. I. No. 1. (1 Grimms sIIemotrs~ [May, TO THE ABBE BASSET, From Mont ~hauvet. I DEPAHTED, dear Abbe, full of the recollection of your goodness. I hastened to quit a residence where I began to feel some satisfaction, but where I became a burthen to some persons. Let me speak out. They took umbrage at a piece, where they believed that they found beauties, which per- haps the publick would not discover: they envied me a cer- tain je ne sais quci, that nature has lavished upon me. They refused me even the honour of painful labour, and then con- sented to flatter me. I did not think these gentlemen would have gone so far. If my presence made some impression upon them, they must have been satisfied with my depar- ture; and as you know, my dear Abb~, that there was no in- decent speech that they did not make to vex me, and to en- gage me voluntarily to throw my piece into the Seine ; (no, for perhaps they might have scrambled it up,) but into the fire its final destruction. I have left then many of our gen- tlemen poets full leisure to make verses, the pleasure even of constructing tragedies, which may obtain a charitable re- presentation, or, if they prefer it, one where a certain number of people are hired to give their a l)plause. I shall probably neither read one or the other. How can they reach me in my insulated situation ? They discovered to me before I left, what had irritated them ; it was because my piece was sent to madame the Marchioness. They blushed, they said, at tile words of verdrcz vils mendians, and they treated the curate of Mont Chauvet in a fine way. However, in all their proceedings with me, they thought they should make me their dupe, and they succeeded to a certain point, be- cause they abused my frankness. What have I lost, ex- cept being made to believe, that my piece was not more worthy of seeing the light than I had hoped? It sees it actually on fine paper, and in very neat characters, and is sold for thirtysix sous. It is printed in France, with the approbation of the magistrates, who had previously commu- nicated it to a doctor of the Sorbonne, who read it with l)leasiire. As lie is versed in the study of the holy books, he admired the manner in which I treated the subject. This then is the moment of its life or death. The publick, xvliich always sees clearly, or at least generally does, will dissect it as it understands it. If it is not pleased, I shall be careful to make no appeal; but I shall not be disrusted : I shall Andy to do better. So long as my vein lasts, I prote~ 1815.1 & run.ms Afe.~ o~rs. 43 to you, my dear Abb~, that nothin~ will be able to stop me. M. Diderot complained that this piece was not sufficiently supplied with incidents, and that the greater part of the in- cidents did not take place on the stage, which I should call an action rallier too mute ; it is true, that my piece is a holy piece, and th t is a fault. I had perceived it, but I could not do otherwise. Besides, this kind of pieces are subject to this defect. I have perhaps supplied the natural dryness which pertains to most recit tives, by a versification happy enough. But this is not the place to criticise my perform- ance. I have commenced a second, which I trust ~vill not offend in that way, and which I hope to render complete. When it is done, I shall criticise it severely, as I have done the first. As I am not guided by the honour of the theatre or by interest, workin~ only to contend against the tiresome- ness of my solitude, I shall bring the second with me all printed, by which means I shall not see myself again cx pos- ed to reading my manuscript on a stool, before persons especially who are laughing in their sleeves, instead of being affected, or who feign to applaud without even know- ing the connexion of the scenes, nor perhaps a rhyme. Now, my dear Abb~, I have the honour to inform you, that I shall send you a copy, and several others, as a downright gift for persons, to whom I shall beg you will have the good- ness to remit them. I calculate you will get them next week with a letter of advice. I shall therefore put you to the expense of two postages. Do me the favour to inform me on receipt of the present, at Mont Chauvet, by Aunay, a Ia Flumardiere, if you will undertake the trouble of disposing of them for me ; in case you could get rid of them it would be to the credit of what my brother and myself owe you. Excuse the lenath of this letter. I depend on your indul- gence. I write to the Abh~ Freron, and I send him two opies, one for himself, and the other for madame his wife, as a gift; you see that I do things liberally, and that I do not care for six and thirty sous on occasion. Adieu, my (lear Abh~. I have the honour to be, with ihe sentiments that you know me to have for such an excellent friend, your very humble and obedient serw ut, LE PETIT. Let us allow, that a few hundred letters like this, would make an excellent collection. in order that you may feel the full force of it, I must tell von that the passage where 44 (Jrtm~ns .Memoirs. [May, he attacks the people who perhaps do no. know what a rhyme is, relates to Rousseau, who had insisted with hini that angoisse and trisasse did not rhyme. In another place where he says, he prefers leaving the field open to many of our gentlemen poets, he has in view M. de Mar- gency, whom you know. They had made the curate be- lieve that he was a ~ by profession, and that he would have in him a dangerous rival; so that he shewed him all kinds of servility, though from that moment, he conceived for his pretended rival the most~ violent hatred. After the reading was over, they had a very long dispute upon their respective merits. All this finished by a challenge. M. de Margency said, that he was at that moment at xvork upon the tragedy of Nebuchadnezzar, a very difficult and delicate subject: that if the curate would attempt the same, they might assemble that day week, and each one should bring the first scene of his piece, to submit it to the judgment of the assembly. The curate promised, but dissatisfied with his censors, and perhaps frightened at the challenge, he took the alternative of returning to Mont Chauvet, three days after this sitting. Notwithstanding, our friend Mar- gency composed his scene ; and having learnt the unex- pected departure of the curate, he has since sent it to him with a fine dedication. I make you a present of both; it ~s an excellent piece of humour, which will greatly amuse you. See if it is not worth while to pass Easter at Paris. As for me, who only arrived on the Monday, I found them all so inebriated with the madness of the curate, that I had no doubt but he had left them his mantle at parting. They all embrace you. We desire much to see you. Return speedily. Bernard le Bouvier de Fontenelle, father of the French Academy, of that of the sciences, and of inscriptions, died on Sunday evening, the 9th of January, 1757. lIe had nearly reached his hundredth year, having been born on the I Ph February, 1657. M. de Fontenelle was one of those extraordinary men, who witnessed, duriug a century, all the revolutions of the human mind, produced some of them himself, and pre- pared the causes of many others. Born without genius, he owed all his success to the clearness, the distinctness and precision of his mind ; to a certain in~enious, brilliant,

Anecdotes of Fontenelle 44-51

44 (Jrtm~ns .Memoirs. [May, he attacks the people who perhaps do no. know what a rhyme is, relates to Rousseau, who had insisted with hini that angoisse and trisasse did not rhyme. In another place where he says, he prefers leaving the field open to many of our gentlemen poets, he has in view M. de Mar- gency, whom you know. They had made the curate be- lieve that he was a ~ by profession, and that he would have in him a dangerous rival; so that he shewed him all kinds of servility, though from that moment, he conceived for his pretended rival the most~ violent hatred. After the reading was over, they had a very long dispute upon their respective merits. All this finished by a challenge. M. de Margency said, that he was at that moment at xvork upon the tragedy of Nebuchadnezzar, a very difficult and delicate subject: that if the curate would attempt the same, they might assemble that day week, and each one should bring the first scene of his piece, to submit it to the judgment of the assembly. The curate promised, but dissatisfied with his censors, and perhaps frightened at the challenge, he took the alternative of returning to Mont Chauvet, three days after this sitting. Notwithstanding, our friend Mar- gency composed his scene ; and having learnt the unex- pected departure of the curate, he has since sent it to him with a fine dedication. I make you a present of both; it ~s an excellent piece of humour, which will greatly amuse you. See if it is not worth while to pass Easter at Paris. As for me, who only arrived on the Monday, I found them all so inebriated with the madness of the curate, that I had no doubt but he had left them his mantle at parting. They all embrace you. We desire much to see you. Return speedily. Bernard le Bouvier de Fontenelle, father of the French Academy, of that of the sciences, and of inscriptions, died on Sunday evening, the 9th of January, 1757. lIe had nearly reached his hundredth year, having been born on the I Ph February, 1657. M. de Fontenelle was one of those extraordinary men, who witnessed, duriug a century, all the revolutions of the human mind, produced some of them himself, and pre- pared the causes of many others. Born without genius, he owed all his success to the clearness, the distinctness and precision of his mind ; to a certain in~enious, brilliant, IS15.] fJrzmms .Alernoirs. flowery style which he created, and which has since had so many bad copyists. While waiting for the successor of this celebrated man at the French Academy, to give us in his eulogium, an idea of his merit and of his literary labours, I am going to collect a fexv traits, and hazard some reflec- tions, that may enable you to know something of him. The academick discourses contain commonly only insipid praises, heaped up without discernment or taste ; truth demands more justice. In fact, the life of M. de Fontenelle, with the different objects connected with it, would be a subject worthy of a philosopher. Such a work would be a history of philosophy, and the revolutions it has experienced in France, from the time of Descartes to our own. What a superb subject ! M. de Fontenelle was one of the most celebrated sectaries, of the destroyer of the scholastick phi- losophy. Now that Newtonianism has triumphed in France, as in the rest of enlightened Europe, over all other forms of philosophy, there are but few paitizans of Descartes here, besides M. de Mairan, author of a treatise on the Aurora borealis, and another upon ice, and a few old academicians little known. The tune will come, when the disciples of Newton will not be more in vo0ue, than the followers of Cartesianism. Every thing is revolution in the human mind, as well as in the physical and moral order of the uni- verse. The schools destroy one another the names of ~reat men alone remain, like those immense pyramids of E~ypt, which last, if one may so speak, in spite of the effort of ages and the ravages of time. All that crowd of subaltern philosophers, followers of the opinions of others, will disappear and be effaced from the memory of men. The names of Newton, Leibnitz, Descartcs, Bacon, as well as those of Aristotle and Plato, will be vcnerated as long as philosophy and learning endure. XVhat may tend to pre- serve M. de Fontenelle from the oblivion, which is sure to cover the sectaries of all fugitive systems, is the real merit of having been the first to make philosophy popular in France. The plurality of worlds, the history of oracles, and many other works of his, have become classick. Men of the world at that time, so ignorant, and narrow-minded, women even, whose tastes and occupations have so great an infinence, and all that concerns the mind and manners of Frenclunen, have drawn from his works the principles of a sound and enlightcned philosophy. The philosophick [May, 46 Gi imrns .Atenzoirs. spirit now so widely spread, owes its first progress to M. de Fontenelle. Even the ornaments of his style, xvhich might j)erhaps be condemned by a severe taste, have con- tributed to extend the limits of light, the love of truth, and the empire of reason. It is true, that in thus enlightening us, he had given an almost fatal blow to the taste of the nation. His style, his colouring, and his manner of writing, offer a vast career to false taste, and if his opinions and those of NI. do la Mothe, had prevailed with tile publick, over the more powerful cry of nature, and over the tranquil though constant effect of its beauties, our taste would have been ruined, and we should have witnessed the return of the age of Voiture, and still meaner writers. We should very soon have resembled those children, who would willingly exchange the Farnese Hercules, or the Venus de Medicis, for a doll, from a shop in the Rue St. Honor~. To judge of the extent of the danger we have run, to feel hoxv detest- able was the manner, which it was indeavoured to establish, we have only to read the imitators of M. do Fontenelle nothing is more disagreeable, nothing more insupportable, than the works, with which they annoyed the publick. Fortunately, and I know not by what miracle it so happened, there occurred in this case, what never took l)lace before. The good that he has done ~r, by the philosophick spirit that prevails in his works, has had its effect. The evil which he might have caused by his style, has had no bad consequences; this is an eternal obligation that we owe to M. do Voltaire, and the extent of which, we do not appear to feel sufficiently. This great man came at the very mo- ment he was wanted, to stop the progress of a false taste. rhai~ks to him, there are now-a-days only the Abb~ Tin- blot and other writers of his class, who pass their lives in twisting phrases, and in weaving with great labour a puerile diction or who employ their time as M. do Voltaire said of M. do Marivaux, in weighing cyphers in scales of spiders webs. The easy and popular philosophy of M. do Voltaire, his simple, natural, and at the same time original style, the inexpressible charm of his colouring, soon made us despise those epigramrnatick turns, that squinting precision, and those mean beauties, ~o which copyists without taste had giving a passing vogue. M. do Voltaire has since been seconded by all the sound minds among us. M. do Buffon, a philosopher, not very profound perhaps, has gained 1S15.] 6~ rzmms .lfemoirs. 47 admiration as a most magnificent writer. M. Diderot, in penetrating the most concealed depths of truth, with a force of genius very uncommon, has united the most extensive philosophical views to the most brilliant imagination, and the most exquisite feeling of the beautiful and its attri- butes. The citizen Jean Jacques Rousseau, even while establishing in his works the most indefensible paradoxes, has defended them in such a simple and masculine style, that he deserves to participate in the glory of the celebrated men I have just named. Without them, we should now have spoken an unintelligible jargon. These kinds of beauty were lost upon M. de Fontenelle. What was sim- J)le, natural, and truly sublime, did not affect him it was a language he did not understand. I have often remarked, that in every thing that was related or said to him, he always expected the epigram. Insensible to every other kind of beauty, every thing that did not finish with a witty turn, was nothing to him. He had seen all the great nten of the age of Louis XlV; he bad been their contemporary~ and even their rival, lie spoke little of them. I pI~~t7ne he did not think much of Moliere and Racine. lie never mentioned La Fontaine without speaking ill of him. There are however in La Fontaine verses, of which I would have sooner written a single one, than all the works of Fontenelle together. The great Corneille was his man ; he raised him above every body. But this great man was from his own province, his uncle, and, after all, what a reasoner This kind of beauty was made to suit Fontenelle. He preserved the ju~tness and ingenuity of his wit, till the moment of his death. Without his deafness, which I~revente(l his taking part in conversation, he would have been as agree able, as he had been at the age of thirty. lie said not long since, to a young woman, to make her feel the impression that her beauty had made upou him Ah if 1 was but only eighty years old. In the course of the malady that termi rmnted his life, he said to some one xvho inquired what ill he felt, None, except that of existing I feel a great difficulty to be. This was said better than his general manner. A woman well known, (madame Grimaud) aged one hundred and three years, having gone to see him six months ago, said to him lt se& rns, sir, that nature has forgot you and me upon earth. M. de Foatenelle placed his finger softly on bcr mouth, and said Ilush it xra. by an infinity of inge Grimms .Memoirs. [May, nious turns like this, that his presence had become very agreeable in society, to which his talents had besides given him strong recommendations. His private life was uniform and tranquil, lie was cited as the model of a sage. How many times has his conduct been contrasted with that of XToltaire~s! But great men have not always the coolest heads. We may pardon many follies to the rapid and brilliant imagination of the author of Zaire; he has redeem- e(1 them by so many beauties; and it is true, in this sense, that the wisdom of a cold mind, is not worth the follies of an impetuous genius. M. de Fontenelle has often been reproached with having an insensible heart. They said of him, and it was true, that he had never either laughed or wept. This trait characterizes the man. He knew not the tumult of the passions, the violent emotions, nor all those impetuous un pulses, which often govern the greatest men ; his cold and barren heart had never felt the enchanting power of beauty, the lively and delicious impressions of virtue, nor the charm and sweetness of friendship. XVhen with such dispositions we observe religiously the laws of society, of honour, and of publick propriety, we are exempt from reproach, but we ~ire not the less subjects for pity. Lord Hyde, a man of great merit, who from his cabinet in Paris for some time directed the House of Commons in London, and who died here, of a fall from his horse, at an early age, said, in speak- ing of the long career of M. de Fontenelle, that for him, he lived his hundred years in a quarter of an hour. A fine expression, that proves so well thc advantages of a suscep- tible mind over one that feels nothing. It is difficult to live much in a quarter of an hour, when we love nothing but epigrams; they always made an impression on Fonte- nelle; but it is not said, that he was ever affected by paint- ing, by musick, or the illusioi~s of art and of imitation. Diderot having seen Urn two or three years since, for the first time in his life, could not help shedding tears on the vanity of literary glory, and of all human things. M. dc Fontenelle perceived it, and asked him the reason of his tears. I feel, answered Diderot, a singular sentiment. At the word sentiment, iFortcnelle stopped him, and said with a smile, Sir, it is eighty years since I banished sentiment into eclogues. An answer well calculated to dry the tears, which the love of humanity, and the tenderness ot a good 1813.] G;imms iiIc?noirs. 49 heart had caused to flow. NI. de Fontenelle often boasted, that he had never asked a service of any one; he might have added, nor rendered one. A woman of a great deal of sense and merit, (madame Geofilin) in whom he had much confidence, and whom he has made his executrix, says, that there was only one mode of inducing him to oblige or render a service, and that was to order him to do it. lie had no reply to yots must. lie never would have felt what was merely proper and welltimed. But what is cited as most horrible in this way, is the history of the asparagus. M. tie Fontenelle was remarkably fond of it and particularly dressed with oil. One of his friends who liked it served with butter, (I do not know if it was not the Abh~ Teirasson) having called one day to dine xvith him, he told him he would make him a great sacrifice, in ceding to him half his dish Qf asparagus, and ordered that half to be dressed with butter. A short time before tlinner was ready, the Ahb& was taken ill, and a moment afterwards fell into an apoplexy. Fontenelle rose precipitately, ran to the kitchen, and cried, the whole with oil, the whole with oil.* What is perhaps mo~t odious in this affair is, that dining a short time afterwards, with the same Lord Hyde of whom I have spoken, and seeing a dish of asparagus, he remarked, tnat this speech had brought them into fashion ; and with this mode of thinking he would probably have bad but few friends, if the vanity of being acquainted with a celebrated man had not retained a few. It was this profound indiflhr cuce that formed the base of his character ; he carried it every where, and it often injured the justness of his mind, principally on all subjects that belonged to sentiment. He said 1f h had held truth in his hands like a bird, he would haxe stifled it so thoroughly did he consider the finest gift The ~ou~.imrnstc selfl:hness of Fontonello can hardly he paralleled; the fol~ lowin~ ioStnc~ of insensibility however, is rather singular. The late Governor C related to ~i friend of mine, that doriag the American xvar, he made a visit one cx ~oiw in the celebrated general P. at his quarters. Wine was not always to h~ Ii (I 10 hos ~laxs, arnon~ America. oi cers, and even of spirits, the most ahuodant was that of 76. ilie General told him lie was sorry he could not offci ii in cue wine, that lie had but two bottles of old Madeira, which he kept for ho us of nis. P. who was then with him extremely ill. They sat dowi Ihoi ( foic, to visa the iveniog over a glass of gro~. In th course of it Mrs. P. (hot Soon after the event was aunonoced, the General said, speaking to his ~on in a oseancholy tone of voice: Come, you mey Os wtlt bring that wow, your pso mother will not went it now. The Governor said lie was cxcsssively sSw hod at this insensibility. But the ivine bein~ brought, and old Mad ii a ~s xci sr s:~arce thing, he ceo fill d his glass, and they finished toe two hottks to 5su:i~o the Generals grief T Vol I No.1. 60 Grimm. Memoir.. [May, of heaven as useless, and dangerous for mankind. He had no opinion in matters of religion, and this indifference which he preserved all his life, is much more natural in a truly philosophick mind, than his.lukewarmness in regard to truth. He said further, that if he had in his desk a horrible paper, that would he sufficient to dishonour him In the opinion of posterity, he would not give himself the trouble to take it out and bum it, if he was sure that he could conceal it from the publick during his lifetime. This sentiment is unnatu- ral. Shame is one of the first feelings of man in society, and shame makes us dread contempt even after death, as Diderot remarks in a work he is about publishing. This speech was the more extraordinary from M. de Fontenelle, as he had an excessive thirst for praise. He was any thing but difficult on this head, and the moat ingenious wit, the most epigrammatick, the.moat delicate in gallabtry, was not ofihuded with the dullest and heaviest praises, that certain persons lavished upon him. A person having said to him one day: I wish to praise you, but I want the ingenuity of your wit. No matter aid Fontenelle, praise on. I have beard him complain that foreigners, and particularly the English, were fonder of him than his own countrymen. Madame Geofflin replied very pleasantly, it is because we see you too nearly; you know, said she, that no man is a hero to his valet de chambre. Theso traits may suffice to give you an idea of the character of this celebrated man, to whom nothing was wanting to be great, but a more lively imagination, warmed by a tender heart. It is too true that this is not a trifling want. With so much intelligence in his mind, he could not enter the career of. genius, and the deficiency of sensibility left him without taste; it exposed him, as we have remarked, to serve for a model to a whole class of bad writers; it rendered his decisions in matters of taste, rash, false, and of no consequence. It is well known with how many efibrts, Fontenelle and Ia Mothe disputed the merit of the ancients. Two athlete of their strength however, have only excited contempt, in spite of the pene. tration and logick on which they prided themselves, and with which they uselessly cQvered themselves in this ridiculous and vain dispute. It would be difficult to collect, on any subject, more foolish things than those which have been printed to prove the superiority of the modems over the ancients. One would have said, that Fontenelle, is Mothe, 1815.] Grimms .Alemoirs. 51 and the Ahb~ Terrasson had made all these efforts, only to shexv the misery and poverty of the mind, when it is not guided by sentiment. It is like a blind person who marches with confidence in the dark, who wanders methodically, and each of whose steps condncts him into a new errour. Wo to ihat people whose Fontenelles and La Mothes shall suc- ceed in throwing nown the statues of Homer and Sopho- cles, of Cicero and Virgil under what names will genius be revered upon earth, if it be not under the immortal names of those gfeat men ? 1 am more disposed than any one, to pass over the little spots that are to be found in the works of Voltaire. The essay upon Universal history which he has just published, and which has united every sufiVage, would snffice to immortalize the anthor, if he were in want of new titles. But how is it possible, that this illustrious writer should have spoken so ill of Homer, at the com- mencement of the third volume, where he is (liscussing the subject of the revival of learning in Italy ; lie gives the pre- ference in all cases to the moderns. It costs him nothing to put the Orlando Furioso of Ariosto above the Odyssey, and, what is incredible, the Jerusalem of Tasso above the Iliad. If this decision had been pionounced by M. de Fontenelle, it would not have been mentioned ; it would have had no consequence. But that M. de Voltaire should give such a judgment, is really inconceivable. 1 believe I have somewhere had the hotiour to remark to you, that the mo- derns had not even discovered the mechanism of their epick, and that in the poverty in which they were in this respect, they made no hesitation to borrow that of Hairier, which notwithstandin0 cannot suit them. If they had his genius, how superiour would he still he to them in the sublimity and simplicity of manners, which give his poems .~o many affecting charms. Alas if the father of poetry .,hould resume from his descendants, every thing that they have hot rowed from him, what would he left of the Eneid, the Jerusalem, the Orlatido, th~ Lusiad, the Ilenriade, and every thing that we may dare name of this kind ? 1780. Letter from Dr. Franklin to Jiladame IIclv~tius. Grieved at your resolution pronounced so positively last evening, to remain single the rest of your life, in honour of your dear husband, I returned home. Throwing myself on the bed, I thought that I had died, and that I was in the

Letter of Franklin 51-53

1815.] Grimms .Alemoirs. 51 and the Ahb~ Terrasson had made all these efforts, only to shexv the misery and poverty of the mind, when it is not guided by sentiment. It is like a blind person who marches with confidence in the dark, who wanders methodically, and each of whose steps condncts him into a new errour. Wo to ihat people whose Fontenelles and La Mothes shall suc- ceed in throwing nown the statues of Homer and Sopho- cles, of Cicero and Virgil under what names will genius be revered upon earth, if it be not under the immortal names of those gfeat men ? 1 am more disposed than any one, to pass over the little spots that are to be found in the works of Voltaire. The essay upon Universal history which he has just published, and which has united every sufiVage, would snffice to immortalize the anthor, if he were in want of new titles. But how is it possible, that this illustrious writer should have spoken so ill of Homer, at the com- mencement of the third volume, where he is (liscussing the subject of the revival of learning in Italy ; lie gives the pre- ference in all cases to the moderns. It costs him nothing to put the Orlando Furioso of Ariosto above the Odyssey, and, what is incredible, the Jerusalem of Tasso above the Iliad. If this decision had been pionounced by M. de Fontenelle, it would not have been mentioned ; it would have had no consequence. But that M. de Voltaire should give such a judgment, is really inconceivable. 1 believe I have somewhere had the hotiour to remark to you, that the mo- derns had not even discovered the mechanism of their epick, and that in the poverty in which they were in this respect, they made no hesitation to borrow that of Hairier, which notwithstandin0 cannot suit them. If they had his genius, how superiour would he still he to them in the sublimity and simplicity of manners, which give his poems .~o many affecting charms. Alas if the father of poetry .,hould resume from his descendants, every thing that they have hot rowed from him, what would he left of the Eneid, the Jerusalem, the Orlatido, th~ Lusiad, the Ilenriade, and every thing that we may dare name of this kind ? 1780. Letter from Dr. Franklin to Jiladame IIclv~tius. Grieved at your resolution pronounced so positively last evening, to remain single the rest of your life, in honour of your dear husband, I returned home. Throwing myself on the bed, I thought that I had died, and that I was in the 52 Grimms Aliemotrs. [May, Elysian fields. They asked if I had a desire to see any particular personages ? Lead me to the philosophers. There are two who live near here, in this garden; they are very good neighbours and friends to one another.XVho are they ?Socrates and Helv~tius.L esteem both of them prodigiously, but let me first see Helv~tius, because I know a little French, and not a word of Greek.He receiv- ed me with great courtesy, having known, he said, my cha- racter for some time. He asked me a thousand questions about the war, the present state of religion, of liberty and of government in France. You make no inquiries, said 1, after your dear friend Madame Helv~tius, and yet she loves you excessively ; it is only an hour since 1 saw her. Ab! said lie, you make me remember my former felicity, but it must be forgotten to be happy here. For many years I thought only of her ; at last I am consoled. I have taken another wife, the most like her that I could find ; she is not, it is true, quite so beautiful, but she has much goon sense and wit, and she. loves me infinitely her con- tinual study is to please me. She has just gone out to seek for the best nectar and ambrosia, to regale me this evening remain here, and you shalf see her. I perceive, said I, that your ancient friend is more faithful to you, for she has re- fused many good matches that have offered. I confess to you, that I have loved her myself to madness, but she is ex- cessively cruel to me, and has refused me absolutely, to do honour to you. I phy your misfortune, said lie, as she was a good woman, and very amiable. But the Abb~ Roche and the Abb& M , do they not sometimes visit her ? Yes, certainly, she has not lost one of your friends. If you had gained the Abb~ M with coffee and cream to speak for you, perhaps you might have succeeded, for lie is as subtle a reasoner as St. Thomas, and he places his argu- ments in such good order, that they become, almost irre~ sistible or if you had gained over the Abb~ de Ia Roche, by some fine e~iition of an old classiek, to speak against you, it would have been still better, for I often observed, that when he advised any thing, she had a very strong inclina- tion to do the contrary. At these words, in came the new Madame Helv~tius ; in an instant, I recognized her to be Madame Franklin, my ancient American friend. I reclaim- ed her, but she answered me coldly I was your good wife for forty-nine years and four months, almost half a 1815.] Grimms .Memoirs. 53 century, be content with that. I have here formed a new colinexion, that will endure forever. Dissatisfied with this refusal of my Eurydice, I resolved immediately to leave those ungrateful shades, and to return to this world, to revisit the sun and you. Here I am, let us revenge ourselves. 1778. Dr. Franklin talks little and at the commence- ruent of his residence at Paris, while France refused to de- clare openly in favour of the colonies, he spoke still less. At a dinner of wits, to engage him in conversation, a person said to him, It must be owned that it is a grand and superb spectacle, that America offers at this period. Yes, answered modestly the Doctor, but the spectators do not pap. They have paid since. A very fine Latin verse has been made for the portrait of Dr. Franklin: Eripuit coelo fulmen sceptrumque tyrannis. This is a happy imitation of a line of the .inti-Lucretius Eripuitque Jovi fulmen Phoeboque sagittas. October, 1727. The following lines were written to be placed under the portrait of M. Benjamin Franklin, painted by Cochin, and engraved by St. Au bin. (The Censor thought himself oblicred 1)lasphemous.) ~ to suppress them, as * Cest lhonneur et lappui du nouvel h~mispli~re, Les flots de lOcean sabnissent a sa voix; 11 reprime ou dirige ~ son gr~ Ic tonnerre Qui d~sarme les Dicux pent-il craindre les rois.t Specimen of the friendshzips of Paris. 1778. Let persons imagine the Marchioness du Deffant, blind, sitting at the extremity of her cabinet, in Th aim chair, that resembled the tub of Diogenes, and her old friend, Pont de Vesle, lolling on a seat by the chimney. In this situation, here is one of their last conversations * This extravagant ahsnrdity may give an idea of the length they went at Paris, in fiatterin~ Dr. Franklin. This referred only to the Kin of England. [Note of the French Editor.]

Compliments to Franklin 53

1815.] Grimms .Memoirs. 53 century, be content with that. I have here formed a new colinexion, that will endure forever. Dissatisfied with this refusal of my Eurydice, I resolved immediately to leave those ungrateful shades, and to return to this world, to revisit the sun and you. Here I am, let us revenge ourselves. 1778. Dr. Franklin talks little and at the commence- ruent of his residence at Paris, while France refused to de- clare openly in favour of the colonies, he spoke still less. At a dinner of wits, to engage him in conversation, a person said to him, It must be owned that it is a grand and superb spectacle, that America offers at this period. Yes, answered modestly the Doctor, but the spectators do not pap. They have paid since. A very fine Latin verse has been made for the portrait of Dr. Franklin: Eripuit coelo fulmen sceptrumque tyrannis. This is a happy imitation of a line of the .inti-Lucretius Eripuitque Jovi fulmen Phoeboque sagittas. October, 1727. The following lines were written to be placed under the portrait of M. Benjamin Franklin, painted by Cochin, and engraved by St. Au bin. (The Censor thought himself oblicred 1)lasphemous.) ~ to suppress them, as * Cest lhonneur et lappui du nouvel h~mispli~re, Les flots de lOcean sabnissent a sa voix; 11 reprime ou dirige ~ son gr~ Ic tonnerre Qui d~sarme les Dicux pent-il craindre les rois.t Specimen of the friendshzips of Paris. 1778. Let persons imagine the Marchioness du Deffant, blind, sitting at the extremity of her cabinet, in Th aim chair, that resembled the tub of Diogenes, and her old friend, Pont de Vesle, lolling on a seat by the chimney. In this situation, here is one of their last conversations * This extravagant ahsnrdity may give an idea of the length they went at Paris, in fiatterin~ Dr. Franklin. This referred only to the Kin of England. [Note of the French Editor.]

Paris Friendships 53-54

1815.] Grimms .Memoirs. 53 century, be content with that. I have here formed a new colinexion, that will endure forever. Dissatisfied with this refusal of my Eurydice, I resolved immediately to leave those ungrateful shades, and to return to this world, to revisit the sun and you. Here I am, let us revenge ourselves. 1778. Dr. Franklin talks little and at the commence- ruent of his residence at Paris, while France refused to de- clare openly in favour of the colonies, he spoke still less. At a dinner of wits, to engage him in conversation, a person said to him, It must be owned that it is a grand and superb spectacle, that America offers at this period. Yes, answered modestly the Doctor, but the spectators do not pap. They have paid since. A very fine Latin verse has been made for the portrait of Dr. Franklin: Eripuit coelo fulmen sceptrumque tyrannis. This is a happy imitation of a line of the .inti-Lucretius Eripuitque Jovi fulmen Phoeboque sagittas. October, 1727. The following lines were written to be placed under the portrait of M. Benjamin Franklin, painted by Cochin, and engraved by St. Au bin. (The Censor thought himself oblicred 1)lasphemous.) ~ to suppress them, as * Cest lhonneur et lappui du nouvel h~mispli~re, Les flots de lOcean sabnissent a sa voix; 11 reprime ou dirige ~ son gr~ Ic tonnerre Qui d~sarme les Dicux pent-il craindre les rois.t Specimen of the friendshzips of Paris. 1778. Let persons imagine the Marchioness du Deffant, blind, sitting at the extremity of her cabinet, in Th aim chair, that resembled the tub of Diogenes, and her old friend, Pont de Vesle, lolling on a seat by the chimney. In this situation, here is one of their last conversations * This extravagant ahsnrdity may give an idea of the length they went at Paris, in fiatterin~ Dr. Franklin. This referred only to the Kin of England. [Note of the French Editor.] Grimms JVfernoir~. Pont de Vesic ?Madam ?Where are you ?At the corner of your fire-place.XVith your feet on the andirons, as we dd among friends ?Yes, Madam ?It must be allow- ed that there are few friendships so ancient as ours.That is true~Jt is fifty years~Yes, fifty years and more. And in this long period not a cloud, not even the appearance of a quarrel.That is what I have always admired.l3ut, Pont de Vesle, is not this owing to our ha ving been, in reali- ty, always very indifferent to one another ?That may well be, Madam. September, 1779. Madame de Lalande, Marchioness dii Defi~ant, born de Vichi de Chamru, died at Paris the 2~d of last month, aged eighty-four years. She was without dis- pute oae of the women of her time, the most celebrated for wit ;she had been for a lone period for her heauty. Having lost her sight when she was young, she sought consolation by assembling about her the most select society of the city and the court ; but the malignity of her wit, the sallies of which it was impossible for her to repress, often alienated the persons with whom she should not have quarrelled. The late Mademoiselle de Lespinasse, who had been for many years her companiou, separated from her rudely, and took away with her the greater part of the literary men, who at the time composed her society. The friend whom she had the happiness to keep the longest, was M. Pont de XTesle We have elsewhere explained, what rendered this connexion so mild aud durable. That society which she no loa~er found at home, but ~hich she could not do with- out, even ~n extreme old age, she sought for abroad. When past eighty, she still supped out every evening, often in the country, and she sate up habitually till three or four in the morniag. We have mauy charmin~, letters of hers to Voltaire, a portrait of Madame du Chatelet, some fugitive poetry printed in different collections, and many couplets full of wit and malice. Her best female friends Madame la Marechale de Luxem- hour,, Madame de Choiseul, and Mad~ mc de Camnbise, hard- ly (piitte(l her (luring her last illness ; and by a very rare excess of attachment, never failed, it was said, to play at loto in her chamber ever evening, till her last sigh inclu- sively.

Madame Du Deffand 54-55

Grimms JVfernoir~. Pont de Vesic ?Madam ?Where are you ?At the corner of your fire-place.XVith your feet on the andirons, as we dd among friends ?Yes, Madam ?It must be allow- ed that there are few friendships so ancient as ours.That is true~Jt is fifty years~Yes, fifty years and more. And in this long period not a cloud, not even the appearance of a quarrel.That is what I have always admired.l3ut, Pont de Vesle, is not this owing to our ha ving been, in reali- ty, always very indifferent to one another ?That may well be, Madam. September, 1779. Madame de Lalande, Marchioness dii Defi~ant, born de Vichi de Chamru, died at Paris the 2~d of last month, aged eighty-four years. She was without dis- pute oae of the women of her time, the most celebrated for wit ;she had been for a lone period for her heauty. Having lost her sight when she was young, she sought consolation by assembling about her the most select society of the city and the court ; but the malignity of her wit, the sallies of which it was impossible for her to repress, often alienated the persons with whom she should not have quarrelled. The late Mademoiselle de Lespinasse, who had been for many years her companiou, separated from her rudely, and took away with her the greater part of the literary men, who at the time composed her society. The friend whom she had the happiness to keep the longest, was M. Pont de XTesle We have elsewhere explained, what rendered this connexion so mild aud durable. That society which she no loa~er found at home, but ~hich she could not do with- out, even ~n extreme old age, she sought for abroad. When past eighty, she still supped out every evening, often in the country, and she sate up habitually till three or four in the morniag. We have mauy charmin~, letters of hers to Voltaire, a portrait of Madame du Chatelet, some fugitive poetry printed in different collections, and many couplets full of wit and malice. Her best female friends Madame la Marechale de Luxem- hour,, Madame de Choiseul, and Mad~ mc de Camnbise, hard- ly (piitte(l her (luring her last illness ; and by a very rare excess of attachment, never failed, it was said, to play at loto in her chamber ever evening, till her last sigh inclu- sively. 1815.] Gnsm. Memoirs. 65 1781. There happened at the opera on the second re- presentation of Iphigeuia, an event too memorable to be for- gotten, in the annals of the Royal Academy of Musick. Mademoiselle Laguerre, who in her early youth, signalized herself is incus, paid hackney. coachmen without untying her purse, who, some years afterwards, knew how to ruin the Prince de Bouillon, in the space of five or six months, who has since exhausted the fortune of one of our richeatfarmer- generals, M. Haudry de Souci, and who never could re- nounce the pleasing habits of her early connexionsIphige- nia Laguerre was drunk, so drunk that she reeled upon the stage, and gave great trouble to the priestess.es who were anxious to support her; it is difficult to say how she got through the first act. The fear of interrupting the specta- cle, and above all the compassion that was inspired by the supposed situation of the unfortupate Piccini,* obtained from the pit more mildness and forbearance than could have been expected: there were only some low murmurs; there was no laughing or hissing. All the remedies that could be applied, to dissipate promptly the vapours that still clouded the brain of the princess, were administered in the interval of the second act, and made her able to go through the two last with more decency. This accident had no important con- sequences. The king, on being informed of it, said to M. Ainelot, Well, you have sent her to prisos~ She was not yet there, but she received that very evening an order to go to Fort-lEvAque, to which she submitted with great re- signation. They took her out two days afterwards, to re- sutme her part fasting. She recited with great sensibility the two first lines: 0 jour fatal que je voulaisen vain Ne pm compter parmi ceux de ma vie3 The publick seemed drunk in turn, and applauded her without end. It is true that she sang better than ever. At the end of the first act they announced to her in a man- ner to add to the favour, that her liberty was restored. M. Piccini and the Prince de Gn6men6e, who are much interest- ed in the honour of Italian musick, had strongly interceded in her favour; indeed, how much will be pardoned for the sake of a fine voice? I knew, however, an Italian lady who ~ The musick of this naaguificsutopn was composed by Picohul.

Opera Anecdote 55-56

1815.] Gnsm. Memoirs. 65 1781. There happened at the opera on the second re- presentation of Iphigeuia, an event too memorable to be for- gotten, in the annals of the Royal Academy of Musick. Mademoiselle Laguerre, who in her early youth, signalized herself is incus, paid hackney. coachmen without untying her purse, who, some years afterwards, knew how to ruin the Prince de Bouillon, in the space of five or six months, who has since exhausted the fortune of one of our richeatfarmer- generals, M. Haudry de Souci, and who never could re- nounce the pleasing habits of her early connexionsIphige- nia Laguerre was drunk, so drunk that she reeled upon the stage, and gave great trouble to the priestess.es who were anxious to support her; it is difficult to say how she got through the first act. The fear of interrupting the specta- cle, and above all the compassion that was inspired by the supposed situation of the unfortupate Piccini,* obtained from the pit more mildness and forbearance than could have been expected: there were only some low murmurs; there was no laughing or hissing. All the remedies that could be applied, to dissipate promptly the vapours that still clouded the brain of the princess, were administered in the interval of the second act, and made her able to go through the two last with more decency. This accident had no important con- sequences. The king, on being informed of it, said to M. Ainelot, Well, you have sent her to prisos~ She was not yet there, but she received that very evening an order to go to Fort-lEvAque, to which she submitted with great re- signation. They took her out two days afterwards, to re- sutme her part fasting. She recited with great sensibility the two first lines: 0 jour fatal que je voulaisen vain Ne pm compter parmi ceux de ma vie3 The publick seemed drunk in turn, and applauded her without end. It is true that she sang better than ever. At the end of the first act they announced to her in a man- ner to add to the favour, that her liberty was restored. M. Piccini and the Prince de Gn6men6e, who are much interest- ed in the honour of Italian musick, had strongly interceded in her favour; indeed, how much will be pardoned for the sake of a fine voice? I knew, however, an Italian lady who ~ The musick of this naaguificsutopn was composed by Picohul. 36 tjrimins .Aiiemozrs. [May, was less indulgent. A celebrated singer ~va~ very highly praised in her presence. Yes, says she, a fine voice, but a bad heart. My brother, the cardinal, had him made a Soprano, and he has never had the least gratitude. 1777. The Abb~ Millot has recently published, in six volumes, illilitary and political memoirs, to serve for the history of Louis 14th and 15th, composed from origi- nal documents, collectcd by .ldrian .Maurice, Duke de .Acailles, ./liarshal of France, and .A6tinister of State. The title of this work announces strongly enough, how important and curious its contents must be. The work is extracted from two hundred folio volumes; and the greater part of the pieces that form this immense collection, are hi the original hand writing ; the~rest, copies made with great care. We owe much gratitude to the p sessors of such a precious (leposit, for having consented, that it should serve for the instruction of the public ; and we owe infinitely to the man of letters, who, to fulfil such useful views, loaded himself with a task, sufficient to alarm the most constant ac- tivity, and the most intrepid patience. The importance of his lahours, and the disgust inseparabh~ from it, should ex- cuse much negligence and inaccuracy, that woulrl not haxe been borne in any other work, with the same indulgence. But perhaps tile author would have spared himself trouble, and his renders fatigue, if, instead of imposing on himself the painful task of giving to these memoirs a connected form, lie had been content with making an extract, from all the pieces worthy of bein6 preserved, ranging them in a chro nol%ical order, and adding only where a right understand- ing of the text seemed to require it, a few clear, succinct, historical notes. In following this plan, he would have saved himself all the trouble which it has cost him, to give a regular connexion to a work, that was not susceptible of it, and which has only served to make it appear longer, more defective, and often more disconnected for this defect be- comes more evident, from the very effort that is made to conceal it. It is to be presumed also, that in thus simplify- ing his labour, the author would not have surchamned his book with so many reflections, which, though they may be very sensible, and if you will, very edifyin , are neverthe- less very common, very useless, and if I may dare say it, completely misplaced in memoirs, that are styled political

Memoirs by the Abbe Millot 56-66

36 tjrimins .Aiiemozrs. [May, was less indulgent. A celebrated singer ~va~ very highly praised in her presence. Yes, says she, a fine voice, but a bad heart. My brother, the cardinal, had him made a Soprano, and he has never had the least gratitude. 1777. The Abb~ Millot has recently published, in six volumes, illilitary and political memoirs, to serve for the history of Louis 14th and 15th, composed from origi- nal documents, collectcd by .ldrian .Maurice, Duke de .Acailles, ./liarshal of France, and .A6tinister of State. The title of this work announces strongly enough, how important and curious its contents must be. The work is extracted from two hundred folio volumes; and the greater part of the pieces that form this immense collection, are hi the original hand writing ; the~rest, copies made with great care. We owe much gratitude to the p sessors of such a precious (leposit, for having consented, that it should serve for the instruction of the public ; and we owe infinitely to the man of letters, who, to fulfil such useful views, loaded himself with a task, sufficient to alarm the most constant ac- tivity, and the most intrepid patience. The importance of his lahours, and the disgust inseparabh~ from it, should ex- cuse much negligence and inaccuracy, that woulrl not haxe been borne in any other work, with the same indulgence. But perhaps tile author would have spared himself trouble, and his renders fatigue, if, instead of imposing on himself the painful task of giving to these memoirs a connected form, lie had been content with making an extract, from all the pieces worthy of bein6 preserved, ranging them in a chro nol%ical order, and adding only where a right understand- ing of the text seemed to require it, a few clear, succinct, historical notes. In following this plan, he would have saved himself all the trouble which it has cost him, to give a regular connexion to a work, that was not susceptible of it, and which has only served to make it appear longer, more defective, and often more disconnected for this defect be- comes more evident, from the very effort that is made to conceal it. It is to be presumed also, that in thus simplify- ing his labour, the author would not have surchamned his book with so many reflections, which, though they may be very sensible, and if you will, very edifyin , are neverthe- less very common, very useless, and if I may dare say it, completely misplaced in memoirs, that are styled political 1815.] Grimms ~Memoirs. 5 and military. The Abb~ Millot has composed almost all his works for the instruction of youth ; this is to his praise but he should have felt in editing the memoirs of a marshal of France, and a minister of state, that he was not writing for the regents of a college, or for children. All this mo- rality, which in other respects we esteem most highly, with- out rendering his work i~ ore instructive, has made it much less agreeable to the only readers, whom he should have thought about, and this is to he regretted. The Marshal de Noailles is not only painted in these memoirs, as a great negotiator, a great minister, as a citizen full of courage and virtue, he appears besides to have heen a great general; and no one can doubt that his military reputation would have been very brilliant, if he had gained the battle of Dettingen, which seemed certain from his preparations. A letter of the king of Prussia is quoted in regard to that unfortunate day, in which the monarch ren- ders him the most splendid justice. All the letters of Marshal Saxe support this august testimony ; but the stron ~e st proof, and at the same time the most glorious to the military talents of our hero, is, without doubt, the memoir which he sent himself to ~i. de Saxe, the 21st January, 1 748, in which he traces the plan of that skilful march, that gave success to the enterprise a6ainst Maestricht, and ter- minated that war so fortunately. The Abb~ Millot, after making an extract from this memoir, compares it very adroitly to the recital, which Voltaire has made of that memorable expedition, in his summary of the age of Louis XV. It is noble, says lie, to see Marshal Saxe, after so many victories preserve a perfect deference for a friend, whose counsels had often directed his enterprises it is still more so, to behold I larshal Noailles apply himself in silence to coaib~ne great designs, and abandon to him all the glory of success. A proof less grave of the confidence which M~. rshal Saxe had for M. do Nonilles, but which appears sufficiently ori- ginal to brin~ forward here, is the following letter. it has been proposed to me. my ma ster, to become one of tha I n ii acndemv. I answered, that I did not even I now em shocrraphvj~ and that it x ~ould become me as a ht mJIeIXX ifl~ proof of it is t8ken 0 em big letter. Se let mallet corn.m~ tee B f~ U Pourcoy tv ;z odes toes eas? ft crams its r~duj~ltS, d LeYsIM~NmA~}~r~:N.& c, ~Tl I No. 1. Grimms .Memozrs. [May, ring would a cat. They answered that Marshal Villars could neither read nor write, and that he was well placed there. It is quite a persecution. You do not belong to it, my master, and that renders my defence much finer. No one has more wit than yourself; no one speaks and writes better : why do you not belong? This embarrasses me. I do not wish to shock any one, much less a body that has so many people of merit. On the other hand, I am afraid of ridicule, and this appears to me to be of the most decided sort. Have the goodness to give me a few words in answer. The Abbe Millot has not thought proper to give us the answer entire, from respect, without doubt, for the academy, where he wishes to be: he adds only, that M. de Noailles advised M. de Saxe to refuse. This parade, says he, does not suit a military man, and I should be very sorry to see my dear Count Maurice in a company, occupied only about words and orthography. Philosophy did not yet reign, and men of letters were even modest or silly enough, not to believe that their task was to direct the world, and to instruct kings. How they have since im- proved There is not, in these memoirs which we have the hon- our to announce to you, any of those obscure anecdotes, which credulous malignity always seeks for with eagerness; but a small number may be found of those interesting parti- culars, which often give a better idea of character and man- ners, than the most brilliant actions. Don Francisco de Velasco, having presented a petition to the king, received no answer from him. He presented another to the Cardinal Porto Carrera, and was not heard. He addressed himself to the president of Castile, and that minister told him, that he could do nothing: at last to the Duke dHarcourt, and the duke refused to meddle in his affair. What a government, gentlemen! said Velasco a king who speaks not ! a cardinal who hears not ! a presi- dent of Castile who cannot ! and an ambassador of France who will not! This speech became the subject of every con- versation. Madame des Ursins thus describes the details of her place, in a letter to Madame de Noailles. Good God ! in what a situation have you placed me? I have not the ~ least repose, and I cannot even find time to speak to my 1815.] Grimms .Miemoirs. secretary. It is no longer a question, whether I shall re- pose myself after dinner, or eat when I am hungry: I am too happy to be able to catch a poor meal standing, and even then it is seldom that I am not called away, the moment that I place myself at table. Really, Madame de Maintenon would laugh heartily, if she knew all the details of my place. Tell her, I pray you, that it is I who have the hon- our to take the night-gown of the king of Spain, when he goes to bed, and to give him his slippers when he gets up. So far I am patient; hut every evening, when the king comes into the queens chamber to go to hed, the Count of Benevento gives me his majestys sword, a chamber- pot, and a lamp, the oil of which I commonly spill over my clothes; this is too grotesque. The king would never rise if I did not go to draw the curtains, and it xvould be a sacrilege, if any other than myself were to enter the chamber of the queen, when they are in bed. Lately the. lamp was extinguished, because I had spilt half the oil. I did not know where the windows were, as we had arriv- ed in the night at the place. I came near breaking my head against the wall ; and we were, the king of Spain and myself, nearly a quarter of an hour, running against one another, in seeking for them. The queen enters into all these jests, but I have not yet succeeded in obtaining the confidence, that she had in her Piedmontese chamber- maids. I am astonished at it, for I serve her better than they did, and I am sure that they could not wash her feet, and draw off her stockings so neatly as I do. Though the Abb~ Millot produces several letters, written in France against the Princes des Ursins, he has not permit- ted himself to cite that one, in which she is accused of hav- ing married her groom, and which she suffered to proceed, with other despatches that had fallen i ito her hands, adding on the margin ; .Married. No. A great number of original letters of the Princess des Ursins, of the king and queen of Spain, of Louis 14th and 15th, of Cardinal Fleury, and the Marshal de Noailles him- self, by varying the style and tone of the work, greatly aug- ment its interest. The l)rivate letters of Louis 15th, paint with extreme truth the soundness of his sense, his mildness and goodness. It is known that M. Rose was the writer of almost all those of Louis 14th ; but it is also known, that the only talent of M. Rose wa. to impress his style, witi 60 (~rim~ s .Mernotrs. [May that character of nobleness and grandeur, that accompanied all the actions of that monarch, and which appeared to belonb to him exclusively. We find in the memoirs of the Abb~ Millot, very impor- tant details on the negotiations that preceded the last war of 1755. It appears demonstrated by the most authentick testimony, that our ministry desired peace sincerely, and nothing but the persuasion that existed in France, that the English ministry would have war at any rate, occasioned the failure of the arrangements, that had been proposed to main- tain the union of the two powers. I heard Lord Stormont say, that if the despatches had been seen, which decided the English ministry, all the world would have been convinc- ed that England did not desire peace less ardently, and would not have declared war, had she not been deceived by similar prejudices to those, that prevailed in France. Is it possible then, that vain suspicions and false reports, should embroil nations like individuals, and that a misunderstanding may decide the councils of sovereigns, and the destiny of nations ? An Englishman called to see M. de Voltaire, at Ferney. He asked him from whence he came. The traveller replied, that he had been passing some time with M. Hailer. The patriarch immediately exclaimed, that M. Hailer is a great man, a great poet, great naturalist, great philosopher, a man almost universal. What you say, sir, is so much the finer, as M. HaIler does not render you the same justice. dies ! replied Voltaire, per/taps we both deceive ourselves. The emperour of China has sent the king, sixteen designs made by the Jesuit missionaries, and requested that they may be engraved by our most skilful artists. It will cost more than an hundred thowan4 crowns. These designs represent the principal ceremonies of the court of Pekin, and different victories of the emperour. What is the most remarkable in these battles, is, that not a single Chinese is killed, nor even one of them wounded. Nothing was more expressly enjoined upon the designers than attention to this circumstance. Is it not exactly the fable of the lion ? Si mes confn~res savaient peindre. TIlE NORm-AMEPICAN REVIEW. The United States and England, being a Reply to the crzt?crsm on Inchiquins Letters, contained in the Quar- tcrly Review for January, 1814. New-York, luskeep, pp. 115, bvo. IN the whole history of literature, it will be difficult to produce a more disgraceful paper, than the one, which this pamphlet was written to answer. We are induced to make it the first object of our attention, from motives of deeper interest, than such as appertain to any common dispute of criticism ; and these motives, founded on lar6 e and general views, will make us anxious to avoid, as far as possible, ming- ling any temporary I)Olitical feelings, with the examm~tion we mean to make of the subject. We may I)erhaps convey information to some of our readers, in giving a few remarks on the present state of the press in England ; which is, like almost every thing else in that con ntry, so compact arid condensed, so active and disci- plined, so energetick and incessant, that it possesses greater power than in any other. rrhe tone to every thing is given in tue capital. The country newspapers only circulate in their immediate district, and their main support is adver- tisements, with which, a few paragraphs excepted, they are exclusively occupied. Those that have less of this adver- tising patronage, of course a very restricted circulation, arc principally filled with extracts from the London papers, and with hardly an exception, are never known beyond a narrow circle. The daily and weekly papers of the metropolis, but particularly the former, are the great channels through which news, and political reasonings are conveyed to the puhhick; and though they are numerous, a few only are in wide cir- culation. These are found on every breakfast table in the city, as well as in the regions of fashion, in every coffee house from St. Jamess to White Chapel; they are de- spatched every evening to all parts of the empire; and when the Courier in its ten thousand copies, announced the cap- ture of the Essex, We have the satisfaction to confirm and lay before omir rca(iers, a detailed account of the cap- United States and England~ [Ma~ ture of the above frigate, or rather we should say line of battle ship ; at Brighton and Bristol, in Devonshire and Northumberland, every eye was reading it within a few hours of each other. The influence over publick sentiment from gazettes so universal and simultaneous as these, may be readily estimated ; and will go far to justify the Abb~ Mon- tesquiou, the French minister, who, in one of the debates in the parliament of France, described the English govern- ruent, to be an oligarchy, balanced and controlled by the free- dorn of the press. Among these papers, the Times,* the Morning Post, the Courier, and the Morning Chronicle, are the ablest, and have the most extensive circulation. Of these, the three former have been for years constant, and from some appear- ances we may say systematick, in their abuse of this country; not merely on political subjects, which is less unfair, since allowance is universally made for the warmth and prejudice of party feelings; but, as they did with France, in unremitted efforts to blacken and degrade our moral character ; more particularly, after the conclusion of the European war, when, filling the air with their clamours for our political destruction, they sought to counteract every thing like humanity in their own nation, and the rest of Europe, by the most vehement The Times has the largest circulation, is conducted with great talent, and affects independence: the ornissg Post husies itself very much with fashion, and is distingnished for puns, feeble, stupid verses, and a peculiarly rancorous, unmanly, homhastick, nanseons manner of treatin0 politicks. The . orstiag Uhroniele is remarkable for wit and epigrams, occasionally mnsible and liberal editorial essays, hut often great blunders and untenable positions. The Courier is the ablest and most extensive evening paper, conducted with much ability, in the politicks of the prevailing administration, and taking up warmly the parsonal cause of the Prince. This last and the Times publish 9 or 10,000 copies daily, and on some occasions more. Besides these are the Publick Led- ger, which circulates among mercantile men, and was gained, hy the Canada and Nova-Scotia interests, to write with great bitterness against the United States. The Morning Herald, the property of the Rev. Sir H. B. Dudley, Bart. containing the particular politicks of Carltton House, and the most autheutick reports of pugilistick comhats, & c. The British Press is a sort of double to the Chronicle: The Sust, an evening paper of very limited circulation, is ,ninisterial; virulent and scurrilous generally, and particularly so towards America. The Star, iS also on the side of administration, contains frequent extracts from American papers, and though warmly opposed to us, is less abusive than the Sun. The Statesmen, another evening paper, is the advocat of the school of Sir Francis Bnrdett and the Reformers. The Globe is a neu- tral paper. Among the numerous Sunday papers, Bells Weekly Messenger is the most respectable, and with the largest circulation: it has always incul cated friendly politicks towards Ann;riea, till the late war, when it took side against us, yet without violent abuse. Ciobbet is the only paper that has tnkci the side of our administration, hut his subscribers are tint more ~iam s, fo irli of what they once were. ,s1 ~ United States and England. misrepresentation, and exhausting every term of contempt upon our character. When it is considered, that these daily draughts were given to the publick, mixed with great skill, strength and vivacity, it is not to be wondered at, that shallow minds were almost completely intoxicated, and good ones poisoned in their feelings towards dhis country. This effect was more easily produced, from the habits of the publick since the French revolution. The revolu- tionizing principles in the early part of the contest, the con quering ones in the latter, and the aggrandizing in all, made it in some degree necessary for self-defence, to stig- matize the principles and character of their enemy, and naturally enough to exalt their own. This gradually wore off any remains of diffidence in praising themselves, or hesi- tation at aspersing their foes, till of late years there is nei- ther decency nor measure in these pursuits, and this out- rageous boasting of the newspapers, has contributed greatly to debauch the ancient modesty of their character. When any fortunate hattie or event was to be announced, the dic- tionary was exhausted for terms ; great, glorious, proud, thinking, dignified, transcendent, brave, valiant, virtuous, spotless, immortal nation, were prodigally dispersed in the complacent columns of a second edition. till the houncing and rolling periods of the transported Editor, seemed no had imitation of the rewrts a ad echoes, of the Park and Tower guns. This dispositiGa to think themselves infallible, was fur- ther cultivated by the prevailing practice of self-approbation, in parliament and all publick assemblies. The ministry propas ti e~i measures, as suitahie to a great, generous, ma~navm )us imtion, the only hope of Europe ; the oppo siton ground their censures on the sa ne principle; that tin th t in:asure is unworthy the noble, virtuous, supe riour ch~r~ter of Englishmen. The same basis was acted upon dt poitical dinners, where they meet by candle light, are aIl of one mind, make speeches for or against particular men and measures, and praise themselves ad libi~nm; itt fact, an American caucus, with the addition of eating and drinking. Then there are numerous charitable meetings in the lAetropoY. ~d all over the country, at which a number of persons. tes philantrop s pour ~tre quelque chose, 64 United Slates and England. [M. y, bustle into a fleeting notoriety, by making haranguc~ in which exclusive claims to virtue for their own, and arm ~nt pity for other nations, are the leading topicks; in which the coarsest flattery and profuse praise are thrown over an indi- vidual, sitting by the side of the speaker, and in the face of the whole assembly. The individual thus. praised, gets up in his turn, and displays his gratitude by the most lavish panegyrick.* It may be easily perceived, how these con- stant habits of conferring on their own nation unlimited praisethus attributing the highest moral qualities to them- selves, the contrast being commonly heightened by deploring the irreligion, vice and misery of the Continent, should make them gradually forget by whom this praise is given; and coining at last to believe implicitly, what they had been told so confidently, they should be apt to confound their ene- inies with the enemies of virtue; and should think, that what they did was always right, that their own government was neither ambitious nor monopolizing, that their own states- men never blundered or transgressed in their policy, and that all who opposed them must be both wicked and cot- rupt. After these preliminary observations on the daily press, and the habits of publick thinking, we come now to the Quarterly Review. This was est blished by the friends of government in opposition to the Edinburgh Review; whose authority on all questions of taste and morals, and on some in philosophy and political science, was admitted with- out dissent, but which was devoted to the support of their opponents, in the politicks of the day. It therefore became necessary to publish a rival work, which should also possess the charms of fine writing and sagacious criticism, and in politicks counteract the views of its northern competitor. For this purpose, many of the most eminent wits and scho- lars of the Chtirch and King school, were selected to give this work reputation. Some of these never entered very heartily, if at all, into the undertakin ~, and it has never in any point attained to the reputation of its rival. Still how- ever it is l)atronized by the friends of the present adininis- tration, and widely circulated among the r eadin0 classes in England. To a foreigner of any nation, a scene of this kind is v ry amusing, and forms an admirable comment on that r~erve anti diffidence which Engliso wr~~ ters frequently consider as one of the di. tin~uishin~ traits in their character. 1815.] United States and England. 65 It was in this work, published under these auspices, that forty-five pages of the number for January of last year, were devoted to the most laboured, revolting libel on the United States; involving the general and state governments, the whole nation from north to south, and from east to west their character and conduct, moral, social and political, in one wide covering of profligacy, brutality and crime. If the partisans of the administration in England, had chosen to attack the conduct of our administration, the dependants of the latter mi 6ht have answered it if they pleased ; we should not have interfered in the quarrel. Non nostrum inter vos tantas componere lites. But, that a work pre- tending to high literary character, and only noticing poli- ticks incidentally, should be made use of, to carry into every library in England a collected mass of calumny and falsehood against a whole nation, and this at a period of ex- treme irritation arising out of war; that such a moment should be seized, and such means employed, to endeavour to make hostility and hatred immortal, is the offence that moves our indignation. Mr. Southey, who once wrote son- nets to a regicide, and now odes to the Prince Regent of England, has been accused of heing the compiler of this li- bel; a fact which the author of the pamphlet before us treats as certain. For our part, though we have never relished his poetry very highly, we have always thought him a man of genius and virtue; and we believe indeed that he will be able to clear himself from this charge, and that the conduct- ors of the Review, will even hereafter make an amende ho- norable to the publick. We shall first make a cursory examination of the autho- rities adduced by the Reviewer.Weld is quoted to furnish an exaggerated portrait of a Virginia planter; to prove that it is difficult to obtain a bed to ones self at an xnn; to give the practices allowed in~ fighting in Kentucky; and to tell that the cows and sheep graze about the streets of Washington, with a bell about their necks, to prevent their beint~ lost. It is not necessary to comment on these facts and mistakes. Mr. Weld, though he has giyen some misre- presentations in his work, is one of the most decent travellers, who have Published accounts cA the United States. From particular considerations he was led to praise Canada at our expense, and this has given him, in some places, the appear- mce of prejudice. We may here make a general remark Vol. I. No. 1. 9 66 United States and England. [May which will apply to him as well as other travellers. He vi- sited this country eighteen years ago, and a person may as well figure to himself a young girl at twenty, from having seen her at the age of five, as form an idea of many parts of our country now, from what they were at that time. The conveniencies of travelling, the prosperity of the country, and the growth of our cities, have wrought a greater change than ever took place in any country during the same period. We next advert to Burnaby, who was an English clergy- roan, and is cited hut once, and this oddly enough, to de- scribe some of the processes of bundling.* He wrote an insignificant hook of travels about 30 years since. Priest is quoted for a rule of an assembly at Hanover in Virginia, that no gentleman is to enter the room without breeches, (that is, that he should not come in pautaloons) or be al- lowed to dance without his coat. The Reviewer may per- haps have heard, that this same rule was enforced during the peace of 1803, on some Englishmen at the Opera in Paris, who, from the excessive heat, took off their coats in the boxes; the clamours of the pit, forced the attention of the police ; and a soldier was sent to request them to walk out of the box into the lobby, where, having replaced their coats, they were suffered to return to their seats. We con- fess we think the Parisian pit, and the Virginia assembly were right in thinking it indecent, for a gentleman to take off his coat in publick. Priest is further cited, to prove the un- fortunate situation of the Irish and German Redemptioners. They are no doubt often exposed to cruelty and hardship yet a very large portion of them have had their condition meliorated in this country. Priest was a musician in the orchestra of some of onr theatres, during a few years: he published an octavo volume, which is not much in request. Waasey is brought forward to prove that the members of * This is a subject that hat frequently attracted the notice of the English savans, who have travelled in the United States. XVe have heard of some amateurs, impelled by a laudable curiosity to investigate the customs of their country, who have vainly sought for an opportunity of performing this cere- mony. The practice is said still to exist in some parts of Great Britain, among the peasantry; w helieve it does no lo ger in this country. It is a very na- tural species of courtship, among a sinIl)le, rostick people, for among sods only can it exist. In the works of Colonel de Weiss, there is an accoma and strong defence of it, as practised in Switzerland. Here these rites are attend- ed with great mystery, if not quite obsolete; and we suspect have no~ fallen into the domain of the Antiquarian Society, who may perhaps favour tie pub- lick with some researches on the ~ubject, in their first volume of Transactions.

Chinese Pictures 66

66 United States and England. [May which will apply to him as well as other travellers. He vi- sited this country eighteen years ago, and a person may as well figure to himself a young girl at twenty, from having seen her at the age of five, as form an idea of many parts of our country now, from what they were at that time. The conveniencies of travelling, the prosperity of the country, and the growth of our cities, have wrought a greater change than ever took place in any country during the same period. We next advert to Burnaby, who was an English clergy- roan, and is cited hut once, and this oddly enough, to de- scribe some of the processes of bundling.* He wrote an insignificant hook of travels about 30 years since. Priest is quoted for a rule of an assembly at Hanover in Virginia, that no gentleman is to enter the room without breeches, (that is, that he should not come in pautaloons) or be al- lowed to dance without his coat. The Reviewer may per- haps have heard, that this same rule was enforced during the peace of 1803, on some Englishmen at the Opera in Paris, who, from the excessive heat, took off their coats in the boxes; the clamours of the pit, forced the attention of the police ; and a soldier was sent to request them to walk out of the box into the lobby, where, having replaced their coats, they were suffered to return to their seats. We con- fess we think the Parisian pit, and the Virginia assembly were right in thinking it indecent, for a gentleman to take off his coat in publick. Priest is further cited, to prove the un- fortunate situation of the Irish and German Redemptioners. They are no doubt often exposed to cruelty and hardship yet a very large portion of them have had their condition meliorated in this country. Priest was a musician in the orchestra of some of onr theatres, during a few years: he published an octavo volume, which is not much in request. Waasey is brought forward to prove that the members of * This is a subject that hat frequently attracted the notice of the English savans, who have travelled in the United States. XVe have heard of some amateurs, impelled by a laudable curiosity to investigate the customs of their country, who have vainly sought for an opportunity of performing this cere- mony. The practice is said still to exist in some parts of Great Britain, among the peasantry; w helieve it does no lo ger in this country. It is a very na- tural species of courtship, among a sinIl)le, rostick people, for among sods only can it exist. In the works of Colonel de Weiss, there is an accoma and strong defence of it, as practised in Switzerland. Here these rites are attend- ed with great mystery, if not quite obsolete; and we suspect have no~ fallen into the domain of the Antiquarian Society, who may perhaps favour tie pub- lick with some researches on the ~ubject, in their first volume of Transactions.

Anecdote of Voltaire 66-122

66 United States and England. [May which will apply to him as well as other travellers. He vi- sited this country eighteen years ago, and a person may as well figure to himself a young girl at twenty, from having seen her at the age of five, as form an idea of many parts of our country now, from what they were at that time. The conveniencies of travelling, the prosperity of the country, and the growth of our cities, have wrought a greater change than ever took place in any country during the same period. We next advert to Burnaby, who was an English clergy- roan, and is cited hut once, and this oddly enough, to de- scribe some of the processes of bundling.* He wrote an insignificant hook of travels about 30 years since. Priest is quoted for a rule of an assembly at Hanover in Virginia, that no gentleman is to enter the room without breeches, (that is, that he should not come in pautaloons) or be al- lowed to dance without his coat. The Reviewer may per- haps have heard, that this same rule was enforced during the peace of 1803, on some Englishmen at the Opera in Paris, who, from the excessive heat, took off their coats in the boxes; the clamours of the pit, forced the attention of the police ; and a soldier was sent to request them to walk out of the box into the lobby, where, having replaced their coats, they were suffered to return to their seats. We con- fess we think the Parisian pit, and the Virginia assembly were right in thinking it indecent, for a gentleman to take off his coat in publick. Priest is further cited, to prove the un- fortunate situation of the Irish and German Redemptioners. They are no doubt often exposed to cruelty and hardship yet a very large portion of them have had their condition meliorated in this country. Priest was a musician in the orchestra of some of onr theatres, during a few years: he published an octavo volume, which is not much in request. Waasey is brought forward to prove that the members of * This is a subject that hat frequently attracted the notice of the English savans, who have travelled in the United States. XVe have heard of some amateurs, impelled by a laudable curiosity to investigate the customs of their country, who have vainly sought for an opportunity of performing this cere- mony. The practice is said still to exist in some parts of Great Britain, among the peasantry; w helieve it does no lo ger in this country. It is a very na- tural species of courtship, among a sinIl)le, rostick people, for among sods only can it exist. In the works of Colonel de Weiss, there is an accoma and strong defence of it, as practised in Switzerland. Here these rites are attend- ed with great mystery, if not quite obsolete; and we suspect have no~ fallen into the domain of the Antiquarian Society, who may perhaps favour tie pub- lick with some researches on the ~ubject, in their first volume of Transactions. 1815.] United States and England. 67 Congress have each of them a desk to write upon, and to keep their papers. This to be sure is a luxury compared with the inconvenient, uncomfortable seats of both Houses of Parliament in England ; but even uncomfortable seats will not prevent tiresome speeches, and they still sit, though ill at ease, through many a night of tedious debate. Our Senate and House of Representatives may therefore be accoinmo- dated with desks, particularly as they are much less nume- rous. Wansey was a Wiltshire clothier, who visited the United States on business, and staid three or four months. He passed some days in Boston, and the object that struck him most, was the railings on the tops of the houses in State- street for drying clothes. He published a harmless duodeci- mo volume. Parkinson is quoted to prove, that a man, who shot ano- ther, was tried and acquitted on the plea of insanity. There have been several cases of the same kind in England, which is generally considered a proof of the humanity of their laws. We confess we doubt the expediency of ever par- doning a man on this plea, or the humanity of commuting the punishment of hanging, into that of perpetual incarcera- tion, as is the case of late years in England. It is surprising that Parkinson is not made use of more copiously. He was an English farmer, who came here with very extravagant no- tions, and returned soured and disappointed. He related many facts in his works, among others, that there was no land in America that produced more than five bushels of wheat per acre. And his facts were so salutary to discontented men of his class, that it has been maliciously suspected, he was encouraged to write his book. Moore, the imitator of Anacreon, is quoted several times; but bis works are too well known to require any comment. He was received, in this country, with the most open, ad- miring, caressing hospitality; he went away, and slandered it in some indifferent verses. He was very young at the time, and expected promotion from persons whose patronage he has since given up. If we have not been misinformed, he regrets these performances; if so, far be it from us to revive them. Lambert is quoted to prove, from a story that he relates of the people of Worcester, that the inference of the Reviewer with regard to tbe state of Massachusetts, is just, that, where the courts of justice are not respected, the people are very apt to take the law into their own handsP A passage is also quoted from him, descriptive of 08 United States and England. j~May, a camp-meeting of methodists. It is indeed true, that the Southern and Western States, are infested with these fana- ticks, but we believe the nuisance is decreasing, and in Eng- land, though many are alarmed at their progress in the church, their extravagancies are less than they were formerly. He is further made use of to describe the stages of dramdrink- ing in Virginia, and to say, that some of the democrats in Pennsylvania once proposed, that their lawyers should not be allowed to quote from English law books. Lambert rode through a considerable part of the United States in the mail stage, and has published twQ octavos descriptive of this coun- try and Canada, which are ratber uninteresting. He had not many advantares in seeing society; lie seems to have possessed good intentions, and reprobates the absurd and ma- lignant misrepresentations, in most of the books of his coun- trymen respecting us. We had almost overlooked Michaux, whom the Re- viewer has cited as one of his authorities. The following is the passage in which he is brought forward. Mr. Mi- chaux had the good fortune to be travelling in America, at the auspicious period when the tax upon the whiskey distilleries was repealed ; and to witness the rejoicings on that occasion. At one of the taverns, which he visited, the rooms, the stairs, the yard, were covered with men dead drunk, and those who were still able to get their teeth separated, uttered only the accents of rage and fury. Now if the critick will turn to a long account of the fete, the truly English fete, given at Belvoir Castle, last year, by the duke of Rutland, at the christening of his infant son, the Marquis of Granby, for whom the Prince Regent, and, if we mistake not, the Duke of York, stood sponsors; if he will turn to the pompous description of this fete, advertised in the principal newspapers of the day, to do the family honour, he will find this drunken frolick of the boors of Pennsylvania, very similar to the brutal orgies of Belvoir Castle; and which, incredible as it seemed, were given to the publick with so much complacency. We regret that we have not the papers by us, to enable our readers to make the comparison. There remain Ashe, J~iison and Cobbet. Janson, it ap- pears, came to this count~y to live by the practice of his profession as a lawyer; that he was dissatisfied and grum- bled at every thing, got into debt, and was obliged to make his escape from his creditors. He returned to J~ngland. 1815.] United States and England. 69 published a splendid book, a true job of the trade, pirated the plates, filled it with trash and called it, after the manner of Sir .John Carr, the Stranger in America. The book would probably never have been mentioned again, had not these remorseless Reviewers, who unplumb the dead for bullets to assassinate the living, brought it into notice. The author of the pamphlet has done such ample justice to Mr. Janson, that we shall say no more of him. If there were any doubt of the Reviewers being fully acquainted with the character of Ashe, it would be removed by the note respecting him, in which he betrays his guilt. If Ashe be an impostor, the Knight of Bridge-street is answerable for him. Sir Richard Phillips, the Knight of Bridge-street, is the proprietor of the Monthly Maga- zine; and in order to promote its circulation in France, it being one of the few works permitted by Bonaparte, he omitted publishing the British official despatches, from Spain, while he cautiously inserted all the French bulletins. For conduct of this kind, the patrons of the Quarterly Re- view last year, aided the establishment of a new Monthly Magazine, to rival the old one. Independently of politicks however, it may be asked, what credit they would attach to the responsibility of the Knight of Bridge-street? ~To return to Mr. Ashe, he is well known as a libeller by pro- fession ; his travels in America,* written in a garret, in London, was one libel, his Spirit of the Book, another. His conduct to the Countess of B. and other tricks of the same kind, must we think have been known to the Review- ers; but his general character was notorious. What mon~ strous baseness, then, to cite as a principal witness, a wretch like him ! can it be surpassed? We come at last to Cobbet, of whom great use is made. There is no man whom the patrons of the Quarterly Review have persecuted more than the author of Peter Porcupine. There is no writer of the present day, whom they more deeply hate, or whose opinions they despise more sincerely. A convicted libeller on both sides of the Atlantick, he has, in a few years, gone the complete round of party in both countries. There is no man or measure that he once abused, that he does not now praise, and none that he now calumniates, that he has not * The reader who wants to be informed about this work can consult the \Ionthly Antholo~,y for March3 1809. 70 United States and England. [May, formerly panegyrized. He is constant only in violence, and his style is imbued with his original profession ; there is a drilling repetition of his arguments, and commanding vulgarity of manner, that more frequently recals the cane of the sergeant, than the pen of a politician. It is ominous however to any party, to whom he attaches himself; his rancour, violence and brutal abuse, (lid the federalists infinite mischief, while he sided with them; and as he has now l)atronized their opponents, we trust his exertions may obtain for them a similar result. Having thus hastily examined his witnesses, we may form some opinion of his fitness for the task he has under- taken, by some of his assertions, in which he is so positive, that be has not thought it iiece ssary to produce any vouch- ers. Among these are, that Mr. Jefferson, while Vice- President, obtained a pernicious influence over the President, (Adams.) Another, that the Judges of the United States are chosen by election, and have no fixed and permanent salaries, so that, they become, in fact, the creatures of the President and Senate; and the test of their good behaviour, is their acting in all political matters, conformably with the views of the government. It is most remarkable, that for every insulated anecdote, that he has brought forward to prove the general character of the country, we might with very little labour discover an overwhelming parallel. One of these, the case of Lyon, has been taken up by the author of the work before us, and which will be found among our extracts; but as he has not carried it through, we will here supply the omission. The Reviewer says, this man was afterwards convicted of seditious l)ractices, and of libelling the President; was put in jail; was ic-elected while there; and again escaped expulsion by the active support of the (lemocratick party.~ Happy the nation, says Cohb~t, where there is but one step, from the condemned hole to the Legislature ! A very few months after this was written, lord Coebrane, having been struck from the list of the navy, driven from the Order of the Bath, expelled the House of Commons, condemned to a heavy fine, a years imprisonment, and the piliory~, was returned by the city of Westminster, while in prison, a ruem her of the House of Comnmn~ns. The more we consider this article of the Review, the more we arc confounded ~t its rashness, at the provocation 1815.] United States and England. 71 biven to recrimination, which would be easy and fruitful of reflections. Some of these are so prominent, and so noto- rious even to those who have never been in England, that they instantly occur to the mind of every one; a (lisgust at scandal, and a respect for the English nation, could alone prevent recurring to them in self tiefence. Had the writer 100 forgotten the indignation which was felt for the work of the notorious Fieve~, in which the most odious picture was given of England, by extracts from all the satires of her own sub- jects? But, no reflection of this kind would have deterred him from his design, of aspersing and misrepresenting our whole nation, in the opinion of every individual in England which would be the more easily effected, as the same persons who might be on their guard against the passion and falsehood of the daily papers, would be imposed upon by the respecta- bility of a work, not specially employed in party discussions; and being maturely published at distant intervals, is sup- posed to be more measured and cautious in its opinions. Of thousands who will have read this libel, by far the greater pa~t will never see any refutation of it; and numbers, without reficotin on its extrava~anee, or being able to detect its absuditx ~ hold the very name of American in conternl)t and detestati3n. When the intercourse between diffi~rent coun i~ ~o extensive and beneticent, ~s it has become in moder times it seems as thoub some punishment should be d~vi ed Ii) cemmon consent, aganst the libeller, who, in def~ mug a whele nation, does every thing in his power to engende munal animosity. In the present instance, the common imputations of coarse- ness, rudeness, and vulgarity, are so diminished in the mass of deformity actd vice, under which the critick has attempted to bury us, as io he of very subordinate interest. But as this accusation of coarseness is a favourite one, and has been often made from more respectable quarters; we are induced, as ~ds is a discussion that can excite no bitterness, to turn, for a moment, upon those who bring it fort ard. A gentleman of Fiance or Italy, would stare at hearing an acei,~aiion 01 coarseness Rod rtideness, coming fiosn boo land xxi re a celebrated x.it of the former country said tfcr~ was nothing polished but .steei.* We shall v~ iture * ~ dc Cont do Laraguai s w~o asked, on his returo from riiglaml his 0 aimed prnm ii in rn 0 ~ produce and inhabitant~. h~ XCI , ./ih ! C (1 IC e drole ~i en ndssc hacginer us ant ig~ seiif~iOfl5. rnois 115 fl Oflt Inc Fe u te i~71wlIr.s suit os~rcs brais ic rinai~re. lix n ,nI ib fruit 4 ) United States and England. [May, to cite two or three cases of violations of delicacy and re- finement, without recurring to those florid compounds of beef and porter, who sometimes come among us to vend their wares; nor to the egregious cockneys of London, or even to those consequential personages, who, in a gait be- tween the swing of a sailor, and the trampling of a dragoon, saunter in trios through Pall Mall, Bond Street and St. Jamess. We shall mount into higher regions for our ex- amples, and, if a single errour can he discovered there, the quality of our proofs may spare us the irksome labour of increasing the quantity. They are selected from the pub- lick papers during a short period. The first instance, is a letter from a general officer in the British army, Lord Dalhousie, to the Duke of Angoul~me, a descendant of him who was immortalized in these well- known lines: And thou Daihousie, thou great God of war, Lieutenant Colonel to the Earl of Mar. It is copied from the Morning Chronicle of April 25, 1814, and is dated, Bordeaux, April 11th. Sir, I hasten with all the warmth and sincerity of a truly English heart, to con- gratulate your Royal Highness on the great events which have been at length announced. As a pledge of the joy of Lord Wellington and my country, I am eager to offer the liberty of 300 officers and soldiers now in my power. I beg your Royal Highness to be pleased to send them to their homes, that they may be the happy messengers of the restoration of the Bourbons, and the happiness of France. This step, the responsibility of which I take upon myself, animated by the example of the Conquerour of Paris, cannot fail to be approved of by him, whose con- stant study has been, in the midst of his victorious career, to alleviate the miseries of war.Now remark how really good intentions are buried, in the awkwardness and coarseness of this epistle. In the first place, he is ad dress- ing a French prince, and in the genuine style of an English newspaper, talks of his truly English heart, as a dis- tinguishin g excellence; and then with still more exquisite mar, quc lesponimes cuites, ci de ~o?i que lacier. Tis the strangest place you can conceive. They have twenty religions, and but one sauce. All their liquors are sour, except the vine~ar. They have no ripe fruit but baked appl s, an(l nothing polishe but Aeel #73 1815.] United States and England. refinement, reminds the same prince, not of the victorious, or magnanimous Alexander, but of(he con querour of Paris. The next example is an extract from a despatch of Lord Castlereagh, dated Paris, April 13th, 1814 I have the honour to acquaint your Lordship, that Monsieur made his publick entry yesterday, and was received with the ut most cordiality by the whole population of Paris. It was deemed more expedient that the solemnity should he pure- ly French; the allied Sovereigns did not therefore attend, nor did any of their troops join the cortege ; but, as the Bourbon family had been so Ion0 resident in England, I thought I should neither incur the displeasure of the Prince Regent, nor give occasion to injurious comment, by meet- ing his Royal highness at the barrier, and accompanying him into Paris. The whole of the British mission here present attended, and with the Field Marshals of the em- pire, were close to his person, whilst he traversed the town amidst the applause of the people.It is evident from the tenor of this letter, that his Lordship doubted the propriety of what he had (lone. It is difficult to imagine a more extra- ordinary blunder; and which nothing but the habitual arro- gance of his natioh, that renders theta absolutely regardless of the feelings of foreigners, could have betrayed Lord Cas- tiereagh, who is really one of the most accomplished and polite men in England, into committing. The emperour of Russia, the king of Prussia, and their ministers and generals, with the most obvious policy, and just knowledge of humna nature, and, we may add, the most amiable refinement, re- frained from this triumphal entry. But the English should have been the last to obtrude themselves ; their very appari- tion must have awakened the hatred, which twenty years of exasperated misfortune had nourished, and converted at once the grateful return of the Bourbons into a scene of humilia- tion to France, and offensive triumph to their inveterate foe. The unfortunate Count dArtois, whom the admirable policy of the allied sovereigns left to enter the capital, accompanied only by the Marshals of France, and his own friends anti countrymen, was (loomed to be met at the barrier by Lord Castlereagh and suit, and obliged to drag these unlucky Englishmen in his train. Surely there was not a subaltern of any other nation at Paris, who would not have shrugged his shoulders at this procedure of the British minister~ ~Trl I. No. 1. il() 74 United States and England. [May, The next example will carry us a step higher. Every one has heard of the royal fetes that were given in the Parks for the amusement of the people, to which the publick at- tention was long directed, and the newspapers filled with puffing and describing, though in the end they sadly disap- pointed expectation, after the great expense and time that had been devoted to their preparation. They were man- aged by Colonel Congreve, under the particular control of the Prince Regent, with whom they were a favourite pro- ject, and by whose particular will they were given. One of the most prominent objects was the representation of naval engagements on the Serpentine river; this consisted of two parts, the capture of two American frigates, and the de- struction of a French fleet. We extract from the Courier, a part of the description. Thus ended the first part of the engagement, (the capture of the two American frigates) and so much a matter of course was the result, that the spectators did not allow their exultamions to exhibit itself in a single c heem. (This turn at least was ingenious.) A French fleet of six sail of the line, the admirals ship a three decker, lay at anchor; a British fleet of equal force was in sight ; it did not require the spirit of prophecy to foresee the consequences.As to the Ilmerican part of it, we have nothing to object; we have perhaps been suffi- ciently recompensed for the disasters we suffered in this en- gagement, by the fame we have acquired in some others, by the uncourtly sullenness of the mob who refused to cheer this royal success, and by the sarcasm of the Liverpool merchant, that if his Majestys ministers could strike the American flag on the ocean, as well as on the Serpentine river, they would give greater pleasure to the country. But the French fleet. The Regent had just conducted Louis 18th with much parade from the capital, and parted with many embraces on the beach at Dovera long and bitter contest had just closed ; the impassible barrier which vigi- lant despotism had placed between the two nations was at length removed, they were all anxious to visit each other, to examine scenes from which they had been long excluded, to renew ancient intimacies, and to indulge the hopes of future peace and amity. Every circumstance that took place at London, was speedily known at Paris; every move- ment was watched to judge of the feelings and intentions of each other. The peculiar situation of the French king made 1815.] United States and England. 75 even trifles of consequence to him. What then must have been his feelings, what would be the impressions of the French, respecting the mag~animous and conciliatory senti- rnents of their new friends, o find in this grand fete of prince- ly invention, and whose details were described in all the papers of Europe, that a prominent part of it, was a deliberate insult to the national honour, in the first moments of gayety and joy, at the restoration of peace? We shall make copious extracts from the pamphlet that has given occasion to these long, perhaps lengthy remarks. It would have been better, if the authoi had railed at Mr. Son- they less, even if he were certain that he wrote the Review. We doubt whether the calling Dr. Franklin Jupiter tonans will hear a strict examination. The allusion, in page 98, to an adventure attributed to the Regent is unfortunate. The ballads indeed were sting, and the caricatures were exhibited, but the event was equally fabulous and absurd, and only cal- culated for the vary vulgar, the mere populace~ It afford- ed a striking instance of the excessive licentiousness of the English press, which goes all lengths in abusing themselves, as well as the rest of the world. Thus much with respect to the fairness of this writers mode of reasoning, from a single fact, which is brought for- ward in such a way as to render it impossible to refute it, even were it worth the trouble. A circumstance which takes place in no particular town or district, which is chaug- ed upon a man without a name, and which was committed at no time that we know of, may forever elude the test of inquity, atid baffle the world to demonstrate that it never happened. For this reason it is, that fraud always deals in loose generalities, and in this way does shuffling malignity not only escape detection, but evade the consequences of its falsehoods and misrepresentations. It sometimes happens, however, that in an evil hour, a writer, in4 his unwary zeal to criminate or condemn, is be- trayed into an assertion that subjects him to the unpleasant consequence of being convicted on the statute. Thus it has happened to the unfortunate laurent, who roundly asserts, that, every freewornan in the United States is a voter, an assertion which bespeaks ether a total ignorance of the subject on which he ventured to remark, or an uncontrolla- ble propensity to misrepresent. In the state of New-Jersey alone the right of suffrage was formerly extended to unmar- ned females of the age of twenty-one years, and possessin, 76 United States and England. [May, property to the value of fifty pounds.* Yet the writer who pretends to give a comprehensive analysis, of our political institutions and government, is either ignorant that the state of New-Jersey formed an excf~ption to a general rule, or else studiously falsifies his knowledge for the purpose of supporting an argument, that is of no consequence whatever to the subject. We have occasionally met with men pos- sessing such a decided vocation to falsehood, that they told untruths for the mere pleasure of the thing; but we have too great a respect for the laureat, to insinuate that he be- longs to this disinterested class of dealers in hyperbole. It was merely to expose this writers want of accuracy, that we remarked upon the subject at all, for really it does not appear to be a matter of the least consequence to the character of a nation, whether free women vote or not. The fact is one of those which arises from some peculiar or local circumstances, and neither indicates corruption of manners, or an abuse of rational liberty. If it does, how- ever, we can give an instance extracted from a work, which, having been often attributed to the laurent, and never, so far as has come to our knowledge, denied by him, may be fairly charged to his account. Though not exactly a paral- lel case, it will serve to show that even in England the right of suffrage is not only exercised in fact, but grossly, inde- corously, and blasphemously, abused by freewomen. The laureat, speaking in his assumed character, gives the follow- ing curious information concerning an election in the an- cient and respectable city of Bristol, renowned in early ages for dealing in white, and in latter days for dealing in black slaves. In Bristol, observes the writer, a freemans daughter conveys the qualification of voting by marriage. Women enter into the heat of party even more eagerly than men; and when the mob is more than usually mischievous, are sure to be at the head of it. In one election for the city of Bristol, which was violently contested, it was common for the same woman to marry several men. The mode of divorce was, that as soon as the ceremony was over, and the parties came out of church, they went into the church- yard, shaking hands over a grave, and repeating, Now death do us part; after which the bridegroom went to ex- This privilege has since been withheld by an act of the Legislature. 1815.] United States and England. 77 erc~se his right of suffrage, and the bride to confer it on ~ther husbands.* A more bitter mockery of a sacrament ;t a more wicked insult to the dead ; a more wanton violation of principle, feeling, and delicacy, was never ascribed to that sex, which, however it may be libelled, is ever the last in the train of national corruption. When the unmarried daughters of freemen, who, it is presumed, have been brought up in the habits of decorum, thus prostitute themselves to become the instruments of a mere electioneering deception, what must he the standard of morality and decency among the unmannered and ignorant? Such a mockery of a sacred rite involves every characteristick feature of moral depravi- ty ; and when the laureat can bring forward its parallel in the elections of this con ntry, let him, if he will, provoke a comparison between the state of society in the United States and England. As a natural consequence of this extension of the right of suffrage among the people, the writer next infers the ignorance and barbarity of their representatives from the famous story of Matthew Lyon, who, being a turbulent Irishman, as be truly affirms ; and furthermore, as he affirms, not truly, the representative of a keg of whiskey, every member of the house, according to his improved manner of drawing conclusions, must of conise be exactly in the same predicament. That Matthew Lyon was an Irishman we believe is most true; but so is Lord Welling- ton and Mr. Grattan, one a peer, the other a member of the lower house. No decisive argument against the char- acter of any legislative body can, therefore, be drawn froni that fact. That Matthew Lyon fought with one Roger Griswold, as the writer, with his characteristick and vul gar insolence, affects to call him, is equally true; and so far as this single circumstance can go to justify the gene-- ral invectives of the laureat, we are willing to give it full weight. In the course of this most disagreeable undertaking, the necessity of which we deplore, we have had occasion al- most at e~Tery step to lament the want of authorities, to which we might resort for those little domestick facts, that do not generally become matters of record, are only pre * Espriellas Letters. This expression would imply, that the author of the United Stales and Eo~-land, is s Roman Catholiek. 76 United States and England. [May, served in the fleeting productions of the times, and escape the research of those who, like ourselves, have but little appetite for national scandal. Unluckily for us, no second Janson, possessing the irritability, without the talent of Smelfungus; no systernatick libeller; no thorough Amen- can Grumbler, stuffed full of ignorance and prejudice, and irritated at the loss of his fifteen per cent. ever travelled over England with a bailiff at his heels, collecting high-way tittle-tattle for the edification of his countrymen. We have, consequently, been obliged to consult grave lawyers, sage magistrates, and antiquarians, with spectacles on nose, and to trust our heads (being batchelors) in the dangerous precincts of Doctors Commons, in order to come at au- thorities. It was, therefore, by the merest accident in the world, that we obtained a record of the following case, which is fairly entitled to a comparison with that of the vaWant Lyon, and which did not occur in the persons of a turbulent Irishman and a representative of whiskey, but in those of a knight of the shire, and an honourable baronet. Whether this t~aliant knight of the shire was of the order of chivalry, or whether the honourable baronet belonged to that of the Spinning Jinny, as the man that called him self Peter Porcupine, ycleps it, we cannot positively say. The account of this desperate engagement is taken from the English newspapers, which are, at least, equal in au- thority to the gossipping of a fugitive from justice, or a tenant of New~ate. Fracas Extraordinary. In the committee upon the new post-office bill, yester- day, a curious fracas took place between a city baronet and who exchanged inks a county member, tands, but fortu nately without hurting each other, although with some annoy- ance to their neighbours from the contents of these missiles. The committee room was immediately cleared, and con- siderable discussion took place with a view to adjust the dispute. [Page 3~37.j Having despatched, in this summary manner, the exe- cutive, legislative, and judicial branches of our govern- ment, the laureat proceeds to attack our general system 1815.] United Stales and England. 79 of toleration, as leading to a thousand extravagancies of opinion, and ultimately to a total indifference to gospel truths. It is almost needless to add, he observes, that this divorce (of church and state) has been productive of a pretty numerous crop of illegitimate sects, all equally thriv ing under the salutary and fostering neglect of the parent state. To recount them would be endless; Presbyterians, B~iptists, iI~Iethodists, Universalists, iMoravians, Quakers, Dur~kers, and Shakers, with a multitude of others whose names t would be as nuprofitabie to enumerate, as it would be difficult to assi~n their characteristick differences of doe- trine or belief; exhibit altogether as satisfactory a view as can be desired, of the fanatical extravagance, to which the hulk of mankind would be driven by the raptures of vision- aries, or the arts of impostors, or by the mere necessity and craviug of the human miid for some intercourse with its Creator, in the absence of a national church and an estab- lished worship. We should be better disposed to assent to the argument contained in this extract, xvere not the reasoning contradict- ed by the simple fact, that in England, where there is a national church and an established worship, a greater diversity of religious sects is to be found than in the United States, where nothing of that nature exists. We are sorry to quote the authority of a writer against his own assertions, inasmuch as it seems like wounding the eagle with an arrow feathered from his own wing. But this is a catastrophe which often befalls men who change their Ol)imOIJ5 from motives of interest, or convenience, or even a sense of con- viction. In the work from which we formerly extracted, we find the following copious list of the different religious sects which had sprung up in England, under the fostering patronage, not of universal toleration, but of a national church, and an established religion. Arminians, Socinians, Baxterians, New Americans, Sa belhians, Luthe atis. Moravians, Swedenhorgians, Athana- sians Epis ~palia us, Aria its, Sabbatarians, Trinitarians, Uni tat idns, Milenarians, Necessarians, Sublapsarians, Supra lapsantaus Antinomians, Hutchinsonians, Sandemanians, Mu- gletomia ~s, Baptists, Anabaptists, Poedobaptists, Me thu As Paoists, Universalists, Calvinists, lVlaterialits,- De.. sti ornsts i3rowriists, Independents, Protestants Hu0ue not Nonjurors, Seceders. llernhutters, Dtmkers, Jumpers. United States and England. [iVIay, Shakers, and Quakers. A precious nomenclature, oh- serves the laureat, only to be paralleled by the catalogue of the Philistines, in Sanson Nazareno; or the muster roll of Anna de Santiago, under Aquias, Brum, and Acuta, lieutenant generals to Lucifer himself.~* It would seem from this extraordinary catalogue of reli- gious sects, that we must look to some other cause than mere toleration, for the source of that diversity of opinion which prevails in the United States. If, under the salutary restraints of an established church, holding forth in one hand rich bishopricks, fat stalls, and comfortable deaneries, and the full exercise of civil rights, and in the other brandishing tests and disqualifications, such a vast variety of sects have taken root in England, it must be obvious to the most su- perficial reasoner, that this latitude of opinion is not to be attributed, to what the writer is pleased to call the divorce of church and state. What the real causes of these divi- sions in the church are, we do not feel ourselves inclined to inquire, because our object is already attained, in having refuted the position, that a unity of belief in religious mat- ters depends upon the establishment of a national church. That such a union in mere points of ceremony, is a mat- ter of very great consequence to the enlarged and universal interests of religion, seems to be a position difficult to estab- lish. So long as mankind agree in the belief of the funda- mental principles of the christian faith, a difference in cere- monials appears to be of no very great consequence, either to their present or future state, provided they possess the virtue of charity. We do not mean that which consists, iii merely relieving the necessities of our fellow creatures, but that charity, which is said to be even greater than faith; which prompts us to deal gently towards those who differ with us in opinion, to pity them if they are wrong, and re- frain from persecuting them for those speculative doctrines which, having no natural approximation either to virtue or vice, require not to he lacerated by the scourge, or purified at the stake. It has, unhappily we believe for the interests of true piety, become of late the practice of certain political wri- ters in England, to associate religion in almost every inquiry, whatever may b~ its nature. The author of the Lspriella i815.] United States and England. SI abusive article now under consideration, having followed the fashion, and mixed eternal truths with temporal false hoods, we were obliged, contrary to our feelings, to repel his charges here as elsewhere. But we cannot forbear expressing a belief, that this practice of combining religion and politicks for ever together, is injurious to tl)e inter- ests of the former. Religion is like the white flake of driven snow, descending untouched from the skies, and cannot conie in contact with any earthly matter without be- ing soiled and polluted. It communicates directly from the universal intelligence to the intelligence of man, and requires not the intervention of mortal institutions to im- plant or foster it in his bosom. It is degraded by being associated in the paltry struggle of ambition ; and to place its fate upon the decision of a battle, or the existence of any worldly establishments, is to impeach the divinity of its origin. This extreme anxiety in the English politicians to con- nect the interests of church and state, indicates pretty clearly, we think, that the latter wants a little propping to prevent its fall. Finding their political system no longer able to stand alone, they have cunningly endeavoured to sustain it by establishing a family alliance, and connecting its interests inseparably with those of religion, nay, making the latter entirely dependent on the former. Connected they may indeed be, but to say that the existence of the true religion depends on political institutions, is to affirm that the oak is sustained hy the ivy which entwines about its selfsupported trunk. [Page 4346.3 Another and a most serious charge is made by the Quarterly Review, involving the reputation of that sex which, we should suppose, none but a worthless recreant, whose crimes had banished him the society of virtue, would insult by a general imputation of a want of respect fo~ the marriage vow. This charge is introduced by an advertisement of my wife Betsey by one John Bolton, aud is supported entirely on the authority of a most inge- nious, ss well as satisfactory, calculation of the witness fiorn Newgate. I once, says this libeller of both worlds, cut out of all the newspapers we received for one month, the advertisements of all the runaway wives, and pasted X%l. I. No. 1. 11 62 United States and England. [May. them on a slip of paper, close under each other. At the end of a month, the slip reached from the ceiling to the floor of a room more than ten- feet high, and contained one hundred arid twentythree advertisements. We did not receive, at most, more than one twentieth part of the newspapers of the United States. If a calculation be made from these facts, it will he found that there were about twenty-five thousand separations and elopeinents in a year ; a calculation which I am certain is far within bounds. Was ever the reputation of womankind sub- jected to the criterion of such a calculation? It reminds us, by an irresistible association, of that in~enious problem proposed by honest Jack, to ascertain the value of a cart- load of turnips by the price of a pound of butter. The premises of the witness from Newgate are pretty r~iuch of the same kind, and we have no doubt that his conclusion is of equal accuracy with that, which would have been the result of our honest tars mode of comparison. There is something so grossly ludicrous, such a broad and vulgar grin on the face of it, that we cannot prevail on ourselves to treat it -seriously. For the amusement of our readers we will try what would be the result of such a calculation as it respects England. From the records of Westminster-hall, and the peri- odical works, newspapers, & c. published in England with- in a single years we have been able to collect fifty-two cases of what used to he politely termed in former times a t~te-& -ate, eighteen of which were of titled ladies; sixty eight elopements, and thirty-nine instances of wives ex- posed to publick sale, like cattle at Smithfield.* We are well assured that of the law cases, we saw not (being no lawyers) one in twenty; of the periodical works, not one in five hundred; and of the newspapers, not one in five thousand. Now, if the calculation be made from these premises, it will incontrovertibly appear, that at least eight hundred and eighty thousand women in Eng * Here follows an account of the manner in which these sales arc per- formed, extracted from a l~ee British publication Shropshire. The town of Ludlow lately witnessed one of those see ~es to which custom has attached the cherecter of lawful tr nsaclions in the minds of the lower class. A well-looking woman, wife of John Hall, to whom she bad been married only one month, was brought by him in a halter, and ~old by auction in the market for two-and-sixpence, with the addition of sixpence for the rope with which she was led. In this sale the customary market ic were chargsd-eolI. one penny: pitching, threepence. ew Monthly Mage- zinc, for ~ept 1814 1815.] United States and England. 83 land are divorced, run away, or are sold by their husbands at publick auction! Admitting there are one million of married females in that country, it will result that rather more than eight tenths are in one or other of these pre- dicaments ; a calculation, we think, very much within bounds! We beg forgiveness of that sex whom it is in our nature to reverence and admire, for the levity with which we have treated this subject. But there are pro- positions so absurd, that they can only he exposed by others still more extravagant; and imputations that men would only render their characters questionable by conde- sceuding to refute. [Page 58-60.] It may not, however, be altogether idle to inquire into those peculiarities in our situation, which have, as we conceive, occasioned the human mind in this country to be diverted in so very uncommon a degree, from what may be termed the business of literature. The principal cause heretofore assigned by writers well acquainted with the C~ state of our country, is the facility of acquiring wealth and distinction, by a thousand other means less laborious and more certain. That this is of powerful and extensive of)eration we are well satisfied, but it appears to us that the want of habits of study may be traced to a cause much deeper and more remote. Among our adventurous and determined forefathers, who left their native climes to battle with the unknown dangers of an unknown world, were undoubtedly many learned men, especially clergymen, habituated to study and contemplation. But from the moment they set foot in this new world, they encountered a series of obstacles that demanded every exertion of mind and body to sur- mount. Their days were consumed in providing against cold and fazriine, or in guarding against the fury and the wiles of the jealous Indian. Many years of danger and hardship elapsed, before they could sit down quietly, and resume their usual habits of life; and when that period arrived, these habits were lost irrecoverably in the long struggle for existence, It is well known how tedious, slow, and lingering is the approach of a people to learning, and in how short a period they relapse into other pursuits. A few years of active and dangerous employment, are sufficient for the creation of a hardy and warlike race, S4 United States and England. [May~ but generations must pass away, and ages of peace elapse, before a people, once drawn from the habits of study and contemplation, xviii probably ever resume them again. Au active life, and one which associates danger with almost every step, is altogether incompatible with the nature and pursuits of the scholar, and it will he found that though in a few rare instances a man may retain bis acquirements in such a situation, his posterity will never succeed to them. A close inspection of the history of this country, from its first colonization to the revolution, which threw an everlasting barrier between the United States and Eng- land, will show that at no period whatever were the scat- tered people exempt from an actual state of warfare, either against savage men, or savage beasts. The first settler, in addition to his implements of labour was obliged to carry his musket or his rifle, and his employment was always a combination of labour with danger. It is easily to be supposed, that this was no period for learning to flourish, or for the human mind to take a direction towards literature, or the arts, except such as were necessary to subsistence or security. Men now living in the city of New-York can recollect the period, when the inhabitants were under continual apprehensions of Indian hostility. Yet such is the elasticity, and such the capacity, of young nations, as well as young children, to recover the effects of adverse accidents, that the genius of our country rose against the pressure of these obstacles; literary institu- tions began to spring up every where, and every year assumed new consequence, and a taste, at least, for polite literature gradually appeared wherever there was personal security. At the commencement of those disputes be- tween this country and England, which at once monopo- lized, as it were, the minds of men, we had many elegant and accomplished scholars. They did not, it is true, write books, for every man was not then his own writer, but they had acquired stores of science and information that would have placed them high in any country. At this point of time the stormy indications of a revolu- tion appeared in the firmament, and drew the attention of the colonist from every other object. The questions which then agitated the minds of men, were such as in- volved considerations of sufficient magnitude to occupy ~ them all, and to combine every energy in the pursuit of 1815.] United States and England. 85 one single object. It will be perceived that there is a vast difference, and one materially affecting this inquiry, between a war carried into the territory of an enemy, and one that is brought home to ourselves. In one case it is only felt remotely, and is little more than a rumour of war ; it endangers the personal safety, and interferes with the pursuits, only of those actually engaged on the side of the invading party. But in the other, it comes home to the bosom and business of every man; it howls at his door, invades his home, and forces him from his ordinary occupations to the defence of every object dear to his affections. For centuries past, though England has been almost continually engaged in hostilities, her wars, with the excel)tion of the civil commotion which converted a very indifferent monarch into an illustrious martyr, have been carried on at a distance, and, conse- quently, did not interfere with the ordinary pursuits of a time of peace. During a lapse of ages she has seen but one hostile army, and in all that time, with the exception just made, the cultivators of literature as well as of the soil, have remained undisturbed in their occupations. But it was otherwise with the people of America. Their wars have hitherto been wars for their altars and their hearths, waged, not for foreign conquest, but for defence against savages, or enemies exasperated into a fury, that gave their incursions the character of an irruption of barbarians. Our struggle with England in the revolution, was hand to hand, foot to foot, and heart against heart. Every limb and sinew was strained almost to agony, and every vein of the country bled at different times. There was not an asylum in all the land where the student could retire to pursue his studies, free from the appre- hension of danger, or out of hearing of the din of war; and if he studied at all, it was, like Archimedes, how to defend his home. This tug of war lasted seven years; and in seven years, habits that have not taken deep root are totally eradicated. Those who are young, adopt new ones; and those who are too old to change, die. During this stormy period another race sprung up, and it is obvious that their pursuits would receive a direction from the circumstances of the times. The war ended at last in the establishment of our independence, but not in the imme- ~ diate restoration of a state of things favourable to the 86 United States and England. [May, revival of learning. It was followed by a long and inter- esting contest, with respect to the adoption of a constitu- tion, that was to form a bond of union between thirteen separate and independent republicks. The different lo- cal partialities, the diversity of opinions prevailing among men equally eminent for talents and virtues, the mutual sacrifices necessary to be made, and the difficulty of ac- commodating this opposition of interests and opinions, delayed for a long time the settlement of this most im- portant question, which agitated every heart with anxiety. During this interesting period, it is not to be supposed that the minds of that class of men, which usually fur- nishes the materials for scholars, would be sufficiently abstracted from the object on which, in their opinion, depended the good or evil result of their seven years labours, to admit of pursuing any studies, but such as would qualify them to support their political opinions. Accordingly, we find this period fruitful in orators and politicians, equal, perhaps, to any of the age; but very few, if any writers on subjects distinct from this great con- stitutional question. Hardly had the minds of men become calm and set- tled after this struggle, xvheu the revolution of France began to draw the eyes, to absorb the attention, and ex- cite the passions of mankind iu both hemispheres. It brought the democratical and monarchial principles into a dreadful contest that shock them both, alternately, to their centre ; it divided the human race into two great parties, and converted the world into a coffee-house for political discussions. In its progress, it brought into ac tion, and gave a stimulus to every turbulent passion of our nature ; men, women, and children, every where whirled about in its vortex ; individual and national antipathies acquired increasing bitterness; those who might have grown to be scholars became only politicians; and those who had already began to emerge from the current, fell back into the whirlpool to rise no more ; or, if they re~ gained the surface, appeared in some new form, like the Virginian rail, which is said to go down a bird in autumn, and come up a frog in the spring. This rapid sketch of the history of our country may, perhaps, serve to account for the few specimens of lite- raftire and the fine arts to be found in the United States, without resorting to the mortifying confession of a want 1815.] United States and England. of original genius. The peculiar situations in which we have been placed during the short period of our existence, have drawn the mind continually from that calm and quiet self-possession without which few, perhaps we might say none, can ever hope to enter into the deep re- cesses of learniig, or sport in the fair fields of poetical inspiration. Such pursuits and amusements require a inii~d abstracted from the labours of active life, and free from the apprehwision of personal danger, as well as the temptations of worldly ambition. The allurements of knowled ~e are gentle, quiet, and unassuming those of glory, wealth, and pleasure, glittering and obtrusive. It is the choice of Hercules; and as few men have the strength of body, so still fe~ver have the firmness of mind, or the judgment, to make a selection equally judicious with that of the hero. The business of a scholar is in- compatible with any other excitement than the love of knowled~e. and the hope of a pure and spotless immor- tality. To him, a mind undistuxbed and free to pursue the object of his peculiar contemplation, is indispensably necessary ; and the nstion that does not already possess men who have acquired a decided vocation to study, must never expect them to be the product of a long succession of dangerous labours, fearful apprehensions, and bloody invasions. [Pare 8691.] We hope that the indignation which this libel has excited among men of all parties in America, may create sonic sen~ sanon in Eu~la nd, and that it may rh re be treated event ua}lv with the scorn it merits. It is indeed time, that some generous writer should volunteer on their side, to counter- act the tendency of national prejudices, to nourish implaca- ble hatred between the two nations. The abuse of the daily papers we disregard ; it is their vocation ; and the publick generally make allowances for their misrepresentation and violence. The writings of a man like Cobbet afford us no satisfaction; because, if he espouses our cause now, it is riot to mine comnensation for former abuse ; bet, the mere rest- less ebulition of factious opposPion to ifs own governmcnt; nr have we any security, that -. will not return to-morrow to his primitive doctrines, and again stimulate the mob with evcry species of ca1umny, to wish our utter destruction. In this country, many of the most eminent citizens, in the fear United States and Rugland. 88 [May that France would have attained universal power, that was almost within the grasp of the madman, from whose tyran~ ny she has escaped; with a keen perception of the mis- chievous political consequences that often follow strong, national antipathies; and from a generous respect and es- teem for the illustrious character of the land ot their ances- tors, have long and fearlessly stemmed the torrent of party and popular passion. From the splendid eulogy of Mr. Walsh, down to essays in a newspaper, in orations and ser- mons,* no opportunity has been neglected to allay irrita- tion, to soften the keen sense of injuries, to do the utmost to preserve an honourahle neutrality, or, if they were forced into the war, that it should be, on what seemed the weakest side, against the tyrant who aspired to the despotick con- trol of the world. Disdaining the easy and ignoble course of rousing the passions of the people, to profit more secure- ly hy their delusion; they have hared their breasts to en- counter the most natural direction of publick feeling, till ordinary, though honest minds, have in numerous instances, given way to helieve the hase imputations that party ran- cour has suggested. Such efforts, to be continued, must he met; to be useful, must he mutual. Believing, as we do, that there is nothing essentially conflicting in the permanent interests of the two nations, that a state of social and commer- cial intercourse is advantageous to both; we trust some eflbrts may be made on the side of England, to remove prejudice, and to cultivate esteem and good will towards us.; if not, it is in vain to expect that such exertions can he sustained on one side alone ; and we may at once apprehend, and pre- pare for a constant succession of future wars, founded not in policy, but in passion. Venerating many of their insti- tutions, admiring their progress in all the useful arts; con- templating, with delight, the high and refined education, and the enlarged sphere of charity, which their wealth and publick spirit have given them, and which adorn the whole surface of their island ; appreciating the high degree of civil liberty they enjoy; and knowing that a large portion of the superiour classes, in that country, are well disposed to regard ours with a friendly eye, we deprecate every thing that can tend to alienate our respective good will. * These productions are generally received with dignified complacency, as a sort of feudal homage, sometimes complimented for their style, frequently Leprinte(l, and cited as unequivocal proofs in support of their own moderation and justice, an(l there, on the part of England, the exertions to conciliation usually terminate. 1815.] Uniled States and England. 8 Since we are again fortunately at peace, perhaps a plan to do away misapprehensions of each other might be devis& }, that would be attended with salutary effects. A species (31 cartel might be arranged, to exchan6e a few indvhiwls annually, who could devote one or two years, to learn We true state of things in the countries of each other ; and the~ dissipate illusions, and eradicate notions of very opposite tendency, but which create much trouble and embarrassment to both governments. They might send us a certain nureLer of those, who think, that the citizens of a repubhick must be all vulgar and factious, with some of another class, who indulge the romantick idea, that republics are in every thing pure and spotless. We will return an equal number, selected from those who imagine kings and w)bles to be monsters ; and a few others, who believe, ihat in England, the statesmen are all digni fled, liberal and honest, that great titles make great men, and that there is nothing hypocritical, paltry and corrupt, under the gorgeous decorations of aris- tocracy and royalty. In addition to these, a few Amen- cans, who are confident that England may be starved by embargoes and non-importations, an(l some Englishmen, who are convinced, that the United States must perish without their razors and mousetraps, might be shipped in the steerage. After the preceding article was sent to the printer, we received a volume of 176 pages octavo, entitled, Remarks on the Review of Inchiquit~s Letters, published by the Quarterly Review, addressed to the Right Honoura b/c George Canning, Esquire, by an inhabitant of New- !i.ngiand. We have hastily perused this elaborate answer, and regret not having seen it sooner, that we might have given it the attention it deserves. Much knowledge is discovered on most of the points in discussion ; on several of the to, an unanswerable reply is given to the pretege~s of Mr. Canning. We regret two or three thin b5 which are unfortunately dwelt upon, and which, as they have not the same weight in En6land, as in the mind of the writer, may prevent the hook from being read with so much interest, as ~ould otherwise have inspired, becau~e it contains many Vol. 1. No. 1. 12 90 United States and England. [May, just and incontrovertible statements, relating to our own country. The writer relies on the authority of Coiqultoun, for the account of the various descriptions of crimes, and the num- bers who practise them. Coiqukoun published a valuable work, but he had seen so much of the population particu- larly obnoxious to the police, that his mind was in a degree jaundiced, and his opinions distorted ; he has furnished a list of 119,500 criminals, of various descriptions, living in London alone. This list is a curiosity, but is, in many parts of it, ludicrously absurd. The author of the letter would have been less credulous, to be consistent, if he had read what is said of Mr. C.s computation, in the Picture of London; or he would not have devoted eighteen pages of his book, to a most stupid caricature extracted from the same work. This Picture of London is an annual publication of Sir Richard Phillips, of whon we have ulready spoken; who, after becoming a bankrupt, partly from publishing a number of very foolish books in a splen- did manner ; with the aid of some of their luckless authors, got up this most malignant and extravagant account of the English Reviews, to whose agency they attributed their misfortunes. Yet nothing is more contrary to experience, than that any criticism can long depreciate a work of merit, or give more than a momentary reputation to one without it. That these reviews have many of them been shame- fully prostituted, there can be no doubt; no more, than that the existence of such reviews has either been destroyed, or their circulation greatly restricted by such conduct. The authors abuse of the Edinburgh Review is rash and ridiculous. In religion and politicks there are some points, on which its soundness may be doubted, and many where its authority will be denied. But on most subjects of sci- ence, taste, morals, and literature, its strongest political enemies magnanimously admit its accurate knowledge and sagacious judgment. Even if this were not notorious, it would savour of indecency, to call that work a nuisance, which has long been supported by the talents of some of the most eminent men in England. From the want of tem- per on the score of review~, we cannot help thinking, that the writer has at some former period been a victim; and here he will not accuse us of personality, for we can form no proba- ble conjecture who he is; but when he calls Sir R. Phillips 1815.] ~1 Few Weeks in Paris. 91 or his garretteer, a judicious writer, and exclaims, How greatly are mankind indebted to this frank, honest- hearted writer, we must presume, that there is a feeling of personal gratitude towards this redoubtable ally, against a common enemy; and his petulant ill humour recalls to mind the scene between Beaumarchais and the physician Peut etre .Ilionsieur, a-t-il ecrit une tragedie dans sa jeunesse. We will further notice a trifling e rrour, in speaking of the .Marchioness of Yarmouth. There is no such person. The Marchioness of Hertford is the mother-in-law of the Countess of Yarmouth, and we presume his allusion is to the intimacy of the former with the Prince of Wales. in collecting his specimens of eloquence, from the thunder and lightning class of orators, in the British parliament, the writer should not have overlooked the more recent eflb~ sions of General Mathew and Sir Frederick Flood. We have heard, that there is a third answer, which we have not been able to obtain. We are glad of it for reasons already given. We hope these answers will cross the At- lantick, and though none of them are calculated for the meri- dian of England, yet, as they will serve to shew the indigna- tion that has been so widely excited in this country, by the foul calumny of the Quarterly Review, it may be hoped, that some manly Englishman may come forward to investi- gate the subject. d Few Weeks in Paris during the residence of the allied Sovereigns in that Metropolis. First dmerican edition. Boston, Cummings ~ Hilliard,pp. 168, l2mo. IN contemplating the history of the last thirty years, we oan with difficulty preserve the sohriety of thinking, necessary to historical reflections. We are intoxicated with the pas- sions of the period ; our blood is heated with the contagious violence of an era of subversion. The French revolution in itself, the mere mechanical part of it, is incomparably more vast, than that of any other on record; hut when we con- sider the relative situation of the rest of the world, the wide spread of refinement and intelligence, the intimate social elation between different countries, the promulgation of 92 si Few Weeks in Paris. [May, particular tenets, the preservation of actual privileges, the I)olitiCal sympathies that engaged the feelings of every man as well in Europe as in America, in the events of the day; we may liken the interest inspired by this revolution, (tom pared with any other, to a volcano that should suddenly arise to devastate the luxuriant plains of Flanders, or Loin- hardy, with a smoking crater in Iceland. The regular and minute knowledge of passing events, which the freedom and rnultiulication of gazettes gave to every individual, seemed to shorten distance and approximate nations, till all mankind were excited by the same curiosity, flattered by the same hopes, roused by the same fears, and collected in one grand assembly where all were engaged in the same collision. If we recall to mind that seemingly auspicious epoch, when Oer the vine-covered hills and gay regions of France, The day-star of liberty rose, and from thence dawned on all the countries of Europe the gladness of heart and shouts of exultation that burst from awakened nations; the clouds that soon began to rise aboxe the horizon, till all the elements were thrown into commotion ; the howlings of the hurricane that menaced indiscriminate ruin ; the lightuings that scathed every power in Europe ; and when the tempest subsided, left them involved in the most lurid night of tyranny; we hardly realize the pichire in fancy, of what we have so often shuddered at in reality. When this night, which seeme(l destined to be of polar duration, was unexpectedly dispelled, and light again appeared to gild the scattered ruins that survived we imagine ourselves seated to witness some grand, romantick drama, where, after the most horrible suevession of tragical scenes, the .denouement unfolds with all the splendour of decoration, and all the grandeur of re- tributive justice, the last act occupied with the restoration of legitimate rule, in presence of the deputies that ven- geance has brought from the remotest regions of the earth, to witness the prostration of the usurping despot; and the 6orgeois finale* concludes with all the pomp and circum- stance of glorious war, in a united chorus of triumphant Europe. Here indeed was realized the enthusiasm of the poet Recent events have shewn that this was not the finale. P. 8. note. i815.] .1 Few Weeks in Paris. A kingdom for a stage, princes to act, And monarchs to behold the swelling scene. There is one point of view in which retrospection to the opoch of the French revolution is peculiarly grateful. It elevates our opinion of mankind. It shews one of the peri- ods, when the enthusiasm of generous feelings was univer- sat; when every man rejoiced at the melioration of human condition ; when the brightest visions of general felicity were fondly cherished; when the disposition to compromise was predominant; when the peasant who acquired was not more eager and happy than the noble who surrendered all the feelings were fervid, all the principles liberal; a political millennium was thought to have arrived, privilege stooped, monopoly expanded, rank condescended, avarice relented and poverty was consoled ; national and individual selfish- ness gave way to eeneral benevolence, and mankind were nearly persuaded, that perpetual peace, political virtue, po- polar. reason, self-denying privilege and national magnanim- ity, were something more than splendid illusions. It is really solacing to look hack at this evane~cent period, because the general tone of feeling was pure,lbeneficent and honour- able to humanity. Flow these pro pect~ we~ overcast; where the errours originated that blasted tl~eli6 pes of man- kind, aie not within our present intention to inquire ; we wish only, in a hasty survey, to see if any thing has been saved from the wreck ; whether so many disappointments have been fruitless, all these calamities utterly without coin- pensation. A different division of property is a favourable result, though a very inadequate compensation for the intense suf- ferings and extreme disorder that produced it. Innumerable estates belonging to the church, many that had enormously accumulated in the hands of the great noblesse, have been distributed among a large number of small proprietors, who form a class between the peasantry and the nobles, that was almost wanting formerly in France. The influence of this order of men, when their property becomes stable, will form a principal pillar in the social edifice. They do not, like the great, live in the capital, where their property is dis- sipated, and their independence sacrificed to the favour of the court; but their incomes are spent in their own neighbourhood. in improving their estates, and employing 94 3 Few Weeks in Iari~. [May. the industrious about them, by which means the whole country is enlivened and adorned. The value of this class of men is remarkably shewn in England ; and in France they will become more and more important, if their situation and rights are confirmed by time. The destruction of the monastick system, the consequent diminution of mendicity, and increased number of active men for agriculture and the useful arts, by adding to the means of supporting a greater population, and thus multiply- ing marriages, is a very considerable advantage ; for though a disposition to invigorate and protect it is shewn by Spain, yet we consider that government an exception, whose example cannot be followed, nor even rendered permanent. The country of Don Quixote must eventually yield to the pervading spirit of melioration, though it appears to be the legitimate and unalienable territory of romance; the coun- try above all others, where the follies of the fathers are lost upon the children, where the dignity of indolence is the limit of ambition where novelty and change have neither power nor attraction; where perseverance in ancient cus- toms, prejudices and barbarism were strongly depicted in the fable of Count Oxienstern; that Adam having been per- mitted to revisit the earth, travelled over every country, with- out findina any thing to recognise, till he came to Spain, when he exclaimed, Ah this country I know ; nothing has been changed here since my departure, every thing is just as I left it. Another advanta e ~vbich may be permanent, is the re- moval of some national and religious prejudices, and the in- trod notion into various countries of the improvements of others, that are susceptible of being transferred. The chaos of war arid revolution, that has carried Spaniards to Holstein, and Russians to Lombardy; Englishmen to Si- cily, Spain and Portugal, Italians into Poland, and French- men and Poles, as soldiers or exiles, into every part of the world, has served to eradicate many gross and absurd pre- judices. It has given an opportunity to witness improve- ments abroad, that might afterwards be advantageous at home. The effect of these may be perceived in France, in outward objects, in their villages and country houses par- ticularly, though much indeed remains to be done. This exchange of friendly or xvailike visits, has made nations ac- quaiuted with each other, ad their laws and manners sub ject~ 1815.] .1 Few Weeks in Paris. 95 of mutual observation, which is rapidly communicated by gazettes. A spirit of rivaisbip in improvement is excited; gross tyranny and injustice partially checked, by some fear of the reproaches of other nations, when a bad sovereign or minister can trample with impunity on his own. Many marks of this anxiety for the good opinion of the world might be pointed out; and its tendency is to increase and to produce the best effects. Formerly, nations had the same barbarous contempt for, and ignorance of each other, that the Turks now have for the rest of Europe. In the present day, a brutal prince who is dreaded in his own, may be denounced with impunity in a foreign land. The victim of injustice in one, may fly to other countries, and se- curely stigmatize oppression. A great benefit will be derived from the partial elevation of the lower classes of society; which, like clearing away from foundations the rubbish in which they were buried, rendcrs the whole fabrick stronger. In all countries, even the most despotick, some shackles are removed ; talents and virtue have some chance of rising from the lowest sta- tion to the highest. The police of social watchfulness is better organized men are less skreened by their situation from ridicule or censure they are not so much raised above, or degraded below the operation of opinion. The feudal system was still in full force at the period of the French revolution; though its prominent features were obliterated, or polished by the increase of wealth, of education, and the spirit of improvement. Mankind, however, were still divi- ded into noblesse and canaille. The ferocious baron, and the chivalrick knights were no longer the haughty tenants of gloomy castles, and the urn estricted tyrants of miserable vassals ; but the partition walls remained the same, while the exteriour was changed. The first were now the dissolute retainers of a court, reveling in luxury, and the latter a wretched peasantry, reduced to the minimum of subsist- ence. The events of the last thirty years have corrected this barbarous statc. The condition of society is still im- perfect; the weakness and passions of men must forever keep it so. But there is a fundamental melioration ; some good has necessarily (lisappeared with evils that have been remedied, because good and evil are never pure, unmixed, but always in some degree blended. That respect on one nart. and condescension on the other, the favourable aspect d Few Weeks im Paris. [May, of this marked separation, has vanished, and with the age of chivalry is gone forever. In doing away these Uhisions, these courtesies of society, it may be difficult to decide which party has lost most ; yet the sojid condition of man kind is improved. They are now, at least, of the same species,* and merit may carry an individual through every gradation. They are all subject to the same general laws, and exposed to the same elements. The sun does not shine for one eternally, while the other is irrenietliably doomed to perpetual gloom all have a chance to be sheltered from adversity one may not be able to cover himself with both great-coat and umbrella against the rain, but the same shower falls on his more fortunate neighbour. Honesty, industry and frugality may eventually give him the comforts of com- petency, if not the splendour of opulence; and knowing this, he meets the pitiless pelting of the storm without de- spondency. One of the most obvious advantages attending the re- storation of the Bourbons, is the circumstance of its having been so long delayed. This has in a great degree pre- vented France from becoming the theatre of endless civil wars. The ancient line of sovereigns was restored through necessity, not by their own adherents, but by the powerful chiefs of the recent government. Their partizans therefore will influence, but not monopolize or control the policy of the future government. War, misfortune, and time had thinned the ranks of the emigrants, before the amnesty granted in the early part of Napoleons career, brought back the great body of the remainder from exile. Those who remained, were personally attached to the proscribed fami- ly, or had obtained distinction in the service of foreign countries. A few steadily persevered through almost a generation, nearly devoid of hope, in their inflexible loyalty. This rigid pertinacity of principle, in spite of the establish- ment of different systems, would perhaps be hurtful to society, if the instances were numerous. But how few in comparison to the whole number, how many in ragard to * There is no need of Chjna facts, in support of these remarks, but a singular instance occurs in the memoirs ef Grimm, and which ctraws no reflcct;on from him. He gives an account o a nitot of Dieppe, who with she greatest heroism, and most arduous exertio s~ h d saved several men from a wreck The action was to remarkable, that ne was rewarded hy Mr. Neck s, then minister, with a pension. The man came to Paris to return thanks far this favour, and was taken to court, that the king might see him, at he past d, but his majesty could not speak to leim, because it was coal rary to etiquette. 11315.] Vi Few Weeks in Paris. 97 the infirmity and corruption of men, have thus persevered! In rendering justice to this small band of unyielding knights, we must not forget another class of directly adverse prmc~ pies, yet equally meritorious, and still fewer in number. These were the men who vainly hoped that France was capable of maintaining republican institutions, and who, when this illusion was disspated, never would yield to the threats or seduction of the usurper. How few indeed were these !* how many have we seen, who, after participating and pro- moting all the extravagance of the revolution ; nay more, who were engaged in perpetrating its roost atrocious crimes, decor~ted with the cap of liberty ; have since proved them- selves to be the most supple and profligate agents of de-. spotism, tricked out in all the g~tudy display of the imperial liveiy. The position of the French king is one of great difflculty. lie came back to a country, loaded with heavy burthens, with cities decayed, industry circumscribed, active capital diminished, the publick feeling almost exclusively directed towards war, which, after twenty-five years of conquest and calamity, had left it a population of soldiers and invalids, accustomed to war as a trade, estimating military glory alone, and inclined to seek for prosperity, not from industry, but victory. In this state of publick feeling, he arrived to take command, when the madness of his predecessor had terminated his disastrous career, by abandoning all the ag~re- gated conquests of the republick, and the allies in possession of Paris, and the finest provinces of France. As peace was to be concluded, the inevitable cession of the conquered territories was obvious, but a mortified soldiery attributed, however absurdly, this sacrifice to the new sovereign. The marshals of France had nothing more to hope from their old master ; they were tired of his eternal wars, more anx- ious for repose than action, his heaijess, selfish and brutal character repelling affection, and sure that their rank and consideration would make them necessary to the restored family, and secure their present influence. The feeling was different with many of the generals and officers of a One of them, a member of the Natio~ at Convention, who gave his vote to save the unfortunate Louis 16th who has alsvays resisted the sordid tempta lions offered by circuiustauce~~ and remai~cd steady and consistent with his first principles, has toug resided amoug o~ Retired and unobtrusive, neither meddling nor intri ning, he has kept the even tenour of his way. Should this sentence meet his eye, he wilt excuse the allusion of the writer, which Ions: respect for his character has extorted. Vol. I. No. 1. 13 98 ~I Few Weeks in Paris. [May, lower rank, who naturally apprehended that they should be sacrificed to make room for the individuals of ancient faini- lies; and as they had promotion and fortune to expect, they regretted the leader, under whom they might still look for piunder and advancement. To the discontent of the military, might be added the apprehensions of the purchasers of national property; though the most solemn assurances were given, that it should be respected. A number of royalists, who sought compensation for their fidelity and misfortunes, swelled this list of dissatisfied individuals, which the reforms in various departments had created. To these sources of uneasiness might be added the inquietude, which reflecting men, and all the principal proprietors felt, lest the superannuated clergy, who were entirely opposed to the modern feelings of France, and ignorant of their extent, should effect the re-establishment of ancient abuses. These men were vio- lent and bitter, for we sometimes perceive in old men a rancour of feeling, and extravagance of views, more exten- sive and disgustin6, than the wildest impetuosity of youth, which last often carries its own antidote, a warm and sus- ceptible heart. All good men in France wanted a revival of rational religion; at the same time, they loathed the idea of the puerilities and corruptions, that had formerly de- graded it. A part of the family, the presumptive heirs to the crown, were well known to be absorbed in devotion and the attempt to revive publick processions, the hunting after relicks, the ostentatious commemorations of past ca- lamities, inspired distrust of the magnanimity of the sove- reign, and the most serious alarm at the renewal of abolished evils. These were the apprehensions, which were the deep- est and most generally felt. If the court should lean defi- nitively to this course of policy, if instead of correcting the lax habits of modern France, by the solid, useful, and be- neficent part of religion; they should attempt with the scat- tered and obscure leaven of superstition, that still exists in some of the provinces, to ferment the publick mind, and again encumber and humiliate France with ancient abuses, useless ceremonies, idle festivals, and monkish absurdities, they will infallibly create fresh disturbances. The clamour raised by the unfortunate proprietors of St. Domingo was very embarrassing to the government. They would listen to nothing, but the conquest of that island, the 1815.] .d Few Weeks in Paris. 99 extermination of the blacks, and the repeopling it with Africans; which would be the labour of years, and the expense of hundreds of thousands of lives, if indeed it could be efThcted at all. By the most odious perversity, one of the first schemes of commerce in the French ports, was to plunge into all the infamy and horrours of the slave trade, after having been driven from it, upwards of tweuty years. The enemies of this trade are sure however to triumph eventually. The laws of England have, after a long strug~ gle, adopted the feelings of humanity and sound policy, and this trade is now stigmatized and punished as felony; seve- ral merchants, as they were called, in spite of their infamous wealth, hate been sent with other convicts to Botany Bay; and when national law thus unites with the common sense and generous feelings of mankind, the base and the sordid must give way to publick opinion, or suffer from publick justice. It is time to speak of the work before us, which is given as a journal, addressed to a friend, by an Englishman though little pains are taken to support this fictitious character. The author has, we believe, since avowed the production; and the publick are certainly indebted to him for having given some account of those most interesting scenes, which it was his good fortune to witness: many of these are de- scribed with vivacity and discernment. It is evidently the production of an unpractised author, hastily composed, and describing events, whose rapid succession, as well as the tumultuous emotions they excited, it was difficult to relate without confusion. There are some inaccuracies in the composition, and a perpetual intrusion of Fiench words, where no peculiarity of expression is obtained by it. It is written in a lively manner, and discovers marks of observa- tion and reflection, sufficient to make us wish for more Ia- bowed cffbrts from the same pen. Our first extract will suggest a few remarks. June 9. The king has made an ordinance, by which the gay old fellows of sixty and seventy feel themselves particularly affected. We, & c. (lecree, that 11 shops, caff~s, restaurateurs, and places of amnseme~t, be shut on Snadays, ~c. ; and it also makes it unlawful to work on Sa~nt~ days, as xv elI s on the Sund vs. I hay riot seen the act, but I em told this is included. One can hardly conceive it po~sible for any king in Europe to is~w~ 100 d Few Weeks in Paris. [May, a more tyrannical mandate ;by a single blow, to deprive his subjects of their most precious rights, the only rights that they think of any value ;to prohibit leures contre danses cle Dimanche, their petits promenades in the jar dins do Turqne, and those places, that one sees on Sun- day evening, crowded with the merriest, happiest faces that can be imagined. The French people esteem Sun- day sacred, not to their religion, but to their pleasures. This is a melancholy consideration euough ; but every body knows, that it is the universal idea upon the conti- nent. They have no political liberties; and for centuries the lower orders have consoled themselves with the single liberty of meeting on the Sunday, putting on their best clothes, dismissing all their cares, carrying bouquets to their mistresses, dancing and singing, and having a thou sand little amusements. I confess, it does give one a feeling very much like horrour, to come from a country, where the Sunday is observed, and see in Paris most of the shops open, and more gayly arranged, the streets and cai~& s better filled, and more merriment and laughing. This is certainly very revolting and hateful ; but the custom does exist, and it is not the fault of this generation or the past. The only qneWons we ask aIe, if the govern- ment has power enough to stop these amusements, and if, by commanding the people not to work on Sundays and Saints days, they have taken the best step to check the immorality of the country ? Though the French have stooped to humiliation and mortification, from their own government, that no one conceived it possible any human creature could endure, I am not qoite persuaded, from what I hear and see, that they are yet prepared for this last blow. Nothing that has happened since I have been in France, has excited so much real indignation, and such universal complaints. rfhese are ideas, they say, that the king has received in England. Why oppress and harass a gay and lively nation, fond of pleasure, and possessing every charm of climate, soil and disposition, with the heavy, gloomy habits of a melancholy, unsociable people? We do not say, that we are happier than the English ; but nature evidently made us to furnish the world a different example of human felicity, as well as greatness; and, no- til we have their fogs, and their spleen, it is cruel, and 1816.] .(L Fese reek is Pi7i#. 101 perhaps impossible, to make us renounce our gayety and amusements. it is thus that the French defend them- selves; and if they are to be rescued from their melan- choly, corrupt condition, one must hope that force is not the only instrument that is to accomplish it. However, while the king is making ordinances in support of tie Christian institution, it may be as well that his own court does not overlook oneof the most conspicuous precepts of that religion, Thou seest the mote, Sic. I mean, that in the very week, and hardly twenty-four bonn before the commencement of the Sunday, when he dates his de- cree forbidding the ordinary pleasures of the people, he allows and proclaims on that day, a publick levee in his own palace; so that after his majesty tr6s chr6tienne has hobbled before twenty thousand people to mass, and back again, he amuses himself the rest of the day, in receiving and greeting several hundreds of the most immoral and unprincipled men in Europe. It is notorious, that since the restoration, there has been every Sunday, a levee at the palace; and it is quite as nomrious, that they have been the most crowded and fashionable. This he never learned in England, where, I undertake to say, there has been no publick levee on Sunday, since the days of Charles II. Such gross inconsistency is disgraceful and criminal. Since the decree, there has been a levee at court, and the usual levee among the people. As it regards not working on Sundays, and days of the Saintsthere is a natural impossibility that the last part can be observed, because the Saints days are so nume- rous in the Catholick system, that the poor people would not have time to get a subsistence. The amount of this 5 argument is contained in the conclusion of a very piteous harangue, that line Pauvre, who is, no doubt, as good a Catholick as any in France6 made to day in the streets upon tbis very sul4ect. Ski dix enfents, qui do- mendent tons lee jours quelque chose s manger ; jM quart jours par semaine pour en chercl~er. Qb-est-ce qbil faut qfuils sont devenus le rest? II faut que Ia moiti6 mourftt et Is moinA p1111*. Now provided this consideration ef- fects nothing with those human& persons, who think It is better that eien the whole should die, than the half sal; it may be possible to find some objection in the law itself against the observance of Saints days. This decree 102 ~1 Few Weeks in Paris. [May, throws the whole population of France into a state of complete idleness, at least eighty days in the year, includ- ing the Sundays; and, in the present (lepravity, and want of all religious and moral ideas, there can be no more effectual way of introducing eighty days of every species of vice and wickedness. Every man, who has been on the continent, knows perfectly well, that the most immoral day in the week is the Sunday, because it is the most idle day. And how will a government pre- vent this? By forcing people to go to church, to worship an unknown God, by inquisitions, auto da fe. No- body ever heard yet, though many governments have acted on the belief, that persecution made a people either moral or religious; and, therefore, provided the govern- rnent had the power, (which is certainly doubtful,) of stopping all the publick amusements of the people, it does not strike me, that they have thrown the first stone against their immorality, by making them idle. Is it not a speedier and surer remedy to keep them employed? to guarantee to these poor Frenchmen, a security for their industry, a free commerce and a market for their manufactures ? One would think, that if the government could find this opportanity of introducing these regular and steady habits, of convincing them as much as is possible, that industry is the only protection against poverty; they would sooner see in France, in all probability, that delightful and profit- able employment of the Sunday, which is witnessed in almost every country that is not Catholick. But in this zeal for morality, why does not the govern- ment send some of its myrinidons, to break up those maisons des jeux in the palais royal, particularly the one, where the common people assemble? It is a suit Qf six or seven large rooms, handsomely furnished, in each of which there is some sort of gambling machine, but ge- nerally, a rouge et noir table, which is usually surround- ed by fifty or sixty persons, who play twenty or forty sous at a hazard. They are persons of all ages and sexes; interesting girls of twelve and thirteen, decently dressed, who commence in these rooms, the first act of their profligacy, ann at their side, women of fifty or sixty who here make an end of their wealth and depravi- ty; labouring men, who work for fifteen sotis a day, arid are, in a moment, driven away poor and wretched, and 1815.] .1 Few Weeks ifl Paris. 103 prepared to commit any crime. It is impossible to con- ceive any scene so confined, more odious, disgusting, and frightful, where corruption assumes a more silent, melan- choly aspect, or where the heart can be more depraved, and fitted for the most ferocious acts. It is an eternal round of the most horrid iniquity and wickedness. At sun rise, at sun set, at twelve oclock of the night, at every hour of the day, and every day of the year, you see the same crowds round these tables,the same an guish, and despair, and villany, and every diabolical pas- sio n in the faces of the players,the same gruff, dismal, constant sound from the man who deals the cards. Mes- CC seurs, fakes votre jeu, rouge perd et couleur, these with the noise of the money on the table, are almost the only sounds beard in these gloomy, frightful places, where one cannot enter at a late hour of the night, without shuddering, and trembling for his situation. It is from CC one of these houses, that St. Leon was escaping, after having lost the fortune of his wife; when the idea of him- self, he says, was so dreadful, that even ihe midnight CC robber in the streets shrunk from him in dismay. Be- sides this, there is, in the palais royal, two other maisons des jeux, large and splendidly arranged, which respecta- ble people frequent; and I believe, they are scattered CC about in all the publick places. Why is it, that the license is not taken away from one at least of these houses? Or CC why this decree against the publick gardens being open on Sunday, which will only make the maisons des jeux more CC crowded on that day ? Is it because they pay a revenuc to government ? P. 127137. The best mode of passing the Sunday is, perhaps, still a desideratum, and must be different in different countries, modified by the character of the inhabitants. The same horrour that we feel in France, at seeing the French dance, they have felt in this country, on being precluded every species of amusement, and condemned to the most austere gravity, so long as the sun was above the horizon. We confess xve shudder at the recollection of the m nner in which we were obliged to pass the Sabbath in our early youth. Placed in a town, remarkable for its bigot ry; when in a long summers day, besides family pr yers, we had tone through two services, the second of which terminated between 3 and 4 oclock, we returned home, and under the si Few Weeks in Paris. 104 [May, watchful control of some soui, narrow-minded farmer, im~ inured in a suffocating room, we ~vere obliged to hear another endless sermon read, while we longe(l to bound over the fields, envying every bird that flew, but so long as the sun cheered the earth, were retained in confinement ; a system well cal- culated as a preparatory course for a Carthusian friar, but destructive of some of the best and most innocent feelings of boys intended for the world, and admirably contrived to dis- gust them with all religion. A proper de6ree of relaxation connected with devotion, is the nice and delicate point to be ascertained. The observance of the Sun& iy must vary ac- cording to the character of nations, and in some circuinstan- ces, of individuals. It is important to the interests of religion, that the associations with the Sabbath should be grateful and desirable. To men of reflecting habits an(l mature minds, seciusion and meditation through the day may be most con- genial ; but would the same course be useful to children, to servants, to the vast majority of society, who, chained through the week, look forward to one d~ y in it, for reli- gious duties, and for repose and enjoyrilent ? In striving to make these act like men of grave and serious habits, do we not overshoot the mark, and, in attempting too much, produce a reaction both mischievous and permanent ? Compare the mode of passing the Sunday in England, with that in France. The upper ranks in the former go to church in the morning, and then prepare for an airing (when in London) in the parks, where, from three to five oclock, all the brilliant equipages of the town arc (liSplayed in the rides, and tens of thousands of pedestrians throng the walks. The dinner at a late hour, is genernily proloaged on account of sotne customary amuse- ments being prohibited in some houses, the evening is oc- cupied with a stated conversazione, and, in a few, with mu- sick. rrhe middlin0 ranks stroll out into the country, to visIt their friends, or some accustomed inn. The labourin6 class resort to the innumerable ale-houses, and in those filthy recep- tacles pass the day and night, in smoking and drinking. More drunken men minht probably be collected of a Sunday even- ing, in a large town in England, than could be found over the whole surface of France. The wives of these last are in the mean time, occupied in m6 themselves and children as decent as possible, ~ossiping tobether, going to some fana- tical meetina of lVlethodijs, or waiting with anxiety and 1815.] .4 Few Weeks in Paris. 105 fear the return of a brutal, inebriated husband. In France, the upper classes, though not so generally as in former times, go to mass, then to court, and in the evening to some party. The middling classes go in the evening to the theatre; the poorer ranks to the theatre also, and to little g~rdens, where they drink weak wine or lemonade, while the younger ones are dancing. In the country, the people of a village assemble about sunset, near the house of the Lord of the Manor, which is also commonly close by the church, and there dance on the green for three or four hours, and then retire cheerful and happy to their homes.* Now, to our minds, this French mode of passing the Sunday, among the people, is much bet- ter than ihe English practice. We do not wish, however, to force upon one nation the customs of another. The French are a dancing people; they have an habitual gayety and fri- volity, that makes their amusements less turbulent, and more innocent. A dance with us, or the English, is an unusual ex- ertion, a serious undertaking; and by the men is accompa- nied with very frequent draughts to rouse their spirits ; it is therefore, among the lower classes, a scene of rude and nox- ious merriment. The manner of passing the Sunday in the eastern states, does not perhaps require any change ; it is in most places natural, and suitable to the general manners. The habits of the puritans of New England, in this respect, have often been the theme of very shallow ridicule. These were, in a high degree peculiar, rigid, energetick, and adapt- ed to the circumstances in which they were placedthe whole character of their descendants is tinctured, if not im- bued with them ; but their renewal now would be as impos- sible, as the attempt would be injurious. We shall make one more extract, to give a further idea of the work before us. May 12. There has always been a violent prejudice in France against the Austrians. Apd the two last queens We had an opportunity of seeing a curi6us instance of attachment to this practice of dancinb on a Sunday. The government, in trying to force the ob- servance of their absurd decimal calendar, ordered that the people should not I~e allowed to dance on the Sunday, but encouraged to dance on the Decadi Being on a visit to a friend, a few leagues from Paris, and alking one Sun- day evening to see the village groupe in tiseir dance, he related, that the peO- ple of this village being very religious, bad been eicessively avers~ to dancing on the Decadi: and when the revolutionary terrour had begun to subside, the Sons prefet being a benevolent, tolerant man, had made a compromise with them, by which it was agreed, that they should dace on the Decadi and the Sunday alternately. Vol. I. No. 1. 14 106 .4 Pew r.d. is Paris. [May, taken from that family have increased in the first instance the hatred, and in Napoleons choice, the disgust of the French. They used to call, during the revolution, Marie Antoinette, lAutrichienne, and this word excited every fe- rocious feeling which a Frenchman had. Marie Louise was a real mauvaise aliemande; she was cold, graceless, ex- cessively ugly and silly, and had that sort of manner and ap- pearance which made all France hausser lea epaules. At this moment the French feel still more enraged, both by the boastings and contributions imposed by the Austrians. And if the hon enfant Louis XVIil. chooses to indulge his subjects with any wars, the most popular will he with Au- stria. The troops of this nation arc the most miserable looiing, the worst clothed, the worst armed, and the worst disciplined of all the allies; and they are the least feared by the French. One word of their generaLEvery where in England the people have an extravagant idea of the military. character of Schwartsenburg, and are disposed to give him a great share of the merit of the campaign; but I find the allied officers think differently of him; they have no idea that he deserves to be so much lauded. He was made captain-general of the armiesthis was a neces- sary compliment to Austria; but after they crossed the Rhine it is quite obvious, that, however much he influenced or participated in the councils of the allies, it fell to his share of the combination to act a timid, equivocal, myste- dons pan in the field. He sufibred Blucher and the Rus- sians to give all the brilliant coups, and contented himself with advancing or retiring as the Prussian or French eagle rose. Schwartzcnburg is about fifty, a tail man, very corpulent, with a great head, and a red, fat, bloated, stupid, face. The Crown Prince is another of these equiwoqsee; he left Paris one or two days since, I understand, on he came here incog., lived so, and went away so. He fought one battle at the beginning of the campaign, and after that he amused himself by writing bulletins; but with all his tender addressqs and manifestoes, he could not persuade the French to like him. He seldom gets any thing better than ecelerag or perfide. Neither do o~ Schwartzenburg was quartered at St Cloud, and used to give dinners white the Imperial wine lasted. lie served, I understand, In the Duke of Brunswicks army during the French retolation. 1816.] .4 Fete r& . ~ p.~i.. 107 ibeylike or forgive Morean, though many of them believe he was a virtuous man. One ought certainly to pardon Frenchmen for having lost their attachment to Moreso, which once was certainly very sincere, though I do not think that this makes it a less difficult question of morals. However, there is one thing to be said, that provided Moreau was an honest man, he must have known there was a possibility, nay, a probability, that the allies might Dot only overthrow what he calls the coquin Bonaparte, but also conquer France, and really make the situation of the country as deplorable as it certainly would have been, if the French had continued to detest the Bourbons. Morean was a victim on his own altar. He planned the battle of Dresden, in which the allies lost thirty-five thousand men. It was a grand blow; but he ought to have known that Bonaparte had returned with his guards from the south. They give various reasons why the Crown Prince did not advance his army from Cologne. F think the most probable, and one the most just to him is, that lie felt himself treated with great injustice, beciuse he was not invited to have an ambassador at the confer- ences in Chatillon. 1 have asked all the allied officers that I happened to meet, to whom they attributed the system they pursued in their campaigns; who is the man that used to project and combine; and I think that the majority of yoices is for Barclay de Tolly. He is the autho!, they say, of the plan of the campaign of Moscow. Langeron they call a good officer; he is a Frenchman, and served in the re- volutionary warn of America; a gentlemaQly looking man, and has none of that dirty, ba!barous appearance, rather common among the Russian officers. Then they have Winsingerode, and Winginstein who seems to be thought the best officer for execution in the Russian service. Barclay de Tolly is a jolly good-natured looking man, a brave gareon, ent6t6 comme le diable pour tout ce quil y a de beau et de belle.And von Blucher? What do they say of him? A perfect crane,.the mognent he sees the enemy, he can gnanceivre, and attack, and fight as fine a hattie as possible. This is his grand. pens& , but this is alL He has not the faculty of combining a long campaign, and reducing the operations of an army to a. system: No! He is too fond of gambling to distract his 108 ~q Few Weeks in Paris. [May, head with such distant speculations. The chief of Bin- chers staff is an officer of very great ~~eansa real mu italy genius. It is said that he first suggested the advance upon Paris. At this moment I cannot recollect his name but he has always been mentioned by the Prussian officers as perhaps the first man in their army. May 13. The Champs Elys~es, the jardins des Tuil- leries, of the Luxembourg, those beautiful and enchanting places, in which, a few years since, such a splendid popu- lation was constantly seen, the best dressed and the best bred women and men in EuropeYes :it is with reason that the French said, ii n~y a quune Paris et cette Paris est divineBut the scene is changed. If you go and stand upon the terrace, over les vieux politiques,* you will see Cossacks, with their long lances, galloping about on their little ugly horses among these grovesCalmucks from the banks of the Wolga and the Black Sea, the heirs of the domninions of MithridatesScythians from the iuhospitable and unknown regions of Tartaryhordes that have not de- scended into Europe since the last taking of Rome. They have the dress and arms described by one of the Roman historianstribes from beyond the great wall of China, never before seen or heard of in Europe, of all faces and dresses and shapes and complexionsModern barbarians from the Greek islands, with long beards and a simple great coat tied round their waist with a leather thongmen whose ancestors called themselves the only civilized nation in the known xvoild. These are some of the innumerable tribes brought into Europe to assist to conquer and plunder a nation of whose name they never heard, or of whose ex- istence they had no conception. So far have the con- quests of the French shaken the countries of the world. For fourteen hundred yeats they have wandered undisturb- C ed upon those boundless plains of Asia, which are not known to any European. Here they sit at the foot of trees smnokin~some wander about among the crowdone stands to be examined by a French lady Oh ciel! qnel- les tournuresand in the evening one could have seen in ~ Les vieux politiques are a race of old men, who have snrvived every C; thing. They are poor, and wheui the weather is good, they go and bask upon the circular bench, near t e gate, leading into the place Louis XV. formerly de he concorde. They h~ve been seen there every sun shining day for fifty years. 1815.] d Few Weeks in Paris. 109 the Champs Elys~es* little groupes of these barbarians sit- ting round their flies, and acting such scenes as are always witnessed upon the borders of the Black Sea and the coun- tries of Asia. One sometimes thinks that he finds himself in the time, when Attila and his Huns took Paris. it is this extraordinary assemblage, their remote and un- known countries, the astonishing difference of mannersthe dreadful, and in some respects, similar irruption of their ancestorsthe unexampled causes which have brought them to the most interesting city of the worldtheir per- fect discordance and strangeness from every object around themtheir own insensibility to the novelty and splendour of their situationtheir innumerable and horrid jargons and confusions of tongueIt is all these, which give birth to feelings and associations not to be described, and which it is scarcely possible to conceive ever can exist again, or be excited in any other place. P. 2938. We cannot close this article without saying a few words on the present prospects of Europe. One great advantage seems a certain result; the world must, in some degree, be regulat- ed as formerly, by a balance of power. The most prominent evil of the times, in which we have lived, has been the con- stant tendency of events, to throw the whole power of the world into the hands of two nations. France obtained the land, and England the sea; till at length the former was en- gaged in a direct attempt to undermine the power of the latter, by destroying the intercourse of nations, and cutting off the commerce of the continent, when a succession of wonderful events utterly subverted her plans, and reduced her at once to her ancient limits, which twenty years of suc- cessful war had so widely extended. In the new arranbement of Europe, Russia and Prussia act in unison, Austria and England second each others views; France opposes them all ; on some questions joining with Austria and England against Russia ; at others with Russia and Prussia against England. Prussia accedes to the wishes of the Russians for Poland ; on having her support in acquir- ing part of the Saxon territory, and stretching her arm to the ~ These barbarians began to cut off for their horses the hark of the trees in the Champs Elys& s, by which they ha~e killed some of the finest trees there. General Sacken had the wretches put out instantly at the point of the bayonet 110 d Pew Weeks in Paris. [May. Rhine. England having no jealousy of Austria on the water, assists her schemes of aggran1izement in Italy, she giving a quitelaim of Flanders, to the Prince of Orange, * who uniting this to Holland, makes a considerable kingdo in in appearance, hut a weak one in reality, as the Dutch and Flemings have long had a strong, mutual animosity, founded in pail on a difference of religion. The country having very little natural strength on the French frontier, is defended hy the largest fortresses in the world, but which require enormous expense, and large armies for their support. Unless Holland could recover her monopoly of commerce, which seems impossible; it would hardly be politick for her to maintain such enormous artificial works ; on the one side her dykes to defend herself from the fury of the ocean ; on the other these Flemish forti- fications to oppose the ambition of France, as restless, turbu- lent, and encroaching as the waves of that ocean. The Poles, the Saxons, the Dutch, the Flemings and the Italians are all dissatisfied, and all protest against these arrangements. There is apparent in these plans, a total disregaid of the rights of the weaker people, and a general spirit of extenditig, rather than of improving the dominions of the larger powers. If the smaller states are doomed to he swallowed up, the monopoly of four or five will not insure tranquillity, and after having devoured others, there will be new contests for the destruction of one another. Afier all that may have been gained, by the wide spread of intelligence, and the removal of some abuses, Europe may perhaps be incurably (liscased. Loaded with impositions, crippled with (lebts, either actual baukrdpts, or on the eve of becoming so ; devoured with enor- mous standing armies, polluted with the desires and habits of war, there is no solid hope that the miseries of its inhabit- ants can have any termination I he polcv of has ma a (lirtet snare in the government of ttie continent, is now moe coitirmed than eve in Foclaod. As they most soon lose their Ge man ws~es~em~ s~1 heve ores led this new coonexion. The Salick law pox ai~ in the govem so cot 01 Hanover, od by the act of settte m s o die Br~e -wscl- I ml c, oem n they were p ocmnted to the English tm ~n a m ct h it, on th c own devolvsog to a femnate, that the you semi ~oo of the ieee liii monmich shonid smmcceemt to the elector S.. of Han xx jib sheit moos become so ode nd~n soveeeimty lime Duke C abs I c xx h t~e Gas moor of iIa never, witml therefore assume ih~ s~ee~ on on~ver svber Sn Pile ems Ciia lott ot XV iii s comex to the (in hum. stains Pn.u ni ii e desiuct to I arry hi, he ssas (etmu( etc1 s so Luvhxti onv~r~m is ~n~eni officer awl has a reemment in the I n~tish sets mci. Hosv mmii is a flung to make hon an F ogVh prim cc. 1816.] ABa. HuutLe~$a Puma. 111 Atonal Pine. is Proas and Vera.. By Lydia Hustle7. Harqford, t2mo. pp. 267. Tax mass of poetry is constantly accumulating in the world. The English have of late ypars furnished a larger qatanthy than any other nation, but vip have not been idle. We however consume less paper, and absorb less capital. Our contributions are generally in modest duodecimos, with small type, and narrow margin; in England, large types, wide margins, and black-letter ornaments, decorate the pomp- ous volume of quarto dimension. The only difference is, that dulness here is attired with plainness and frugality, and there, accompanied with ostentation and expense. We are strongly inclined to believe, that when four or five of their candidates for fame are withdrawn from the lists, that those who remain, would not be found superiour to ours, except numerically. Indeed, if the number of those, who busy themselves with the composition of poetical trifles, for few of our versifiers attempt any thing else, were once ascertained, the publick would be as much surprised at the extent of the lists, as they were in England, at the report made by Mr. Wbitbread, to the proprietors of Drury-Lane Theatre, on the crowd of dramatick authors. The volume before us contains a mixture of prose and poe- try, of which, the latter we think the best. Many of the pieces are given as compositions, addressed to young girls under the. writers charge, and are well adapted for that purpose, though they do not appear to much advantage in this collection. Miss Huntley, we have been informed, is a most deserving and in- teresting young woman, who in the most adverse circumstan- ces, hiw educated herself; and, by constant exertion, provid. ing for the support of some relatives, as well as for her on, has emancipated herself from the humjAest penury, and stili 3t it was said that there wasa great scarcity of writers as well as of actors. Of good waiters andof good actors theremightuotbom greasnumber. In what age were there ever many? They all knew that there was me most distinpudshed dramatick writer now living, If they could only prevail him to mite; but that there was a scarcity of writers he begged leave to deny. They had received no less than 176 new drama Their judgment anightbe disputed, but they had bestowed on them the most patient attention. Of these they had been forced, in the eaciso of their discretion, to pronounce against 141 of the number, which had been returned. Several had been brought out, eight were now under discussion, and eleven they knew not were todellverir & Uwdfiws~ Wkitbnda rpert. 112 Aliss Iluntleys Poems. [May, found leisure at a very early age, to compose this volume. Worth of this kind would have been a strong motive for sub- scribing to the book, but not sufficient to have noticed it here, if the verses themselves had not possessed very considerable merit. Our oninion of them will, we think, be confirmed, by our readers, when they have perused the following extracts from the collection. INTRODUCTION. A damp and dewy wreath that grew Upon the breast of Spring, A. harp whose tones are faint and few, With trembling hand I bring. The clang of war, the trumpets roar. May drown the feeble note, And down to Lethes silent shore, The scatterd wreath may float. But He, who taught the flowers to spring From waste neglected ground, And gave the silent harp a string Of wild and nameless sound; Commands my spirit not to trust, Her happiness with these: A bloom that moulders back to dust. A musick soon to cease. But seek those flowers unstaind by time. To constant virtue given, And for that harp of tone sublime, Which seraphs wake in 1-leaven. ON THE DOVE 5 LEAVINQ THE ARK. Still did an unseen Being guide The lonely vessel oer the tide, And still, with steady prow, it braves The fury of the foaming waves. While fierce the deluge pours its stream. The thunders roll-the meteors gleam, When Oceans mighty cisterns broke, And earth like a rent cottage shook, 1815.] Miss Iluntleys Poems. 113 And slowly as its axle turnd, The watry planet movd and mournd; Though tremblin at the tempests ire, Or scorching in the lightnings fire, While holding in her firm embrace The remnant of a wasted race Still oer the waves the wandering ark Roamd like some lone, deserted bark. But now the storm has hushd its ire, The warring elements retire And from his curtains dusk and dun Lookd forth, once more, th astonishd sun. What saw he there? Young Natures face With smiles, and joy, and beauty fair No I not one feature could he trace To tell him life was ever there Save when that little bark was seen To show him where her pride had been. CC But now from that secure abode A winged stranger went, And from the casement opend wide A joyful flight she bent High mounting seemd to seek the sky With forward breast and sparkling eye, Like captive set at liberty. So went the dove on errand kind, To seek a mansion for mankind, Though scarce her meek eye dard to trace The horrours of that dreadful place. The waves with white and curling head Swept above the silent dead, The heaving billows dashing sur e Hoarsely swelld the hollow dirge; The heavy weight of waters prest The mi~hty monarchs mouldering breast The giant chief, the sccptred hand, The lip that pourd the loud command: The bloomin~ cheekthe sparkling eye; Now shrouded in the sea-weed lie. But still the pensive ~tran~er spread 11cr white wing oer thaT Ocean dread. And oft her anxious eye she cast A.cross that dark and shoreless waste. vol. 1. No. 1. 15 1 14 Miss Iluntleys Poems. [May, For evening clad the skies in gloom, And warnd her of her distant home. The stars that gemmd the brow of night Glancd coldly on her wavering flight, In tears, the moon with trembling gleam Withdrew her faint and faded beam, And oer that vast and silent grave Was spread the dark and boundless wave. With beating heart and anxious ear, She strove some earthly sound to hear, In vainno earthly sound was near. It seemd the worlds eternal sleep Had settled oer that gloomy deep, Nor slightest breath her bosom cheerd, Her own soft wings alone she heard. But still that fearful dove preserv d, With unabating care, The olive leafthe type of peace All fragrant, fresh, and fair. With pain her weary wing she stretchd Over the billows wide And oft her panting bosom droppd Upon the briny tide. The image of her absent mate, That cheerd her as she strove with fate, Grew darker on her eye; It seemd as if she heard him mourn, For one who never must ret.urn, In broken minstrelsy. Yet ere her pinions ceasd their flight, Or closd her eye in endless night, A hand the weary wanderer prest, And drew her to the ark of rest. Oh! weicome to thy peaceful home, No more oer that wild waste to roam. When from this cell of pain and woe, Like that weak dove my soul shall go, And trembling still her flight shall urge, Along this dark worlds doubtful verge, Oer the cold flood, and foaming sQrge, Then may the shrinking stranger spy A piercd hand stretching from the sky, Then hear a voice in accents blest, Returnreturn unto thy rest, 1815.j Miss Huntleys Poems. 115 Long prisond in a wayward clime, Long wounded with the thorns of time; Long chilld by the wild storms that pour Around that dark, deceitful shore, Enterwhere thorns shall wound and tempests rage no more. THE 5IJ5CEPTIBLE MIND Hast thou seen the Mimosa within its soft cell, All shrinking and suffering stand, And draw in its tendrils, and fold its ~ leaves From the touch of the tenderest hand I Hast thou seen the young Aspen that trembles and si0hs, On the breath of the lingering wind? Oh! these are but emblems, imperfect and faint, Of the shrinking and sensitive mind. LiNES ON THE DEATH OF THE REV. MR. WASHBURN, OF FALMINGTON, CON- NECTiCUT, DURING A STORM AT MIDNIGHT, WHILE ON HIS PASSAGE TO SOUTH-CAROLINA, FOE THE BENEFIT OF 1115 H ALTIS, ACCOMPANIES) BY HIS WISE. The southern gale awoke, its breath was mild, The hoary face of mighty ocean srnild; Silent he lay, and oer his breast did move A little bark that much he seemd to love He lent it favouring winds of steady force, And bad the zephyrs waft it on its course; So on its trackless way, it movd sublime, To bear the sick man to a softer clime. Then night came on the humid vapours rose, And scarce a gale would fan the dead repose; It. seemd as if the cradle storms did rest, As infants dream upon the mothers breast. But when deep midni,,ht clairnd his drear domain And darkly prest the sick mans couch of pain, The prison d winds to fearful combat leap, And rouse the wrathful spirit of the deep, Th impatient storms arosetheir sleep was past, The thunder roard a hoarse and dreadful Nast, The troubled bark was tost upon the wave, The cleaving billows shewd a ready grave, 116 Miss Huntleys Poems. [May, The lightoings blazd insufferably bright, Forth rode a spirit on the wing ofniTht; An unseen hand was there, whose stron~ control, Requird in that dread hour the sick malts soul, It stru~gled and was gone! to hear no more The whirlwinds sweeping, and the torrents roar, The rending skies, the loud and troubled deep, The a~onizing friend, that wakd to weep No more to shrink before the tempests breath, No more to linger in the pangs of death No more! no more ! it saw a purer sphere, Nor surging seanor vexing storms were there; Before his eye a spotless region spread, Where darkness rested notor doubt or dread, And sickness sighd not there, and mortal ills were fled. AN EXCUSE FOR NOT FULFILLING AN ENGAGEMENT. WRITTEN IN SCHOOL, My friend I gave a glad assent To your request at noon, But now I find 1 cannot leave My little ones so soon. I early came, and as my feet First enterd at the door, to myself I said, You must dismiss at fcur.~ But slates, and books, and maps appear, And many a dear one cries, Oh, tell us where that river runs, And where those mountains rise; And where that blind, old monarch reignd, And who ~vas king before, And stay a little after five, And tell us something more. And then my little *** * * t comes, And who unmovd can view, The glance of that imploring eye, Oh, teach me something too. A chitd deprived of the powers of hearing, and of speech. Miss Huntleys Poems. 11~ And who would think amd the toil, (Thuugh scarce a toil it be.) That through the door, the nuses coy Shoald deign to peep at me. Their look is somewhat culd and stern, As if it meant to say, We did not know you kept a school, We must have lost our C~ Their visit was but short indeed, As these light numbers show But Oh! they bade me write with speed, My friend, I cannot go. MORNING THOUGHTS. Awake ! Awake! the rosy light Looks through the parted veil of night Awake! arise ! short space hast thou On earth, and much thou hast to do: Another morn to thee is given, Another gift from bounteous heaven Is lent to thee, while many sleep To wake no more on earth again; Is sweet to thee, while many weep, Deep sunk in grief, or toin ~vith pain. Oh, spring to life ! with joy renewd, And pour the strain of gratitude, On bended knee, with holy fear, With humble hope, with faith sincere. Befor the sun shall raise his head To smile upon the blushing day, Or from his chamber rush to lead The young and thin-robd dawn away. Before the morn with tresses fair Shall sail upon the waveless air, Oh, let thy soul ascend as free, Thy heart be tund to harmuny, And meekly to thy Maker bear, The early vow, the early prayer, Unstaind with shades of earthly care. Kneel like a suppliant at his feet, Yet like a child address his throne, And let an hour so calm, so sweet, Be sacred to thy God alone. 1815.] 1i~ Miss Huntleys Poems. [May. THE %~UEEN OF NIGHT. The queen of night rode bold and high, Her path was white with stars, Her cheek was sanguine, and her eye Glancd on the blood staind Mars. No word she spake, no sign she made, Save that her head she bowd, As if a cold, good night she bade, To some departing cloud. A fleecy robe was loosely cast, Around her graceful form, She hid her forehead from the blast, Hoarse herald of the storm. But soon she staid her rushing car, And checkd her rapid rein, For morn beheld her from alhr, And frownd upon her train. The queen of night, and rosy morn, Together might not dwell; One came to rouse the slumbering dawn, The other sought her cell. TWILIGHT. 1 saw, ere the landscape had faded in night, The slow-moving twilight with gesture sublime, As I pensively watchd the decline of the light, And listend, absorbd to the foot-fall of time. And I said to my heart, as it rose in my breast, What wakes thee to sorrow, what moves thee to mourn? And my heart answerd quick, with emotion opprest, I grieve for the hours, that must never return. In the pale hand ef twilight, a tablet appeard, Though veild in her mantle, and muffled with shade; That this had recorded my errours I feard, And I knew that its traces were never to fade. 1815.] Miss Huntleys Poems. 119 VICTORY. Waft not to me the blast of fame, That swells the trump of victory, For to my ear it gives the name Of slaughter, and of misery. Boast not so much of honours sword, Wave not so hi~h the victors plume; They point me to the bosom gord, They point me to the blood-staind tomb~ The boastful shout, the revel loud, That strive to drown the voice of pain, What are they but the fickle crowd Rejoicing oer their brethren slain ? And ah, through glorys fading blaze,~ I see the cottage taper, pale, Which sheds its faint and feeble rays, Where unprotected orphans wail: Where the sad widow weeping stands, As if her day of hope was done: Where the wild mother clasps her hands, And asks the victor for her son Where the lone maid in secret sighs Oer the lost solace of her heart, As prostrate, in despair, she lies, And feels her torturd life, depart Where midst that desolated land, The sire lamenting oer his son, xtends his weak and powerless hand, And finds its only prop is gone. See how the bands of war and wo Have rifled sweet domestick bliss; And tell me if your laurels grow, And flourish in a soil like this ? One great negative merit of tnese poems is, that they are almost wholly free from any false taste, from any thing either in thought or style, that is turgid or vulgar. There ts much freedom and facility in the manner, a correctness 120 Miss Huntleys Poems. [May, and harm~my in the features, though generally tinged with melancholy; that make us strongly wish, that the writer would devote herself to some work of greater scope and higher character than any of these occasional verses. We think there are one or two passages in the poem on the Doves lea ring the .lrk, which partake of the sublime. The de- scription of the deluge, And slowly as its axle turnd, The watry planet movd and mourn~d; the whole of the passage ending with these two lines, ~C Nor slightest breath her bosom cheerd, Her own soft wings alone she heard, If not sublime, which we think it to be, will at least be al- lowed by all, to be exquisitely beautiful and pathetick. After considering the indications of genius, afforded by these disconnected poems, the variety and facility of versi- fication they discover, joined to what we have heard of the fair authors solid acquirernents, and her power and habit of severe application, we should, if our advice were a little more imposing, earnestly counsel her to devote her mind to some more considerable undertaking. We have in the way of subjects, a rich and various mine that has hardly been opened. Let it be remembered, how much the genius of Scott has struck out from his Scottish highland chiefs, and the border warhre with England ; whe ie both men and events are almost beneath the dignity of history ; from what rude materials has he constructed and polished his most successful produbtions ! How much more important, how much more varied, how vastly superiour in picturesque effect, the events that took place on our frontiers, in the course of the seventeenth, and beginning of the eighteenth century! The contest between the English and French, and the intermixture of their savage allies; the splendour of the epoch in the history of those two people at home, was reflected on their distant contests in Canada ; the important part played by the various tudian tribes, particularly the Six Nations, whose history is abundantly interesting; the share we took as colonists in these events ; the vast revolutions that have since happened among these different nations; all furnish materials at once interesting and grand. There 1815.] ./iiiss Iluntleys Poems. 121 are so many contrasts involved, that might be rendered high- ly poetical. The polished French nobleman from the court of Lewis XIV. the dignified British governour, the h rdy American colonist, the distinguished chiefs of the Six Na- tions, the insinuating Jesuit missionary, all present very sulk lug details; and then the magnificence of the scene rv,the cataract, in its gigantick magnificence, that might receive all the waterfalls of Europe united, without perceiving the ad di- tion; the lakes whose shores for a century and a half, have been rendered illustrious by so many memorable combats of different nations, all give dignity to the theme. Many roman- tick adventures of individuals would furnish interesting epi- sodes. The martial events are highly interesting. A pecu- liar fatality has attended all the combats on the plains of Abraham under the walls of Quebec; at distant periods, three commanders in chief of three different nations have been slain; the French Marquis de Montcalm, the English Gene- ral Wolfe, and the American General Montgomery. A pe- rusal of Coldens History of the Six Nations, the Baron de Ia Hontons travels, and several works in the early history of Virginia, New-England and Canada, would be found replete with characters, incidents, and actions of the most diversified, animated, and picturesque description. Vol. 1. No. 1. 16 122 4lieteoroiogical Journal. [May, METEOROLOGICAL JOURNAL. Latitude of Bowdoin College, 430 53 N. THE Thermometer employed in the following observations, was constructed by Mr. Six, and registers the maxima of heat and cold. The gradation is according to the scale of Fahrenheit. The in- strument has a northern exposure, and is elevated abeut six feet, being exposed to the influence of no object, excepting that to which it is attached. I have marked degrees above and below the zero by the signs (:) an(1 (-). FEBRUARY, 1815. -~ p.. I: 7 14 8 19 14 13 12 9 8 4 11 3 12 8 13 14 14 - 9 15 :13 16 14.1. 17 15 18 8.5 19 5.5 20 - 3 21 :32 22 17 23- 4 24: 1.5 23 19 26 26 27j 10.5 28 35 Means 10.5 a :22.70 :22O~15O~23O :~9.68.29.76 :6.5 27 2~.82 29.77 .7 27 29.85 29 68 17.7 28 29.7529.71 12 21 29.6829Th 12 21 29.8029Th 8.2 25 29.9029.8C -14.5 27 29.7129.6~ 1.2 32 29.5529.50 - 5.7 30 29.6929.73 9 30 29.7929.77 8 30.5 29.7 P29.65 15 29.70~29.75 19 29.86~29.77 30 29.6029.62 .15 ,29.69 29.60 31 29.9029.87 13.5 ,29.78~29.67 32 29.8029.81 32 29.9029.80 40 29.4629.39 24 29.902999 21 30.2530.24 21 30.50 30.52 35 303)3 29.95 41 29.72 29.87 38.5 30.1430.08 42 29.66 29.60 26.5 26 26.5 24.5 27.5 21 20 17 21 18 24 17.5 26 19 30 23.5 26 20 29 19 30 23 14.5 11 :12 18.3 16.5-15.5 28 22-6 33.5 24 : 1.7 29.2 24.5 9.1 13 10 7.7 30 2.3.1 5 31 30.19 39 33 :28.1 24 19 12 20 17 -14.~ 20 19 9.~ 35 28 :16 40 33 24 37 34 -.5 41 34 :23.1 27,2122.432 CS 29.82 29.81 29.62 19.71 9Th 19.Th 29.84 19.6C 29.51 29.7( 29.81 29 60 29.79 29.70 29.67 29.59 29.87 29.68 29.86 29.69 29.35 30.05 30.27 30,43 29.85 3). 30. 29.60 28.2 29.81 19.79 29.78. XVeather. a, - a ~ CS .~ k~- CS NW iN.XX. Fair Fair NW. . XV. Sno Clo. SW ~.W. Cle. Clo. N.E. N.E. I air Clo. N.E. E. Clo. Fair N.E. N. Sno. Sue. NW. SW. Fair Fair SW. SW. Fair Fair NW. NW. Fair Fair N.VS. NW. Fair Fair N.E. N.E Clo. Fair N.E. NW. Clo. Clo. NW. NW. Clo. Fair SW. SW. Fair Fair NW. N.XV. Fair Fair S.W SW. Clo. Clo, NW. SW. Fair Clo. N.E. N.E. Sue. Clo. N.E. SW. Fair Clo. 5. 5. Fair Sue. S. N.E do. Sue. N.E. N.W.FairClo. SW. SW. Fair Fair E. N.E. die. Sue, N.E. N.E. Fair Sco. N W .~N . W. Fair Fair C1o Clo. - Co NW. NW. NW. N.E. N.E. N.E. NW. W. S.XV. NW NW. N.E. N.W w. N.W N.W N.W N.E. N.E. NW. W. NW. N.XV. N.E. N.E. W. S.W. S.w. Mean temperature deduced from three observations each day 20.O6~ ditto maxima of heat and cold 15.70 Mean pressure of the atrnospher~ - - 29.79 in. Greatest monthly range of barometer - - 1.17 Snow reduced to water - - - - 1.50 The total absence of rain, during this month, is uncommon. Barometer. Winds.

Meteorological Journals 122-126

122 4lieteoroiogical Journal. [May, METEOROLOGICAL JOURNAL. Latitude of Bowdoin College, 430 53 N. THE Thermometer employed in the following observations, was constructed by Mr. Six, and registers the maxima of heat and cold. The gradation is according to the scale of Fahrenheit. The in- strument has a northern exposure, and is elevated abeut six feet, being exposed to the influence of no object, excepting that to which it is attached. I have marked degrees above and below the zero by the signs (:) an(1 (-). FEBRUARY, 1815. -~ p.. I: 7 14 8 19 14 13 12 9 8 4 11 3 12 8 13 14 14 - 9 15 :13 16 14.1. 17 15 18 8.5 19 5.5 20 - 3 21 :32 22 17 23- 4 24: 1.5 23 19 26 26 27j 10.5 28 35 Means 10.5 a :22.70 :22O~15O~23O :~9.68.29.76 :6.5 27 2~.82 29.77 .7 27 29.85 29 68 17.7 28 29.7529.71 12 21 29.6829Th 12 21 29.8029Th 8.2 25 29.9029.8C -14.5 27 29.7129.6~ 1.2 32 29.5529.50 - 5.7 30 29.6929.73 9 30 29.7929.77 8 30.5 29.7 P29.65 15 29.70~29.75 19 29.86~29.77 30 29.6029.62 .15 ,29.69 29.60 31 29.9029.87 13.5 ,29.78~29.67 32 29.8029.81 32 29.9029.80 40 29.4629.39 24 29.902999 21 30.2530.24 21 30.50 30.52 35 303)3 29.95 41 29.72 29.87 38.5 30.1430.08 42 29.66 29.60 26.5 26 26.5 24.5 27.5 21 20 17 21 18 24 17.5 26 19 30 23.5 26 20 29 19 30 23 14.5 11 :12 18.3 16.5-15.5 28 22-6 33.5 24 : 1.7 29.2 24.5 9.1 13 10 7.7 30 2.3.1 5 31 30.19 39 33 :28.1 24 19 12 20 17 -14.~ 20 19 9.~ 35 28 :16 40 33 24 37 34 -.5 41 34 :23.1 27,2122.432 CS 29.82 29.81 29.62 19.71 9Th 19.Th 29.84 19.6C 29.51 29.7( 29.81 29 60 29.79 29.70 29.67 29.59 29.87 29.68 29.86 29.69 29.35 30.05 30.27 30,43 29.85 3). 30. 29.60 28.2 29.81 19.79 29.78. XVeather. a, - a ~ CS .~ k~- CS NW iN.XX. Fair Fair NW. . XV. Sno Clo. SW ~.W. Cle. Clo. N.E. N.E. I air Clo. N.E. E. Clo. Fair N.E. N. Sno. Sue. NW. SW. Fair Fair SW. SW. Fair Fair NW. NW. Fair Fair N.VS. NW. Fair Fair N.E. N.E Clo. Fair N.E. NW. Clo. Clo. NW. NW. Clo. Fair SW. SW. Fair Fair NW. N.XV. Fair Fair S.W SW. Clo. Clo, NW. SW. Fair Clo. N.E. N.E. Sue. Clo. N.E. SW. Fair Clo. 5. 5. Fair Sue. S. N.E do. Sue. N.E. N.W.FairClo. SW. SW. Fair Fair E. N.E. die. Sue, N.E. N.E. Fair Sco. N W .~N . W. Fair Fair C1o Clo. - Co NW. NW. NW. N.E. N.E. N.E. NW. W. S.XV. NW NW. N.E. N.W w. N.W N.W N.W N.E. N.E. NW. W. NW. N.XV. N.E. N.E. W. S.W. S.w. Mean temperature deduced from three observations each day 20.O6~ ditto maxima of heat and cold 15.70 Mean pressure of the atrnospher~ - - 29.79 in. Greatest monthly range of barometer - - 1.17 Snow reduced to water - - - - 1.50 The total absence of rain, during this month, is uncommon. Barometer. Winds. J~feteorological Journal. MARCH, 1815. Thermometer. Barometer. ______________________________________ I.. ~a~ ~ sI ~ ~ a~) -,, . a o~ ~ ~ ~. ~ ~ ,r ~ ~N 41 26.5 50 299729.9129.87 1:32~ :46.5c 36.~ :21C :4 29.7T z9 76 29.13k 2 35 45 36 24.7 46.5 29.9429.9429.92 33 49.5 33 44,5 39 23.5 47 29.8;329.77 29.70 5 41 40 44 37 50.5 29.79 29.69 29.58 6 44 51 45 35 51.5 29.6429.7129.82 7 30.5 35 35 29.5 36 30.0J 30.10 30.14 ~8 22 37 :30 12.5 38.5 40.33 :30,35 30.36 9 32 3.~ 36.5 24) 40 30 21 .30.11 30.09 10 23 475 40 17 48 30.1330 1 30A49 11 38 42 40 34 4:3.5 2997297929.76 12 33 46 42 25 5 4i 29.86 ~9 90 29.93 1334 .36 30 30 :36 29.9029.9224.77 14 29 42 :34 2~ s ~5. 2o 29.93 29.84 15~3S 43 33 32.5 45.~ 29.2429.0729.1i 16~ 25 30.5 26 2~ :31 29 5~. 29.68 29 88 17 2o 31 27 10 11.5 10)42 21.87 29.50 18 29.3 29.37 1924 36 20 9.~ 37 29.7129.7129.77 20 15 21 165 1 22 29.8229.852091 21 3 16.5 20 . 1 20 :30.0630.02,3002 22 9 21 18.2 . 7 22 30.3030.843033 23 19 32 20 14 32 30,1030.02209q 2431 41 36.5 27 5 41 5 29.84 29.60 2940 2534 42.5 :33 26.5 13 20.70 29.7929.92 126 20 30 26 13 32 30.36 39 30 30.37 27 :33.5 36 :34 20 36 30.02 29.30 29.56 2839 43.5 36 29.7 45~ 29.75 29.90 30.02 29 25 35 28 16.5 35 303430.21 30.18 30 29 35 32.5 26.5 35 29.8029.7220.70 31~ 32 .35 35 29.3 33 20.46 29.21 29.06 M~an~ 285 37.9 38~t 2.1.3 39.1 29.89 29.86 29.84 80418W ~W SW SW SW NE SW SXV SW SW SW SWSF S ~ SI T lIT N Nb S XV NIX T,W S~ SIlT ~-~W SW SIX SIX SW NW ~ IX~ 311 S I NE SE ~L SW SW SW 8 sIX NW NW NW N~X SESE NW NXX~ NIX SW NW NIXT 1 IV N IV NW NW NXV NW NW SXV SIlT NE NE NE NE SlY SW NIF IIF NW NIX~ SlY SlY SW SW SIlT SW NXV NW E SlY SW SlY NE NE NE ~E NE, Moan temperature deduced from three observations each day S3.06~ ditto maxima Qf heat and cold - 30.20 Mean pressure of the atmosphere - - 29.86 in. Greatest monthly range of barometer - - 1.33 Rain and snow reduced to water - - - 1.16 March 17, al)ont 10 oclock A. M. there was a most brilliant exhibition of halos and perhtlia in the vicinity of the son. The number of halos, or circlrs and arcs of circles was nine; and the number of par/relic or mock suns fec. As it is hardly possible to give an accurate description of the phenomenon with- ont the assistance of a fugnre, I shall barely re mark, that, among the halos, the most beautifol was a very distinct white circle, passin~ thron.gh the snus disc, parallel to the horizon, about 900 in diamcter, and having the zenith at its centre. In this circle were four parhelia or mock-suns two or them being March 8, Aurora Borealis. March 26. bri~ht halo round the son, at 12 odock, 15~ diat et r 1815.] 123 Winds. IVeather. ~ a Fair Fair Fair Fair Fair Fair Fair Clo Fair Mist tOo Faw Clo Fair s~aii aii Fair F air air Clo Rai Clo s i Cm. Clo ..eio Cm Clo Rai (Jo I an 1 iir Fair ~no Clo I air I ir in in i ~nr Far Piir F~ii Cm Sno Sle R:ie (Jo Fair Fair Fair . ir Zsii. I Clo Fair Fair Clo Siio Sno Mist Rain Mist 124 .Mieteorological Journal. [May, by estimation, 460 distant from the sun, and near to the points, where thc whise circle intersected an irised halo, passing round the sun; and the other two at 9Q0 from those just mentioned. The two former were irised; the two latter perfectly bite. The moroi~~g of this day was cloudless, with the wind blowing from N. W. but during the phenomenon, the vapour in the air was condensed with unusual ratil(hity in the south. About 30 minutes after 10 oclock, the southern part of the halos was ,~bscured by the actual formation of clouds; and about 2 oclock P. M. snow began to descend very copiously with a S. E. wind. The form of the snow was somewhat peculiar, being that of very long and slender spiculac or prisms. Two days previous to this phenomenon, a small quantity of rain fell with a south wind ; but the day immediatety preceding the 17th, was fair, with a N. XV. wind, and so cold that the maximum of heat was only 31~ indeed, on the 17th, the thermometer ascended no higher than 31g. 5, and the following day was cloudy, and cold with a N. XV. wind. During the nights of the 21st and 22d of March, the thermometer descended a little below zero, which has never before occurred so late in the month, since my residence in this place. f lie phenomenon just described was witnessed at Hallowell, a bout 30 miles north from Brunswick, and also at places at least 15 miles south. In the course of the month of March, B. Vaughan, Esq. of Hallowell, repeatedly observed, that in the region where the sun was shining, the sky around it exhibited pe- culiar appearances; the colour seemed to be such, as would result from cover- ing the sky with an extremely thin semi-transparent mist, composed of black and white vapours, illuniinaeed from within, and, at the same time, coated without by a transparent, silvery varnish. In one or two cases the black tint was very conspicuous. March 31. During most of this day, a fine mist cotitinued to fall; in the former part of the night the wind changed to N. W. accompanied by the fall of one or two inches of very light snow, which, on the following morning, pre- sented a very uncommon appearance. In the fields and roads were to be seen a test number of snow boils, varying in size from one to .fifleest inches in dia- meter, or perhaps, still larger. They were very irregularly scattered, and sometimes collected into little heaps by eddies in the wind. Most of those which I saw, were from four to ten inches in diameter. When small, their form was nearly spherical; but the larger balls were, in general, somewhat oval, in consequence of having rolled so far in one direction. rheir texture was homogeneous; they were extremely light, and composed of minute prisms of snow irregularly aggregated. When very small, they would hardly bear examination in the hand without falling to pieces; when larger, they had be- come more compact. The paths in which they had rolled were, in general, distinctly visible. These balls were observed in Lisbon, Topsham, Durham, Brunswick, Bath, Harpswell, and perhaps in other towns. It does not seem perfectly easy to point out all the circumstances which concurred in producing them. The above journal was furnished by Professor Cleveland of Bow- doin College, Brunswick. K 10 K K hO K K K K ~ _ ~ ~ , 0~ 0 4 ~0 K 0 0 z~ ci 4 CO K 00 CO .q o CO K ~~COK KCOK-~KKK ~-~KKK COKCOKK CO044CO Day. 7A.M. P M. M. H ICOKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKCO $02 ~0 022 $0 $0 $0 $0 $0 0000 0 0 0$0 $0 $0 $0 $0 $0 $0 $0 $027 A. M. K K K K CO CO CO K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K CO 0000 0 000 0000 00 0000 000 0 0$0 $0 $0 $0 23 P. M. ~ 0 0i K CO ~ CO 0 CJ~ 0~ -i 0~ ~ -~ CO 0~ -~ ~ 0~ ~ CO i 0~ -~i0 0 00 0 K 0 0000 K 00 Ci~ 0 4 0 000000 CO 0 o o 0 K K K K K CO CO CO K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K CO 0022$0$0$0$000000ce0 $0Z9PM ~o .i cc 0 ci ~ CO o~ o~ 00~ o~ CO CO i i o~ o~ CO CO o~ ci o~ 0 o 0 00000 0 00 0 0 0 0 00 K 0000 0 0 0 00 0 0 K CO ~ Z CO COZ COZ Z~~ ~ ~ CO Morning. ~ Afternoon. cc o ~ a. ~ KCOCO KCOCO 022 $022~ o 0.4 0~0~4 4 c~ ci tO ~. KCOCO KCOCO ~a 022 02 0~ 0.0i o~ i0CO KOCO ~ CO CO 0-a. KCOCO KCOCO 00 000 ~0. 0 i~~ ~ 0 a~ CO4 ~CO~-i ..:l ci 0 K 0~ ___ ___ ~ K40~ ~ Ko ~-i i4 OK 0~ oi CO.~ K4!0 CO0 4cc0 2 0 0& Ci 0 0 0 0 CJ~ (-5 0. 0 0. CO a 0 0 0. -s 0 ~ c~ L~J C -~ -s =~ ~ Z.cr~ 0 C 0 0~ C-s 0 C- -sCS ~ ~0 CC C 0- 0-s 0.. 0 K K K K K K K K K K ~ ~ ~ ct~ ~i Q~ C~ K ~ ~ ca -~ O~ Cj~ 4 K 0 ~ ~ C~ 4 ~ ~ Day. H 0 ~7 A.M. ~ ~ P. M. ~ 9A.M. K K 0~ K K CO K K K CO CO CO K K K K K K K CO K CO CO CO CO K K K K K K ~ 7 A. M. 0O~o~0CacaooooKoooooooro~oo~oooo1ooo a KK KKCOCOKKCOCOCOKKKKKKKCOKCOCOCOCOKKKKKK -~ ~ P M 0 a 000ca0oo~o~o4ooo~ooooo~ooooooo a K K CO CO K CO CO K K CO CO CO K K K K K K K K K CO CO CO CO CO K K tO K K CO CO 0 0 CO 0 0 CO CO 000 CO CO CO CO CO CO CO CO CO 0 0000 CO CO CO ~ 9 P. M. 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Pilgrimage to Jerusalem 126-127

K K K K K K K K K K ~ ~ ~ ct~ ~i Q~ C~ K ~ ~ ca -~ O~ Cj~ 4 K 0 ~ ~ C~ 4 ~ ~ Day. H 0 ~7 A.M. ~ ~ P. M. ~ 9A.M. K K 0~ K K CO K K K CO CO CO K K K K K K K CO K CO CO CO CO K K K K K K ~ 7 A. M. 0O~o~0CacaooooKoooooooro~oo~oooo1ooo a KK KKCOCOKKCOCOCOKKKKKKKCOKCOCOCOCOKKKKKK -~ ~ P M 0 a 000ca0oo~o~o4ooo~ooooo~ooooooo a K K CO CO K CO CO K K CO CO CO K K K K K K K K K CO CO CO CO CO K K tO K K CO CO 0 0 CO 0 0 CO CO 000 CO CO CO CO CO CO CO CO CO 0 0000 CO CO CO ~ 9 P. M. CO 0 0~ K 0 ~ O~ CO CO ~ 0~ ~ CO ~ 0 tO 0 -~ ca ca ca 0000C~000~000 W~f2CJ~j~f2~1i zcic ~ ~Zca~~caci2ci2ca z 0 0 ~ ~fternoon. a a ~ ~ ~aaaaaa~-aaaa~-a ~ 0 0 ~ ~ ~ 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 ~ Morning. 0 _______________________ ~ ca ~ ~ c12 ~ ~ -~ ~ 0 0 a a a a a a 0 ~ a a a 0 aaao~a~aaaa~a a a a 0 OO ~ ~- ~ Afternoon. 0~ (~ cr~ ~ a 0 0 00 - 0 E ~ 0~ 0 0 0 ~ 0 a ~ 0 a ~- 0 0 0 -I o ~ 0 ~, 00 a0.~ 0 z ~ 0 ~ 0 z 0 z 0 a a 0 0 0 Cr~ C 0 0 0 0 2 ~ 0 ~ 0 0 a cr~ 181~.] Intelligence. 127 desires from our youth, and at a time when there did not appear any possibility of accomplishing it. We hailed a secret presenti- ment, that we should one day be destined by divine Providence to un(lertake this pilgrimage. In directing our steps to Jerusalem, we should for ever re- proach ourselves it we neglected to inform the christian world of our resolution to visit that Holy City, since we hope to be accom- panied by some brethren of our holy religion. We propose the following conditions to those who may wish to join us in the journey. We invite among the European nations ten brethren to accompany us to Jerusalem,that is to say,an Englishman, a Dane,a Spaniard, a Frenchman, an inhabitant of Holstein-Eutin, a Hungarian, a Dutchman, an Italian, a Russian and a Swiss. 1. Each of them must be provided with a certificate from the diocese or con- sistory of his country, attesting the purity of his motives. 2. The pJace of rendezvous shall be the town ot Trieste; and the 2d of June next is the day appointed for the general meeting. 3. Those that can play upon any instrument, will take it with them, if it be not too cumbersome. 4. Each one must be provided with 4000 Augsburg forms, or at least 2000, in order to meet the preliminary expenses of the journey, and to form a gene- ral or common stock. 6. Each one to have a right to take a servant with him, on condition that he be a christian, or a person of good morals. 6. The brothers to put on a black dress which is neither magnificent or ex- pensive ;they are to let their beards grow as a proof of manly resolution, and to regard it as an honour to bear the name of Black Brethren. The cos- tume, as well as the armament and equipment, shall be definitely settled at Trieste, and also the Holy Convention. 7. The dress of the servants to be dark grey; this shall also be decided at Trieste. 8. The latest period of admission to the union of the Black Brethren is the ~24th of Jnne. Afterwards the publick will be informed whether the number be complete or not. 9. Those persons that shall enter into this union are to make it known in the newspapers of their country, and also of those of Frankfort on the Main, and acquaint us with it in writing at the same time b she Frankfort Gazette. , y directing for the Editor of Given at BasIc, on the 27th of January, Anno Domini 1816. GUSTAVUS ADOLFHUS. Duke of Holstein-Eutin. fROFESSORSHIP OF GREEK LITERATURE IN HARVARD UNI- VERSITY. IN April of the last year, a gentleman, through one of the cor- poration, made a donation of twenty thousand dollars, to endow a professorship of Greek literature in the University, the statutes to be made, and a Professor chosen ar.cI introduced to office within a convenient time. In February last the foundation was complet- ed by the enacting of the statutes, and the Rev. Edward Everett was chosen to fill the Professorship. On the 12th he was inaugu

Greek Literature Professorship 127-130

181~.] Intelligence. 127 desires from our youth, and at a time when there did not appear any possibility of accomplishing it. We hailed a secret presenti- ment, that we should one day be destined by divine Providence to un(lertake this pilgrimage. In directing our steps to Jerusalem, we should for ever re- proach ourselves it we neglected to inform the christian world of our resolution to visit that Holy City, since we hope to be accom- panied by some brethren of our holy religion. We propose the following conditions to those who may wish to join us in the journey. We invite among the European nations ten brethren to accompany us to Jerusalem,that is to say,an Englishman, a Dane,a Spaniard, a Frenchman, an inhabitant of Holstein-Eutin, a Hungarian, a Dutchman, an Italian, a Russian and a Swiss. 1. Each of them must be provided with a certificate from the diocese or con- sistory of his country, attesting the purity of his motives. 2. The pJace of rendezvous shall be the town ot Trieste; and the 2d of June next is the day appointed for the general meeting. 3. Those that can play upon any instrument, will take it with them, if it be not too cumbersome. 4. Each one must be provided with 4000 Augsburg forms, or at least 2000, in order to meet the preliminary expenses of the journey, and to form a gene- ral or common stock. 6. Each one to have a right to take a servant with him, on condition that he be a christian, or a person of good morals. 6. The brothers to put on a black dress which is neither magnificent or ex- pensive ;they are to let their beards grow as a proof of manly resolution, and to regard it as an honour to bear the name of Black Brethren. The cos- tume, as well as the armament and equipment, shall be definitely settled at Trieste, and also the Holy Convention. 7. The dress of the servants to be dark grey; this shall also be decided at Trieste. 8. The latest period of admission to the union of the Black Brethren is the ~24th of Jnne. Afterwards the publick will be informed whether the number be complete or not. 9. Those persons that shall enter into this union are to make it known in the newspapers of their country, and also of those of Frankfort on the Main, and acquaint us with it in writing at the same time b she Frankfort Gazette. , y directing for the Editor of Given at BasIc, on the 27th of January, Anno Domini 1816. GUSTAVUS ADOLFHUS. Duke of Holstein-Eutin. fROFESSORSHIP OF GREEK LITERATURE IN HARVARD UNI- VERSITY. IN April of the last year, a gentleman, through one of the cor- poration, made a donation of twenty thousand dollars, to endow a professorship of Greek literature in the University, the statutes to be made, and a Professor chosen ar.cI introduced to office within a convenient time. In February last the foundation was complet- ed by the enacting of the statutes, and the Rev. Edward Everett was chosen to fill the Professorship. On the 12th he was inaugu 12t~ Miscellaneous and Literary. [May, rated in the usual form ; with prayer, and a Latin address by the President, a reply in Latin by the Professor, an innugural Oration by the Professor, in the vernacular tongue, and musick by the stu- dents. The inaugural Oration exhibited the claims of this depart- ment of literature with striking force and eloquence; and, in con- clusion, referred to the circumstances and feelings of the author with great delicacy and affecting tenderness. The following are the statutes of the professorship Rules and Statutes of the Professorship of Greek Literature in Harvard Col- lege, founded by an unknown benefactor, in the year 1814, and established by votes of the President and Fellows, passed February 7th and 20th, A. D. 1815, and of the Overseers, on the 23d of the same month. CHAPTER 1. THE FOUNDATION OF THE PROFEssORsHIp. The sum given as aforesaid, shall be managed and invested by the President and Fellows for the time being, and the income be applied by them for the support of a Professor of the Greek language, and of Greek literature, in the University at Cam- bridge, who shall be called the Professor of Greek Literature ; provided that the corporation may give another name to the professor, but not that of the founder, except with his express consent. CHAPTER II. ELECTION OF THE PROFESsOR. Article 1. The first Professor and his successors shall be elect- ed by the President and Fellows, and the election be approved by the Overseers of Harvard College. The Professor shall be a mas- ter of arts, of the Christian Protestant religion; and shall bear the character of a learned, pious, and honest man. Article 2. When, after the election of the first Professor, there shall be a vacancy in the office, a successor shall be appointed and introduced into the office, within one year after such a vacancy shall happen. Article 3. The Professor, after his election, and before he en- ters on the execution of the duties of his office, shall make and subscribe a declaration before the President and Fellows, that he believes in the Christian religion, and has a firm persuasion of its truth ; and that he is, in principle, a protestant ; that he will with diligence and fidelity discharge the duties of his office, ac- cording to these statutes, and such other statutes and laws, as are or may be made by the College Legislature, not repugnant there- unto; that he will labour to, advance the interests of general science and literature; that by his example, as well as otherwise, he will endeavour to encourage and promote tru.~ piety, and all 1815.] Intelligence. .1 Z) the Christian virtues ; and that ho ~s iii at all times consult the good of his pupils, an] of h Coib cc in every respect. Article 4. The Professor s~i 11 1iold his ofhce 1w toe sarac tenure generally, as the ota( r Prok ssors upon foundations ; lie shall be subject to removal for any just and sofficient cause, by the President and lellows the U erseers consentintr thereto provided, that in case of the removal ot a Professor on this foun dation, for iocapicitv, arising aftu his election, and from no fault of his own, the President and Fellows of said Cellege, shall nave a tight to make such proXi5ioi~ fur h:s support, not from the fond, or income of the Professorship, but ot of the unappropri- ated funds of the College, as they shall see fit. CHAPTER Iii. THE DUTIES OF THY PROFESSOR. Article 1. It shall be the (luty of the Professor to culti~ te and promote the knowledge of the Greek language, and of C ~eek literature. He shall give pub!ick anrl private lectoi ca, as the Cor- poration may determine, on the genius, structure, ci ii tct i isticks and excellencies of the Greek lan~uage, in th~ purest ace 01 the language, and in the period succeeding, not reglectioc the state of it in modern times on the principal Greek authoi s takino- no- tice of the Greek fathers and ecclesiastical writers , and on the interpretation of the Septuagint Version, and of the Greek New Testament, especially so far as such interl)retation may be aided by a knowledge of Greek. Article 2. The Professor shall l)oint out the best course of reading and study, for those who would become versed in Grecian literature. Article 3. V ascertain arid promote the improvement of his pupils, the Professor shall statedly or frequently examine them on the topicks treated in his l)uhlick lectures, proposing questions to be answered o ally, or in writing, as he shall see fit. Article 4. The Professor shall give private lectures or exer- cises to such of the graduates and under-graduates, as may come tinder his care, in which he shall assign portions of Greek au- thors, to be studied by the pupils. Itt these exercises, it ~~ill be his duty to explain and illustrate the work under consideration to observe the sentiments, spirit, style and general execution the imagery and rhetorical beauties, that the University may send out alumni, who possesses a discriminating knowledge of the renowned productions of Grecian authors, and the powers of the Grecian language. Article 5. The number and order of the lectures and exercises to be given b the Professor, and the description of students, gra- (luates and under-graduates, who shall receive his instruction, Vol. I, No. 1. 17 130 .IJIiscellaneous and Literary. [May, shall be the subjects of particular regulation by the College law from time to time, as occasion may invite or require. Article 6. It shall be in the power of the President and Fel- lows of the University, to annex to the Greek professorship, at~re said, any duties not included in the preceding outline; provided, that such duties shall only extend to instruction in the Greek lan- guage, or Greek literature, or in sacred criticism, so far as it is con- nected with a knowledge of Greek. The University has been of late years increasing in respecta- bility, in the number and importance of its establishments, and in a general energy and activity among the govern sent and the students. The foundation of this professorship is an ~idvantage that will be fully appreciated by all the lcvers of the Greek lan- t~ua~e and learning. The choice made of the Protessor com- pletes the ~vishes of the publick. Mr. Everett was twenty-one years of age the day of inauguration. This is a very youthful peri- od for a professor ; but he had already been for a year the l)astor of one of the largest and most respectable congregations in Boston; he had composed in the course of this yeaa seventy or eighty sermons ; many of which were discourses of the highest character. He had also written a volume in answer to an attack on chris- tianity, which abounds in argument, and the most learned re- search. To this power of application, and theol%ical science, he adds a brilliant and playful fancy, and an extensive knowledge of ancient and modern literature. It is unnecessary to enlarge on the value of this acqtlisitiOr) to the University. lie went to Europe a few days after his inauguration, where he will examine the most celebrated universities, and learned establishments ; and if cir- cumstances will allow it, visit those illustrious shores, which are immortalized in the lannage that has caused his professorship. it is calculated that lie will remain abroad two years. The exercises of the day were attended by a numerous and brilliant audience, and gave great satisfaction. The College Boards dined together in the publick rooms, and the evening concluded with a handsome ball given by a number of the stu- dents. A great number of publications on the Corn laws, have been made in England. This question has been one of the priocinal subjects of discussion in Parliament for the last year. They have at last established a minimum of 80 shillings per quarter, below which price corn cannot be imported. The decision has caused riots for eight days in London, and great discontent all over the country. The question in reality amounts to this, shall the national debt be paid ? To satisfy the publick creditor, the land must be so burthened with taxation, that wheat cannot be raised for less than 80 shillin~s per quarter, or eight bushels.

Corn laws 130-131

130 .IJIiscellaneous and Literary. [May, shall be the subjects of particular regulation by the College law from time to time, as occasion may invite or require. Article 6. It shall be in the power of the President and Fel- lows of the University, to annex to the Greek professorship, at~re said, any duties not included in the preceding outline; provided, that such duties shall only extend to instruction in the Greek lan- guage, or Greek literature, or in sacred criticism, so far as it is con- nected with a knowledge of Greek. The University has been of late years increasing in respecta- bility, in the number and importance of its establishments, and in a general energy and activity among the govern sent and the students. The foundation of this professorship is an ~idvantage that will be fully appreciated by all the lcvers of the Greek lan- t~ua~e and learning. The choice made of the Protessor com- pletes the ~vishes of the publick. Mr. Everett was twenty-one years of age the day of inauguration. This is a very youthful peri- od for a professor ; but he had already been for a year the l)astor of one of the largest and most respectable congregations in Boston; he had composed in the course of this yeaa seventy or eighty sermons ; many of which were discourses of the highest character. He had also written a volume in answer to an attack on chris- tianity, which abounds in argument, and the most learned re- search. To this power of application, and theol%ical science, he adds a brilliant and playful fancy, and an extensive knowledge of ancient and modern literature. It is unnecessary to enlarge on the value of this acqtlisitiOr) to the University. lie went to Europe a few days after his inauguration, where he will examine the most celebrated universities, and learned establishments ; and if cir- cumstances will allow it, visit those illustrious shores, which are immortalized in the lannage that has caused his professorship. it is calculated that lie will remain abroad two years. The exercises of the day were attended by a numerous and brilliant audience, and gave great satisfaction. The College Boards dined together in the publick rooms, and the evening concluded with a handsome ball given by a number of the stu- dents. A great number of publications on the Corn laws, have been made in England. This question has been one of the priocinal subjects of discussion in Parliament for the last year. They have at last established a minimum of 80 shillings per quarter, below which price corn cannot be imported. The decision has caused riots for eight days in London, and great discontent all over the country. The question in reality amounts to this, shall the national debt be paid ? To satisfy the publick creditor, the land must be so burthened with taxation, that wheat cannot be raised for less than 80 shillin~s per quarter, or eight bushels. 1815.] Intelligence. 131 And at this price, the manufacturers will find it difficult to corn- pete with those of the Continent. Louis Bonaparte, late kind of Holland, has had a law suit at Paris with his wife, to obtain possession of his son, whom she. had reftzsed to give up to him, and the decision of the court was in his favour. He has published a novel in three volumes, call- ed, Maria. or the Liollanders, the scene of which is in Holland. All the virtuous and suffering characters are Dutchmen, all the criminal ones Frenchmen the chief calamity is the conquest of Holland ; the miseries of the hero arise from his having bern drawn for the conscription. rflle prevailing feature of the work is the eutleisiasni with which the author dwells on the happiness of private, virtuous domestick life. It has been translated and published in London. Madame Catalani is established in Paris, and the management of the Italian opera has been given to her for 12 years. 1956 men and boys. 340 2296 8974 rVhe following items were contained in the documents given to the English 1~arliament, on the call for papers relating to the war. Ships belonging to his Majesty, captured by the Americans, 16 ships and vessels, mounting 266 grins, and with 2~015 men and boys. Publick ships taken from America 34 ships and vessels, 400 guns, 8 on the lakes 94 42 ships and vessels, 228 private ships of ~var 270 ships ofwarof all sorts 2,400 American seamen that have been ~var. Total number captured, 18,413 Nrimber detained in ports, 2,548 494 1906 11,270 made prisoners during the 20,961 Aggregate of merchant vessels captured or destroyed as far as hath been reported to the Admiralty, 1328 Detained in the ports of England, 79 1407 Grand total. These documents will not bear examination. For instance, in the national ships on their side, the number of guns are put down at their nominal ratethe American ships are stated ac- cording to the number of guns they really carried. Is there not some mistake in this number of 20,961 seamen captured ?

Louis Bonaparte 131

1815.] Intelligence. 131 And at this price, the manufacturers will find it difficult to corn- pete with those of the Continent. Louis Bonaparte, late kind of Holland, has had a law suit at Paris with his wife, to obtain possession of his son, whom she. had reftzsed to give up to him, and the decision of the court was in his favour. He has published a novel in three volumes, call- ed, Maria. or the Liollanders, the scene of which is in Holland. All the virtuous and suffering characters are Dutchmen, all the criminal ones Frenchmen the chief calamity is the conquest of Holland ; the miseries of the hero arise from his having bern drawn for the conscription. rflle prevailing feature of the work is the eutleisiasni with which the author dwells on the happiness of private, virtuous domestick life. It has been translated and published in London. Madame Catalani is established in Paris, and the management of the Italian opera has been given to her for 12 years. 1956 men and boys. 340 2296 8974 rVhe following items were contained in the documents given to the English 1~arliament, on the call for papers relating to the war. Ships belonging to his Majesty, captured by the Americans, 16 ships and vessels, mounting 266 grins, and with 2~015 men and boys. Publick ships taken from America 34 ships and vessels, 400 guns, 8 on the lakes 94 42 ships and vessels, 228 private ships of ~var 270 ships ofwarof all sorts 2,400 American seamen that have been ~var. Total number captured, 18,413 Nrimber detained in ports, 2,548 494 1906 11,270 made prisoners during the 20,961 Aggregate of merchant vessels captured or destroyed as far as hath been reported to the Admiralty, 1328 Detained in the ports of England, 79 1407 Grand total. These documents will not bear examination. For instance, in the national ships on their side, the number of guns are put down at their nominal ratethe American ships are stated ac- cording to the number of guns they really carried. Is there not some mistake in this number of 20,961 seamen captured ?

Ships Captured 131-132

1815.] Intelligence. 131 And at this price, the manufacturers will find it difficult to corn- pete with those of the Continent. Louis Bonaparte, late kind of Holland, has had a law suit at Paris with his wife, to obtain possession of his son, whom she. had reftzsed to give up to him, and the decision of the court was in his favour. He has published a novel in three volumes, call- ed, Maria. or the Liollanders, the scene of which is in Holland. All the virtuous and suffering characters are Dutchmen, all the criminal ones Frenchmen the chief calamity is the conquest of Holland ; the miseries of the hero arise from his having bern drawn for the conscription. rflle prevailing feature of the work is the eutleisiasni with which the author dwells on the happiness of private, virtuous domestick life. It has been translated and published in London. Madame Catalani is established in Paris, and the management of the Italian opera has been given to her for 12 years. 1956 men and boys. 340 2296 8974 rVhe following items were contained in the documents given to the English 1~arliament, on the call for papers relating to the war. Ships belonging to his Majesty, captured by the Americans, 16 ships and vessels, mounting 266 grins, and with 2~015 men and boys. Publick ships taken from America 34 ships and vessels, 400 guns, 8 on the lakes 94 42 ships and vessels, 228 private ships of ~var 270 ships ofwarof all sorts 2,400 American seamen that have been ~var. Total number captured, 18,413 Nrimber detained in ports, 2,548 494 1906 11,270 made prisoners during the 20,961 Aggregate of merchant vessels captured or destroyed as far as hath been reported to the Admiralty, 1328 Detained in the ports of England, 79 1407 Grand total. These documents will not bear examination. For instance, in the national ships on their side, the number of guns are put down at their nominal ratethe American ships are stated ac- cording to the number of guns they really carried. Is there not some mistake in this number of 20,961 seamen captured ? Miecellaneous and Literary. 132 [May, An historical painting by Cot. H. Snouzw has been for some weeks exhibited to the publick. The dimensions are about twenty feet by ten. The subject, ahe lauding of the Fathers, of New-England, at Plymouth. One of the first points to con- stitute a valuable picture is a good subject. The artist ha been extremely fortunate. It l.a never before been painted, at least, in an important manner. Independently of the powerful interest that belongs to it, from the consequences that have followed the enter- prise of those heroick men; all the circumstances are picturesque. When we consider the character, the impulse, the intentions of the colonists, the season, the scenery, and the savages who at- tended their landing, there is a harmony, a kind of moral keeping in the circumstances of the event, that makes it admirably suited to painting. The artist has treated his subject with great ability. The small band of virtuous men, who were destined to be the founders of a great state, are here represented landing on the rocks of Plympouth in the month of December; the aspect of the coast, and the severity of the season, presenting an appearance as stern and severe, as their on principles and resolution. The groupe consists of men, women and children, who on first debark- ing among the rocks, are accosted by one of the aboriginal in- habitants, time representative of a race, who was destined to dis- appear, like the forests which they tenanted, before the descend- ants of this little band of exiles. The ship in which they traversed the ocean is seen at anchor at a distance, and they are debarking from a boat. In the sky and back ground, the aerial perspective, the grouping of the figures, and drawing of the heads of the men, the artist has been extremely successful. The heads of Brewster, the ruling Elder; Governor Carver,the valiant Mike Standish, and the Savage, are full of character and expression. The picture is not without faults, but it has great merits, and the l)ublick and the painter may both be congratulated on this exhi- bition. I: is to be hoped that the applause of the former wili en- courage the latter to repeat his efforts. Mr. CoLix is now exhibiting palntings of the memorable con- tests on Lake Champlain, and at Plattsburg. There are three views; the first represents the American Squadron at anchor, at the moment they are opening thefr first fire on the British Squad- ron coming down upon them; the second, Ihe heat of the action between them; the third represents the contest between the land forces for the passage of the river. This is a subject at which American may look with almost unmingled feelings. The contest in the first place was, on our part, on the defensive; the superiority of the force opposed to us on the water, was consider- able; on the land it was overwhelming; the enemy were confi- dent, and it is difficult to calculate what would have been the

Paintings 132-133

Miecellaneous and Literary. 132 [May, An historical painting by Cot. H. Snouzw has been for some weeks exhibited to the publick. The dimensions are about twenty feet by ten. The subject, ahe lauding of the Fathers, of New-England, at Plymouth. One of the first points to con- stitute a valuable picture is a good subject. The artist ha been extremely fortunate. It l.a never before been painted, at least, in an important manner. Independently of the powerful interest that belongs to it, from the consequences that have followed the enter- prise of those heroick men; all the circumstances are picturesque. When we consider the character, the impulse, the intentions of the colonists, the season, the scenery, and the savages who at- tended their landing, there is a harmony, a kind of moral keeping in the circumstances of the event, that makes it admirably suited to painting. The artist has treated his subject with great ability. The small band of virtuous men, who were destined to be the founders of a great state, are here represented landing on the rocks of Plympouth in the month of December; the aspect of the coast, and the severity of the season, presenting an appearance as stern and severe, as their on principles and resolution. The groupe consists of men, women and children, who on first debark- ing among the rocks, are accosted by one of the aboriginal in- habitants, time representative of a race, who was destined to dis- appear, like the forests which they tenanted, before the descend- ants of this little band of exiles. The ship in which they traversed the ocean is seen at anchor at a distance, and they are debarking from a boat. In the sky and back ground, the aerial perspective, the grouping of the figures, and drawing of the heads of the men, the artist has been extremely successful. The heads of Brewster, the ruling Elder; Governor Carver,the valiant Mike Standish, and the Savage, are full of character and expression. The picture is not without faults, but it has great merits, and the l)ublick and the painter may both be congratulated on this exhi- bition. I: is to be hoped that the applause of the former wili en- courage the latter to repeat his efforts. Mr. CoLix is now exhibiting palntings of the memorable con- tests on Lake Champlain, and at Plattsburg. There are three views; the first represents the American Squadron at anchor, at the moment they are opening thefr first fire on the British Squad- ron coming down upon them; the second, Ihe heat of the action between them; the third represents the contest between the land forces for the passage of the river. This is a subject at which American may look with almost unmingled feelings. The contest in the first place was, on our part, on the defensive; the superiority of the force opposed to us on the water, was consider- able; on the land it was overwhelming; the enemy were confi- dent, and it is difficult to calculate what would have been the 1816.] late Wgessce. 183 consequences of their success. The subject then is full of interest. Mr. Corny is one of the best painters of ships alive; he delineates them with the accuracy and lidelity of a portrait. The huh of his colouring is a general tone of blue or greenish blue that pre- vails through most of his pictures. Of those before us the first in the series is by far the best. The gentle appearance of the lake. the grandeur of the mountains in the bapk-ground, the clearness, distinctness, and spirit with which the ships are delineated, make it a beautiful painting; the contrast between the calm, majestick beauty of the scenery, and the deep, powerful passions, that were roused in the breasts, not only of the naval combatants, but of the anxious thousands that formed the two opposite armies who were spectators, excites the highest interest. The artist has made use of a stratagem to aster the publick, in representing the English frigate, which was commanded by commodore Downie, of dispro- portionate size, particularly in the second painting. This is an imitation of the English printsellers, who were a little puzzled in their representations of naval actions with , and therefore ge- nerally gave our ships the appearance of a three decker, and their own frigates that of a corvette. A plan has been formed, the details of which are sufficiently matured, to calculate on its being soon carded into effect, of giving a miscellaneous course of Lectures at the Boston Athe- neum. It is hoped that such an undertaking may conduce to the advantage of that establishment, and procure a rational amuse- ment for the town. It is proposed that these Lectures shall be delivered one morning or evening in the week, perhaps the former in summer, and the latter in winter. The subjects to be treated, will depend on the lecturerscience, literature, morals, govern- ment, political economy, the line arts, Sic. Sic. Of course there will be uio pretension to a regular course on any subject. Such desultory lectures, though not suited to students, will convey amusement and instruction to the audience which it may be pre- sumed will give their attendance. The proprietors and subscrib- ers to the Atheneum will each receive one or more tickets for themselves and families. Already aboi~t adozen gentlemen have agreed to deliver two or more lectures each, and it may be reason- ably expected, that the design will promote the interests of the Atheneum and the refined pleasures of the town. STuaboTna PanrTrnG..Of the various arts that, within the last few years, have been introduced into the country, there is no. one which the man of science and literature will contem late with more satisfaction than the StereoS e Art. We are highly ple~sed to observe its rapid progress, and the degree of perfection to which it has already arrived.

Proposed Lectures 133

1816.] late Wgessce. 183 consequences of their success. The subject then is full of interest. Mr. Corny is one of the best painters of ships alive; he delineates them with the accuracy and lidelity of a portrait. The huh of his colouring is a general tone of blue or greenish blue that pre- vails through most of his pictures. Of those before us the first in the series is by far the best. The gentle appearance of the lake. the grandeur of the mountains in the bapk-ground, the clearness, distinctness, and spirit with which the ships are delineated, make it a beautiful painting; the contrast between the calm, majestick beauty of the scenery, and the deep, powerful passions, that were roused in the breasts, not only of the naval combatants, but of the anxious thousands that formed the two opposite armies who were spectators, excites the highest interest. The artist has made use of a stratagem to aster the publick, in representing the English frigate, which was commanded by commodore Downie, of dispro- portionate size, particularly in the second painting. This is an imitation of the English printsellers, who were a little puzzled in their representations of naval actions with , and therefore ge- nerally gave our ships the appearance of a three decker, and their own frigates that of a corvette. A plan has been formed, the details of which are sufficiently matured, to calculate on its being soon carded into effect, of giving a miscellaneous course of Lectures at the Boston Athe- neum. It is hoped that such an undertaking may conduce to the advantage of that establishment, and procure a rational amuse- ment for the town. It is proposed that these Lectures shall be delivered one morning or evening in the week, perhaps the former in summer, and the latter in winter. The subjects to be treated, will depend on the lecturerscience, literature, morals, govern- ment, political economy, the line arts, Sic. Sic. Of course there will be uio pretension to a regular course on any subject. Such desultory lectures, though not suited to students, will convey amusement and instruction to the audience which it may be pre- sumed will give their attendance. The proprietors and subscrib- ers to the Atheneum will each receive one or more tickets for themselves and families. Already aboi~t adozen gentlemen have agreed to deliver two or more lectures each, and it may be reason- ably expected, that the design will promote the interests of the Atheneum and the refined pleasures of the town. STuaboTna PanrTrnG..Of the various arts that, within the last few years, have been introduced into the country, there is no. one which the man of science and literature will contem late with more satisfaction than the StereoS e Art. We are highly ple~sed to observe its rapid progress, and the degree of perfection to which it has already arrived.

Stereotype Printing 133-134

1816.] late Wgessce. 183 consequences of their success. The subject then is full of interest. Mr. Corny is one of the best painters of ships alive; he delineates them with the accuracy and lidelity of a portrait. The huh of his colouring is a general tone of blue or greenish blue that pre- vails through most of his pictures. Of those before us the first in the series is by far the best. The gentle appearance of the lake. the grandeur of the mountains in the bapk-ground, the clearness, distinctness, and spirit with which the ships are delineated, make it a beautiful painting; the contrast between the calm, majestick beauty of the scenery, and the deep, powerful passions, that were roused in the breasts, not only of the naval combatants, but of the anxious thousands that formed the two opposite armies who were spectators, excites the highest interest. The artist has made use of a stratagem to aster the publick, in representing the English frigate, which was commanded by commodore Downie, of dispro- portionate size, particularly in the second painting. This is an imitation of the English printsellers, who were a little puzzled in their representations of naval actions with , and therefore ge- nerally gave our ships the appearance of a three decker, and their own frigates that of a corvette. A plan has been formed, the details of which are sufficiently matured, to calculate on its being soon carded into effect, of giving a miscellaneous course of Lectures at the Boston Athe- neum. It is hoped that such an undertaking may conduce to the advantage of that establishment, and procure a rational amuse- ment for the town. It is proposed that these Lectures shall be delivered one morning or evening in the week, perhaps the former in summer, and the latter in winter. The subjects to be treated, will depend on the lecturerscience, literature, morals, govern- ment, political economy, the line arts, Sic. Sic. Of course there will be uio pretension to a regular course on any subject. Such desultory lectures, though not suited to students, will convey amusement and instruction to the audience which it may be pre- sumed will give their attendance. The proprietors and subscrib- ers to the Atheneum will each receive one or more tickets for themselves and families. Already aboi~t adozen gentlemen have agreed to deliver two or more lectures each, and it may be reason- ably expected, that the design will promote the interests of the Atheneum and the refined pleasures of the town. STuaboTna PanrTrnG..Of the various arts that, within the last few years, have been introduced into the country, there is no. one which the man of science and literature will contem late with more satisfaction than the StereoS e Art. We are highly ple~sed to observe its rapid progress, and the degree of perfection to which it has already arrived. 1 ~4 .Miscellaneous and Literary. [May, We have seen at the Bookstore of Messrs. Collins and Co. more than two thirds of their Quarto Bible complete in Stereotype Plates (executed by Mr. John Watts and his successors in the business, Messrs. B. and J. Collins) in a style of perfection not excelled, as is asserted by competent judges, even in Europe. This edition is enriched with ~ marginal notes, which, to- gether with the extreme attention paid to its accuracy, ~vill give additional value to Collins Bible a work already known as the most correct edition of the sacred volume ever printed in this coun try. We understand that the proprietors have determined to em- bellish this Stereotype edition with a variety of new Engravings, executed by the first Artists of Europe and America. We have not paid sufficient attention to the benefit of Stereo- typing, to be able to ascertain if it be more profitable to the book- seller than the usual mode of printing; but we are sensible that the art will be of the first importance to the publick, in all that relates to correctness and beauty. A work once made correct, and cast into solid plates, must ever remain so, whatever may be the number of e(litions printed, and is unexposed to those accidents which often happen in common printing, whereby the utmost care of the compositor and editor is defeated. We hope ere long to see correct Stereotype editions of those Lexicons and Dictionaries which are indispensable in our schools and colleges, so as effectually to do away the necessity of import- in such works from Europe. There are at the Atheneum three pamphlets in French, printed at Cape Henry, one of which, in quarto, is an official publica- tion of the government, a proces verbal of the sitting of the council of the nation, on the subject of the letters and intrigues of the agents of t he government of France. rJhe other two, in octavo, a refutation of the letter of the French general Dauxion La- vaysse, by the Chevalier de Prereau, secretary of his majesty henry 1st, and notes addressed to Baron Malouct, minister of the marine and the colonies of his majesty Louis 1 8th, itt refuta- tion of his memoirs on the colonies, particularly St. Domingo, by Baron do Vastey, secretary of the King, and member of the Privy Council. These pamphlets are curiosities ; they are well, and eloquently written, and the publick proceedings are in all due form and ceremony. Thee is as pretty and numerous a collec- tion of Princes, Dukes, Counts, Barons as any conotry in Europe could prod we in(leed England is quite outdone ; she has produced only one Black Prince but in St. Domingo there are many. These titles sound as well as any similar appellations; and may wear as xv 11 as older ones. if the colour of the heart be right, that of the skin is of inferiour importance.

Pamphlets from St. Domingo 134-136

1 ~4 .Miscellaneous and Literary. [May, We have seen at the Bookstore of Messrs. Collins and Co. more than two thirds of their Quarto Bible complete in Stereotype Plates (executed by Mr. John Watts and his successors in the business, Messrs. B. and J. Collins) in a style of perfection not excelled, as is asserted by competent judges, even in Europe. This edition is enriched with ~ marginal notes, which, to- gether with the extreme attention paid to its accuracy, ~vill give additional value to Collins Bible a work already known as the most correct edition of the sacred volume ever printed in this coun try. We understand that the proprietors have determined to em- bellish this Stereotype edition with a variety of new Engravings, executed by the first Artists of Europe and America. We have not paid sufficient attention to the benefit of Stereo- typing, to be able to ascertain if it be more profitable to the book- seller than the usual mode of printing; but we are sensible that the art will be of the first importance to the publick, in all that relates to correctness and beauty. A work once made correct, and cast into solid plates, must ever remain so, whatever may be the number of e(litions printed, and is unexposed to those accidents which often happen in common printing, whereby the utmost care of the compositor and editor is defeated. We hope ere long to see correct Stereotype editions of those Lexicons and Dictionaries which are indispensable in our schools and colleges, so as effectually to do away the necessity of import- in such works from Europe. There are at the Atheneum three pamphlets in French, printed at Cape Henry, one of which, in quarto, is an official publica- tion of the government, a proces verbal of the sitting of the council of the nation, on the subject of the letters and intrigues of the agents of t he government of France. rJhe other two, in octavo, a refutation of the letter of the French general Dauxion La- vaysse, by the Chevalier de Prereau, secretary of his majesty henry 1st, and notes addressed to Baron Malouct, minister of the marine and the colonies of his majesty Louis 1 8th, itt refuta- tion of his memoirs on the colonies, particularly St. Domingo, by Baron do Vastey, secretary of the King, and member of the Privy Council. These pamphlets are curiosities ; they are well, and eloquently written, and the publick proceedings are in all due form and ceremony. Thee is as pretty and numerous a collec- tion of Princes, Dukes, Counts, Barons as any conotry in Europe could prod we in(leed England is quite outdone ; she has produced only one Black Prince but in St. Domingo there are many. These titles sound as well as any similar appellations; and may wear as xv 11 as older ones. if the colour of the heart be right, that of the skin is of inferiour importance. 1815.] intelligence. The policy the French government were pursuing in regard to St. Domingo speaks for itself; but the stupidity of the agents employed is unequalled. rfhis general Dauxion Lavayssee wrote letters from Jamaica to Chistophe and Petion, in which the amount of his proposals, is that all these nobles and proprietors, should voluntarily and peaceably consent to become slaves again, or, as be remarks that this term was offensive, he proposes the ple~ising substitute of non libres. The following extracts from this admirable letter of general Lavaysse, are sufficiently curious to be inserted here. Dated October 1, 1814. We are no longer in the time of Bonaparte: all the sovereigns of Europe were combined to overthrow the usurper; all remain united, to assure the tranquillity of all parts of th. world. At this moment you see England punishing, at the distance of fif- teen hundred leagues from home, the United States of America, who had dared lend their support to the en.. my of the order and repose of the world ; already the capital of that new empire has been delivered to the flames ; its chief has flown ; till these same United States profess the principles of the sovereigns of Europe, England will not cease to crush them with the weiaht of her terrible vengeance ; therefore, so long as there is a single point of the universe where order is not re-established, the allied 5overeigns will not lay down their arms, they will remain united ~ to finish their great work. If you doubt this truth, General, your Excellency can consult by your agents, the disposition of England, formerly the enemy a of France, no xv her most faithful ally, and they will attest to you what I have now said. The King who wishes to reward merit wherever it can be a found, will act, do not doubt it, like the monarchs of Spain and Portugal, who, by their letters patent, give to an individual, what ever may be his colour, the condition of a white man. His royal l\CtT that has assimilated the Ney~s, the Soults, the C~ Suchets, the Dessole~s, & c. to the Montmorency~s, the Rohan~s, ~& c. by an act of munificence and equity, which all France . plautled, can equally render a black or a yellow man, the same before the throne and the law, and in all the social relatiens, as the whitest man in Picardy. For I believe that you have too sound a head, a mind too noble and enlightened, not to be satisfied with becomot~ a great nol)leman and a general officer, under this ancient dynasty of the Bourbons, which Providence seems pleased, in spite of all human calculations, to perl)etuate on the throne of our dear France; you will prefer to become an illustrious servant of c~the great monarch of the French, to the precarious lot of a chief of revolted slaves. And if examples were necessary to engage you to imitate others, look at the generals lVturat and 136 .MisceUancous and Literary [May, Bernadotte, chiefs or kings, for so many years, of nations whoris they have rendered illustrious by their arms, nobly descending from the thrones to which the consequences of the French revo- lotion had elevated them. Look at them, I say, descending nobly and voluntarily from those thrones, to become great and illustrious lords, and preferring legitimate and durable honours for themselves and their posterity, to the odious and prec rious title of usurper.~~ T he English newspapers reprobate the folly of this general Lavaysse. Proposals are issued for publishing a statistical View of the Commerce of the United States, its conriexion with agriculture and manufactures, together with an account of the publick debt, revenues and tonnage of the United States. There will be connected with the work, a brief vie~v of the trade, agricul- tore and manufactures of the Colonies previous to their mdc- pendence. The whole will be accompanie(l with numerous tables illustrative of general principles and objects. The publick are about to be indebted to the Hon. Timothy Pitkin, a member of the House of Representatives of the United States from the state of Connecticut, for a work so greatly to be desired, and em- bracing so many particulars of information, useful and necessary to almost every class and description of citizens in the commu- nity. From the character of Mr. Pitkin, the opportunities lie has possessed for collecting the facts and documents, requisite for such a work ; his uncommon industry, precision, patience of in- vestigation and zeal in the undertaking, the public may antici- pate with confidence, a volume which will do honour not only to the author, but to the country. It is some relief to the mind, tired with witnessing the temporary effusions of party heat, or perso~al zeal, to rest his eye upon a production of a general cha- racter, which, from the sphere it comprehends, promises to be ex- tensively useful, and from the labour and research bestowed upon it, to be lasting. It is unnecessary to add a reflection, which must occur to every one who is apprized of the publication, an(l of the auspices tinder which it is is~ued, that the reputation of the country will in no small degree be affected by the reception it shall give to proposals for the issuing such a work from the press. No individual, distinguished by his station, and by the intelligence with which his exertions on the floor of Congress have been con- ducted, offers for the patronage of his fellow citizens the result of the labour of many years of publick duty, and general observa- tion; not to serve any local, or temporary, or party purpose, but to preserve and (lifluse a kno ledge of details, on subjects of uni- versal concern. It may be reasonably presumed, that the patron~ i~e of the publick, will be prompt and extensive

Intelligence 136-140

136 .MisceUancous and Literary [May, Bernadotte, chiefs or kings, for so many years, of nations whoris they have rendered illustrious by their arms, nobly descending from the thrones to which the consequences of the French revo- lotion had elevated them. Look at them, I say, descending nobly and voluntarily from those thrones, to become great and illustrious lords, and preferring legitimate and durable honours for themselves and their posterity, to the odious and prec rious title of usurper.~~ T he English newspapers reprobate the folly of this general Lavaysse. Proposals are issued for publishing a statistical View of the Commerce of the United States, its conriexion with agriculture and manufactures, together with an account of the publick debt, revenues and tonnage of the United States. There will be connected with the work, a brief vie~v of the trade, agricul- tore and manufactures of the Colonies previous to their mdc- pendence. The whole will be accompanie(l with numerous tables illustrative of general principles and objects. The publick are about to be indebted to the Hon. Timothy Pitkin, a member of the House of Representatives of the United States from the state of Connecticut, for a work so greatly to be desired, and em- bracing so many particulars of information, useful and necessary to almost every class and description of citizens in the commu- nity. From the character of Mr. Pitkin, the opportunities lie has possessed for collecting the facts and documents, requisite for such a work ; his uncommon industry, precision, patience of in- vestigation and zeal in the undertaking, the public may antici- pate with confidence, a volume which will do honour not only to the author, but to the country. It is some relief to the mind, tired with witnessing the temporary effusions of party heat, or perso~al zeal, to rest his eye upon a production of a general cha- racter, which, from the sphere it comprehends, promises to be ex- tensively useful, and from the labour and research bestowed upon it, to be lasting. It is unnecessary to add a reflection, which must occur to every one who is apprized of the publication, an(l of the auspices tinder which it is is~ued, that the reputation of the country will in no small degree be affected by the reception it shall give to proposals for the issuing such a work from the press. No individual, distinguished by his station, and by the intelligence with which his exertions on the floor of Congress have been con- ducted, offers for the patronage of his fellow citizens the result of the labour of many years of publick duty, and general observa- tion; not to serve any local, or temporary, or party purpose, but to preserve and (lifluse a kno ledge of details, on subjects of uni- versal concern. It may be reasonably presumed, that the patron~ i~e of the publick, will be prompt and extensive 1815.] Intelligence. 137 Among the new works advertised in the late English newspa- pers, are the fol1owin~: History of the War in Spain and Portu- gal, from 180T to 1814, 1 vol. 8vo. by General Sarrasin,The Magick of Wealth, by the author of the Winter in Londun.His- torical Memoirs of my own time from iT7~ to 1~84, by Sir H. W Wraxall, Bart. 2 vols. Svo.An Inquiry into the nature and origin of Rent, and the laws by which it is governed, by the Rev. T. R. Maithus. WELLS & LILLY, Boston, have lately published, Sermons by the late Rev. Joseph S. Buckminster. With a Memoir of his Life and Character. Second edition. Price $2, boards. Sermons, chiefly on Particular Occasions. By Archibald Alison, L.L.B. Prebendary of Sarum, Rector of Rodingion, Vicar of I-kgb Ercal, and senior minister of the Episcopal Chapel, Cow- tate, Edingburgh. Price $1,62 1-2, boards. Reports of the Circuit Court of the United States, for the Fir~ Circuit, comprehending the States of New Hampshire, Massachu- setts, and Rhode-island. Vol. I. WELLS & LILLY are preparing for press, A Dictionary of the English Language; in which the words are deduced from their originals, and illustrated in their different significations by examples from the best ~vriters. To which are prefixed, a History of the Land uage, and An En~lish Grammar. By Samuel Johnson, LL.D. In 2 vols. 4to. SAMUEL T. ARMSTRONG, Boston, has in press, New Englands Memorial, a new, corrected editi original nots. 1 vol. 8vo. on, with many Sermons on some of the First Principles and Doctrines of True Religion, by Nathanaci Emmons, D. D. 1 vol. 8vo. This volume completes the set of the Rev. Doctors Sermons. The Writings of Miss Fanny Wood bury, an intimate friend and correspondent of Mrs. Harriot Newell, edited and compiled by Rev. Joseph Emerson, of Beverly, l8mo. SAMUEL T. ARMSTRONG proposes to publish, Scotts Family l3ible, 6 vols. royal octavo, with Notes and Practical Observations. 18 dollars in boards, Rem ns of [len, y Kirke XV bite. 2 vols. 24mo. with plates. Colly~ s Lec~tures on Scripture K its. Second edition. I vol. 8x ~ Text P ok in Gen aphy aad Chronolo v, with Historical 5k ~ s or th~ Use of S2hools ad Acadeajes. I3y the Rev. .Win ~ i~ ~ deraber of the rocican Aatiqi~arian Socioty, and IL ~ r;~v I ~mLor of tb New- ~ork Historic I Society. Second cc a v ito ~a Atlas. XoI I No. 1. iS 138 .Miscellaneous an(l Literary. [May~ LEMUEL BLAKE, Bookseller, Boston, proposes to pubhsb by subscription, the Holy Bible: containing the Old and ~ew Tes- taments, together with the Apocrypha; translated from the On inal I ~ongues, and with the former Translations dili~ ently compared and revised. With the Marginal Notes and References of Mr. John Canoe. And Arguments, prefixed to each Book; anti Moral and Theological Observations, illustrating and ex- plaining each Chapter, by the Rev. Mr. Ostervald. To which are added, a Chronological Index ; an Alphabetical Table of all the names of the Old Testament, with their Significations in the Origi- nal Languages: Tables of Scripture Weights, Measures, and Coins; of Time; of the Offices and Conditions of Men; of Kin- dred and Affinity ; Passages in the Old Testament, quoted by Christ and his Apostles in the New; Blank Pages for Family Records; and a Corcordance, by the Rev. Julio Brown. To be correctly printed on a superfine paper, and on a new pica type ; embellished with twenty elegant Engravings and Maps. To be published in Thirteen Royal Quarto Numbers, neatly done up in coloured paper, each number containing about 100 pages, and the Plates and Maps ~iven in the numbers to ~vhich they belong. The price to subscribers, one dollar per num- ber, payable on delivery. After the first number is published, subscribers who do not approve of the execution of the work, may withdraw their names. With the last number a list of the Sub- scribers Names will be Iven. LINCOLN & LDr4ANDS, Boston, have published, Concise View of the principal Points of Difference between the Baptists and Pedobaptists. By Caleb Blood, late Pastor of the Baptist Church in Portland. 128 pages, l2rno. Pleasures of Piety in Youth. l8mo. LINcOx~N & EDMANDS, Boston, have in press, the Calvinistick anti Socinian Systems compared, us to their moral tendency. In a series of Letters. By Andrew Fuller. BRADFORD & RE AD~ Boston, have in press, the Five Disserta- tions on Fever, of the late Doctor George Fordyce, Fellow of the Royal College of Physicians, & c. & c. in one vol. octavo, on a handsome type and fine wove paper.. BRADFORD & READ, have just published, Continuation of Early Lessons, containing Frank, Rosamond, arid Harry and Lucy. By Miss Ldgeworth, io 2 vols. l8mo. COLLINS & Co. New-York, have in press, a new edition of rhoaias~ Practice of Physick, from a late London copy, improved edition. It is printing on a handsome type, of a larger si ~e, and will contain about 100 pages of letter press more than their former etlition. 1815.] Intelligence. 139 S. ETHELUDGE, Jr. Charlestown, Ii as in press, Gregorys Dic- tionary of Arts and Sciences, to be comprised in 3 vols. or 6 num- bers, and contains upwards of 150 engravings. Price $5 per half volume. (1st number published.) Works of Thomas Reid, D. D. 4 vols. Svo. 3 vols. printed, 4th will be out of press in three weeks. Price $8 bo rds. WEsT & RIdaA~DsoN, Boston, have just published, The His- tory of England, from the earliest period to the close of the year 1812. By J. Bigland. With an Appendix ; being a continuation to the Treaty of Paris. By an American gentleman. In 2 vols. 8vo~ WEST & RIcHARDsON, Boston, have in p~ess, rfhe Principles of Moral and Political Philosophy. By William Paley, D. D. 8th American edition. MELVIN LoItD, Boston, proposes to publish, Brooks General Gazetteer, in miniature, with improvements. CuMixuNGs & HILLL RD~ Boston, have lately published, Fitzosbornes Letters on several subjects. By William Melmoth, Esquire, Translator of the Letters of Cicero. The Elements of Greek Grammar, with Notes. By R. Valpy. The Poetical Works of Lord Byron. An Essay concerning the Human Understanding. By Joseph Locke. V7ith a Life of the Author. Essays on the Nature and Principles of Taste. By Archibald Alison, LL. B. F. R. S. A. Treatise on the Membranes in general, and on djfferent iViem- ieties of Mcdi- branes in particular. By Xav. Bichat of the ~oc cine, Medical and Philomatick, of Paris; of those of Brussels, and Lyons. Florula Bostoniensis ; a Collection of Plants of Boston and its Environs, with their Generick and Specifick Characters, Syno- nynis, Descriptions, Places of Growth, and Time of Flowering, with occasional Remarks. By Jacob Bigelow, 11. D. The Elements of Experimental Chemistry. By XVilliam Henry, M. D. F. R. S. Improved and enlarg~d by B. Silliman, Professor of Chemistry in Yale College. An IntroOuction to Ancient and Aodern Geography, with an Atlas of ei~kt modern and four ancient Maps ; and ~vith rules for projecting Maps. Ely J. A. Cummings. rrhird Edition. The New-Testament, with an Introduction, giving an account of the Jewish and other sects, with Notes and Maps, and the Pro- ier Names correctly pronounced, for the use of schools, a~aderuies, and private families. By .1. A. Cummings. The Sylphs of the Seasons, with other Poems. By W. Allston. 140 Obituary. [May, A Synopsis of the Genera of American Plants, according to the latest improvements on the Linnean System. By Obadiab Rich. A Course of Lectures on the several Branches of Divinity; with an account, both of the principal Authors, and of the 1~ro- gress which has been made at differinut periods in Theological Learning. By Herbert Marsh, D. D. F. R. S. Margaret Professor of Divinity. N. B. The third No. of this work will be published in a fe~v days. CUMMINGs & HILL1AJ~D have in the press, Hubbards history of New-England. A Series of Questions on Latin, Greek, and English Grammar, by the author of the Latin Tutor. A pamphlet, entited, The Friend of Peace; by the author of A Solemn Review of the Custom of War. T. B. WAIT & SONS have just published, State Papers and Publick Documents of the United States, from the accession of Thomas Jefferson to the Presidency; exhibiting ~ complete view of our foreign relations since that time, (180115.) 5 vols. 8vo. T. B. WAIT & SoNs propose publishing, State Papers of Washington and Adams Administration, (1789 1801,) 3 vols. 8vo. Works of M. T. Cicero, in English, 16 vols. 8vo. To he ar- ranged and superintended by the Rev. Joseph MKean, Professor of Rhetorick and Oratory in Harvard University. History of Greece. By William Mitford, Esq. Tracing the Grecian History through all revolutions, till both the country and people became moulded into the Roman Empire. 8 vols. 8vo. OBITUARY. DEATHS OF REMARKABLE PERSONS AT HOME. In Vermont. General Jacob Bailey, a revolutionary officer, aged 89. Gene- ral John Nixon, aged 90. He commanded the first bri ade of the Massachu- setts line, in the war of Independence, and was wounded at the battle of Bun~ ker Hill. In .TVew-Ilarnpshire. Hon. Simeon Olcott, aged 70, formerly a Senator of the United States In Mcssachusetls. In South-Reading, Dr. John Hay, aged 77, a respecta- ble physician and citizen. In Dorchester, Stephen Hall, Esq. In Nantucket, Mr. Peter Hussey. At Plymouth, a young woman in love with a soldier, and being prohibited seeing him by her parents, threw herself from some rocks into the sea, and was drowned, it was necessary to confine her lover to pre- vent his following her example. At South-Berwick, Hon. John Lord, aged T. who had filled with reputation many civil employments.

Deaths 140-144

140 Obituary. [May, A Synopsis of the Genera of American Plants, according to the latest improvements on the Linnean System. By Obadiab Rich. A Course of Lectures on the several Branches of Divinity; with an account, both of the principal Authors, and of the 1~ro- gress which has been made at differinut periods in Theological Learning. By Herbert Marsh, D. D. F. R. S. Margaret Professor of Divinity. N. B. The third No. of this work will be published in a fe~v days. CUMMINGs & HILL1AJ~D have in the press, Hubbards history of New-England. A Series of Questions on Latin, Greek, and English Grammar, by the author of the Latin Tutor. A pamphlet, entited, The Friend of Peace; by the author of A Solemn Review of the Custom of War. T. B. WAIT & SONS have just published, State Papers and Publick Documents of the United States, from the accession of Thomas Jefferson to the Presidency; exhibiting ~ complete view of our foreign relations since that time, (180115.) 5 vols. 8vo. T. B. WAIT & SoNs propose publishing, State Papers of Washington and Adams Administration, (1789 1801,) 3 vols. 8vo. Works of M. T. Cicero, in English, 16 vols. 8vo. To he ar- ranged and superintended by the Rev. Joseph MKean, Professor of Rhetorick and Oratory in Harvard University. History of Greece. By William Mitford, Esq. Tracing the Grecian History through all revolutions, till both the country and people became moulded into the Roman Empire. 8 vols. 8vo. OBITUARY. DEATHS OF REMARKABLE PERSONS AT HOME. In Vermont. General Jacob Bailey, a revolutionary officer, aged 89. Gene- ral John Nixon, aged 90. He commanded the first bri ade of the Massachu- setts line, in the war of Independence, and was wounded at the battle of Bun~ ker Hill. In .TVew-Ilarnpshire. Hon. Simeon Olcott, aged 70, formerly a Senator of the United States In Mcssachusetls. In South-Reading, Dr. John Hay, aged 77, a respecta- ble physician and citizen. In Dorchester, Stephen Hall, Esq. In Nantucket, Mr. Peter Hussey. At Plymouth, a young woman in love with a soldier, and being prohibited seeing him by her parents, threw herself from some rocks into the sea, and was drowned, it was necessary to confine her lover to pre- vent his following her example. At South-Berwick, Hon. John Lord, aged T. who had filled with reputation many civil employments. 1815.] Obituary. 141 In Boston, John Warren, M. D. aged 63. Dr. Warren was a younger bro- ther of General Joseph Warren, who fell at the battle of Bunker Hill; he fclt like him the same gen runs ardour to espouse the cause of his country, when that cause was attended with danger, not with profit. He retained through the war a principal al)pointrnens in the Hospital department. He was in i e year 175U elected the firt professor of anatomy and surgery on the Hersey foundation, in Harv-~ rd University; and first organized a medical school, which has been constandy increasing in usefulness and extent. He possessed greats ill in surgical operations, great decision and rapidity. Per- haps no h)hysician was ever more indefatigable, or regardless of his own re- pose and convenience. [bough he seldom meddled with politicks, lie came forward on some particular occasions, when the soundness and integrity of his character always had its influence on publick sentiment. He was a citizen pore - ud incorruptible. His funeral was attended by the whole body of the Uni- versity, and a most respectahle concourse of his fellow-citizens. A eulogy was delivered in the Stone Chapel by Dr. James Jackson, and an appropriate ser- mon preached the foilowing Sunday by Professor MeKean, both of which are printed. In Constecticut. A female supposed dead, was nearly buried alive. Anima- tion f~rrun tely returnod before the coffin was closed, Such cases seldom~ happen, but the horror they excite, leads every one to wish, that such severe regutadons for the examination of corpses should be established, that it could never happen. Its .IXew- York. Robert Fulton, Esq. u~,ed 48. Mr. Fulton was born in Peniisylvania, and in the commencement of his life intended to pursue the pro- fession of painting, which he studied under Mr. West but not possessing the kind of talent suited to attain disdiiction in this pursuit, he wisely renounced it ; and devoted himself to the science of civil engineering. This he pursued with great ardour, and under great advantages for m. fly years, in France arid England. In the latter country lie published a very elegant work on a new mode of navigating canals with small bo. ts, and doing without locks, by having the boats taken from one level to another, by means of inclined planes. This systemo never met with much encouragement, and General Audreossi, in his history of the canal of Languedoc, consideics it as a retrograde move- ment in the infancy of the art. lie introduced into P. lit, in the ye~ r 1800, panoramas, for whico he oh tamed a patent of importation, uhicli was a lr,- crative enterprise, undertaken in conjunction with the late Mr. Barlow. It was curious, that though this admumi rhle mode of representing extensive subjects had been for so many s known n England, and even in this country, it was not oiily unknown in Fr ruce but the artists and h)hilOtOphers were perfectly incredulous about the effect though when they saw it, they were extremely deli_ hited and these repi scutations have since become very numerous. In Fi-ance he first took tip his dome of submarine navigation, for the purpose of destroying ships of war lie pursued this idea pertinaciously for mr ny years, and the only re~rmlt was the prorluction of a very curious, Omit nearly useless machine. The I rench government refused to prirchase it; the Eng- lish government, howevec, entereri into the scheme. A vessel was blown up in thse Downs, in the presence of Sr. Pitt, Sir Sidney Smith and others ; thin expense of these experiments was considerable, and they gave Mr. Frilton, besides a pension, 500 pounds sterling, for which his name was in the red book; though it was said, dart he commuted thIs pension for the turn of 10,000 pounds. it was partly throuch the friendship of Lord Stanhope, dur in~ the niinistrv of Lord Sidmuouth, that these transactions occurred. After this Ito came back to lit own country, convinced of the importance of this Nssu~ thus, Cataiciaran or Torpedo invention ; it bore these names, in the orrier they c7and in Fr nmau ~t a.md thin United States, lie did not meet with much scene s in tbs phn hr o s-In was eng-iged in what missy be considered a branch o s time o hm~ rlrath, whmco was o~.ing in part to theg eat exet tin is e us e steani fi igate in readiness. The eventual ~ucc st 5 i S . .o, Or doubttul, hP there are many cx periericed mimerm wttc ~m e a, a~ it w 11 produce a most hiagortant epochs in ~tcmri o . cu-~. s ,~nd harbours, and in some degree preveist sum 142 Obi/uary. [May, anchorin0 blockade. Certainly, a ball proof battery, firing red hot 32 pound bails, with the power of advancin or receding at pleasure, independent of wind or tide, at the rate of six or seven miles an hour, is a formidable engine, and differing in many respects from any at present known. But Mr. ~ultons greatest service to his country and the world, is the improvement, which, when we consider its effects, we may style magnificent, of navigating rivers and lakes, by the power of steam, In this country, where rivers and inland va- ters are of such immense extent, the advantages can be hardly realized in cal- culation. Manyof the western rivers ere before only of use for decent, they were never remounted. Now they arc navi0 against the current to their source. The fecilis desc~asus was given by nature; the rtvocere greduas is owing to Mr. Yukon. Lie received a very large income from these boats but all his receipts were devoted to carry his plans more widely into effect. fhere perhaps never existed a man with more enthusiastick ardour or mu e extensive views for the internal improvement of his country. The death of such a clina- racter in the midst of his career, is a severe national loss. in Peansylrouia. in . Preston. Esq. aged 78, an active officer in the war of the revolution. General John Rhea of Trenton. ~rederick Smith, Esq. aged 83, formerly Chief Jus ice of New Jersey. Colonel Francis Johnson, aged 66, an officer of the revolutionary war. Richard Soderstrom, Esq. at the age of 72, Consul General of Sweden. He had resided in the United States 32 years. In Vir0ismie. lion. David Bard, a member of Congress from Peansylvanma. In Ceroliea. General Arnoldas anderhorst. .~t New Orleans. General Byrd Smith. DEATHS OF REMAItKABLE PERSONS ABROAD. fit Russia. At Zarko Zelo, the celebrated Count Armfeldt. ear Moscow. Mr. Balescl~off, aged 113. At ~t. Petersburg, the Princess of latent, eminent for her virtues and devoted loyalty to the Bourbons. In Germany. The Langrave of 1-Jesse, at the a~ e of 38. At Geneva, the Marquis of Bute. At Vienna, Baron Scull, minister of the King of Wirtem- burg, nicimle. The Prince de Ligne, field marshal of the Austrian empire, at the age of 80. The Prnce do Ligne, was remarkable for the gavet.y and sprightliness of his chmr~setcr in very old a~e lie xvss known to dl the inha- bitants of Vineomma, by w horn he was much ~dmmm en and beloved His general character rna~ oc gathetod trom two volumes, e tracted from the voluminous collection of ems works and published four or five years since, one of them by Madame do Cti~l He is d been lbr a lone pet mod one of the most brilliant v-its and courtmers tint 1- urepe; tIne compauon of Jo eph 2d, of Catharine of Russia, anel M mr~a Ant~innette. 1-Jo was sCm inkinng exainample of the virtues and vices of a coontin t ot tie old school. The style em his xsit, both in writing and conversation ~va~ , clmse intuitation of the Cl evmhem do Boufliers. His pin- cipalitv was inn ~he Low Con Aries, and he suftemed much by the troubles ins Fian lets that preceded the French revolution; since which period he had prinnempally m~svmed t Vt na At Berima General do Lestocq, who was very dinsemmingo ~iinetl mint the last camp-sinens of the late wam-. Lm I cc net. M (.ueoem v dinmec on ot the newspaper?, and one of the per- sons forumetly banin~hed to Csyennc The Primincess do Looms ; while w, iting tot icr carrinage to so to a pain ty, hem tuess cu~mrht fire mmd she was burnt to death Gemmemal Count 1 ogmand one of time nest. distiaguishod officers of ~\ pci ,mm Al bomohat ins eomnn it sculutor, aol mu tuber of time class of mmmc urt of toe lmm.,tmtute At Caia~ Lamly iiatnilion, fatuous for her beauty, hem acomsmr hshment~ and tmamm~ iso was origin.ailv taken from. very husiinble Isle by m I into Husi ii s (lincusmib , aid after somne years ho sent her to Nmm- pIes a stim an muttoluctmoi to his in I ii ~jmr William 1-lanmilton, for a long time time Bs into tin amntsine~ at eb int cm mm ~ rn rricd her she thosm bee,. me intimate 1815.) Obituary. 14~ with the Queen of Naples, meddled with the political events that followed the irrontion of the French. She seconded the vengeance ol the ~neen a anst the enfortuesate Piguateili and the other Neapolitan patriots, and by her iritin- euce over lord Nelson induced him to deliver them over to execution, in viola- tion of a snleoin Ca itulation; an act that must forever stain the cl~arachr of that great command~r. He vas so completely fascinated by her, that his re- proation has beau most seriously injured, an iii this connexion the leni bla, e was on her side. The advantage derived from th h st glos lot s etion which terminated his life, the English nation in tom deg te owe t her, It was her persuasion and influence that induceri him to go to the Armuralty, when they of- fered him the command of the fleet hat gained toe vicini y ot TraP Igar. Her most tupardonable action in relation to his character, x. as she peblication of the silly and contemptible letters, that were given to ~he publuck la year. She pre tended that it was done a~ainst her will, but there can be little doubt bitt sh was impelled b: sordid inodves to this disgraceful publication In Paris. Madamni- selle Raucont, a celebrated ceress of the Theati e Fi ancais au(l a woman of respectable character, died in January, at Paris, at the ge of 6d. When the corpse was taken to the Church of St. Roque, to have the last ceremunie~ per- formed, they found the doors locked, and all entrance xv s refused FIne old customs of the Catholick Church wece revivetl, that refesert cbs itt an burial to actors and actresses The agitation became extreme, more than 24.1,000 people as ambled; am ssage was sent to the Tuilleries to the King; he returned in anster that he could not interfere with the regul lions of the spiritual authori- ties. The tumult increased; a second deputation was tent to his ma~esix and at the same time a unanimous declaration of all the performers on the theatres of Paris, lb it if the ceremonies were not performed, they xvould all of them re- nounce their religion and turn Lutherans. This brought from the King an order to the psueshood to perform the funeral rites over the buuilt of I ~artainoiselle Raucour lbs populace cried out sit. it Roi.& bus les (tslo!ecs& bus Its Ceio/or~eo duooe its Colatias! A lay numher of troops we~ a brought. for- ivaud irs quell true Iniarilt, forhirnuately no lives were lost. One of the most bar- barous aunt absurd pieces of ancient superstition was here attenapteul to be re- vuved; she agitation of the people extorted from the government an injunction to the pi iests so pi acute the usual funeral rites, which howe at were at last im- perhectlv pernomed. Is Esigiasid Xice Arirniral Sir Henry Stainhope. James Kennedy, by trade a tarot, at toe age of 106. He coultl recollect the thoc when hi; hail inane a suit of eios4ies for oar 5ltilhe~. Jusanira Soutbcott a ihisen jr ten nanatok, ns so un this euuligbteuued age, and in that thunkin cur ut v, routno u ore than lOt) 04.10 folios-art; among whom were some elan symen, on s~veral people of we rush and consideration. She was born urn Dr von liii a, and her than ao~er no e rly life was nor spotless. She chan5ed her residence to dununrent parts of the en otty, where the hiaslsliemous extravaganice and ineob rent absurdity ol lot wintunugs arud pretlielions, wee received witni the tutmumi devotion antI resnnxi tu~ tier run morrus votaries. The newspapers arid ind~ed many of lb ratonal part of tIne pobuici., were ur~ant for the interference of both the ecclesiastical and civil poe or, and despicable as the impnismure was, it had nearly caused very erious enibairassm -it Fotirnately those in power acted with good seuuse anrl discre- tion, and shout-b they watched dir not interfere, bunt left the nieceptioui to perish of itrelf, with the miserable cr-rtasnre wino bad raised it. TIre extent of this de- lusion in a corniutny like England, forms the most wonderful example 04 the ereluIry and infatuation of m- ukirud, that his happened in modern times. Hi-ott tooroton Esq. M. P. a ninan distinmish tb-op5 ad for his virtues and pbiian Its Intl rI, by a fall froun luis horse, the Drike of Dorset, as the age of 21; a so mug noblem-so of most excellent character. Flue Rev. Clairdinns Bucluanutun; Inc r . dl known for his exertions to diffuse christianity un India, and Iris know- ledge on the oriental languages. At the time of his death he was engaged iu super intending air edition of the scriptures in the Syriack language. At Cork, 144 Obituary. [May. the Right Reverend Dr. Moylan, Catholick Bishop of Cork, at the advanced age of 80. Dr. Moylan enjoyed the friendship of the late Duke of Portland, Mr. Pitt and Mr. Burke, aud descended to the grave, venerated by all parties and persuasions. lit Tunis. The Bey of Tunis died suddenly while holding a council. In Gonstanlinople. Solomon Lipmau Dezember, a Jew, one of the mos wealthy of his countrymen. He once supported in a time of scarcity 8,000 Jews. His immense wealth, supposed to amount to many millions of dollars~ had been seized by the Turkish government.

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The North American review. / Volume 1, Issue 2, miscellaneous front pages 145-146

NORTH-AMERICAN REVIEW AND MISCELLANEOUS JOURNAL. No. IL JULY 1815. %b~ ~ The New Lffe of Virginea: declaring the former svccess~: and present estate of that plaaration, hem6 the second art of Nova 13ritannia. Published by the authoritie of his .Illaiesties Counsell of Virg?nea London, imprinted by Felix Kyngston for William Welby, dwelling t the signe of the Swan in Pants Churchyard, 1612. Tuis little work to encourage the publick and private adven- turers in the plans for colonizing Virginia, was written about the time of Captain Argolls voyage. It is dedicated to the Treasurer of the Company, who had the principal management of the undertaking at first, hut who afterwards caused them so much trouble; and whose conduct about his accounts, threw doubts at least, on his integrity. An extract from the dedica- tion xviii give a good idea of the design and style of the book. To the right worshipfvl and worthie kni ~ht Sir Thomas Smith of London, Gouernour of the Moscouia and East ladie Companies, one of his Majesties Counsell for Virginea, and Treasurer for the Colony: Peace and health in Christ. It is come to passe (right VYorshipiull) with the busi- n~s~e and plantation of Virginca, as it is commonly seene 148 Book. relatit4g to America. [July, die attempt and progresse of all other most excellent things, (which is) to be accompanied with manifold difflailties, crosses and disasters being such as are appointed by the highest prouidence, as an exercise of patience and other ver- toes, and to make more wise thereby the managers thereof: by which occasion not only the iporant and simple minded are much discouraged, but the mahtious and looser sort (being accompanied with the licentious nine of stage Poets) haue wet their tongues with sc6rnful taunts against the action it selfe, in so much as there is no common speech nor blike name of any thing this day, (except it be the name of God) which is more vildly depraned, traduced, and derided by such unhallowed lips, then the name of Virginea. For which cause (rightuobleKuight) 3 haue set my self topublishthisbriefe apollogie to the sight and view of all men, not to answer any such in their particular folly, but to free the name it selfe from the injurious scoffer, and this commendable enterprise from the scorne and .deMou of any such, as b ignorance or malice laos sought the way to wrong it. I albeit Jam well well assured will no way suatle toadmonish or amend the in- corrigible looseness of such vntamed tongue; yet shall 1 hold mine endeauours well acquited, if 3 may but free your selfe, and so many riht noble, and well & eted gentlemen (touch- ing the former di successe) from wronqthll imputation, as also satisfie the despairing thoughts, and quicken the seale of such Mends and louers to this businesse, as in their remote and forraine residence, by the spreading of rumours and false re- ports, doe rest vusatisfied. VVherein (as 3 hope) not to exceed the bonuds of modestie and truth, sofor orders sake Shave set it done in a briefe method of three parts. The first is nothing else but a briefe relating of things alreadie done and past: The second, of the present estate or the businesse: And the third doth tend as a premonition to the planters and aduenturers for the time to conw. It is a sufficient proof of bad management, that with such a soil and climate as Virginia the early settlers were forsoinanyyearsexposedto amine. And for the last and maine obiection of food, it cannot be denied by any one of reason, but with their now diligent planting and sowing of come (whereof they haue two hpruests

Books relating to America 147-160

1816.] Books relating to America. 147 in a sommer) the plentifull fishing there, the store of fowles and fruits of to earth, their present pronision sent from hence at euery shipping, together with the speedy increase of those sundrie sos of tame Poultry, Conies, Goats, Swine and lOne landed there aboue a yore agoe with Sir Thomas Dale, and since againe by Sir Thomas Gates, that this objection too, this maine obiection of wanting food is vtterly remooued: so that I cannot see, nor any man else caniudge in truth, but that ill and 7odious wound of Virginea, which settled so deepe a scarre in the mindes of many, is so sufficiently recouered, as it may now encourage not such alone (as heretofore) which cannot liue at home, nor lay thoir bones to labour, bot those of honest minds and better sort, which get their bread but meanly heere, may seek to mend it there. Captain Samuel Argoll, a Gentleman of good. seruice, is readie with two shins. The religious prejudices of the writer constantly appear, and bigotry, either for or against popery, was one of the most uni- venal motives to all undertakings. One or two extracts are subjoined. Your first conflict is from your sauage enemies the natiues of the Countrie, who as you know are neither strong nor many; their strongest forces are sleight~ and trecherie more to bee warily preuented then mnchtobefeared. Butasforthose your other friends, which challenge k afl as theirs by deed of gift, not from Alexander the Great King of Macedonia, but from Alexander of Rome, Viceroy of that great Prince, which ofibred at once the whole world to hane himselfe adored, which (as is said) doe brute it out in all mens earns to pull you out of possession; you know they are but men, and such as your selues can well remember, that in all attempts against our late Soueraigne, God defeated their purposes, and brought them to nothing. But howsoeuer it Ibred then, (God in mercy shielding that gratious Queene, that no attempt could touch her, little finger, nor worke her least dishonour) yet I am so Prophet to warrant now, hut God (for causes knowne tohim)maygiueyouasa preyintothehandsoftheweak- est, yet herein rest assured, and it cannot possiblie bee other- wise, but that the zeale of this action hath discouered such and so many worthie spirits of aildegrees in England.to be 148 Book ref~int~ to YJmerica, LJufy, vpholders of it, as for their credits sake and reputation, will neuer leaue you without conuenient meanes to make defence, nor your least indignitie by sanage foes or ciujil friends xviii suffer vurequited. There is laid vpon you in this worke a threefold labour to be done vpon your selues, vpon your Eng- lish, and vpon the poore Indians. And first vpon your selues; for all mens eares and eyes are so fixed vpon Kings and Ru- lers, that they keepe a register in minde of what ener they doe or speake, the better sort of lone to imitate their good nes, and the looser sort of fiatterie to applaud their wickedness and soothe them in their vices: when your wholesom lawes shal hane no execution, when you shall publish and pretend for the honour of God, and good of the publike weale, and yet shall care for neither of both, but be loose in your own course of life giuin g way to ambition, idlenesse, and all vn- bridled appetite, to your tongues in swearing, to your bodies in unchastity, making your owne Courts and houses cages of proud, vucleane and all disordered persons, enforcinb the good to pine away x ~ith grief; and aduancing men of bad deserts, accounting it happie to doe what you list, when no man dares reprone you; miserie and confrision will be the end of this, and you shal leane for your monuments shame and dishonour behinde you to all l)oster~tie. The next is dutie towa~ds your Colonie (the common sort of English) and that in few words, let them live as free Eng- lish men, voder the gouernment of iust and equall lawes, and not as slaues after the will and lust of any superiour: discour- age them not in growing religious, nor in gathering riches, two especiall bonds (wh~ther seured or conioyned) to keep them in obedience, the one fo conscience sake, the other for feare of losing what they hauc gotten : without the first they are prophane~ without the second desperate, and apt for enery f8ctious plot to bee instruments of misehiefe. Such hauc aiwaics bin the beggarly, ignorant and superstitious sort of Irish, and no better were we our English (and Scottish nation too) euer vnquiet, ucuer constant, readie for insurrections and rourther, to depose their Kings, and maintaine rebellion, before the daies of that renowned Deborah our late Soue- raigne, that shining starre, the splendour of whose bright ness~, darktied the glouie of all other Princes in her time (as cuen popish historians of ~undrie f6rraine Nations tearme her) 1815.] Books relating to ./lrnerica. i4~ who brought vs to that light, whereby wee hue as men of knowledge in due subiection, enioying honour, peace and wealth, the handmaids of religion. And if any man aske, what benefit can this plantation be to them that be no Aduenturers therein, but only in the Lot- tery ? First, we say, (setting aside their possibilitie of prize) what man so simple that doth not see the necessitie of em- ployment for our multitude of people? which though they be our fiorishing fruits of peace and health, yet be they no longer good and holesome in themseiues, then either our domesticke or forraine actions can make them profitable, or not hurtfull to the Commonwealth. And as it is vnpossible without this course of sending out the ofspring of our families, in so great a bodie of many mil- lions, which yeerely doe increase amongst vs, to preuent their manifold diseases of ponertie, corruption of minde, and pes- tilent infection, so the burthen thereof in some proportion is felt by euery man in his priunte calling, either in the taxe of their n)aintenance and daily reliefe, or in the taint of their vices and bodily plagucs. And by this meanes only it may soone be eased, to the sensible good of eucry man, as in the greater safetie and freedom from infection, so in the price and plentie of all outward and necessarie things. And besides the example of our neighbour countries, (that hauing laid their armes aside, and dwelling now in peace, to shunne the harmes of idlenesse at home, doe send out fleetes and hosts of men to seeke abroad) experience teacheth vs what need we haue to seek some world of new employment, for so great a part of our strengtb, which not otherwise knowing how to hue, doe daily runne out to robberies at home, and piracies abroad, arming and seining with Turkes and Infidels against Christians, to the generall damage and spoile of Merchants, the scandall of our na- tion, and reproach of Christian name. As also for the wits of England, whereof so many of vnsettled bairnes he- take theruselues to plots and stratagems at home, or else to wander from coast to coast, from England to ~paine, to Jtaly, to Rome, aad to wheresoeuer they way learne and practise any thing else but goodnesse, pulling a world of temptations vpon their bad dispositions, sorting so farre with that inchanting sorts of ~crpcnts, and yeelding to their Kure, till getting the marke and stampe in their forehead~ 160 Books reksting to .eIsseflca. they become desperate and despiteful fugkiues abr oorad, else returning neutrals in religion, are neuer good for Church. nor Commonwealth. Let the words of that learned Master Sacham witnesse in this case, who aboue twentie yeeres agone, haning farre Jesse cause of complaint than wee baue now, did publish his cen- sure of those Eoglisb Italionate trauellers in these words: For religion, they get Papistrie, or worse: ,fbr learning lease commonlyt& entlaey carried out:forpolicse, a factious heart, a discoursing head, a mink to meddle in all mens matters: for experience, plenty of new misch# knowne in England ore: for manners, varied. of vanities, and Mange of filthy liuiwg. These be the inchantments of Circes, brotwht oat of 1talie, to marre English mens manners, muck by example of Wljf~, but more byprecejns of fond bookesof late translated out of Italian into English, sold in euery shop in London, commended by honest titles, the sooner to corrupt honest manners, dedicated ouer boldly to vertuous and hono- rable personages, the easier to beguile simple and innocent wits. Tenne Sermon. at Pauls Crosse doe not so muck good for mouing men to true doctrine, as one of those books doe harme with inticing to ill liuing: yea, Isayfiarther, those bookes tend not so much to corrupt honest liuing, as they do to subvert true religion; more Papistes are made by the merrie bookes of Italie, than by the earnest bookes of Louaine. .4 Tree Declaration of tie estate of the Colonie in Virginia, with a confutation of suck scandalous reports as ham tended to the disgrace of so worthy an enterprise. Published by aduise and direction of the Councell of flsgisuia. London, printed for William Barret, and are to be sold at the blacke IBeare in Pauls Church-yard. 1610. Tins work is a very earnest defence of the design of colo- nizing Virginia. It composed at a time when many urged its ahandonment. Some accidents, particularly the shipwreck of Sir Thomas Gates, and Sir George Somers on the I~and of Bermuda had produced a dilcouraging effect. The immoral and shiftless character of those who were first sent out as set- tIers, their idleness and want of foresight, which reduced 1815.] Book. relating to .tlosenca. 15l tern to great misery; joined to to disappointed avarice of toss who bad expected an immediate return of riches from to first advewu.e, had raised a great prejudice again: to undertaking, and is wa owing to to firmness and constancy of a few indi- viduals tat it was not at once abandoned. The author shows to misrepresentations, and ignorance, tat had caused to most absurd imputations on to country; and wit much zeal and persuasion urges to publick to per- severe in to enterprise. The following extract will give an idea of his manner. VYhen therefore this noble enterprise, by to rules of Re- ligion is expressly justified; when the passages by Sea are all open and discouered; wheji te climate is so fruitfully tempered; when the nasurall riches of the wile are so pow- or! oily confirmed: will any man so much betray his one inconsiderate ignorance, and betray his rashnesse; tat when to same Sunne shinesh, he should not haue to same eies to beholdo it; when to same hope remaines, he should not haue she same heart to apprehend it? At to voyage of Sir Thomas Gates, what swarmes of people desired to be trans- ported? what alacrity and cheerfulnesse in to Aduenturers byfree wil offermn~s,to build vp this new Tabernacle? Shall we now be dejected? Shall we cast don our heads like Bull rushes? because one stormo at sea hat deferred our ioyes and comforts! VVe are too effeminate in our longings, and too impatient of delaios. Oods al-disposing prouidence, is not compellable by mans violence: Let any wisedome giue a wide reawn, why his purpose should be changed, when those grounds which gaue lie to his first purpose, are not changed. Is is bus a golden slumber, tat dreameth of any humane felicity, which is not sauced with some contin- gent miserie. Dolor 4 volupsas, invites cednnt, Griefe and pleasure are to crosse sUes of the worlds euer.turning- windmill. Los no man therefore b@ oner wise, so cast be- yond to moone and so multiply needles doubts and ques- tions. Buznnibai by too much wisdomo loss opportunity to haue sacked Rome, Charles to elhgsh of Fraunce, by tempo- rising, loss to Kingdome of Naples, and to gouernement of florence: Henry to senent by too much oner-warines, lost the riches of the golden Indies. Occasion is pretious, but when it is occasion. Some of our neighbours would ioine Books relating to sirnerica. [July, in the action, if they might be ioynt inheritors in the Planta~. lion; which is an euident proofe, that Virginia shall no sooner he quitted by vs, then it will he reinhabited by them. A dis- honour of that nature, that will eternally blemish our Nation; as though we were like the furious F~rrhus, or impetuous Swissers,.~vho in a brunt can conquer any thing, hut with wisdome can maintaine nothing. It is time to wipe away such an imputation of Barbarisme, especially since the consequence is so pregnant, that without this or the like, the state cannot subsist without some dangerous and imminent mutation. He is ouer blinde that doth not see, what an inundation of peo- pIe doth ouerflow this little Iland: Shall we vent this deluge, hy indirect and vnchristian policies? shall we imitate the bloody and heathenish counsell of the Romanes, to leaue a Carthage standing, that may exhaust our people by forraine warre? or shall we nourish domesticall faction, that as in the dayes of Vitellius and Vespasian, the sonne may inibrew his hands in the blood of the father? Or shall we follow the barbarous foot steps of the state of China, to imprison our people in a little circle of the earth, and consume them by pestilence? Or shall we, like the beast of Babylon, denie to any sort the honourable estate of marriage, and allow abbom- inable stewes, that our people may not oner increase ~n mul- titude? Or shall we take an inhumane example from the Muscouite, in a time of famine to put tenne thousand of the poore under the yce, as the Mice and Rats of a state politique? If all these be diabolicall and hellish proiects, what other means remaines to vs, but by settling so excellent a Planta- tion, to disimbarke some millions of people vpoa a land that floweth with all manner of plenty? To wade a little further, who euer saluted the monu- ments of antiquity, and doth not finde, that Carthage aspired to be Empresse of the world, by her opportunity of hauens and multitude of shipping? What hindereth the great Mahii metane Prince, from seizing ~pon al the territories of Europe, hut onely the want of skilfull marine~ s? What created the rich and free states of Holland, but their winged Nany? It was a fit embleme that painted death standing vpon the shoares of Ftaunce, Germany and Spaine, and looking ouer into Eng land: vato that ~o long as we are Lords of intymating b the narrow seas. death st ads on the other shoares, and I815.] Books relating to america. l5~ onely can looke upon vs: but if our wooden wals were ruina- ted, death would soone make a bridge to come ouer, and de- uoure our Nation. When therefore our mils of Iron, and ex- cesse of building, haue already turned our greatest woods into pasture and champion, within these few years; neither thescat- tered Forests of En~land, nor the diminished Grones of Ire- land, will supply the defect of our Nauy. When in Virginia there is nothii~g wanting, but onely anens labours, to furnish both Prince, State and merchant, without charge or difficulty. Againe, whither shall wee transport our cloth, and how shall we sustaine our Artisans ? Shall we send it into Turkey ? Some priuate and deceitfull auarice hath discredited our merchandize. Into Spaine? it aboundeth with sheepe and wooll. Into Poland and Muscouy ? the daunger doth oner- ballance the game in times of contention. Into Fraunce and Germany? they are for the most part supplied by their owne peace. VVhen if our Colony were peopled in Virginia, mutabit veliera merces, we shall exchange our store of cloth for other merchandize. Let any man resolue why the Coun- cell of Virginia, doe now most earnestly continue their aduen- tures? why those that were (eye witnesses) of the former supposed miseries, do voluntarily returne with ioy and com- fort? why those noble and worthy personages, doe offer to make the action good vpon the hazard of their hues & for- tunes? And why Sir Thomas Gates longeth and hasteneth to go thither again, and the Lord La-ware desiredi so earnestly to stay there? Are not all these thiubs as deere to them as to any other of the adventuret s? Hauc not their hopes the same wings? their feares the same fetters? their estates the same rockes? their hues and soules~ greater gulfes of perill and despair? And yet neither the embracements of their wiues, nor indulgence to their bahes, nor the neglect of their domes- ticke fortunes, nor banishment from their natiuc soile, nor any experimented dangers haue broken their noble resoln- tion. pp. 5965. A horrible event that had occurred was made use of hy those who wished to injure the Colony, and circulated so widely that it has since been considered by many writers as a fact. An atrocious wretch murdered his wife, cut her in pieces for concealment, and when the deed was discovered, pretended that he had committed the act through fear of starving, and Vol. 1. No. 2. 20 154 Books relating to ./Jmerica. [Jul3 that he had salted the flesh in order to eat it. This story was eagerly propagated to create disgust and horrour in the publick mind, against an emigrating to a country, where ihe terrour of famine could lead to the perpetration of such crimes. The author is indignant at this ahsurd calumny, and after remark- ing upon the contradictory accounts of those who had published it, quotes Sir Thomas Gatess relation of the affair, as an ample refutation. It is as follows There was one of the companie who mortally hated his wife, and therefore secretly killed her, then cut her in pieces and hid her in diuers Parts of his house: when the woman was missing, the man suspected, his house searched, and j)arts of her mangled body were discoucred, to excuse him- selfe he said that his wife died, that hee hid her to satisfic his hunger, and that he fed daily vpon her. Vpon this, his house was again searched, where they found a good quantitie of meale, oaterneale, heanes and pease. Hee thereupon was araigned, confessed the murder, and was burned for his hor- rible villany. pp. 38, 39. Babylons Fall in Maryland: ~i fair Warning to Lord Baltemore. Or, a Relation of an /Issault made by divers Papists, and Popish Officers of the Lord Baltemores against the Protestants in Maryland; to whom God gave a great Victory against a greater force of Souldiers and armed .Mien, who came to destroy them. Published by Leonard Strong, agent frr the people of Providence tn .Maryland. Printed for the .Iuthor, 1655. ~1 just and deere Rejittation of a false and scandalous Pamphlet, Entituled, Babylons fall in Maryland, ~jc. and, .iJ true Discovery of certaine strange and inhumane pro- ceedings of some ungratefull people in .illaryland, towards those who formerly preserved them in time of their greatest distresse. To which is added a Law in Maryland con- cerning Religion, and a Declaration concerning the same. By John Langford Gentleman, Servant to the Lord Balte- more. Hee that is first in his owne cause seemeth just, but his neighbour commeth and searcheth him. Prov. 18. 17. Whose hatred is covered by deceit, his wickednesse shall be 1815.] Books relating to ~1memca. 155 shewed before the whole Congregation. Prov. 26, 27. London, Printed for the .duthor. 1655. THE event which gave occasion to these two pamphlets was one of the most important in the early history of Maryland. Both parties appear to have been in fault. The dissenters who removed from the persecution of Sir W. Berkely in Vii~- ginia, after coining under the government of Lord Baltimore, took advantage of the unsettled state of things in England, to get rid of a part of the oath which bound them to acknowl- edge Lord Baltimore absolute Lord and Proprietary of the Province. Captain Stone, who was the Governour appointed hv Lord B. confiding in his superiour strength, proceeded to acts of unjustifiable violence, and calculating to subdue the re- fractory by force, would listen to no proposals. The superiour courage and skill of his opponents completely defeated him; and his whole party, with the exception of four or five, were killed, wounded, or taken. The other party had only two killed, and two more died of their wounds. An extract from ihe beginning of each pamphlet, will shew the state of the question. tn the yeer 1649, many, both of the congregated Church, and other well-affected people in Virginia, being debarred from the free exercise of Religion, under the Government of Sir William Berkely, removed themselves, Families, and Estates into the Province of Maryland, being thereunto invi- ted by Captain William Stone, then Governour for Lord Bal- tamore, with promise of Liberty in Religion, and Priviledges of English Subjects. An Oath to the Lord Baltamore, was urged upon this peo- ple soon after their coming up, which if they did not take, they must have no Land, nor abiding in the Province. This oath was very scrupulously looked upoll: first, In regard it bindes to acknowledge and be suhject to a Royal jurisdiction and absolute Dominion of the Lord Baltamore, and to defend it and him against all power whatsoever. This was thought far too high for him, being a Subject, to exact upon such terms as it was exacted, and too much unsutable to the present lib- erty which God had given the English Subjects, from Arbi- trary and popish Government; as the Lord Baltamores Gov- eminent doth plainly appear to be. Secondly, It was exceed- ingly scrupled on another account, viz. That they must swear Books relating to drnerica. 156 [July, to uphold that Government and those officers who are sworn to countenance and uphold Antichrist, in plain words express~ ed in the Officers Oath, the Roman Catholick Religion. And for these people to own such by an Oath, whom in their hearts they could by no means close with; what could it he account- ed, but Collusion? Yet nevertheless the people that were then come up to Providence, considering Lord Baltamore to be Lord of the soil, and willing to acknowled be him, and pay him his due Rents and Services; upon that account took an Oath which was much qualified and moderated from its former rigour: hut this, though it was accepted by Captain Stone the Lord Baltamores Lieutenant, yet uttcrly rejected by his Lordship, who gave order, That the Oath absolutely should be urged; and gave special instructions and charge to his Lieutenant to proclaim, That all that would not take the Oath within three Months after publication, and pay Rents, and sue out Patents, should he expulsed the Province, and the Land seized to his Lordships use; who required his officers to see the contents of the Proclamation executed. pp. 1, 2. Thus far Mr. Strong. Mr. Langfords defence of Lord Baltimores party commences as follows: Having lately met with a Pamphlet, entituled, Babylons Fall in Maryland, & c. which lays many false and scandalous aspersions upon the Lord Baltemore, his Government, and officers in Maryland, put forth by one Leonard Strong and attested by William Durand, pretending to be Secretary of that Province, It was thought fit in regard I have beene ac- quainted with, and imployed by my Lord Baltemore in his affairs relating to that Province, both heere and there, for above twenty years last past, That I should publish this brief Refutation therof, to undeceive such as may be deluded by it. Captaine Stone (who is well known to be a zealous and well affected Protestant) being Governour of Maryland under the Lord Baltamore, did receive and protect in Maryland those people and their families mentioned by Mr. Strong when they were distressed in Virginia, under Sir William Berkley, among whom it is to be noted that Mr. Richard Bennet (afterwards Governour of Virginia) was one and thereupon a Commission was granted by Charles Stuart 1815.] Books relatint to slmerrca. 157 the eldest Son of the late King to Sir William Davenant, con- stituting him Governour of the said Province, alleadging therein the reasons to be, because the Lord Balten ore did visibly adhere to the Rebels in England (as lie terms them in that commission) and admitted all kind of Secretaries ~nd Schismaticks, and ill affected persons into that Plantation. These people seated themselves at a place by them called Providence, but by an act of a Generall Assembly there cahed Anne-Arundell in Mariland, and there was nothing promised by my Lord or Capt. Stone to them, but what was perform- ed, they were first acquainted by Capt. Stone, before they came there, with that Oath of Fidelity which was to be taken by those who would have any Land there from his Lordship, and the Oath which was required of them to take before they could have any Patent for Land there, was ratified by an Act of a Generall Assembly of that Province, wherein those very men had their Burgesses, there being an express Clause in it, That it should not bee understood to infringe or prejudice Liberty of Conscience in point of Religion, as will appear by the Oath itselfe, nor had they any regrett to the Oath till they were as much refreshed with their intertain- ment there, as the Snake in the Fable was with the Country- mans breast, for which some of them are equally thankfull. But it is now, it seems, thought by some of those people too much below them to take an Oath to the Lord Proprie- tary of that Province, though many Protestants of much bet- ter quality have taken it, and [which is more than can be hoped for from some of these men] kept it. pp. 3, 4. There are added to this defence several documents, a letter from Mr. Barber to Cromwell, giving an account of the action between the two parties, a letter from Governour Stones ~xife to Lord Baltimore, the form of the oath to be taken to the Lord Proprietary, an act of the assembly of Ma;~yhind conceretog religion, and a declaration of the Governour, Council and Bur- gesses, that they enjoyed all fitting and convenient liberty apd freedome in the exercise of their religion, dated April 17, 1650, and which is signed by the principal l)CF5OBS on both sides, who were afterwards engaged in this quarrel. I 5S Books relating to dmerica. [July; The following extract is the conclusion of Mrs. Stones let- ter to Lord Baltimore, speaking of the detention of her brother and others, who had gone to Anne Arundel, she says The occasion I conceive of their detainment there is, be- cause they should not go home, to informe your Honour of the truth of the businesse before they make their owne tale in England, which let them doe their worst, which I do not question but you will vindicate my Husbands honour which hath ventured Life and Estate to keep your due heere, which by force he hath lost. And they give out words, that they have won the Country by the sword, and by it they will keep the same, let my Lord Protector send in what Writing he pleaseth. The Gunners mate of Hemans, since his coming down from Anne-Arundell to Patuxent, hath boasted that he shot the first man that was shot of our Party. All this I write is very true, which I thought good to informe your Lord- ship, because they will not suffer my Husband for to write himselfe: I hope your Honour will be pleased for to looke upon my Sonne, and for to wish him for to be of good corn- fort, and not for to take our afflictions to heart. And nothing else at present, I rest Your Honours most humble Servant, Virlinda Stone. Post-script. I hope your Honour will favour me so much, that if my Sonne wants twenty or thirty pounds you will let him have it, and it shall be payd your Honour againe. Hemans the Master of the Golden Lion is a very Knave, and that will be made plainly for to appear to your Lordship, for he hath abused my Husband most grossly. pp. 21, ~2. When we find religious feuds so often occurring in the early history of our country, how must we admire that wise and be- neficent toleration, under which all the bad passions of sects are harmless, and however diffeerent their tenets, are all pro- tected by the laws, and can only be distinguished for their virtues The history and present state of Virginia in four parts, 1. The History of the first settlement of Virginia and the govern- ment thererof to the present time. II. The natural pro- 1815.] Books relating to dmerica. I ~ ductions and conveniences of the country, suited to trade and improvement. IlL The native Indians, their religion, laws and customs, in war and peace. IV. The present state of the Country, as to the polity of the government and the improvement of the land. By a native and Inhabitant of the place. London, printed for R. Parker, at the Uni- co~ n, under the piazzas of the Royal Exchange, 1705, Svo. pp. 320. Tuis work brings the history of Virginia down to the year 1702; it seems to be a fair though not very minute account of civil transactions to that period. The author seems to have most admired the administration of Sit William Berkely, who was undoubtedly a warm friend to the country; though he at- tempted many things that were premature, and established none of his projects firmly. Manufactures of silk, flax and hemp, were among the number which ori~inated from the impolitick exactions of the merchants in England, who sold their own goods too high and obtained the tobacco of the planters too low; or in other words, as there was but little commerce, there was no competition, and these colonists vainly thought to correct the evil by making their own linen and silk. The author, like many of his countrymen, is not partial to the cultivation of to- bacco, the principal staple at all times, and, in early ones, the only product for exportation in that province. To counteract some oppressive laws that were made in England, a remedy was resorted to in 1664 by consent of Virginia and Maryland, which was to cease planting tobacco for one year; the agree- ment however was not carried into effect, owing to the gover- of Maryland whose salary would have been affected by it But he took advantage of this nice punctilio, because of the loss such a diminution would have been to his annual in- come; and so all people relaxed again into the disease of planting tobacco.~ He accuses Lord Colepepper, of being actuated by the most sordid motives, and on his refusing to return in the year 1684, Francis Lord Howard of Eflingham was sent over Governour. This noble Lord had as great an affection for money as his pre- decessor, and made it his business to equip himself with as much of it as he could, without respect either to the laws of the plantation. or the dignity of his office. He is better satisfied. a 60 Rooks relating to dnierica. [July, ~vith Sir Edmond Andros who succeeded, though he com- plains of him, that he brought an innovation into their courts, which was a great hardship on the country. This was his making all the statutes of England to be the sole rule of his judgment. Sir Edmond was followed by Colonel Nicholson, who had been previously governour of Maryland, and who had acquired his science in the art of governing during a long resi- dence in Morocco. Something may be allowed for animosity in a contemporary, but, the following among other anecdotes shews what kind of man was entrusted with the powers of go- vernment. In answer to Mr. Fowler the Kings attorney, who objected to one of his orders as being illegal, he, in a fury took him by the collar, and swore, that he knew of no laws they had, and that his commands should be obeyed without hesitation or reserve. On other occasions he has been heard to reply to those, who objected to him the illegality of his~ proceedings; That they had no right at all to the liberty of English subjects, and that he would hang up those who should presume to oppose him, with .!Ilagna Charta about their necks. In a quarrel with the government of the Col- lege, he vouchsafed to tell them, that they were dogs, and their wives were bitches: that he knew how to govern the Afoors, and would beat them into better manners. The author accuses him of having told one of the assemblies, that he knew how to govern the country without assemblies, and if they should deny him any thing, after he had obtained a standing army, he would bring them to reason with halters about their necks. The same notions though in different language from people in later times, who had never even been in Morocco, produced the 4th of July, 1776. The first child born in the Colony, was on the 18th of Au- gust, 1587. It was a girl whose fathers name was Dare, rather an ominous one, she was christened Virginia after the country. The author relates the principal facts in the life of the celebrated Pocahontas, whose story is the most interesting episode in the history of Virginia. Her father, Powbatan, and the Sachem who succeeded him, Oppechancano, held the same rank in their contests with the Virginians, that the famous sachem Philip did with the people of Massachusetts.

Charles Townsend, Character 160-161

a 60 Rooks relating to dnierica. [July, ~vith Sir Edmond Andros who succeeded, though he com- plains of him, that he brought an innovation into their courts, which was a great hardship on the country. This was his making all the statutes of England to be the sole rule of his judgment. Sir Edmond was followed by Colonel Nicholson, who had been previously governour of Maryland, and who had acquired his science in the art of governing during a long resi- dence in Morocco. Something may be allowed for animosity in a contemporary, but, the following among other anecdotes shews what kind of man was entrusted with the powers of go- vernment. In answer to Mr. Fowler the Kings attorney, who objected to one of his orders as being illegal, he, in a fury took him by the collar, and swore, that he knew of no laws they had, and that his commands should be obeyed without hesitation or reserve. On other occasions he has been heard to reply to those, who objected to him the illegality of his~ proceedings; That they had no right at all to the liberty of English subjects, and that he would hang up those who should presume to oppose him, with .!Ilagna Charta about their necks. In a quarrel with the government of the Col- lege, he vouchsafed to tell them, that they were dogs, and their wives were bitches: that he knew how to govern the Afoors, and would beat them into better manners. The author accuses him of having told one of the assemblies, that he knew how to govern the country without assemblies, and if they should deny him any thing, after he had obtained a standing army, he would bring them to reason with halters about their necks. The same notions though in different language from people in later times, who had never even been in Morocco, produced the 4th of July, 1776. The first child born in the Colony, was on the 18th of Au- gust, 1587. It was a girl whose fathers name was Dare, rather an ominous one, she was christened Virginia after the country. The author relates the principal facts in the life of the celebrated Pocahontas, whose story is the most interesting episode in the history of Virginia. Her father, Powbatan, and the Sachem who succeeded him, Oppechancano, held the same rank in their contests with the Virginians, that the famous sachem Philip did with the people of Massachusetts. 1615.] Creduulily. 161 These three distinguished chiefs appear to have had more pro found views, than any others in North-America; and to have contended with the greatest skill and courage against numbers and evenS by which they were confounded, and a destiny, that it was probably impossible to have averted. In a paragraph in the 2d part, when speakin of ecclesias- tical affiurs, after remarking that the Church oF England was established by law, he says, They have no more than five conventicles among them, namely, three small meetings of Quakers, and two of Presbyterians. Tis observed, that those counties where the Presbyterian meetings are, produce very mean tobacco; and for that reason cant get an orthodox minis- to stay among them; but, whenever they could, the people went very orderly to church. As for the Quakers, tis observ- ed that by letting them alone they decrease daily :.The main- tenance of a minister was appointed by law to be 16000 pounds of tobacco annually. rrhe fee for a funeral sermon was 400 pounds of tobacco; for a marriage license 200, & c. Lw. His account of the natural productions of the country, does not profess to be that of a naturalist, but is however that of an accurate observer. He mentions different successful attempts at making wine from the natural grapes of the country, which were afterwards abandoned. His account of the Indians is fair and without exaggeration of thefr good and bad qualities. The volume has 14 p fates descriptive of the dress and customs of the Indians, which are very well execute~ fl THE EDITOfl~ SIR, TRAvELWIG the last autumn in the Dhtrict of Maine, t was one day induced to stop, by seeing a large concourse of people very busily engaged in digging, in a barren spot, in the town of Dresden. With great difficulty I learnt the object of pursuit. One of the pa~ had dreamed three nights succe.ive~y, that gold was con~ed at this spot As a large portion of every community have ever believed this kind of evidence indubita- ble, there was no difficulty experienced in forming a company, to search for and share the hidden treasure. They had toiled several days to no purpose, when one of the party proposed Vol. 1. No. 2. 21

Credulity 161-163

1615.] Creduulily. 161 These three distinguished chiefs appear to have had more pro found views, than any others in North-America; and to have contended with the greatest skill and courage against numbers and evenS by which they were confounded, and a destiny, that it was probably impossible to have averted. In a paragraph in the 2d part, when speakin of ecclesias- tical affiurs, after remarking that the Church oF England was established by law, he says, They have no more than five conventicles among them, namely, three small meetings of Quakers, and two of Presbyterians. Tis observed, that those counties where the Presbyterian meetings are, produce very mean tobacco; and for that reason cant get an orthodox minis- to stay among them; but, whenever they could, the people went very orderly to church. As for the Quakers, tis observ- ed that by letting them alone they decrease daily :.The main- tenance of a minister was appointed by law to be 16000 pounds of tobacco annually. rrhe fee for a funeral sermon was 400 pounds of tobacco; for a marriage license 200, & c. Lw. His account of the natural productions of the country, does not profess to be that of a naturalist, but is however that of an accurate observer. He mentions different successful attempts at making wine from the natural grapes of the country, which were afterwards abandoned. His account of the Indians is fair and without exaggeration of thefr good and bad qualities. The volume has 14 p fates descriptive of the dress and customs of the Indians, which are very well execute~ fl THE EDITOfl~ SIR, TRAvELWIG the last autumn in the Dhtrict of Maine, t was one day induced to stop, by seeing a large concourse of people very busily engaged in digging, in a barren spot, in the town of Dresden. With great difficulty I learnt the object of pursuit. One of the pa~ had dreamed three nights succe.ive~y, that gold was con~ed at this spot As a large portion of every community have ever believed this kind of evidence indubita- ble, there was no difficulty experienced in forming a company, to search for and share the hidden treasure. They had toiled several days to no purpose, when one of the party proposed Vol. 1. No. 2. 21 Credulity. [July, sending for a philosopher, who lived about fifty miles distant, and who possessed a stone, in which he could see every thing that existed, or was transacted in any part of the world. The l)roposal was acceeded to, and a messenger was despatched to the philosopher. Having examined his talisman, he at once perceived the treasure, and accurately and minutely described the spot where they were digging; which he declared he had never before seen. He was entreated and consented to go, and direct their labours in person. His presence gave anima- tion and vigour to their exertions. No one doubted, as he pronounced, that they were near the object of their pursuit ; but alas! it constantly eluded their grasp. At length worn with fatigue, they were obliged to abandon their golden dreams. They kindly charged the devil with their disappointment, and the philosopher returned with the satisfaction of knowing, that the belief of the people in his supernatural powers could not he shaken, even by their failure. The digging for money is renewed at intervals in every part of New-England. The inagick hazle wand usually directs the exertions of the labourer. The treasure is almost within his grasp, when the devil unkindly snatches it from him, and puts it in some new place of concealment. The philosopher with his wonderful stone is an unusual character. There exists however a number of them in the country. They are distin- guished at their birth by being born with a veil* over their face, and kind nature provides a talismanick stone for every child thus born. To common eyes these differ not from other pebbles, but to the gifted, they discover every thing at the spot to which he directs his attention. We have boasted in this country of being more enlightened, than the nations of the old world; and of being freed from the bondaga of superstition, to which they have been subject from the remotest periods of antiquity. But laying aside the stories of ghosts, which in the country still enchant the trembling au- ditors, instances of imposture, though less impudent perhaps than in Europe, are sufficiently common to attest the credulity of the people. Two or three years since, a man in Vermont undertook to care almost all manner of diseases by prayer to * This is an accident attendin the birth of some children, very familiar to surgeons and midwives, and which gives rise to this piece of superstition 1815.] Theories. 1 6~ heaven. It was only necessary to state the name and disease of the sick person in a letter, the prophet prayed and gave an immediate answer from heaven. Multitudes flocked to him from all the New-England states; and unopened letters are said to have accumulated upon him by bushels, before he could get time to read their contents. Many instances of a like kind might be mentioned. There are various superstitions respect- ing the weather. One man believes the twelve days succeed- ing christmas, to regulate the twelve months in the year; ano- ther supposes the weather of each month to be governed by that of the last Friday of the preceding; a third judges by the moon; a fourth by the stars. The prognosticks shall all be different, but the event will confirm each more strongly in his belief. Whether the horns of the moon are up or down, whe- ther she is on the wane or ir~crease, in what part of the body the almanack places her, are all important particulars to the farmer, regulating his sowing, his treatment of his domestick animals, and many of his operations in husbandry. Credu- lity seems to be a natural principle in the human mind. Rea- son was given us to regulate it, but reason can only have its full effect in those minds that are accustomed to trace effects to thek causes, and to perceive that God governs the world by second causes operating by immutable laws. G. TO THE EDITOR. SIR, A COLLECTION of Theories, from the most ancient times to our own, classed under different heads, would be very amus- ing, and perhaps not unprofitable. I have collected a few items, and if the plan be agreeable, will furnish you with others occasionally; and if some of your readers would contribute toward it, a concise account of any theories they may have met with in the course of their readihg, that are remarkable for wildness and extravagance, it may serve to form an amusing if not an instructive series. Ilerodotus accounts for the overflowing of the Nile, and the Etesiaa winds, in the following manner: But as I have mentioned the preceding opinions only to censure and confute them, I may be expected perhaps to

Theories 163-165

1815.] Theories. 1 6~ heaven. It was only necessary to state the name and disease of the sick person in a letter, the prophet prayed and gave an immediate answer from heaven. Multitudes flocked to him from all the New-England states; and unopened letters are said to have accumulated upon him by bushels, before he could get time to read their contents. Many instances of a like kind might be mentioned. There are various superstitions respect- ing the weather. One man believes the twelve days succeed- ing christmas, to regulate the twelve months in the year; ano- ther supposes the weather of each month to be governed by that of the last Friday of the preceding; a third judges by the moon; a fourth by the stars. The prognosticks shall all be different, but the event will confirm each more strongly in his belief. Whether the horns of the moon are up or down, whe- ther she is on the wane or ir~crease, in what part of the body the almanack places her, are all important particulars to the farmer, regulating his sowing, his treatment of his domestick animals, and many of his operations in husbandry. Credu- lity seems to be a natural principle in the human mind. Rea- son was given us to regulate it, but reason can only have its full effect in those minds that are accustomed to trace effects to thek causes, and to perceive that God governs the world by second causes operating by immutable laws. G. TO THE EDITOR. SIR, A COLLECTION of Theories, from the most ancient times to our own, classed under different heads, would be very amus- ing, and perhaps not unprofitable. I have collected a few items, and if the plan be agreeable, will furnish you with others occasionally; and if some of your readers would contribute toward it, a concise account of any theories they may have met with in the course of their readihg, that are remarkable for wildness and extravagance, it may serve to form an amusing if not an instructive series. Ilerodotus accounts for the overflowing of the Nile, and the Etesiaa winds, in the following manner: But as I have mentioned the preceding opinions only to censure and confute them, I may be expected perhaps to 164 Theories. [July, give my own sentiments on this subject. It is my opinion that the Nile overfion in the summer season, because in the winter the ens driven b~ stormstoin his usual course, as ends into the of air above Libya. My reason may be explained without difficulty; for it may be easil supposed, ~at to whatever region this power more a proaches, the rivers and streams of that country wili be proportionably dried up and diminished. Beloee Her. Enterpe, a. 24. The following theory of Sir John Daliymple in his memoirs of Great Britain, has lately appeared in the newspapers. It is certainly a grand idea to suppose that we shall become a race of pirates, because our territory is bounded by the Atlantick and Pacifick oceans. The local position, as well as the gene- mI history of the nations to which he alludes, and all the reasons he brings forward in support of his reverie, do, it is true all act directly against it, but this is not an uncommon case with theorists. Stationed thus in the middle, and on the east and on the west sides of the world, the English Americans will Arm not only the most potent, but the most singular empire that has ever existed; because it will consist, not in the dominion of a part ofthe land of the globe, butin a dominion of the whole ocean. To all nations their empire will be dreadful ;because their shi s will sail wherever billows roll or winds can waft them; an ecause their people, capable of subsisting either almost wholly on the produce of the waters by means of their fishe- ries, or on the plunder and contributions of mankind, if they choose to do so, will require few of their numbers to be em- manuihotures or hushandry at home; and therefore, : Lethe ancient Spartans, who defied all the power of Per- sia; or the roving Normans, who pillaged the sea-coasts of Europe, from Juuland to Dalmatia, the occupations of every citiz3n will lie, not in the common employments of peace, but in the powers of offence and defedce alone. Whether they ms have arts and letters, will be a matter of chance. if they shall be blest with arts and letters, they will spread civilization over the uni- verse. 14 on the other hand, they shall not be blest wit them, then they will once more plunge it into the same ida4cness, which nations have thrown upon each other, 1815.] Tythingrnen. 16~ probably much oftener than history can tell ; and when that happens, England, with her glories, and all her liberty, will be known only as a speck in the map of the world, as ancient Egypt, Sicily, Pontus, and Carthage are now. The Port Folio for March last, solves the difficult problem, respecting the first peopling the Continent ol America. in a manner which has at least the merit of novelty. We think there is sufficient reason to believe, that land once connected America to the old world, in l)lace of which noxv roll the Atlantick and Pacifick oceans. Over this con- tinuous land men and animals passed. This land, which it is probable was of very considerable extent, was all submerged, except in those parts of it which now appear as islands in those seas. After assuming as a fact that land once occupied the places of the Atlantick and Pacifick oceans, there is much ingenuous modesty in suggesting that it is probable that this land was of very considerable extent. AN AMATEUR. TO THE EDITOR. IN your first No. a correspondent xvitb the signature of C. G. desired that the principal fe~tures, and the pesent practice of the laws respecting Tythingmen may be given. As his reflections, however, regard only the ~OWCV5 exercised by those oflicers, in enforcing the due observance of the Lords day, I will confine my answer to that subject. The statute of 8 March, 1792, providin~ for the observa- tion of that day, is our only positive rule in Mass~chusetts. The preamble of the act is especially marked with simplicity and discretion ; and the whole is (Irawn with great judgment. Its first section forbids all labour, business, and work, (of eces siiy and charity only excepted,) and any sport, game, p1ay, or recreation. The second prohibits travelling, except from ne- cessity or charity. By the third, tavern-keepers are forbidden to entertain any persons, not being travellers, strangers or lodg ers~ in their houses. The sixth provides, that persons shall no

Tythingmen 165-169

1815.] Tythingrnen. 16~ probably much oftener than history can tell ; and when that happens, England, with her glories, and all her liberty, will be known only as a speck in the map of the world, as ancient Egypt, Sicily, Pontus, and Carthage are now. The Port Folio for March last, solves the difficult problem, respecting the first peopling the Continent ol America. in a manner which has at least the merit of novelty. We think there is sufficient reason to believe, that land once connected America to the old world, in l)lace of which noxv roll the Atlantick and Pacifick oceans. Over this con- tinuous land men and animals passed. This land, which it is probable was of very considerable extent, was all submerged, except in those parts of it which now appear as islands in those seas. After assuming as a fact that land once occupied the places of the Atlantick and Pacifick oceans, there is much ingenuous modesty in suggesting that it is probable that this land was of very considerable extent. AN AMATEUR. TO THE EDITOR. IN your first No. a correspondent xvitb the signature of C. G. desired that the principal fe~tures, and the pesent practice of the laws respecting Tythingmen may be given. As his reflections, however, regard only the ~OWCV5 exercised by those oflicers, in enforcing the due observance of the Lords day, I will confine my answer to that subject. The statute of 8 March, 1792, providin~ for the observa- tion of that day, is our only positive rule in Mass~chusetts. The preamble of the act is especially marked with simplicity and discretion ; and the whole is (Irawn with great judgment. Its first section forbids all labour, business, and work, (of eces siiy and charity only excepted,) and any sport, game, p1ay, or recreation. The second prohibits travelling, except from ne- cessity or charity. By the third, tavern-keepers are forbidden to entertain any persons, not being travellers, strangers or lodg ers~ in their houses. The sixth provides, that persons shall no 166 Ty(hingmen. [July, absent themselves from publick worship, unless necessarily pre- vented, for the space of three months together, provided there be any place of worship at which they can conscientiously and conveniently attend. it is by the tenth section made the duty of tythingmen to inquire into, and inform of all offences against the act. They are authorized to enter any room of a tavern, and, also, to examine all persons whom they shall have good cause to suspect of unnecessarily travelling, and to demand of such persons the cause thereof, together with their names and places of abode. If the reason given is not satisfactory, they shall enter a complaint against the person travelling before a justice of the peace, in the county where the offence is com- mitted, if such person lives in such county; otherwise they shall give information to some grand juryman. Such, Sir, are the principal regulations; and I know not how any sober person can complain of the spirit of any of them. If either be impolitick, it may be the sixth section, which is, however, so agreeable to the habits of our people, that I have never heard of the imposition of the fine since its enactment. Your correspondent complains of some curious cases of op- pression by tythingmen, whom he honours with a very hard name. But the mistake of officers in their duty is not an ob- jection to a laxv; and tythiugmen are liable to be punished for oppression as well as sheriffs and constables. I fear that your correspondent dislikes the law, and would represent the cases of abuse as an argument for its repeal. If it is not attempted to make the law stricter, I hope we may proceed as we have done for so many years. Some instances of overzealous execution of this official duty may have occurred; and it is natural enough, as the cases of necessity and charity, in which travelling on that day is permit- ted, are so numerous, that some should be thought fictitious. As the tythingman is not permitted to examine any but such as he suspects of unnecessarily travelling, his discretion will generally preserve him within legal bounds. He would be liable to an action for false imprisonment, if he detained a person for any other purpose than demanding his named place of abode, and cause of travelling. Of course the detention need not, without folly in the traveller, last more than three or four minutes; and any oppression is not to be expected to pass with impunity. I 1815.] Tytldngmen. believe there is a sufficient alacrity in our country to punish the abuse of office. Perhaps the provision, that complaint shall not be made to a justice, if the traveller live in a different county from that in which the tythiugmans town lies, is a sufficient protec- tion in most cases. The magistrate may be supposed to be acquainted with people in his own county, but not those of another. If complaint is made to a grand jury, their knowl- edge of the character of the person accused would, in many cases, prevent a prosecution. Whether any traveller on Sunday has the legal justification, is not to be ultimately judged of by the tythingman or the neighbouring justice of the peace. In all cases a trial by jury may be had on appeal. The exceptions in the statute for cases of necessity and charity do not seem very difficult to be settled, though perhaps greater latitude may be used in one quarter of the country than another. Here the barbers shop is open on Sunday morning; in another town, it is closcd~ Perhaps in each place the rule is correct. it would be a grievance to deny a gentleman the right of employing the sanie hand to shave him on one day in the week that does it every other. It would not, with my regard for the law, exercise the same strictness in manner in all places. To be impracticably rigid, is the most eiThctual way of defeating any regulation~ Nobody will deny, that it is lawful to do good on the Sabbath day. But as to the propriety of the travelling, iu any given case, some diversity may exist in the judgment of the tythingman and the passenger, and a serious controversy arLe. Perhaps some mode might he devised to prevent all difficulty on this score. By a statute in addition to the above cited, the owner or driver of a hackney carriage belon~ing to Boston is required to obtain a certificate of permission from some justice in that town, for himself and each passenger to. he carried into, or from, town on the Lords day. Though this restriction applies to no other town, I have never heard it complained of, and i stances of forfeiture are very rare. Now, if similar certificates were provided for persons travelling in other con ~eyances, every man who feels the necessity or charity of his journe~r might be protected from the apprehension of injury. But, un~ til such passes are exhibited, the officer must satisfy himself with the passengerss relation of the cause of his travelling 168 7-. [July, and I cannot easily bring myself to believe, that the true rela-. zion will ever be disregarded. Your correspondent inquires whether towns may act as they choose on this branch of police. I presume, there is no obli- gation on towns to choose tythiugmen, where they are not needed for the enrofoement of law, more than there is for cullers of fish, in p laces where such officers would have no employment. Perhaps a majority of the .towns in this com- monwealth do not suflbr from travelling through their roads on Sunday; but many are so situated that their publick worship may be greatly interrupted unless the law is enforced. Nor as this the only proper case, in which the officers should act. As much is entrusted to the discretion of tythinpuen, they ou;hz to have enlarged views of the dunes of charity, and the obligations which are necessarily ~~don the difibrent situa- tions of society. It is well known, or instance, that the Judges of our Supreme Court are obliged to travel two or three Sun- days in every year, in passing to places of the next session of the Court, when hmr distant from those where they were last holden. A similar necessity, perhaps of inferior degree, may apply to many other passengers. On our sea board, two or three hundred vessels arrive every Saturday or Sunday; and a thousand calls of charity will require indulgence from officers or security by law, in permitting passengers to return to their Mends from whom they may have been long separated, even. on Sunday. To prevent imposition, the certificates would~be sufficient; but perhaps the remedy would be in many cms overlooked. 1 have written much more than I designed on this sub6ect; but hopa it may have a tendency to quiet your correspon6ents fern of tyranny. The proverbial wisdom from the Italian, with which he concludes, us worthy of consideration; but there is no fear of the enactment of new laws on this subject, when the old ones are amply sufficient. Wishing that the statute may be enforced, whenever it is necessary; and that your miscel- laixy may be occupied with more interesting subjects, I confess that nobody would be more plead to see oppression pun- ished, than, Sir, yours, 3. Czus. 1815.] Alierino Sheep.Maxims, ~c. 169 TO THE EDITOR. SiR, IN answer to the inquiry in your last number respecting Sheep, it appears by the official returns made in 1810, that there were 431 full blooded Merino, 6,133 mixed blood, 759 broad tailed, and 726,330 common sheep, in all 1,584,652. But these returns are only from six states, and very imperfect even from those; as for instance, there was no return from Connecticut of any Merino sheep, although from the flock of general Humphreys alone, many thousands had been derived. Mr. Coxe estimates the quantity of wool sheared in the United States in 1812, to have been 20 or 22,000,000 of pounds. GREVILLES MAXIMS. THE following extracts are from a book entitled Maxims, Characters and Reflections, critical, satirical and moral, the first edition published about the year 1756. Though a mod- ern work and possessed of very considerable merit, it is not often to be met with. It was written by Mr. Greville, a man of rank, fortune and fashion. It is interesting as it gives a pic- ture of the upper classes of society in England, at that period, their dress, manners, and opinions, all of which are now very different. The copy, from which these extracts are taken, was purchased at the sale of a large library belonging to a clergy- man, and contains some manuscript notes, and the names of some of the characters desc~ibed by the author. True delicacy, as true generosity, is more wounded by an offence from itself, if I may be allowed the expression, than to itself. The art of making yourself considerable in the great and gay world, is neither to be defined, nor learnt. The great fault of the human understanding, is not the not goin0 well, but the not stopping well. Meront is a man of quality, and though young, has a con- siderable office in the government: he is a member of parlia- mont, and has often distinguished himself in it. He has VOL. I. No. 2. Charics Towns~md. C) ~

Greville's Maxims 169

1815.] Alierino Sheep.Maxims, ~c. 169 TO THE EDITOR. SiR, IN answer to the inquiry in your last number respecting Sheep, it appears by the official returns made in 1810, that there were 431 full blooded Merino, 6,133 mixed blood, 759 broad tailed, and 726,330 common sheep, in all 1,584,652. But these returns are only from six states, and very imperfect even from those; as for instance, there was no return from Connecticut of any Merino sheep, although from the flock of general Humphreys alone, many thousands had been derived. Mr. Coxe estimates the quantity of wool sheared in the United States in 1812, to have been 20 or 22,000,000 of pounds. GREVILLES MAXIMS. THE following extracts are from a book entitled Maxims, Characters and Reflections, critical, satirical and moral, the first edition published about the year 1756. Though a mod- ern work and possessed of very considerable merit, it is not often to be met with. It was written by Mr. Greville, a man of rank, fortune and fashion. It is interesting as it gives a pic- ture of the upper classes of society in England, at that period, their dress, manners, and opinions, all of which are now very different. The copy, from which these extracts are taken, was purchased at the sale of a large library belonging to a clergy- man, and contains some manuscript notes, and the names of some of the characters desc~ibed by the author. True delicacy, as true generosity, is more wounded by an offence from itself, if I may be allowed the expression, than to itself. The art of making yourself considerable in the great and gay world, is neither to be defined, nor learnt. The great fault of the human understanding, is not the not goin0 well, but the not stopping well. Meront is a man of quality, and though young, has a con- siderable office in the government: he is a member of parlia- mont, and has often distinguished himself in it. He has VOL. I. No. 2. Charics Towns~md. C) ~

Merino Sheep 169-170

1815.] Alierino Sheep.Maxims, ~c. 169 TO THE EDITOR. SiR, IN answer to the inquiry in your last number respecting Sheep, it appears by the official returns made in 1810, that there were 431 full blooded Merino, 6,133 mixed blood, 759 broad tailed, and 726,330 common sheep, in all 1,584,652. But these returns are only from six states, and very imperfect even from those; as for instance, there was no return from Connecticut of any Merino sheep, although from the flock of general Humphreys alone, many thousands had been derived. Mr. Coxe estimates the quantity of wool sheared in the United States in 1812, to have been 20 or 22,000,000 of pounds. GREVILLES MAXIMS. THE following extracts are from a book entitled Maxims, Characters and Reflections, critical, satirical and moral, the first edition published about the year 1756. Though a mod- ern work and possessed of very considerable merit, it is not often to be met with. It was written by Mr. Greville, a man of rank, fortune and fashion. It is interesting as it gives a pic- ture of the upper classes of society in England, at that period, their dress, manners, and opinions, all of which are now very different. The copy, from which these extracts are taken, was purchased at the sale of a large library belonging to a clergy- man, and contains some manuscript notes, and the names of some of the characters desc~ibed by the author. True delicacy, as true generosity, is more wounded by an offence from itself, if I may be allowed the expression, than to itself. The art of making yourself considerable in the great and gay world, is neither to be defined, nor learnt. The great fault of the human understanding, is not the not goin0 well, but the not stopping well. Meront is a man of quality, and though young, has a con- siderable office in the government: he is a member of parlia- mont, and has often distinguished himself in it. He has VOL. I. No. 2. Charics Towns~md. C) ~ .liaairns, Characters and Reflections. [July~ about three quarters of a good understanding, andabout three quarters of an amiable disposition.Lle is noble and generous, but he is not free from pride and ostentation: he is determined in his party, and resolute in his purpose; but then he is obstinate and overbearing: as a companion he is frank and agreeable, but he is supercilious and contemptuous to his inferiors; nay, as he is not very exact, he sometimes mistakes those inferiors. He has certainly what may pass for elo- quence, a fine choice of words, and an agreeable flow, but then he wants taste : his subjects are sometimes ill-chosen, and his eloquence ill-timd. Meron has been known to in- dulge this flow of elocution at social entertainments, which, though it may possibly come within the circle of taste and propriety in Britain, would certainly be thought every where else extreamly absurd. The habit of political business, and political speaking, has encouraged him to speech it at dinners, at suppersnay, where there were women as well as men. Then he will sometimes tell you one thing is premature, ano- ther is what he x;ont opiniatre, a third is something to which the parties will not accede. Then he is too aptand that indeed is hardly consistent with the rest or his character, or within the circle of Britannic tastehe is too apt to be pro- lix on a trivial uninteresting subject. He is circumstantial I had almost said patheticabout the regulation of The last years opera, or the less interesting concerns of a common acquaintance. Meron has these excellencies, but he has also these imperfections: he seems to have made a discoveryI know not whether you will subscribe to itbut he seems to have found out, that thc common opinion which places the beauty of conversation in compressing our thoughts, is a vulgar error; and that, on the contrary, they should be dilated and spun out. Penetration seems a kind of inspiration ;it gives me an idea of prophecy.~* Praxitelest is one of those rare genitises, which, like some plants, rise, bloom, and arrive at perfection almost at once, though they are of the first class. He had scarce entered By penetration is meant a natural jastinctive sagacity, independent of 11 that can he acquired hy study and experience: it is a gift of foreseeing, in some insiances, what shall b. ; and, therefore, in its nature, as well as ia its operations, has so~ne remote rsemblance to inspiration and prophecy Mr. Pitt.

Pitt the elder, character 170-174

.liaairns, Characters and Reflections. [July~ about three quarters of a good understanding, andabout three quarters of an amiable disposition.Lle is noble and generous, but he is not free from pride and ostentation: he is determined in his party, and resolute in his purpose; but then he is obstinate and overbearing: as a companion he is frank and agreeable, but he is supercilious and contemptuous to his inferiors; nay, as he is not very exact, he sometimes mistakes those inferiors. He has certainly what may pass for elo- quence, a fine choice of words, and an agreeable flow, but then he wants taste : his subjects are sometimes ill-chosen, and his eloquence ill-timd. Meron has been known to in- dulge this flow of elocution at social entertainments, which, though it may possibly come within the circle of taste and propriety in Britain, would certainly be thought every where else extreamly absurd. The habit of political business, and political speaking, has encouraged him to speech it at dinners, at suppersnay, where there were women as well as men. Then he will sometimes tell you one thing is premature, ano- ther is what he x;ont opiniatre, a third is something to which the parties will not accede. Then he is too aptand that indeed is hardly consistent with the rest or his character, or within the circle of Britannic tastehe is too apt to be pro- lix on a trivial uninteresting subject. He is circumstantial I had almost said patheticabout the regulation of The last years opera, or the less interesting concerns of a common acquaintance. Meron has these excellencies, but he has also these imperfections: he seems to have made a discoveryI know not whether you will subscribe to itbut he seems to have found out, that thc common opinion which places the beauty of conversation in compressing our thoughts, is a vulgar error; and that, on the contrary, they should be dilated and spun out. Penetration seems a kind of inspiration ;it gives me an idea of prophecy.~* Praxitelest is one of those rare genitises, which, like some plants, rise, bloom, and arrive at perfection almost at once, though they are of the first class. He had scarce entered By penetration is meant a natural jastinctive sagacity, independent of 11 that can he acquired hy study and experience: it is a gift of foreseeing, in some insiances, what shall b. ; and, therefore, in its nature, as well as ia its operations, has so~ne remote rsemblance to inspiration and prophecy Mr. Pitt. 1815.] Maxims, Characters and Reflections~ 171 the world as a man, before he made his way to the top of it; he took his seat in parliament, and he rose up an orator: penetration supplied him with all the advantages which expe- rience bestows upon others. Nature seemed to have anima- ted and adorned the wisdom of age, with all the fire, the the gaiety, the lustre of youth, and thus to have produced a being of a new species. When he rose up to speak, all was silence and expectation; nor was this expectation ever disap- pointed all the beauties of poetry, all the delicacy of senti- ment, all the strength of reason, united in that torrent of elo- quence, which, as it flowed ~vith irresistible force, sparkled with unrivalled lustre, and was admired even by those who, having in vain opposed its course, were in a moment borne down before it. If he was attacked, no matter by how many, lie not only avoided the weapon of his adversaries, hut turned the edge of it with double force upon themselves, always directing it with unerring skill to that part where it would most easily enter. It is, methinks, (liflicult to speak of Prax- iteles without a metaphor, because common language can hut ill express uncommon excellence: it may however be said, that Praxiteles has the art of uniting the elegance of a courtier and the accuracy of a scholar with the keenness of a dispu- tant, and will pay the politest compliment to the person, while he exposes the sophistry of the speaker. Praxiteles has such command over elegance, grace, and taste, that he has been able to carry then) even into a society of politicians, and to touch the breasts of those, whose imaginations have wanted vigour to push them beyond the frozen virtues of industrious regularity, with something of that elevating delight, inspired by the striking superiority which nice discernment and true taste can so ill define, and so well conceive. In a word, Praxiteles is in every respect truly great: that ambition which is in some men so apparently a vice, was in him evidently a virtue. It was a principle implanted in him by nature, to place him in a conspicuous station, that a work which did her honour might not be hid. Some men mistake talking about sense, for talking sense.~* * The man who only relates what he has heard or read, or talks of sensible men and sensible hooks in general terms, or of celebrated passages in celebrated authors, may talk about sense but he alone~ who soeaks mba sentiments that arise f~,m tne ~orce ci nis own mine employed upon the suajects aetore nim, can talk sense 172 .Maxtms, Characters and Reflections. LJuly~ There is a certain author* who produces perpetual para- doxes in my mind; I am at a loss to decide whether he charms or offends me most, whether to call him the first of writers or the last: and this one would think a difficulty like- wise with other people; for he has written what has had merit enough to get into all hands, and defect enough to be flung out of all. It is his great praise, his honour, that he is con- demned by sensible men, and applauded by weak women, for the first are often as ignorant of the powers of the heart, as the last are of those of the understanding. He is in many par- ticulars the most minute, fine, delicate observer of human nature I ever met with, the most iefiued and just in his sentiments; but he often carries that refinement into puerility, and that justness into tastelessness: he not only enters upon those beautiful and touching distinctions which the gross concep- tions of most men are incapable of discerning, but he falls also upon all the trivial silly circumstances of society, which can have attractions only for a nursery. This writer possesses infinite powers both of delicacy and reason, but he possesses not the judicious faculty of directing those powers; he is defi- cient in TASTED hence he is irremlar and f in his notions alse of the manners he treats of; he plainly shews that he has neither from nature nor education the kind of intelligence, which should guide him in the pursuit lie attempts : his un- derstanding seems to be hampered and confined; it wants enlargement, freedom, or, to say all in one word, TASTE: his men of the world are strange debauchees; his women ridi- culously outrees, both in good and had qualities: parts there are, not only of the most refined, the most elevated, I had almost said the most celestial delicacy, but even of gaiety, ease, and agreeableness; but you see plainly that the writer is not A MASTER: deficiencies, stiffness, improprieties, break in upon you at times, and shock you; and you grieve that he does not please you moreor less. Possession without right, is, in, most cases of property, a much surer title than right without possession : is it not so also in most cases of consideration, respect, and admiration of the world? If you meet young Torismondt at the opera, and ask him how he does; he will answer you, his dam was got by * Jlichardson, I The author ~815.] Maxims, Characters and Refleaions. I 7 Whitefoot, his grand dam by Julius C~sar, his great grand dam by Chimney-sweeper, his great great grand dam by Silly Tom out of the old Mouna barb m~ re.Ilave you any runniub horses to sell ?or match ?--you may do either with young Torismond, quite upon an agreeable footing; three or four hundred pounds are with him but as so many farthings. Torismond has seldom fewer racers in his string than thirteen or fourteen; most of them first formed nags, and all Torismonds intimate friends. Torismond is none of your half bred jockeys; he improves in training; and if he goes on improving till he is an old man, he will certainly be a jockey in an exceeding high form. If you meet Torismond on the roadwhether on horse back or in his chariot, its all oneit will be full gallop: his out-riders indeed may be trotting behind, for they ride coach horses, he drives running horsesin order to have a race before his eyes wherever he goes. 0! they have all six won many and many a kings plate! You ask whither be is going in such a hurry ? What a question ! to see his friends to be sure: and the next day, if you go the same road, you will perhaps see him coming the same pace back again after having seen them. You dont comprehend the pleasure resulting from looking at beasts ? Well, if you are so dull I cannot help it: it will be in vain to recommend to you the contemplation of this beautiful string; you will never comprehend the grace of their jutting walk, the charm of their ungain gallop, the delightful whisk of a long, ragged, and ugly tail, much less the beauty of a horses stopping short, bolting his tail straight up) andBut it would require the pen of a Swift to describe all the delicix of those dear Houyhnhnms) which that great man had the penetration to see, and the taste to enjoy. Torismond enjoys them all; and next to the horses, he enjoys their feeder: if you was to meet that same feeder and Torismond together, they would put you in mind of the two kings of Breutfordthey always whisperno matter whether any one is near, or whether there is any secret, they are always cheek by jowland whis- pering: nay, if there was a secret, and you were near, and were to listen, you would get nothing by it; their language is that of a jockey, and you would find it about as intelligible as that of a horse. Torismond is an adept you see, be is deep in the mystery,he is indeed a jockey. You ask why he 174 Maxims, Characters and Reflections. [July, does not rather think of being a politician, and making a figure in public lifeindeed I do not know: whether it be that he has any party prejudices, or what it is indeed I do not know, but he does not think of it. Well then, say you, as he is young, some 6allantrics xvitb the fine ladies might be a cleverer employmentBless me, but suppose he has no taste for any of these things! I tell you, Torismond is a jockey, a very jockey: and every time he wakes out of his sleep, he says Give me another horse.~~~ Adrastus* is neither a polished man of the world, nor a scholar; nay, he has not the smallest pretensions to the char- acter of either, and yet he is often acceptable to both : he is not the least acquainted with books, not even those in his own language, and he is equally ignorant of the elegancies of life: his breeding does not extend an inch farther than civility; his dress is always after his own fashion, nor is he less singular in his pleasures and tastes; and yet there are twenty little things that Adrastus understands better than any man, and not one but he will take pleasure in doing for you: do you want to have a carriage made, a landau, or a post-chaise, he will or- der it for you, and it will be made just as you wish it; its fort shall be either convenience or jemmsness, or a proper mix- ture of both, just as your character requires it. He will him- self see the stuff it is made of, and above all he will take care you shall not be cheated; he knows every particular of every one of the various trades the whole must pass through. Would you buy two or three horses for this post-chaise? he will even do that for you; and not a splint or a spavin, or had eye, or old broken knee, or pincht foot, or low heel, escapes him. He will choose any sort of horse equally well, from the thorough English black up to the best bred bay. Adrastus is the best hurnourd fellow in the world, and however distant from every thing that is French, is always acceptable to the most fashionable people, unless they are very much pinched and precise indeed; nay, he likes the company of ladies that are good-hurnoured and free, and will readily make one with them at a Vaux-hall party, and when there, will not fail to get them the best box; and the best things of all sorts; he has but to give Mr. Tyers a John Wilkes.

John Wilke's Character 174-178

174 Maxims, Characters and Reflections. [July, does not rather think of being a politician, and making a figure in public lifeindeed I do not know: whether it be that he has any party prejudices, or what it is indeed I do not know, but he does not think of it. Well then, say you, as he is young, some 6allantrics xvitb the fine ladies might be a cleverer employmentBless me, but suppose he has no taste for any of these things! I tell you, Torismond is a jockey, a very jockey: and every time he wakes out of his sleep, he says Give me another horse.~~~ Adrastus* is neither a polished man of the world, nor a scholar; nay, he has not the smallest pretensions to the char- acter of either, and yet he is often acceptable to both : he is not the least acquainted with books, not even those in his own language, and he is equally ignorant of the elegancies of life: his breeding does not extend an inch farther than civility; his dress is always after his own fashion, nor is he less singular in his pleasures and tastes; and yet there are twenty little things that Adrastus understands better than any man, and not one but he will take pleasure in doing for you: do you want to have a carriage made, a landau, or a post-chaise, he will or- der it for you, and it will be made just as you wish it; its fort shall be either convenience or jemmsness, or a proper mix- ture of both, just as your character requires it. He will him- self see the stuff it is made of, and above all he will take care you shall not be cheated; he knows every particular of every one of the various trades the whole must pass through. Would you buy two or three horses for this post-chaise? he will even do that for you; and not a splint or a spavin, or had eye, or old broken knee, or pincht foot, or low heel, escapes him. He will choose any sort of horse equally well, from the thorough English black up to the best bred bay. Adrastus is the best hurnourd fellow in the world, and however distant from every thing that is French, is always acceptable to the most fashionable people, unless they are very much pinched and precise indeed; nay, he likes the company of ladies that are good-hurnoured and free, and will readily make one with them at a Vaux-hall party, and when there, will not fail to get them the best box; and the best things of all sorts; he has but to give Mr. Tyers a John Wilkes. 1815.] Maxims Characiers and Reflections. 175 wink and all is done; they have drank many a bowl of punch together, and smoaked many a pipe. By the way, do you love punch? hell get you such rum as perhaps you never tasted.You may send Adrastus about at your Vaux-hall parties like a waiter if you will, he desires no better sport; nay, after supper when the chief of the company is gone, he will take a French-horn, and, give him a good second, he will delight you. If you love hunting, he will clang you the hunting notes till the gardens ring again; you will, like Alex- ander fight all your battles oer again, and slay again the slain. However, dont mistake me, Adrastus never in his life hunted with a French-horn, he knows things better; he only practises it as a genteel amusement. 0! Adrastus is an excellent sportsin~ n in every branch of it. But Adrastus is indeed a most general man as far as modern things, me- chanical things, and uselbi things, go.Would you show your bounds to a nood judge? get Adrastus to your kennel; the best shaped ones will not escape him; and his hints may be worth listening to if you want to make any new crosses: then if he attends you in the field, and you know and love the truth, youll be delighted with Adrastus; he never rides much, but yet he is always first in at the death; youd swear that either he had whispered the fox which way to go, or the fox him which way he intended to go. Adrastus is indeed a most manly character; all exercises are familiar to him: few men beat him formerly at a hop step and jump; he now flings a cricket-ball with most men, is a tolerable back-hand in a tennis-court, and very few men indeed excel him at a cudgel. Some people of rule instead of taste might object to Adrastus as having something odd in his appearance, car- riage, and dress, and not being gentleman-like: but if you are not of the number you will hold them very cheap; nay, it will be that very oddity that delights you and makes your connection with him more pleasing, as different notes of mu- sick make a more striking concord than the same. No man makes a worse bow than Adrastus, or perhaps looks less like a gentleman; and that is his perfection. His conversation too is like no other persons, and yet few other persons please you as much as Adrastus: you ask me why ?ask nature. There are men in whom you would spoil all by reducing them to what you call regulai~ity, they are born and designed 176 Maxims, Characters and Reflections. [July. to be otherwise; and while vulgar eyes look upon them, as they do on comets, as unnatural and monstrous, those of su- perior discernment only admire in both the uncommon yet true direction of nature. Clitander seems to have said, or rather nature seems to have said to him, you shall not be old. He is now three or four and forty, yet he looks like a young fellow, and acts like a very young fellow, nay, and what is still more extra- ordinary, acting like a very young fellow becomes him. Most men of four and thirty are much too old for him, he keeps company only with very young fellowslike himself. In one word, not to disguise his character by palliative terms, he is a rake genteel, easy, soft, even modest with ladies, he is a reveller and a rake: late hours, flee living, I confess, are his favourites; butI know not how, they scarce disgrace iiim. Brave as C~sar, he is yet as peaceable as Fribble; it is almost impossible to quarrel with him. He is always good humoured, and the chief and almost the only thing he re- quires of you is to set up with him. Every one blames Clitander aloud, and yet tacitly and involuntarily absolves huim. Nature is too strong for reason, and Clitander forces you (unless you are a very dull dog indeed) to smile even while you shake your head at his irregularities. Aythere he is walking along on the other side of the way : you see his dress is the most careless in the world, and yet how ele- gantly genteel he is in it! as if he was elegantly genteel whe- ther he would or no. What a pretty figure too !its now two oclock, and depend upon it, he is but just out of his bed or the round house. Its a pity, however, he does not take to another sort of life. That is certain; and who knows, when he is a middle aged man of a hundreQ perhaps he will? It is odd; yet this very life which you almost approve in Cli- tander, you despise in Valerius, who is near twenty years younger. What think you, if Clitander was to cut off his baTh, wear a tie-wig, and go into the house of commons, would you be charmed with the decent dignity of his new character? Clitander is a comet. The language of Gelon is It isyou mustI know, and no man knows less th n Gelon: the language of La~liu~ is It seemsYou mayi believe, and no man knows more than L~lius. 1815.] Maxims, Characters and Reflections. 7 Nothing so different as envy and contempt; and yet no- thing so common as to endeavour to persuade others, nay nothing so common as really to persuade ourselves, that we despise those whom we envy. 0 Tempora! 0 Mores! 0! the profligacy, the luxury, the venality of this age !cried the unvenal Misanthes; who sold out declamations on virtue, honour, and patriotism, for bread and cheese; and he wrote, and wrote, and wrote, till he had persuaded himself that all the rants of his abusive and injurious pen were precepts of equal authority with those of the twelve tables: he dealt about him, he thundered like a little God of this nether world, and all in the cause of great- ness of soul. Nay, I would lint swear that there were not certain moments of enthusiastic rapture, when he really mis- took the elevated situation of his garret, for a station superior to that of the vile nobility whom he so particularly honoured with his distinctions. Then there was a certain house, a cer- tain rendezvous near the palace, which even raised his hu- mourous contempt. 0! the wretches that haunt it are one and all infamous scoundrels, thinks Misanthes; and gives them a sneer, a something of a witty stroke of contempt. It happened that a certain very profligate frequenter of that certain house, a great man, had some business with Misanthes, and appointed him to attend on the morrow at his hotel. At the very moment of appointment, he 4ippeared at the nobles study doorand behold Misanthes! Have you ever seen a dog xvalk about a room on his hinder legs, keeping with (hffi- culty from crawling on all four, and still bending forward all the way he went? as like as two peasI mean the patriot and the dog. If the noble spoke, the answer was ready long before the question was asked,and the sweetest humility! Did you ever hear a certain loose, but humourous French song, in which a capuchin fryar is suppose(l to die. and travel to not t~ the most desirable of the two other worlds, where, as soon as he arrives, he is accosted by the black monarch, with Capuciu6?Plait ii, in great humility says the capuchin, plait ii Jlionseigneur? Says Philintus, What can be the meaning of it? tis cer- tainly sothe world is not fond of me; and yet God knows I do all I can to please every body; 1 study the humour of every body, and endeavour te indulge it; I omit no oppor- tunity of doing pleasure or service, and yet 1 see it plainly. Vol. 1. No. 2. 178 Receipts. jjJuly the world does not like meits very ungrateful though after allDn the world !rot me if ever I bestow another moments attention or thought upon it. Thus Philintus re- solved: from that moment every body was delighted in him. Nothing is a stronger proof of the prejudice of education, than that men, who are horn in despotic governments, will stretch their imaginations to devise arguments against those that are free, since in that instance prejudice is stronger even than self interest.~ The opinions of men of great abilities are respectable before they have given their reasons for them, hut afterwards they are upon a level with the opinions of other men ; for they will then (lepend upon the reasons for support, and not upon the authority of the character. The following preparation is often used in country houses in England, t~ take away any close, unpleasant air, and give a slight perfume to apart- ments. It takes a long time to prepare, but is very durable; and a handful of this composition placed in a room, will produce its effect for a considerable time. Take of all sorts of roses, one peck; half a peck of lavan- der; one quart of thyme blossoms; do. of hysop blossoms; do. sage blossoms; do. pot Marjorum ; two quarts of honey stickle blossoms; do. Saringar blossoms; one pound of bay salt; half a pound of salt-petre; one pound and a half of com- mon salt; a quarter of a pcund of cloves; one ounce of Mace; two ounces of Jamaica pepper. Put them all in a pan toge- ther, and stir them every day, for a month, or till they are tho rotighly moistened, then add the spices pounded; close them down in jars, with a paper, bladder, and leather. Keep them in a dry place for a twelvemonth, at which time they are fit for use. Lemon and orange peel, salted and dried in an oven, thrown amongst it, will improve the Sweet Pot. It must be pressed very hard, when put into the jars for the twelve months. GINGER BEER. Take 13 gallons water, 13 pounds lump sugar, 3 ounces ginger bruised, boil the whole one hotir, take off the scum, put the whites of eight eggs, well heat, to clarify it; when boiled

Receipts 178-179

178 Receipts. jjJuly the world does not like meits very ungrateful though after allDn the world !rot me if ever I bestow another moments attention or thought upon it. Thus Philintus re- solved: from that moment every body was delighted in him. Nothing is a stronger proof of the prejudice of education, than that men, who are horn in despotic governments, will stretch their imaginations to devise arguments against those that are free, since in that instance prejudice is stronger even than self interest.~ The opinions of men of great abilities are respectable before they have given their reasons for them, hut afterwards they are upon a level with the opinions of other men ; for they will then (lepend upon the reasons for support, and not upon the authority of the character. The following preparation is often used in country houses in England, t~ take away any close, unpleasant air, and give a slight perfume to apart- ments. It takes a long time to prepare, but is very durable; and a handful of this composition placed in a room, will produce its effect for a considerable time. Take of all sorts of roses, one peck; half a peck of lavan- der; one quart of thyme blossoms; do. of hysop blossoms; do. sage blossoms; do. pot Marjorum ; two quarts of honey stickle blossoms; do. Saringar blossoms; one pound of bay salt; half a pound of salt-petre; one pound and a half of com- mon salt; a quarter of a pcund of cloves; one ounce of Mace; two ounces of Jamaica pepper. Put them all in a pan toge- ther, and stir them every day, for a month, or till they are tho rotighly moistened, then add the spices pounded; close them down in jars, with a paper, bladder, and leather. Keep them in a dry place for a twelvemonth, at which time they are fit for use. Lemon and orange peel, salted and dried in an oven, thrown amongst it, will improve the Sweet Pot. It must be pressed very hard, when put into the jars for the twelve months. GINGER BEER. Take 13 gallons water, 13 pounds lump sugar, 3 ounces ginger bruised, boil the whole one hotir, take off the scum, put the whites of eight eggs, well heat, to clarify it; when boiled 1815.] .dmerican Unitarianism. 179 strain it into a tub, let it stand until cold; then put it into the barrel, with the peals and juice of thirteen lemons, and half a spoonful of yeast on the top; stop the cask close. In two weeks it will be fit for bottling, and in two more you may begin to drink it. The lemons should be paired very thin and the juice strained. The above forms a very grateful drink in warm weather. TO THE EDITOR OF THE NORTH-AMERICAN REVIEW. SIR, I OBSERVE that communications tending to elicit useful infor- mation are admitted into your magazine. Allow me to sub- mit a request. to the learned author of the history of dmeri- can Unitarianism,~~ who has done himself so much honour, by adding to his glory as the Strabo, that of becoming the Euse- bius of his age and country. Of late we have heard a good deal about town of a letter re- ceived by the above distinguished personage, from a gentleman of Quincy, to whom he had sent a copy of his invaluable pam- phlet. This letter, it is said, contained sundry notices respect ma bereticks of former days, as well as some hints, rather blunt than polite, intended for the personal benefit of tile learn- ed Geographer. He will gratify the curiosity of the publick, as well as that of your correspondent, if he will be good enougi], in the fifth or fifteenth edition of his American Unitarianism, to add this letter to those with which he has favoured the world. His modesty may induce him to plead, that he has already much upon his hands ;-.--.but the Unitarian plot is happily disco- vered, and its aiders and abettors hung up between heaven and earth in the Patriot and the Panoplistthe Charlestown elec- tion is over, and neither Brattle-street nor Chauncy-place have any new psalm books in the press; so that he will not be occu- pied in keeping them in order. As to the Boston clergy and the University, they seem absolutely incorrigible. It appears doubtful whether he will get any thing but contempt from the former, or if the latter can be induced to buy him off, even with a barren D.D.Such is the reward of merit in these de- generate days H

American Unitarianism 179-180

1815.] .dmerican Unitarianism. 179 strain it into a tub, let it stand until cold; then put it into the barrel, with the peals and juice of thirteen lemons, and half a spoonful of yeast on the top; stop the cask close. In two weeks it will be fit for bottling, and in two more you may begin to drink it. The lemons should be paired very thin and the juice strained. The above forms a very grateful drink in warm weather. TO THE EDITOR OF THE NORTH-AMERICAN REVIEW. SIR, I OBSERVE that communications tending to elicit useful infor- mation are admitted into your magazine. Allow me to sub- mit a request. to the learned author of the history of dmeri- can Unitarianism,~~ who has done himself so much honour, by adding to his glory as the Strabo, that of becoming the Euse- bius of his age and country. Of late we have heard a good deal about town of a letter re- ceived by the above distinguished personage, from a gentleman of Quincy, to whom he had sent a copy of his invaluable pam- phlet. This letter, it is said, contained sundry notices respect ma bereticks of former days, as well as some hints, rather blunt than polite, intended for the personal benefit of tile learn- ed Geographer. He will gratify the curiosity of the publick, as well as that of your correspondent, if he will be good enougi], in the fifth or fifteenth edition of his American Unitarianism, to add this letter to those with which he has favoured the world. His modesty may induce him to plead, that he has already much upon his hands ;-.--.but the Unitarian plot is happily disco- vered, and its aiders and abettors hung up between heaven and earth in the Patriot and the Panoplistthe Charlestown elec- tion is over, and neither Brattle-street nor Chauncy-place have any new psalm books in the press; so that he will not be occu- pied in keeping them in order. As to the Boston clergy and the University, they seem absolutely incorrigible. It appears doubtful whether he will get any thing but contempt from the former, or if the latter can be induced to buy him off, even with a barren D.D.Such is the reward of merit in these de- generate days H 180 Journal of Elizabeth Woodville. [July, He may further allege in excuse, that the hints, above re- ferred to, are not over civil. To he sure, it sounds rather odd, to insinuate, that a soi-disant champion of orthodoxy may re- ally contribute to propagate the principles of Voltaire ! But old men will have their way ; and he who has survived the tremendous castigation of the Boston Rebel, need not fear these little scratches. He may justly apply to himself what Cowlev says of the Philistine 6 Brass was his helmet, his boots Brass, and oer His breast a breastplate of strong Brass he wore. Having thus obviated the most prominent excuses, which his retiring disposition may induce him to allege, I hope h~ will comply with my request. I conclude, Mr. Editor, with a reflection. Under what infi- nite obligations are we to one, xvho comes all the way from Connecticut to reform the heathen and Indians of our unhap- py Massachusettswho inform us how much more our fathers believed than we do, and how much less we believe th~ n we ought to dowho kindly undertakes to regulate our elections and our psalm books, to promote union in our families, to purify our churches, and to cleanse that Augean stable, our University!! Yours, IXIr. Editor, INSATIABILlS. FOR THE NORTH-AMERICAN JOURNAL. Part of the Journal of the celebrated Elizabeth Woodville, previous to her marriage with Lord Grey. She was afterwards Queen to Edward IV. and died in confinement at Southwark, under Henry VII. 1486. The following was extracted from an ancient manuscript preserved in Drum- rnond Castle; the copyist has modernized the original orthography Monday morning.Rose at four oclock, and helped Ca- tharine to milk the cows, Rachael the other dairy maid having scalded her hand in so bad a manner the night before. Made a poultice for Richard, and gave Robin a penny to get some- thing from the apothecary. 6 oclock.The buttock of beef too much boiled, and beer a little of the stalest. Mem: to talk to the cook about the first fault, and to mend the second myself by tapping a fresh barrel directly.

Elizabeth Woodville's Journal 180-182

180 Journal of Elizabeth Woodville. [July, He may further allege in excuse, that the hints, above re- ferred to, are not over civil. To he sure, it sounds rather odd, to insinuate, that a soi-disant champion of orthodoxy may re- ally contribute to propagate the principles of Voltaire ! But old men will have their way ; and he who has survived the tremendous castigation of the Boston Rebel, need not fear these little scratches. He may justly apply to himself what Cowlev says of the Philistine 6 Brass was his helmet, his boots Brass, and oer His breast a breastplate of strong Brass he wore. Having thus obviated the most prominent excuses, which his retiring disposition may induce him to allege, I hope h~ will comply with my request. I conclude, Mr. Editor, with a reflection. Under what infi- nite obligations are we to one, xvho comes all the way from Connecticut to reform the heathen and Indians of our unhap- py Massachusettswho inform us how much more our fathers believed than we do, and how much less we believe th~ n we ought to dowho kindly undertakes to regulate our elections and our psalm books, to promote union in our families, to purify our churches, and to cleanse that Augean stable, our University!! Yours, IXIr. Editor, INSATIABILlS. FOR THE NORTH-AMERICAN JOURNAL. Part of the Journal of the celebrated Elizabeth Woodville, previous to her marriage with Lord Grey. She was afterwards Queen to Edward IV. and died in confinement at Southwark, under Henry VII. 1486. The following was extracted from an ancient manuscript preserved in Drum- rnond Castle; the copyist has modernized the original orthography Monday morning.Rose at four oclock, and helped Ca- tharine to milk the cows, Rachael the other dairy maid having scalded her hand in so bad a manner the night before. Made a poultice for Richard, and gave Robin a penny to get some- thing from the apothecary. 6 oclock.The buttock of beef too much boiled, and beer a little of the stalest. Mem: to talk to the cook about the first fault, and to mend the second myself by tapping a fresh barrel directly. i815.] Journal of Elizabeth Woodville. 181 7.Went to walk with the lady, my mother, in the Court-. yard ; fed 25 men and women; chid Roger severely for ex- pressinz some ill will, at attenf!in~ us with broken maat. b 8.Went into the paddock behind tie house with my maid Dorothy, caught Thump the little poney myse~ arid rode a matter of ten nuiles withuut saddle or bridle. I O.--Went to dinner; John Grey, a most comely youth; hut what is that to me a virtuous maiden should be eniirely under the direction of her parents. John ate but little, and stole a great many tender looks at me; said womeh could be never he handsome in his opinion who were not good tempered I hope my temper is not intolerable; nobody finds fault with it but Roger, and hes the most disorderly young man in our family. John Grey likes~white teeth; my teeth are of a pretty good colour, I think; and my hair is as black as jet, though I say it. and John, if 1 mistake not, is of the same opinion. I 1.Rose from the table. The company all desirous of walking in the fields. John Grey would lift me over every stile, and twice he squeezed my hand with much vehemence. I cannot say I should have any objection to John Grey. He plays at prison-base as well as any of the country gentlemen, is remarkably dutiful to his parents, my Lord and Lady, and never misses church on Sunday. 3.Poor Farmer Robinsons house hurnt down hy acci- dental fire. John Grey proposed a subscription among the company for the relief ol the farmer, and gave no less than four pounds with this henevolent intent.Mem: Never saw him look so comely as at that moment. 4.Went to prayers. 6.Fed hogs and poultry. 7.Supper on the tahle; delayed till that time on account of Farmer Robinsons mis1ortune.1~1em: The goose pie too much baked, and the pork roasted to rags. I O.The company fast asleep; these late hours very dis- agreeable; said my prayers a second time. John Grey dis- tracted my thoughts too much the first time. Fell asleep and dreamed of John Grey. 182 Original Letter of Oliver Gromwell. [July, FOR TIlE NORTH-AMERICAN JOURNAL. Original letter of Oliver Cromwell, never before published, lately found in an old Mansion-house, in the county of Hants. Sr I thought I should have seen you before your Going Down, but Missing of that I thought fin to send this Short Epistle to you. I understand CoIl Goffe will be att Wii~chester to Mor- row. 1 hope you xvill assist him with your Countenance, he is hoaest and so is his business whoever shall say to the Contrary, and if Securyty be judgd Necessary to be provided for against Maligts. and Papists, and reformation of wickedness be a part of the Return we owe to God, then my assertion is true, the person imployd is a Gracious Man if I know one und deserves your respect all that I have to say is to tell you that I love you. Ircst ~ Whitehall, 19 Novr. 1655 Your Loveing Friend my Service to my Ld Say OLIVER P. if he be with you & to my Lady To CoIl Richard Norton These Oliver Cromwell P. [London paper.] FOR THE NORTH-AMERICAN JOURNAL. AN UGLY WIFE OR A GIBBET. THE following amusing anecdote is extracted from a MS. sheet of the Border Antiquities of England and Scotland, which is now in progress of publication, and to which Mr. Walter Scott is a contributor In the 17th century, the greater pert of the property lying upon the river Ettricke, belonged to Scott of Harden, who made his principal residence at Oakwood Tower, a border- house of strength still remaining upon that river. William Scott, (afterwards Sir William) son of the head of this family, undertook an expedition against the Murrays, of Elibank, whose property lay at a few miles distant. He found his enemy

Anecdote 182-183

182 Original Letter of Oliver Gromwell. [July, FOR TIlE NORTH-AMERICAN JOURNAL. Original letter of Oliver Cromwell, never before published, lately found in an old Mansion-house, in the county of Hants. Sr I thought I should have seen you before your Going Down, but Missing of that I thought fin to send this Short Epistle to you. I understand CoIl Goffe will be att Wii~chester to Mor- row. 1 hope you xvill assist him with your Countenance, he is hoaest and so is his business whoever shall say to the Contrary, and if Securyty be judgd Necessary to be provided for against Maligts. and Papists, and reformation of wickedness be a part of the Return we owe to God, then my assertion is true, the person imployd is a Gracious Man if I know one und deserves your respect all that I have to say is to tell you that I love you. Ircst ~ Whitehall, 19 Novr. 1655 Your Loveing Friend my Service to my Ld Say OLIVER P. if he be with you & to my Lady To CoIl Richard Norton These Oliver Cromwell P. [London paper.] FOR THE NORTH-AMERICAN JOURNAL. AN UGLY WIFE OR A GIBBET. THE following amusing anecdote is extracted from a MS. sheet of the Border Antiquities of England and Scotland, which is now in progress of publication, and to which Mr. Walter Scott is a contributor In the 17th century, the greater pert of the property lying upon the river Ettricke, belonged to Scott of Harden, who made his principal residence at Oakwood Tower, a border- house of strength still remaining upon that river. William Scott, (afterwards Sir William) son of the head of this family, undertook an expedition against the Murrays, of Elibank, whose property lay at a few miles distant. He found his enemy 1815.] Letters from Edinburgh. 18 upon their guard, was defeated, and made prisoner in the act of driving off the cattle, which he had collected for that purpose. Our hero, Sir Gidean Murray, conducted his prisoner to the castle, where his lady received him with congratulations upon his victory, and inquiries concerning the fate to which be desti- ned his prisoner : The Gallows, answered Sir Gidean, for he is said already to have acquired the honour of knighthood, to the gallows with the marauder. Hout na, Sir Gidean, answeretl the considerate matron in her vernacular idiom, would you hang the winsome young Laird of Harden when ye have three ill-favoured daughters to marry ? Right, right, answered the Baron who catched at the idea, lie shall either marry our daughter, mickle-ruouthed Meg, or strap for it. Upon this alternative being proposed to the prisoner, he, upon the first view of the case, stoutly preferrerl the gibbet to mickle mouthed Meg, for such was the nickname of the young lady, whose real name was Agnes. But at length, when he was literally led forth to execution, and saw no other chance of escape, he retracted his un allant resolution, and preferred the typical noose of matrimony to the literal cord of hemp. Such is the tradition established in both families, and often jocularly referred to upon the Borders. It may he necessary to add, that mickle-mouthed Meg arid her husband were a very happy and loving pair, and had a very large family,. to each of whom Sir WILLIAM SCOTT bequeathed good estates, besides reserving a large one for the eldest. [London paper.] TO THE EDITOR. SIR, The following letters, containing remarks on the society of Edin burgh, I place at your disposal. W. P. Edinburgh, 1814. THE courts of St. James and Dresden are, I believe, the only courts in Europe, where they continue to wear upon levee days the hoop, high-heeled shoe, and if one may so say, those other remnants of the dark ages of good breeding. But it may add somewhat to the dignity of a court, if people set al)art for it a dress, which upon all other occasions is now distinguished for its inconvenience and absurdity. From private societv,~ however, such deformities x~ crc long since banished, and those unfortunate hoops, which manoetwred so brilliantly in the time of Sir Charles Grandison, have ascended to the garret along.

Letters from Edinburgh 183-196

1815.] Letters from Edinburgh. 18 upon their guard, was defeated, and made prisoner in the act of driving off the cattle, which he had collected for that purpose. Our hero, Sir Gidean Murray, conducted his prisoner to the castle, where his lady received him with congratulations upon his victory, and inquiries concerning the fate to which be desti- ned his prisoner : The Gallows, answered Sir Gidean, for he is said already to have acquired the honour of knighthood, to the gallows with the marauder. Hout na, Sir Gidean, answeretl the considerate matron in her vernacular idiom, would you hang the winsome young Laird of Harden when ye have three ill-favoured daughters to marry ? Right, right, answered the Baron who catched at the idea, lie shall either marry our daughter, mickle-ruouthed Meg, or strap for it. Upon this alternative being proposed to the prisoner, he, upon the first view of the case, stoutly preferrerl the gibbet to mickle mouthed Meg, for such was the nickname of the young lady, whose real name was Agnes. But at length, when he was literally led forth to execution, and saw no other chance of escape, he retracted his un allant resolution, and preferred the typical noose of matrimony to the literal cord of hemp. Such is the tradition established in both families, and often jocularly referred to upon the Borders. It may he necessary to add, that mickle-mouthed Meg arid her husband were a very happy and loving pair, and had a very large family,. to each of whom Sir WILLIAM SCOTT bequeathed good estates, besides reserving a large one for the eldest. [London paper.] TO THE EDITOR. SIR, The following letters, containing remarks on the society of Edin burgh, I place at your disposal. W. P. Edinburgh, 1814. THE courts of St. James and Dresden are, I believe, the only courts in Europe, where they continue to wear upon levee days the hoop, high-heeled shoe, and if one may so say, those other remnants of the dark ages of good breeding. But it may add somewhat to the dignity of a court, if people set al)art for it a dress, which upon all other occasions is now distinguished for its inconvenience and absurdity. From private societv,~ however, such deformities x~ crc long since banished, and those unfortunate hoops, which manoetwred so brilliantly in the time of Sir Charles Grandison, have ascended to the garret along. 184 Letters from Edinburgh. tiul with the methodical principles of honour and politeness which prevailed in those days. It is probaTzde that the French have taken many of their ideas about English manners from the writings of Riehardson, for it appears from the memoirs of those tives, triat the enthusiasm was as great for them in France as in Eg~and, and indeed they there continue still to be much spoken of.Here we may see the distance which the French have generally kept before the English in the progress of good hreedin~..-.--tiiat is, till the era of the revolution. It is the dif- ference between the society of Squire Western for example where every thing was boisterous and natural, and the society of Sir C. Grandison, wher~s every thing was constrained and artificinl.AII nations, however, get the habit some time or other of talking about the good old times of their ancestors. In England this means the times of the English squiresof ready and unbounded hospitalitywhen they served up whole oxen and whole epicksoppressed you with perpetual attentions and large slices, and never esteemed the measure of their gallantry full, till they had locked the door and drank you life- less under the table. Even to this day some of the remote Highland chieftains have a feudal custom of bringing their guests, after they have gone to bed, a large bowl of hot whiskey and sugar with their own hands, and it is really thought an affront, if one is not able, in the chieftains presence, to drink the whole off to the last villanous dregs. All men who have a just notion nf right and wrong, will perceive this to be pure tyrannya huge 0hlander, with a two edged claymore in one hand, and a bowl of flaming, foaming whiskey in the other; out considering that one is safe in bed it is really better to drink the whiskey, than suffer the servitude inflicted by the stupid, formal hypocrisy of the Grandisons. From this tyranny of unmeaning forms we were delivered more immediately by the superiour refinement of the French. Under the influence of the petits soupers, a style of society admitting of much nature, wit, and at the same time elegance, was established ; and all Europe was enchanted with the po- liteness of the French, not because they believed them better Christians, or more honest men, but by divesting themselves of these absurd ceremonies, they had thrown into their manners a great appearance of simplicity and benevolence without losing any thing of their grace and dignity. For the last half century these manners have been fixing themselves in the higher classes 1815.) Letter. from Edinburgh. 186 or people in this country, and,as far as I am able to judge,! ant inclined to believe that the condition of society among those ranks, is now superiour to any in the world. Mr. Eustace,the Italian traveller, who has certainly had great opportunities of making comparisons, places the standard at Vienna; but Madame de Stael conveys rather a different impression, nor does it cor- respond with the idea,. which we have generally been accustom- ed to attach to Austrian society.The general expression of this state of society is simplicity. I do not mean the simplicity of a savage or a shepherd; nor that indifference which only mo(lified by intercourse, assumes the shape of en officiouskind- ness and love to all mankind. People meet together, not for the express purpose of persuading their acquaintance, that they. entertain a profound regard for them, or to convince them ol their infinite superiority. As for the first, they have lived long enough in the world to know the difficulty of it,and the last is not tolerated. Whatever difference nature or situittion may make in individuals, it is not prudent at first to display any ex- cellence, which would disturb the equality of this little republick. We must not think from this that they reprss every sort of dis. tinctionor condcmn to the ostracism, whatever is conspicuous for virtue or genius; they only fly away from the presumptuous man, he, who comes among them solely to seek applause, to be lorateur du genre bumain. But as to that merit, which does not force itself upon their sight, but waits to give them an opportunity of discovering it themselves, which leaves them the privilege of appreciating a man by his deserts, and not by his pretensions, it sooner or later succeeds in getting into its p roper mche. We ma conclude from this, that the society inEnrope is a jealous an d forbidding tyrant, looking with considerable coldness upon all new comets ;and so it isand so must all society be, composed of persons of ancient families, great fortunes, and distinguished merit. We shall see that refinement of society has in all wges kept an equal pace with the progress of w~~omen, and that it has moreover commenced every-where among literary men. Is it not then true, that refinement de p ends upon the cultivation of the mind, not upon the purity of the heart; and that the most accomplished society which has ever been known, is equally distinguished by a most melancholy poverty of feeling Vol. L No. 2. 24 186 Letiers from Edinburgh. [July~ and sympathy. Let us look at those countless races of peo~ pie, that we jumble together under the name of the nations of the East. From the earliest records they have permitted hareins, concubiuage, and other customs, by which women were deprived of their just dignity and consideration in society. Ma- homet, who seems to have had some very good notions about life, treats women in the same rude and ungallant manner, and of the very few that he does admit to the green fields of Para- disctheir duty there is not very celestial. Mahomet was a good statesman in p:ohibiting his followers from drinking in- toxicating liquors in such a warm climate, hut he has left one of the most brutalizing and pernicious motives as the reward of virtue. These nations had none of that refinement of society of xvhich we are now speaking. As to the Greeks and Romans, there appear to be no traces of it either among them. What if we read of philo- sophick retreats and conversations: what if they were wise, great and learned : if their virtues were sometimes so rigid as to cease to he amiable : if they devoted their sons to death, or murdered their benefactors for the sake of the repub- lick. What if their writings, paintings, statues, and publick buildings proclaim a taste and elegance, belonging apparently to the most advanced state of civilization. We can only say, that this proves no refinement of manners; and that intellectual refinement, that is, genius or excellence in any oiie of these arts, usually seems to precede the age of refinement of manners, to which, one w& uld think, it ought to belong. It may be a partial explanation of this phenomenon, that genius is the gift of nature and refinement, the reward of long experience in secie- ty. To ~atisfy ourselves how little superiour taste, necessarily implies great civilization, ~e need only see those beautiful and sublime gothick buildings, scattered over Europe, but prin- cipally to be found in this country; raised during a period when nothing could be more absurd and unintelligible than to talk either of refinement of mind or manners. The Cathedral of York, so much spoken of for its symmetry, as xvell as the beauty and costliness of the materials, is also remarkable for the ingenuity of the workmanship. Sir Christopher Wren said of the stone roof, which is one of the most curious sl)eeilnens of architecture in Europe: that if the artist would do him the favour to tell him how he put in the centre stone, lie could 1815.] Letters from EdnThurgh. 187 contrive to place all the rest. This church was built in the dark ages, though the artist might have been an Italian. We are sufficiently informed of the laws and customs of the Athenians regarding women; and it was only courtezans who were exempted from passing the life of a sort of low, despised and disregarded nuns. As to the Romans, their satirists have left us melancholy stories of their brutal and extravagant glut- tony, their mad and hateful love of publick shows, fights of gladiators and wild beasts.The mention of the other sex is seldom made but with contempt and execration; their names are usually coupled with a detail of the most nauseous and de- testable vices, which appear to be equally gross and unblushing with the Augusta, or the vilest wretch of the Lupanar. Nec melior pedibus silicem qua content atrurn; quam qua longorurn vehitur cervice Syroruni. No wonder Metellus declared to the Roman people in a pub- lick oration, that woman was a very troublesome companion, and he could recommend matrimony only as the sacrifice of private pleasure to publick duty. And no wonder the Roman senate permitted Ca1i~ula to make his horse a consul, ~hen about the same time they passed a decree, devoting to the in- fernal gods the head of the first female, who should dare to interfere in the concerns of the state. Is it then only among Christian nations that women first felt and exerted their proper influence? Is this the only religion where we can behold Mary the mother of Jesus, and iVIary of Magdaien kneeling at the foot of the cross, exhibiting the true charm of their character, an(l associating themselves as the companions and friends of the Saviour? It is true that the spirit with which the Author of religion lived and died, was that of gentleness and forbearance; we cannot therefore won- der, that under such a banner man has become civilized, and the mildness and delicacy of women have acquired a just influ- ence in softening, purifying and polishing the fierce qualities of his nature. it has been the cruel policy of some Christian people to shut up women in convents, but no where has this destroyed the exalted ~espect paid to their character. Men have never been made more boisterous and assuming; on the contrary, the spirit of chivalry, if it soon became only an apolo- ~y for ridiculous enterprises ano bloody combats, has left a 188 Letter. from Edinburgh. [Jitly name, which has sewed to denote in all succeeding times the purest degree of knightly virtue.. .-I swear to thee, my friend, by the beards of the seven sages, when I began this letter, I did not intend to lead thee through so many perils by sea and land. But, alas! I am in the land of prosing. Hones James Melville, tells us that Maister John Knox, that meist notable prophet and apostle of our nation, was half an hour in the opening up of his text, and an an hour and better in the a cation. Maister John probably opened up his discourses much better than I have done mine; but if his bearers were willing to forgive him an hour and better in the application, it behooveth me to take courage.Thero is every circumstance to make the society in Edinburgh interesting. It is not so splendid and so scrupu- lously free from occasional uftbctations, as that of the higher classes in London. There is not in Edinburgh that assemblage of ancient and opulent families, which we find in the west end of London, to give a sort of solid, rich and permanent dignityto soci~ ety, and top~ don its little eccentricities and absurdities. But the New Town, which contains about 30,000 people, is the winter residence of a greater part of the rich families in Scotland. The seat of a University, to which 1800 or 2000 students an- nually resort, many of them young noblemen and men of for- tune, who add something to the gaiety, end little to the industry of the place. This is also the portico, in which several of the most distinguished literary men in Great Britain assemble their disciples. There is moreover annually produced here, several bulky poems, besides numerous small efflhsions, various liisto ries, learned treatises, lots of books of travels, scores of new las abundance of journals, reviews, a few novels, editions of le ac tter and encyclopedias, besides registers, almanacks, catechisms, & c. & c. The society is then reckoned very literaryit is nope- dantry to talk about booksLord Byrons monthly muse makes conversation for the next months routes.rthe young men walk up and down the street with an elegant hook under their arm instead of a smali stickthe character of the place betrays it- self in various other symptoms; and while the fashion of some towns ig the most approved arrangement of a dinner party or a drawing room, the prevailing fashion of Edinburgh is for litera- ture. Not that this makes them ceremonious, or takes away a 1816.] Letter. from Edinburgh. 189 relish for the thousand brilliant trifles and elegancies of life. But nature, which has given these honest Caledonians a coun- try hardly able to raise the common means of subsistence, and producing nothing nearer the fruits of most other climates than a raw turnip, never designed that they should have much wit or numour; nor that they should much abound in the endearin, affectionate qualities of our nature. She ha given them tough, inflexible, indefatigable heads, but their hearts are none of the softest or most animated. The Scotch, of the higher classes, however, are among the most hospitable in the world: they are enlightene we ucated, and it is very seldom that the part of the world from which one may happen to come ever creates a look of surprise, or a cool reception. Nationality in the senate may be the highest virtue; but in the drawing room it is the lowest prejudice. The carnival begins in the middle of January and lasts to the middle of March. This is only two months for the whole year of mutes, balls, dinners, theatres, and masquerades; but they thus accumulate into two months all the wit,, vivacity, spirit and splendour of the whole twelve; which to some tastes is infinitely more interesting, than to be obliged to groupe throuph the never-ending winter of a northern climate, by the faint glimmering of an occasional tea party, or a monthly dance, given for the benefit of some young lady. This sort of scat- tered, straggling dissipation, which lasts forever, is the neces- sary consequence of a state of society where people have nei ther a superfluity of wealth or leisure. But in Edinburgh making parties is a profession, and as making any thing a pro- fession isreally half the charm of every thing, these two months pass off with ~at animation and numberless assemblies. Now the society orEdinburgh is composed entirely of the nobility, men of fortune and prbfessional men; as Edinburgh is not am- port, gentlemen, who have business, are obliged to live jprinci~ pally at Leith. In this respect the society is a little different from that of London, where merchants and bankers are occa- sionally found in the ranks of fashion, and also possess cons siderable influence in Parliament. A greater part of the in- habitants, however, belong to ancient families, and claim to be of that class, whose independent situation in life has doomed them to conjugate the verb emmsyw for centuries.~~je* m en- * Thiebauld, memnoires do Frederic. 190 Letters from Edinburgh. [July, nuje, tu t ennuies, ii sennuie, nous nous ennuyons, vous vous ennuyez. us sennuicnt, & c. They have apparently no other duty in this sublunary world, than accomplishing their mind and personpassing a few weeks of the winter in dissipationthe summer in travelling, or at their beautiful castles, and country housesmaking a speech in Parliamentbuying pictures, and race horses. I know not how many dull volumes of sighs, la- mentations, maxims and moral reflections have been thrown away upon the uselessness, vanity and misery of this kind of life. But the worthy victims themselves probably need little of our consolation or compassion, and our sagacious remarks respecting them occasion perhaps about as much gaping and ennui in the world, as they are haunted with themselves. I conceive that we have little to do with the blue or black devils, that may harass the morning meditations of these illustrious personages, and we ought to be contented with seeing them in company animated, elegant, making no hustle, simple, plain, intelligent, well-in formed, and without ceremony or affecta- tion. The universal party here is the route. The house is opened about nine in the eveningpeople begin to go be- txveen ten and eleven, and stay half an hour or an hour; no one sits down, neither are there any of the huge ponderous waiters, which it will take fifteen men in some degenerate day to raise. The ice creams, & c. are put into a separate room, where there are servants to help, & c. One does not so much notice in these parties the brilliancy of dressessplen- dour of furniture, as the total absence of all ceremony. An unhappy trembling youth is not thrust into the middle of a room, encompassed about with rows of stately frowning matrons, and compelled upon pain of excommunication, from the court of the graces and the next party, to make a solemn prostration to each and all. Even the faithful, who enter the temple of the far feared Vyan-vnyen-lmu yen at Aurungabad, are obliged to make only 333 genefluxions, as they pass the threshold. We should be very culpable if we allowed those unhappy heathens to surpass us in the ceremony of the law. They go to two or three such parties in an evening, and thus contrive to get consimlerable spirit and animation from the hurry and change of the scene. But those, to whom the brilliant bagatelle of mere fasbiona- ble life is nsipid and weariso~ne, have still a delightful resource in the eminent literary men, that we meet scattered about 1815.] Letters from Edinburgh. 19~ in all these crowded routs. it is an idea truly worthy a Ger- man annotator of the ancient l6gime, that literature and sci- ence inhabit only convents and colleges, and learned men for ever steeping in port and prejudice, or dozing and moulder- ing between Greek particles and Hebrew points, must never wander forth from their cells to catch a little of the prosperity, gaiety and smile of life, and what is more important, to enlighten and enliven their fellow pilgrims. But it is not only in the cloisters of Cambridge and Oxford that we now meet the learn- ed, and it is no doubt very true that some of the best hred nien, and mQst elegant gentlemen, are among the men of letters. The frequent presence of literary men in society, has had a considerable share in the meritorious undertaking of banish- ing political discussions. To he sure, the richer classes have few and very few motives for such conversation. They are truly independent in politicks. The infrequency of elections the almost boundless influence of wealthand the fixed ud 0eable condition of their own fortunes, of necessity create a comfortable and by no means culpable indifference to the concerns of government, provided nevertheless that the interest of stocks, and rents of land, are re6ularly paid. Mr. Playfair, who, I suppose, goes into as many parties as any fashionable young man in the town, is often in the corners of these great crowded rooms. He is now about sixty years old, without any uncommon appearance, except a pair of very intelligent grey eyes, which give his face an expression some- what like that of our celebrated artist, Stewart. He was origi- nally a clergyman, hut from some cause or other he left his parish, and was made a professor in the University here. Mr. Playfair is distinguished for the soundness and accuracy of his knowledge ; and besides his writings in the Edinburgh Review, which are principally reviews of mathematical works and books of voyages, he published several years since a well known ex- position of Dr. Huttons system of geology, of which school lie is considered the head in EdinburTh He is called the dAleni- bert of Edinburgh, and with considerable truth, though proha- bly it is as great a compliment to Mr. Playfair, as to dAiem bert. But after all, the l)rincipal charm of Mr. P. is the affectionate simplicity and plainness of his manners, and it is really delight ful to see with what an insinuating mildness and f 92 Letter. from Edinburgh. [Jbl3r: modesty, this dignified, learned and amiable philosopher con. ducts himself. Mr. Playfair has never been married, and now lives with an unmarried sister. Jo another cower, which to be sure must be the poets cor- ner, we may sometimes find Walter Scott, though he does not much frequent these places. I should think there was no man in this profane world, so often asked after as Waiter Scott, and no traveller ever lands in sweet Edinburgh without inquiring where can he be seen? In a small, dark room, where one of the Courts of Sessions is held, there is to be seen every morn- ing in term time, sitting at a little table and keeping the records otthe Court, a stout, broad shouldered, brawny and somewhat fleshy man,with li~ht hair, light complexion, eyes between a blue and a grey, thick nose, round fat face, rather sleepy ex- pression, covered with a rugged black gown, his lame leg stuck under the table, the other sprawling out in such a manner as no leg, lame or not lame, ever ought to be. Such a man, for- sooth! as one might swear, heaven had marked out,as an honest good natured soul, though rather stupid withal,a most loyal subject, fit to guzzle port and porter, pay taxes, and drink God save the King. Not one poetick line or ray of genius in his fhce, except a very slight kindling of the eye, to redeem the immortal bust of the author of the Lay of the last Minstrel, from the staring, thoughtless, besotted multitude. Mr. Scott is now about forty-five years old, descended from rather an ob- scure ihmily in Lothian, and when young, he says, that the old men used to take him up on their knees, call him little Watty, and tell him border stories and legendary tales, while his bro- then were gone to work; a privilege, which his lameness gave him. Some of those philosophers, who are in the habit of mak- log a moral to all their Sibles, may very possibly find out, that the world has gained another peat post, because Walter Scott was born with one leg shorter than the other. It may be so. Walter Scott was married some time since to a Guernsey lady, an illegitimate daughter of the law duke of Devonshire, with whom he was said to have received 10,0001. The lady was horn in Guernsey, and s aks vilanous broken English. Among her virtues is that ofnsparing fury against ail unfortu- nate wretches, who criticise her husbands works; and it is said, that when the review of Marmion was published in the 1815.] Letters from Edin1)urg1~. 19 Edinburgh Review, she was very near boxing the editors ears at a dinner, where she soon after happened to meet him. Mr. Scott has also some other blessings, which rarely fall to the fortune of a poet. He is the sheriff of a county, commits to p~son, and hangs with great spirit and quite a vulgar dex- terity; he is moreover clerk of the court before mentioned. These two situations give him 800 or 10001. a year; besides he had for Marmion 1000 guineas, 2000 for the Lady, and 3000 for Rokeby; and he has also been the editor of several extensive works. Though Mr. S. is exposed to a constant throng of people with letters of introduction, his houses of resort in Edinburgh are not very numerous, and he confines himself chiefly to some of the choicest of the ministerial party; he is himself zealous to the last ditch for church and king. A disgust with its poli- ticks made him leave the Edinburgh Review, in which he has written some pleasant articles. In his manners he is very mild and agreeable, apparently without any vanity, and the only affectation he has consists in the effort he makes not to appear a poet. He has a great deal of humour, and his conversation is principally made up of anecdotes; he is not, however, what they call either elegant or brilliant in company, but then he is cheerfiA and never obtrusive; upon the whole, one of the last persons you would suspect to be Walter Scott. Mrs. Grant of Laggan, who is very much known in Old England and in New England by her two first publications, and very little any-where by her two last, is one of those women that the world is willing to call meritorious, to save themselves the trouble of making any inquiries about her; though there are few women, who have so much fancy and an equal power of conversation the first month one is acquainted with her. But the circumstances under which Mrs. Grant introduced herself to the world left no othex~ alternative than to pity and praise. After the death of her husband, she came from the High- lands, where she undoubtedly figured with considerable ap~ plause, and brought with her a large family of children the copy of her Mountain Letters a sanguine and perse- vering spirit withala pretty well-informed minda hospita- ble and communicative disposition, and a strong brogue of Scotch English, and Highland Scotch. The eager and extensive circulation of her letters, however, soon enabled her Vom~. I. No. 2. 25 194 Letters from Edinburgh. [July~ to establish herseli in Edinburgh, where she opened her flat,* invited every body to come and see her, and began to write more hooks. She was caressed by the first people in London literary ladies opened a correspondence with her, and hun- dreds of English came galloping down to Scotland with their silly heads full of the most romantick notions about the High- lands and Mrs. Grant. They expected a beautiful, bloominb lass of eighteen, just fresh and simple from the side of the mountains, bounding with life, enthusiasm, hope, poetry and nature. But alas! the pleasures of imagination! The honest souls did not recollect how long since Aunt Schuyler flourished at Albany, and that the amiable lady herself had indulged the publick with American recollections as far back as the year 17. Mrs. Grant began these recollections when she was only old ; we marvellously fear, that there are few young ladies in our degenerate day, who have such precious good judgments and memories. Mrs. Grants sirong hold is conversation; she certainly talks with uncommon vivacity, and has that rare faculty of bounding forth from a dangerous height, and when most others would sink, she soars on triumphantly to the end of the sentence. But then she has only three subjects, the life and adventures of Mrs. Anne Grant of Laggan, the beautiful lochs, vales, & c. of the Highlands, and the greatness of the British nation. These dishes, the way she serves them up, are very charming the first four or five weeks. But you know, that the emperour Domi- tian said, that one could not eat larks tongues for ever. Mrs. Grant by no means visits the first society in Edinburgh, and, however unwilling oue may be to confess it, her literary repu- tation in particular is not brilliant, and hardly corresponds with the estimation in which she is held in some parts of New-Eng- land. But here again her good fortune has procured her zeal- ous and enlightened friends, and it may be my bad fortune, to excite a slight murmur among them by the less than common rapture with which I have mentioned Mrs. Grant. She ap- pears, however, to be aware of the patronage she has received, and her attentions to all Americans, who were made known to her, are very constant and of the kindest description. * Flat is one story. Many of the houses in Edinburgh are built with a publ~ck entry like a barrack, and different families live on the different stories 1815.] Letters from Edinburgh. 195 It gives me the greatest pleasure to speak to you of Mr. Au- sonone of the most amiable and pleasant of men, whose feel- ings and taste are equally pure. He has been settled for sev- eral years as the first minister of the Episcopal Chapel in this place; and certainly for the elegant, mild and persuasive elo- quence of his sermons and manner, he has here no equal. Mr. Alison was horn in Scotland, though educated in England, where he had the good fortune to stay long enough to lose the greater part of his Scotch (lialect. He is married to a very amiable and intelligent lady, the adopted daughter of the late Mrs. Montagu whose letters have lately been published, with whom she lived many years, and therefore saw in her house both in London and Paris, the most celebrated of the time in which she flourished. This circumstance makes her one of the most delightful companions, and if one can be contented without crowds and large rooms and splendid furniture~ I know of no place in Edinburgh, where we may find so much rational and unfailing enjoyment. The society which frequent their house is select, refined and accomplished, and their table fur- nishes the true ca3na deorum, the society of men of talents and learning, who are capable in their closets of the severest study and inquiry, and yet in publick understand and practise all the elegancies and pleasantries of society. Mr. Alison is visited in the most intimate manner by the best people in Edinburgh, and his own charming manners have such an influence, that every one is divested in his presence of vvhatever they may have of vanity, pride or conceit. If we wish to have the choicest conversation of the best educated and best bred men, if we would pour from flasks sealed up in the reign of Augustus, we must come to his table. They have an interesting family, set- tled, or about to be settled, in the world. Mr. Alison is of course well known among us by his Essay on Taste, & c.* He has never written in any periodical work, as 1 am told though he is now engaged to furnish something for the edition of the Encyclopedia, edited and published by A. Constable of this place. In another letter I will endeavour to give you some farther account of the society, literary factions, & c. * A volume of Sermons by him has lately been re-pnblish~d in Boston 196 Grimms .Memotrs. [July, FOR THE NORTH-AMERICAN JOURNAL. .qnecdote of Voltaire. 1770. The French theatre has just lost an actor, named Paulin, who had been on the stage since the year 1742. In tragedy he played tyrants, and peasants in comedy. These two parts were joined at the theatre, which was uniting the two extremes, the oppressor and the oppressed. He made a pas- sable peasant, but a had tyrant: his playing was heavy and without intelligence : his voice was strong, and it was this cir- cumstance that deceived Voltaire, who hoped to make some- thing of him, and who said, Let me alone, I am bringing up a tyrant by hand, with whom you will be satisfied. Yet the tyrant did not answer his expectation, and Paulin remained inferiour. The part in which he hoped he would succeed, was that of Polifonte, in the tragedy of M~rope. While this tra- gedy was in rehearsal, Voltaire overloaded the actors with cor- rections, as was his practice: having passed a certain night in revising his play, he woke his servant at three oclock in the morning, and gave him a correction to carry to Paulin. The servant represented to him, that at that unusual hour M. Paulin was asleep, and that he should not be able to get into the house. Go, answered Voltaire gravely, run., tyrants never sleep. account of the abbe Trublet. rrhe Abh~ Trublet, canon and archdeacon of St. Malo, one of the forty of the French Academy, died at St. Malo, his birth place, the 14th of December. His death makes a vacancy at the Academy, which, without doubt, will be filled by M. de St. Lambert. The Abbe Trublet was not young. He was a sworn weigher of flys eggs in scales of spiders webs, to bor- row an expression of M. de Voltaire. His pretension was to extreme subtlety, his little style was as full of art, as the dress of a coquette; but his pencil was not bold, and his diminutive manner always excited an idea of meanness and baseness. An acqu aintance with his person might however influence the opin- ion produced by his works. His face was ignoble and dis- pleasing, his air poor and dinv : he was a low flatterer in his man- ners, so that his person was even more despised than his works.

Grimm's Memoirs 196

196 Grimms .Memotrs. [July, FOR THE NORTH-AMERICAN JOURNAL. .qnecdote of Voltaire. 1770. The French theatre has just lost an actor, named Paulin, who had been on the stage since the year 1742. In tragedy he played tyrants, and peasants in comedy. These two parts were joined at the theatre, which was uniting the two extremes, the oppressor and the oppressed. He made a pas- sable peasant, but a had tyrant: his playing was heavy and without intelligence : his voice was strong, and it was this cir- cumstance that deceived Voltaire, who hoped to make some- thing of him, and who said, Let me alone, I am bringing up a tyrant by hand, with whom you will be satisfied. Yet the tyrant did not answer his expectation, and Paulin remained inferiour. The part in which he hoped he would succeed, was that of Polifonte, in the tragedy of M~rope. While this tra- gedy was in rehearsal, Voltaire overloaded the actors with cor- rections, as was his practice: having passed a certain night in revising his play, he woke his servant at three oclock in the morning, and gave him a correction to carry to Paulin. The servant represented to him, that at that unusual hour M. Paulin was asleep, and that he should not be able to get into the house. Go, answered Voltaire gravely, run., tyrants never sleep. account of the abbe Trublet. rrhe Abh~ Trublet, canon and archdeacon of St. Malo, one of the forty of the French Academy, died at St. Malo, his birth place, the 14th of December. His death makes a vacancy at the Academy, which, without doubt, will be filled by M. de St. Lambert. The Abbe Trublet was not young. He was a sworn weigher of flys eggs in scales of spiders webs, to bor- row an expression of M. de Voltaire. His pretension was to extreme subtlety, his little style was as full of art, as the dress of a coquette; but his pencil was not bold, and his diminutive manner always excited an idea of meanness and baseness. An acqu aintance with his person might however influence the opin- ion produced by his works. His face was ignoble and dis- pleasing, his air poor and dinv : he was a low flatterer in his man- ners, so that his person was even more despised than his works.

Anecdote of Voltaire 196

196 Grimms .Memotrs. [July, FOR THE NORTH-AMERICAN JOURNAL. .qnecdote of Voltaire. 1770. The French theatre has just lost an actor, named Paulin, who had been on the stage since the year 1742. In tragedy he played tyrants, and peasants in comedy. These two parts were joined at the theatre, which was uniting the two extremes, the oppressor and the oppressed. He made a pas- sable peasant, but a had tyrant: his playing was heavy and without intelligence : his voice was strong, and it was this cir- cumstance that deceived Voltaire, who hoped to make some- thing of him, and who said, Let me alone, I am bringing up a tyrant by hand, with whom you will be satisfied. Yet the tyrant did not answer his expectation, and Paulin remained inferiour. The part in which he hoped he would succeed, was that of Polifonte, in the tragedy of M~rope. While this tra- gedy was in rehearsal, Voltaire overloaded the actors with cor- rections, as was his practice: having passed a certain night in revising his play, he woke his servant at three oclock in the morning, and gave him a correction to carry to Paulin. The servant represented to him, that at that unusual hour M. Paulin was asleep, and that he should not be able to get into the house. Go, answered Voltaire gravely, run., tyrants never sleep. account of the abbe Trublet. rrhe Abh~ Trublet, canon and archdeacon of St. Malo, one of the forty of the French Academy, died at St. Malo, his birth place, the 14th of December. His death makes a vacancy at the Academy, which, without doubt, will be filled by M. de St. Lambert. The Abbe Trublet was not young. He was a sworn weigher of flys eggs in scales of spiders webs, to bor- row an expression of M. de Voltaire. His pretension was to extreme subtlety, his little style was as full of art, as the dress of a coquette; but his pencil was not bold, and his diminutive manner always excited an idea of meanness and baseness. An acqu aintance with his person might however influence the opin- ion produced by his works. His face was ignoble and dis- pleasing, his air poor and dinv : he was a low flatterer in his man- ners, so that his person was even more despised than his works.

Abbe Trublet 196-199

196 Grimms .Memotrs. [July, FOR THE NORTH-AMERICAN JOURNAL. .qnecdote of Voltaire. 1770. The French theatre has just lost an actor, named Paulin, who had been on the stage since the year 1742. In tragedy he played tyrants, and peasants in comedy. These two parts were joined at the theatre, which was uniting the two extremes, the oppressor and the oppressed. He made a pas- sable peasant, but a had tyrant: his playing was heavy and without intelligence : his voice was strong, and it was this cir- cumstance that deceived Voltaire, who hoped to make some- thing of him, and who said, Let me alone, I am bringing up a tyrant by hand, with whom you will be satisfied. Yet the tyrant did not answer his expectation, and Paulin remained inferiour. The part in which he hoped he would succeed, was that of Polifonte, in the tragedy of M~rope. While this tra- gedy was in rehearsal, Voltaire overloaded the actors with cor- rections, as was his practice: having passed a certain night in revising his play, he woke his servant at three oclock in the morning, and gave him a correction to carry to Paulin. The servant represented to him, that at that unusual hour M. Paulin was asleep, and that he should not be able to get into the house. Go, answered Voltaire gravely, run., tyrants never sleep. account of the abbe Trublet. rrhe Abh~ Trublet, canon and archdeacon of St. Malo, one of the forty of the French Academy, died at St. Malo, his birth place, the 14th of December. His death makes a vacancy at the Academy, which, without doubt, will be filled by M. de St. Lambert. The Abbe Trublet was not young. He was a sworn weigher of flys eggs in scales of spiders webs, to bor- row an expression of M. de Voltaire. His pretension was to extreme subtlety, his little style was as full of art, as the dress of a coquette; but his pencil was not bold, and his diminutive manner always excited an idea of meanness and baseness. An acqu aintance with his person might however influence the opin- ion produced by his works. His face was ignoble and dis- pleasing, his air poor and dinv : he was a low flatterer in his man- ners, so that his person was even more despised than his works. 1815.] Grimms Memoirs. 197 His subaltern habits attached him to the car of Fontenelle and Ia Motte Hordant, to whom ke made himself a valet. He prided himself in knowing and narrating with precision how Fontenelle coughed and spit. He published, after the death of that illustrious man, a large Fontenelliana, which is a master- piece of insipidity; the most insignificant details are related in it with a laughable emphasis. The Abbe Trublet wished to be extremely ingenious in his expressions, and even in his dis- position of commas, and semicolons; there is a prodigious ex- penditure of wit in his punctuation. This recalls to my mind a saying of Madame Geoffrin some person having said before her, that the Abbe Trublet was, after all, a man of wit she was in a passion, and said, that he was only a fool rubbed over wzth wit, and that indeed he had the froth of it every-where. She pretends that men are a composition of different ingredi- ents; that there is a little pot of wit, a little pot of imagination, a little pot of reason, and a great kettle of pure folly. Destiny takes from these pots whatever it pleases, and from the whole composes the head of a man. According to Madame Geoff- rins opinion, Destiny in making the Abbe Trublet, only drew from the great kettle; afterwards afraid of having taken too much, it opened the little pot of wit, which is always boiling, and of course throws out froth. Destiny meaning to take from this pot, only caught the froth, and daubed over the substance of pure folly of which the Abbe Trublet was made up. This tale has the air of magick and sorcery, but it has withal an ex- cellent moral. The best work by this archdeacon is his Es- says on Literature, Philosophy and Morals, in several volumes. I read them when I was too young to give my opinion of them here; I believe however, if the Abbe Trublet had confined himself to a couple of volumes of these Essays without printing any thing else, that he would have passed for a nieritorious au- thor. But he did not know when to stop, and his latter volumes are very inferiour to the former ones. He went on collecting every thing he heard said, and reduced it in the evening into paragraphs for his essays. He remarked one day, that he had hard work to compose a volume every six months; the Abb~ Cannoil, who is rather sarcastick, observed, that depends on the persons you see. Maupertuis insisted that the Essays of the Abb& Trublet had so great a reputation in Germany, that the post-masters refused their horses to those who had not 198 Grimms Memoirs. [July, read them. In one of the volumes of his Essays, the Abb~t Trublet composed a dissertation to discover the reasons of the ennui that was caused by the perusal of the Henriad this disser- tation was the true source of the immortality of the Abbe Trublet. The author of the Henriad would not be deficient in gratitude towards the laborious essayist, and thrust him from that mo- ment into all his lesser compositions: the portrait of the Abb~ Trublet in the Pauvre Diable, is a master-piece that will last as long as French literature. The Abb~ Trublet had no other complaint against the verses of M. de Voltaire, than that he had treated him as a deacon when he was an archdeacon; and the patriarch answered to that; I ask his pardon, I am wrong: I thought him one of the lesser. The Abb~ Trublet sued for twenty years to become one of the French Academy, and this perseverance contributed much to render him ridiculous. At each vacancy he came to Paris in all diligence, by the St. Malo stage, made his visits, did not obtain the place, and re- turned after the election.* One day Piron, who lived near Fontenelle, put his head out of the window, and saw a funeral going out of Fontenelles; he immediately shut the window, and wrote officially to the Abbi~ Trublet to come and solicit the vacant place. Trublet arrived with the stage, and found Fontenelle in good health, and no vacant place: it was M. Daube, the nephew of Fontenelle, that was buried. Piron had imagined that the uncle, at the age of a hundred, must die hefore the nephew who was only fifty, and his client Trublet had to pay the coach fare for nothing. He came mo the Aca- demy at last without any warning, and when no one expected it. The Abb& Trublet, after having obtained the object of all his wishes, experienced, what is the most fatal to man, the being without any thing to desire, and he fell into a state of in- difference and languor. For upwards of five years, he had totally abandoned the theatre of his trials and his triumph, and Accounts of the election of members into the French Academy abound in these memoirs. It was one of the subjects that most interested society in Paris before the revolution. A thousand intrigues were made use of for or against the candidates, sometimes rank, sometimestalent, sometimes both, and sometimes neither were the successful candidates. The person who wished to obtain a seat, made a formal visit to each of the members to solicit his vote. On his reception lie delivered a discourse in which he eulogized the deceased member whose place he had taken, Louis XIV. and the Cardinal Richelieu who founded the Acade.~oy, and many others. The secretary de- 1ivered .n answer. 1815.] Grimms .Miemoirs. I 9~ had retired to his own district to enjoy the consideration, which in the provinces is attached to the title of academician. On his reception at the Academy, he sent his discourse as a hro- ther academician to M. de Voltaire; this proceeding touched the patriarch, and he made his peace with the Abh~ Truhiet, and this peace has heen inviolably observed. From that time the Abb~ Truhlet was no longer stuffed into the little pamphlets of Ferney. anecdotes of General Clerk. May, 1770. A letter has just been puhlished addressed tu Brigadier General Clerk, who served in the British army sent to the succour of Portugal in the last war. The author of the letter is another English officer, who was his aid de camp, and who remained in Portugal since the peace. After this event General Clerk traversed Spain, and came to Paris, where he staid a long time. He is a man of sense, but a great talker, and even fatiguing from the trick he has of adding to every phrase that he pronounces an hem? so that he has the air of interrogating a person continually, though he never waits for an answer. Notwithstanding this, we like him very well, and there is only Madame Geoffrin, who must have a great variety of people and things, and who does not love to dwell long on the same object, who cannot think of General Clerk even now, without tremhling all over. Baron dHolbach brought this stra~ger to her, and after the first compliments, and a visit of half an hour, he rose to go away. M. Clerk, instead of following the person who had presented him, according to custom in a first visit, remained. Madame Geoffrin asked him if he went much to the theatres ?Rarely.To the publick walks ? Very seldom.To court, to the princes ?No one lcss.How then do you pass your time? Why, when I find myself in a house that pleases me, I converse and I stay there. At these words Madame Geoffrin turned pale. It was six oclock in the evening; she thought that General Clerk might remain till ten; this idea gave her the shuddering of a fever, By chance M. dAlembert came in. Madame Geoffrin persuaded him after a little time, that he was not well, and that he must get general Clerk to take him home. The latter, delighted to render a service, told M. dAlembert, that he might dispose of

Anecdotes of General Clerk 199-201

1815.] Grimms .Miemoirs. I 9~ had retired to his own district to enjoy the consideration, which in the provinces is attached to the title of academician. On his reception at the Academy, he sent his discourse as a hro- ther academician to M. de Voltaire; this proceeding touched the patriarch, and he made his peace with the Abh~ Truhiet, and this peace has heen inviolably observed. From that time the Abb~ Truhlet was no longer stuffed into the little pamphlets of Ferney. anecdotes of General Clerk. May, 1770. A letter has just been puhlished addressed tu Brigadier General Clerk, who served in the British army sent to the succour of Portugal in the last war. The author of the letter is another English officer, who was his aid de camp, and who remained in Portugal since the peace. After this event General Clerk traversed Spain, and came to Paris, where he staid a long time. He is a man of sense, but a great talker, and even fatiguing from the trick he has of adding to every phrase that he pronounces an hem? so that he has the air of interrogating a person continually, though he never waits for an answer. Notwithstanding this, we like him very well, and there is only Madame Geoffrin, who must have a great variety of people and things, and who does not love to dwell long on the same object, who cannot think of General Clerk even now, without tremhling all over. Baron dHolbach brought this stra~ger to her, and after the first compliments, and a visit of half an hour, he rose to go away. M. Clerk, instead of following the person who had presented him, according to custom in a first visit, remained. Madame Geoffrin asked him if he went much to the theatres ?Rarely.To the publick walks ? Very seldom.To court, to the princes ?No one lcss.How then do you pass your time? Why, when I find myself in a house that pleases me, I converse and I stay there. At these words Madame Geoffrin turned pale. It was six oclock in the evening; she thought that General Clerk might remain till ten; this idea gave her the shuddering of a fever, By chance M. dAlembert came in. Madame Geoffrin persuaded him after a little time, that he was not well, and that he must get general Clerk to take him home. The latter, delighted to render a service, told M. dAlembert, that he might dispose of 200 Grimms .Memoirs. [July, his carriage as he pleased, that he should not want till the even- ing to take him home. These words were a thunderbolt to Madame Geoffrmn, who could not get rid of our Scotchman, whatever change happened in her apartment, by the arrival and departure of visiters. At this moment she cannot think with calmness of that (lay; and she did not go to bed without tak- ing precautions against the danger of a second visit. I never could persuade her that General Clerk was a man accustomed to good society. In fact the only thing I knew against him, was that he made his horses remain from half past four, at the house where he dined, champing their bits till midnight, in the midst of winter, without ever moving from the place. But here we are, as far from our Portuguese story, as from the for- tunate sepulchres of Moukden. Since it is so, it will do no harm to relate an anecdote of the celebrated David Garrick. General Clerk held a long discourse one day at table, in pre- sence of that illustrious actor, to prove that the enthusiasm of the English for Shakspeare was only a matter of fashion; that in reality nobody either admired or understood that author; but, that Mr. Garrick, by his acting, which was so full of ge- nius, had found the secret to make him the idol of the nation. Garrick, a great admirer of Shakspeare, and naturally full of vivacity and petulence, contained himself for a long time: at length he rose from table, took the hand of General Clerk and said to him, I promise you, General, that through my whole life I will never venture to speak on the subject of war. But it is time to hear the report of the aid de camp who was left in Portugal. Letter from Lieut. C~ol. Show Groset to General clerk, Elvas, 5 December, 1769. A very singular event, Sir, has happened in the vicinity. The kin0, as you know, was residing at Villa Viciosa, one of his hunting seats four leagues from here. Last Sunday, in going out to ride according to custom, a man in a peasants dress, with a stick in his hand, waited for him at the gate of the park, and when a part of the court had passed, he had the incon- ceivable audacity to raise his arm against the prince. The king turned his horse upon him and exclaimed, dre you mad? At this moment some of the court came to the assistance of the king; but the fellow would not suffer himself to be easily disarmed. The Count de Prado among others, received three ~8l5.] Grimms Memoirs. 201 or four severe blows over the head: The whole retinue being now assembled, the man would have been cut to pieces, if the king had not cried out, Do not kill him, but let hi be taken to Don Louis sicunha, one of the secretaries of state. When the man was examined, to know who he was and how he could commit such a raTh action? He answered, that he was a vete- ran, disbanded soldier, that the king owed him eight years ar- rears of pay, several uniforms, and a little mule, that had been taken from him by force; that he had presented a petition to the ministry, and another to his majesty without any answer. This action will he as inconceivable to you, Sir, as it is to me. The man served formerly in a regiment of artillery that was under your orders~-and has always been considered very reso- lute. He says he knows very well that he shall he put to death. Anecdotes of Rousseau. Jean Jaques Rousseau has been for some time at Lyons. He has quitted his asylum in Dauphiny, the chateau of l3our- deille, if I do not mistake. The cause is said to have been a quarrel that happened between him and the lady of the cha- teau; but I believe nothing positive is known about it. It is however more certain, that he has composed a comick opera in one act on the subject of Pygmalion, half sting, half spokei~i, according to the barbarous custom of the modern French opera. ~ There is, it is said, only one actor in this play, and that is Pyg malion. The part of the statue is very short, it only spe ks three times. When it perceives itself to he animated, it touch- es its heart, and says: It is me. It then approaches a neigh- ho uring statue, and feeling it inanimate, says, It is not m~. Placing its hand afterwards on the heart of Pygmalion, and finding that it palpitates, it exclaims, It is another me. This is perhaps a little confused, a little metaphysical; me is a very abstract term for a first thought, or rather a first sentiment. Whatever exists, refers dvery thing to its existence, by an im- mutable and miecessary law, without knowing it. To discover this now common truth, a long course of observation, and a long exercise of our intellectual faculties, was necessary. How could a metamorphosed statue find, in the first instant, so com- plicated a result, and which s1pposes so many combinations, and understood relations? The first words of a being suddenly Vol. 1. No. 2. 26

Anecdotes of Rousseau 201-202

~8l5.] Grimms Memoirs. 201 or four severe blows over the head: The whole retinue being now assembled, the man would have been cut to pieces, if the king had not cried out, Do not kill him, but let hi be taken to Don Louis sicunha, one of the secretaries of state. When the man was examined, to know who he was and how he could commit such a raTh action? He answered, that he was a vete- ran, disbanded soldier, that the king owed him eight years ar- rears of pay, several uniforms, and a little mule, that had been taken from him by force; that he had presented a petition to the ministry, and another to his majesty without any answer. This action will he as inconceivable to you, Sir, as it is to me. The man served formerly in a regiment of artillery that was under your orders~-and has always been considered very reso- lute. He says he knows very well that he shall he put to death. Anecdotes of Rousseau. Jean Jaques Rousseau has been for some time at Lyons. He has quitted his asylum in Dauphiny, the chateau of l3our- deille, if I do not mistake. The cause is said to have been a quarrel that happened between him and the lady of the cha- teau; but I believe nothing positive is known about it. It is however more certain, that he has composed a comick opera in one act on the subject of Pygmalion, half sting, half spokei~i, according to the barbarous custom of the modern French opera. ~ There is, it is said, only one actor in this play, and that is Pyg malion. The part of the statue is very short, it only spe ks three times. When it perceives itself to he animated, it touch- es its heart, and says: It is me. It then approaches a neigh- ho uring statue, and feeling it inanimate, says, It is not m~. Placing its hand afterwards on the heart of Pygmalion, and finding that it palpitates, it exclaims, It is another me. This is perhaps a little confused, a little metaphysical; me is a very abstract term for a first thought, or rather a first sentiment. Whatever exists, refers dvery thing to its existence, by an im- mutable and miecessary law, without knowing it. To discover this now common truth, a long course of observation, and a long exercise of our intellectual faculties, was necessary. How could a metamorphosed statue find, in the first instant, so com- plicated a result, and which s1pposes so many combinations, and understood relations? The first words of a being suddenly Vol. 1. No. 2. 26 202 Grimms Memoirs. [duly animated would doubtless be some passionate, impetuous. mournful expression: the aspect of the universe would agitate it; it would think that it was menaced, its own energy would excite fear. This is the route to discover what would be the first words of a statue; yet however true these observations may be, I am convinced that the three speeches of M. Rous- seaus statue, xviii make its fortune with the publick, which is in the habit of applauding things infinitely more false. What seems to me a defect in the plan, is treating it in the ambiguous form of our modern operas, where the words are sung and spo- ken alternately. A piece in which a miracle is operated, should he the most distant imitation possible of common life. it is said that M. Rousseau had thought of forming another piece, founded on a very tragick event, that has lately happened at Lyons, though he has since given up the intention. A young man, an Italian by birth, a fencing master by profession, and a young girl, the daubhter of a rich innkeeper, had conceived for each other the most violent passion. The parents having refu- sed their consent to their marriage, and assured them, that it never should take place, the young people after recovering from their first grief, sxvore eternal fidelity to each other: and to render their oath independent of events, they on a day agreed upon, dressed themselves as victims, went to a chapel in the count~y near the city, and there closely embracing, and kneeling before the altar, each with a pistol killed themselves. ~ f The story says, they were besides armed with two poniards in case the pistols had not killed them instantly, but that this pre- caution was superfluous. Letters from respectable people at Lyons confirm all the details of this remarkable occurrence. Decah of .1161. Chatelmont. A scelerat, escaped from the galleys, and who had commit- ted several assassinations in the streets of Paris, in the course of a few days, has just expiated his crimes on the wheel. One of those who had the misfortune to be attacked by him, was M. Perinet de Chatelmont, who has since died of his wound, after having languished a month. He was the youngest of a numerous protestant family, well known in financial affairs. I knew his uncle, a farmer-general, a man of sense, who died seven or eight years a~to, upwards of ninety. He had

Death of Chatelmont 202-203

202 Grimms Memoirs. [duly animated would doubtless be some passionate, impetuous. mournful expression: the aspect of the universe would agitate it; it would think that it was menaced, its own energy would excite fear. This is the route to discover what would be the first words of a statue; yet however true these observations may be, I am convinced that the three speeches of M. Rous- seaus statue, xviii make its fortune with the publick, which is in the habit of applauding things infinitely more false. What seems to me a defect in the plan, is treating it in the ambiguous form of our modern operas, where the words are sung and spo- ken alternately. A piece in which a miracle is operated, should he the most distant imitation possible of common life. it is said that M. Rousseau had thought of forming another piece, founded on a very tragick event, that has lately happened at Lyons, though he has since given up the intention. A young man, an Italian by birth, a fencing master by profession, and a young girl, the daubhter of a rich innkeeper, had conceived for each other the most violent passion. The parents having refu- sed their consent to their marriage, and assured them, that it never should take place, the young people after recovering from their first grief, sxvore eternal fidelity to each other: and to render their oath independent of events, they on a day agreed upon, dressed themselves as victims, went to a chapel in the count~y near the city, and there closely embracing, and kneeling before the altar, each with a pistol killed themselves. ~ f The story says, they were besides armed with two poniards in case the pistols had not killed them instantly, but that this pre- caution was superfluous. Letters from respectable people at Lyons confirm all the details of this remarkable occurrence. Decah of .1161. Chatelmont. A scelerat, escaped from the galleys, and who had commit- ted several assassinations in the streets of Paris, in the course of a few days, has just expiated his crimes on the wheel. One of those who had the misfortune to be attacked by him, was M. Perinet de Chatelmont, who has since died of his wound, after having languished a month. He was the youngest of a numerous protestant family, well known in financial affairs. I knew his uncle, a farmer-general, a man of sense, who died seven or eight years a~to, upwards of ninety. He had Grimms Memoirs. 203 J815.] passed his youth as was the custom of the times, with the fash- ionable wits in the coffee-houses of Paris, and mention is made of him in the famous couplets of Jean Baptiste Rousseau, which occasioned a criminal process. The elder Perinet was cited, as being attached to the protestant faith. When I knew him, he had been for a long time neutral; he possessed many millions, with much simplicity of manners, and great subtlety of mind. His grand daughters have carried their xvealth into two families of condition, by marrying one a Langerou, the other a Brienne. His collaterals, who enjoy a handsome fortune, neu- tral like their uncle, have conformed as to the exteriour to the prevailing religiomi, excepting this poor Chatelmont, who was assassinated, and who continued a zealous protestant. His brothers spend their fortune in a manner suitable to respectable citizens. Chatelmont used his like a holy man who is here only on his passage, and is returning to his true country. He did not indulge himself with a carriage; he only allowed him- self the simplest necessaries, and employed all the rest of his fortune in works of charity; he had a vast number of pension- ers who lose every thing by his death. I have made mention of him here, on account of what he said to the murderer, whom he was obliged to suffer to he brought to his bedside to be confronted with him. The villain attributed his crime to the want in which be found himself: Wretched man! exclaim- ed Chatelmont to his mnurdQrer, why did you not find me out? 1 would have given you a monthly st#end.* Youngs Night Thoughts. The first Night of Young, translated into French verse, by .111. colardeau, 8vo. pamphlet of 30 pages. in this pro- duction, a very great talent for versification may be recognised, of which the author had already given proofs in other works. Of all our young poets, M. de hi Harpe, and M. Colardeau are the only ones who have any idea of harmony, of that sweet versification, that insensibly disposes the soul to a mild and ten- der melancholy, of that imitative poetry, which by some secret charm, establishes a connexion between a peculiar sensation of the soul, and a particular choice of words or arrangement of sounds. Manes chers et sacres I & c. & c. This anecdote needs no observation; it is impossible not to remark, that this speech is the true sublimity of religion and charity.

Young's Night Thoughts 203-204

Grimms Memoirs. 203 J815.] passed his youth as was the custom of the times, with the fash- ionable wits in the coffee-houses of Paris, and mention is made of him in the famous couplets of Jean Baptiste Rousseau, which occasioned a criminal process. The elder Perinet was cited, as being attached to the protestant faith. When I knew him, he had been for a long time neutral; he possessed many millions, with much simplicity of manners, and great subtlety of mind. His grand daughters have carried their xvealth into two families of condition, by marrying one a Langerou, the other a Brienne. His collaterals, who enjoy a handsome fortune, neu- tral like their uncle, have conformed as to the exteriour to the prevailing religiomi, excepting this poor Chatelmont, who was assassinated, and who continued a zealous protestant. His brothers spend their fortune in a manner suitable to respectable citizens. Chatelmont used his like a holy man who is here only on his passage, and is returning to his true country. He did not indulge himself with a carriage; he only allowed him- self the simplest necessaries, and employed all the rest of his fortune in works of charity; he had a vast number of pension- ers who lose every thing by his death. I have made mention of him here, on account of what he said to the murderer, whom he was obliged to suffer to he brought to his bedside to be confronted with him. The villain attributed his crime to the want in which be found himself: Wretched man! exclaim- ed Chatelmont to his mnurdQrer, why did you not find me out? 1 would have given you a monthly st#end.* Youngs Night Thoughts. The first Night of Young, translated into French verse, by .111. colardeau, 8vo. pamphlet of 30 pages. in this pro- duction, a very great talent for versification may be recognised, of which the author had already given proofs in other works. Of all our young poets, M. de hi Harpe, and M. Colardeau are the only ones who have any idea of harmony, of that sweet versification, that insensibly disposes the soul to a mild and ten- der melancholy, of that imitative poetry, which by some secret charm, establishes a connexion between a peculiar sensation of the soul, and a particular choice of words or arrangement of sounds. Manes chers et sacres I & c. & c. This anecdote needs no observation; it is impossible not to remark, that this speech is the true sublimity of religion and charity. 204 Grimms .iiVJemo~rs. [July, These are certainly verses: and if NI. Colardean and hi comrades add to the talent, which they have received from na- ture, the study and application necessary to every man who would excel in his art, we shall be without doubt indebted to them for very estimable productions. Youngs JVYght Thoughts have a great reputation in England, and even in Europe. it is said, a German translation exists, which is a master-piece, but 1 have not seen it. A certain M. le Tourney gave us a French translation last year. NI. Colardeau, from civility to his rival no doubt, pretends that this version had a most brilliant suc- cess. Let me perish, if I ever heard it spoken of by any per- son whatever. This style cannot succeed in France; we are not abstracted enough, not solitary enough; we cannot give it the time that is necessary for it to affect u~. A more real re- proach which I make against this work, is the vagueness which it throws about the reader. There may he remarked in Young and ~vriters of this class, a heated mind, an extravagant, wild imagination, rather than a deeply affected heart; it is difficult to say exactly what he complains of, ~vhat are his misfortunes; the objects of his grief are unknown, though he recalls them unceasingly. There is in all his writings too many bells, too many tombs, too many funeral songs and cries, too many phan- toms; the simple and natural expression of true grief would produce a hundred times more effect than all these figures: the object is to make my tears flow, and not to frighten me like a child, by all these images that are terrible and imposing in ap- pearance, but which merely graze the soul and leave no lasting sentiment. Peculiarity of the French language. The Chevalier de Bouffiers, while at the seminary of St. Sulpice, to prepare himself for a bishoprick, which he afterwards renounced for the cross of Malta, made the following rebus which is worth preserving. L. n. n. e. o. p. y. 1. i. a. t. t. I. i. a. m. e. I. i. a. e. t. m. e. 1. i. a. r. i. t. I. i. a. v. q. 1. i. e. d.c. d. a. g. a. c. k. c. He asserted that in pronouncing these letters, in the order he had written.them, they would give distinctly the following words. HeiUne est n6e au pays grec; elk y a 5ti; die y a aim~ die y a iit6 aim6e; die 1/ a herite~ elleya v~cu; elleyest deic6d6e ag6e, assez cassee

Peculiarity of the French Language 204-205

204 Grimms .iiVJemo~rs. [July, These are certainly verses: and if NI. Colardean and hi comrades add to the talent, which they have received from na- ture, the study and application necessary to every man who would excel in his art, we shall be without doubt indebted to them for very estimable productions. Youngs JVYght Thoughts have a great reputation in England, and even in Europe. it is said, a German translation exists, which is a master-piece, but 1 have not seen it. A certain M. le Tourney gave us a French translation last year. NI. Colardeau, from civility to his rival no doubt, pretends that this version had a most brilliant suc- cess. Let me perish, if I ever heard it spoken of by any per- son whatever. This style cannot succeed in France; we are not abstracted enough, not solitary enough; we cannot give it the time that is necessary for it to affect u~. A more real re- proach which I make against this work, is the vagueness which it throws about the reader. There may he remarked in Young and ~vriters of this class, a heated mind, an extravagant, wild imagination, rather than a deeply affected heart; it is difficult to say exactly what he complains of, ~vhat are his misfortunes; the objects of his grief are unknown, though he recalls them unceasingly. There is in all his writings too many bells, too many tombs, too many funeral songs and cries, too many phan- toms; the simple and natural expression of true grief would produce a hundred times more effect than all these figures: the object is to make my tears flow, and not to frighten me like a child, by all these images that are terrible and imposing in ap- pearance, but which merely graze the soul and leave no lasting sentiment. Peculiarity of the French language. The Chevalier de Bouffiers, while at the seminary of St. Sulpice, to prepare himself for a bishoprick, which he afterwards renounced for the cross of Malta, made the following rebus which is worth preserving. L. n. n. e. o. p. y. 1. i. a. t. t. I. i. a. m. e. I. i. a. e. t. m. e. 1. i. a. r. i. t. I. i. a. v. q. 1. i. e. d.c. d. a. g. a. c. k. c. He asserted that in pronouncing these letters, in the order he had written.them, they would give distinctly the following words. HeiUne est n6e au pays grec; elk y a 5ti; die y a aim~ die y a iit6 aim6e; die 1/ a herite~ elleya v~cu; elleyest deic6d6e ag6e, assez cassee 15.] Grimms Memoirs. 205 This piece of pleasantry is worth preserving, because it proves one thing that the author did not think of, the ~~acopho- ny of the French language. I defy any person to produce a similar specimen in Italian it is therefoie much more difficult to be harmonious, elegant, graceful; in one word, a seductive writer in French, than in any other language ; and the H& - l~ae of the Chevalier de Boufflers may teach us the value we ought to attach to Voltaire l?ouelle the Chemist. August, 1770. We have just lost the father of chemistry ifl France. Guillaume hancois Rouclie, apothecary, demon- strator of chemistry at the royal garden (garden of plants) of the academies of the sciences at Paris and Stockholm, died the beginning of this month, after a long and painibl malady. Rouelie was a man of genius xvithout cultivation; before his time nothing was known in France but the 1)rinciples of Lame- ry: it was he who introduced the chemistry of Stahl, and made known that science which no one thought about here, and which a number of great men had carried in Germany to a high degree of perfection.* Ronelle did not know how to read them all, but his instinct was ordinarily as great as their science. tie ought then to be considered the founder of che- mistry in France; and yet his name will be forgotten because he has never written any thing, and because those in our time who have written valuable works on this science, and who all came out of his school, have never rendered that homage to their master, which they owed him: they have thought it more expedient to place to the credit of their own sagacity, the principles and discoveries that they derived from him ; Roculle thereiore quarrelled with all of his disciples who Wrote upan chemistry. He revenged himself for their ingratitude by the insults with which he loaded them in his publick and private lectures; and it was known beforehand, that in such a lecture there would be a portrait of Malouin, in another the portrait of Macquer, finely drawn. They were, according to him, igno- rarnuses, barbers, journeymen, plagiarists. This last term in his mind had become so odious, that he applied it to the great- est criminals ; and to express, for instance, the horrour he felt What was chemistry at this time either in France or Germany? T~

Account of Rouelle 205-208

15.] Grimms Memoirs. 205 This piece of pleasantry is worth preserving, because it proves one thing that the author did not think of, the ~~acopho- ny of the French language. I defy any person to produce a similar specimen in Italian it is therefoie much more difficult to be harmonious, elegant, graceful; in one word, a seductive writer in French, than in any other language ; and the H& - l~ae of the Chevalier de Boufflers may teach us the value we ought to attach to Voltaire l?ouelle the Chemist. August, 1770. We have just lost the father of chemistry ifl France. Guillaume hancois Rouclie, apothecary, demon- strator of chemistry at the royal garden (garden of plants) of the academies of the sciences at Paris and Stockholm, died the beginning of this month, after a long and painibl malady. Rouelie was a man of genius xvithout cultivation; before his time nothing was known in France but the 1)rinciples of Lame- ry: it was he who introduced the chemistry of Stahl, and made known that science which no one thought about here, and which a number of great men had carried in Germany to a high degree of perfection.* Ronelle did not know how to read them all, but his instinct was ordinarily as great as their science. tie ought then to be considered the founder of che- mistry in France; and yet his name will be forgotten because he has never written any thing, and because those in our time who have written valuable works on this science, and who all came out of his school, have never rendered that homage to their master, which they owed him: they have thought it more expedient to place to the credit of their own sagacity, the principles and discoveries that they derived from him ; Roculle thereiore quarrelled with all of his disciples who Wrote upan chemistry. He revenged himself for their ingratitude by the insults with which he loaded them in his publick and private lectures; and it was known beforehand, that in such a lecture there would be a portrait of Malouin, in another the portrait of Macquer, finely drawn. They were, according to him, igno- rarnuses, barbers, journeymen, plagiarists. This last term in his mind had become so odious, that he applied it to the great- est criminals ; and to express, for instance, the horrour he felt What was chemistry at this time either in France or Germany? T~ ~O6 b~rimms Memosrs. [July, for Damien, he said he was a plagiarist. indignation against the plagiarisms he had suffered, degenerated into a mania ; he always thought he was pillaged; and when the works of Pott or Lehmann, or any other great German chemist were trans- lated, and he found ideas analogous to his own, he pretended that he had been robbed by those persons. Roucile was ex- tre~iely petulent; his ideas were confused and without clearness; and a strong mind was necessary to follow him, and introduce order and perspicuity into his lessons. He did not know how to write; he spoke with the greatest vehemence, but without correctness or distinctness, and he had the habit of saying, that he was not of the academy of fine talking. With all these de- fects, his views were those of a man of genius, and always profound; but he sought to keep them from the knowledge of his hearers, as much as his petulent nature would permit. He commonly explained his ideas at length, and when he had said every thing he added, but this is one of my arcana, which I tell to no person. Sometimes one of his scholars would get UI) and whisper in his ear, what he had just been saying aloud Rouclie then believed that his scholar had discovered his ar- canum by his own sagacity, and begged him not to divulge what he had just been saying to two hundred people. He had such a strong habit of absence, that exteriour objects no longer affected him. He tossed ahout like a madman in his chair while discoursing, turned himself over, thumped himself, kicked his neighbour, and tore his ruffles, without knowing any thing that he was doing. One day being in a circle where there were several ladies, he untied his garter, drew his stock- ing down to his shoe, scratched his leg with both hands, and then replaced the stocking and garter, and continued the con- versation without having the least suspicion of what he had been doing. In his course he was commonly aided by his brother and nephew, to make the experiments before the audi- ence. These assistants were not always to he found; Ronelle would cry out, Nephew! Eternal Nephew! and the eternal nephew not coming, he went himself into the back rooms of his lahoratory, to seek for the objects he wanted. During this ope- ration he always continued the lesson as if he was in presence of the audience, and at his return, he had commonly finished the demonstration he had commenced, and re-entered, saying, Yes, gentlemen when they would request him to recommence~ 1815.] Grimms .Memoirs. ~2O7 One day, being abandoned by his brother and his nephew, and making an experiment which was necessary to his lesson, he said to his hearers: You see, gentlemen, this kettle on the fire? Well, ~f I was to stop stirring it one instant, an explosion would follow that would blow us all into the air. In saying these words he forgot to stir it, and his prediction was accom- plished : the explosion took place with the most horrible noise, broke all the windows of the laboratory, and in a moment the two hnndred auditors fonnd themselves scattered in the garden fortunately no one was wounded, because the force of the ex- plosion went np the chimney: the demonstrator escaped with the loss of his chinney and his wig. It is truly onderful that Ronelle, who ahuost always made his experiments by himself, because he wished to conceal his arcane from his brother, who is very skilful, has not been blown up into the air by his con tinual carelessness; bnt from constantly inhaling without any precaution the most pernicious exhalations, he lost the use of bis limbs, and passed the latter years of his life in the most terrible sufferings. Ronelle was an honest man, but with a character so unhewn, that he neither understood nor ob- served the established customs of society; and as it was easy to prejudice him against any one, and impossible to cure him of this prejudice, he often lacerated others without rhyme or reason ; so that it is quite natural that he should have many enemies. He could not esteem the physicks, nor the systems of M. de Buffon: he was not affected by his fine talking, and some lessons of his course were always employed to (leery this illustrious academician. He had taken a dislike to Doctor Borden, a physician of excellent sense. Yes, gentlemen, said lie every year at a certain part of his lecture, it is one of our people, a plagiarist, who has killed my brother, whom you see here. He meant, that Borden had treated his brother impro- perly in a disorder. Ronelle was a demonstrator in the pub- lick lessons at the royal garden, Doctor Bourdelin was profes- sor, and . enerally finished his lessons by these words; ~/1s .JlIonsieur, the demonstrator, is going to prove by his experi- ments. Ronelle then taking his turn to speak, instead of mak- ing his experiments, Gentlemen, every thing that the professor has told yOU is false and absurd, as I am going to prove~ Unfortunately for the professor he often kept his word. He ~O8 Grimms Memoirs. [July, was a good Frenchman, full of zeal and patriotism, but a grum- bler, fond of news xvhen his attention was not fixed on his cru- cible. At the commencement of the la~t war, he wanted to command the flat-bottomed boats to go and burn London. He did not despair of finding the means of setting fire to the English fleet under water, it was one of his arcana. I met him the day after the battle of Rosbach: he was limping, and walked with difficulty Good heavens! what has happened to you M. I?ouelle? said I. I am ground to powder, answered he, I am done up; the whole Prussian cavalry has marched this night over my body. He then called our generals pla- giarists, and I perceived this was not the moment to make him change his opinion. Great military and political events sometimes affected him so mtich, that he would discuss them in the midst of his lecture on chemistry. He counted among his disciples, not only all the skilful chemists that France now possesses, but many other celebrated men of different classes; he had independently of his excellent principles in chemistry, the secret of all men of genius; that of making you think. Doctor Roux, one of his scholars, has proposed to collect his papers and publish them, without which many of his arcana will perish with him. ~1necdote of the Empress Catharine. A Russian poet, named Sumarakoff, author of several tra~ gedies, being at Moscow, had a quarrel with the first actress on the theatre of that capital; these accidents happen at Mos- cow, as well as at Paris. On a certain day, the governour of Moscow ordered one of the poets plays to be performed; he opposed it, because this actress played the principal part. This reason not appearing sufficient to make the governour change his opinion, the poet lost himself to such a degree, that when the curtain rose, he jumped on the stage, seized the act- ress who appeared with all the tragick paraphernalia, and threw her into the side scenes. After having thus interrupted the publick tranquillity, be thought be had done enough, and in his poetick plirensy wrote two letters to the empress herself, with as much indiscretion as rashness, filled with complaints and in- vectives against an actress. I defy any French poet to do better~

Catharine, Empress of Russia 208-210

~O8 Grimms Memoirs. [July, was a good Frenchman, full of zeal and patriotism, but a grum- bler, fond of news xvhen his attention was not fixed on his cru- cible. At the commencement of the la~t war, he wanted to command the flat-bottomed boats to go and burn London. He did not despair of finding the means of setting fire to the English fleet under water, it was one of his arcana. I met him the day after the battle of Rosbach: he was limping, and walked with difficulty Good heavens! what has happened to you M. I?ouelle? said I. I am ground to powder, answered he, I am done up; the whole Prussian cavalry has marched this night over my body. He then called our generals pla- giarists, and I perceived this was not the moment to make him change his opinion. Great military and political events sometimes affected him so mtich, that he would discuss them in the midst of his lecture on chemistry. He counted among his disciples, not only all the skilful chemists that France now possesses, but many other celebrated men of different classes; he had independently of his excellent principles in chemistry, the secret of all men of genius; that of making you think. Doctor Roux, one of his scholars, has proposed to collect his papers and publish them, without which many of his arcana will perish with him. ~1necdote of the Empress Catharine. A Russian poet, named Sumarakoff, author of several tra~ gedies, being at Moscow, had a quarrel with the first actress on the theatre of that capital; these accidents happen at Mos- cow, as well as at Paris. On a certain day, the governour of Moscow ordered one of the poets plays to be performed; he opposed it, because this actress played the principal part. This reason not appearing sufficient to make the governour change his opinion, the poet lost himself to such a degree, that when the curtain rose, he jumped on the stage, seized the act- ress who appeared with all the tragick paraphernalia, and threw her into the side scenes. After having thus interrupted the publick tranquillity, be thought be had done enough, and in his poetick plirensy wrote two letters to the empress herself, with as much indiscretion as rashness, filled with complaints and in- vectives against an actress. I defy any French poet to do better~ VS Grimms .Miemoirs. 209 Novelist Marmoritel, what do you think would be the conse- ~p1ence of this inexcusable insult ?But it is easy to tell. The impertinent letters of the poet Sumarakoff did not reach the empress; the minister charged with the poetical department read them, and gave dire( tions to throw the poet into a dun- geon, till further orders, where he probably now remains. Away with the romance and the historical romancer, he is only a cold and stupid liar. Such terminations are only pro- per in countries that boast of the mildness and politeness of their manners; the police is not so perfect in Russia. Her Imperial Majesty received the two letters by the post, and after having given her orders for the Archipelago, for iVloldavia, the Crimea, Georgia, and the borders of the Black Sea, she had still time to write the following answer: Monsieur Sumara- koff, I have been very much astonished at your letter of the 28th of January, and still more at that of the 1st of February. Both of them contain complaints against the Belmontia, who, it seems to me notwithstanding, has only obeyed the orders of Count Soltikoff. The Field Marshal desired to see your tragedy performed; that did you honour. It was proper for you to conform to the wishes of the first person in authority at Moscow: and ~i he chose that the piece should be played, his will should not have been contested. 1 believe you know as well as any one, how much respect is merited by those men, who have served with glory, and whose heads are covered with gray hairs~ It is for this reason, I advise you to avoid such disputes for the future. You will then preserve that tranquillity of mind, necessary for your works, and it will al- ways be more agreeable to me to see the passions represented in your dramas, than to read them in your letters. I am yours affectionately, (Signed) CATHARINE. I advise all ministers, who have the department of lettres de cachet, to enregister this form in their records, and never on any account to deliver any other to poets, and all who have a right to be of the irritable class, that is to say, childish and mad by profession. After this letter, which perhaps deserves im- mortality as much as the monuments of the wisdom and glory of the present reign in Russia, I am afraid that I shall be con- firmed in the heretical opinion, that sense is never injurious, even on the throne. Vol. I. No. 2. 27 210 Grimms .Ailemotrs. [July, Cure for a Consumption. I will not answer for the efficacy of the receipt which yon will find indicated in the following recital; but if my remedy serves no one, at least, it can do no harm. Read it, and make use of it, if you are in want of it, if you have faith in it, or if you have bottles to cork. An officer in garrison at Rochefort, worn out with trying all the remedies 1)rescrihed, to cure him of an obstinate cough, ceased using them, and resumed his common mode of living. He soon began to raise blood, and his breast appeared affected, he still persisted in doing nothing for it. One day having had a cask of wine drawn off, he had half a pound of rosin, and half a pound of yellow wax brought into his room, which he melted in an earthen vase over a chafing-dish, to seal his bottles. This operation having taken up about an hour and a half, he thought at the end of that time, that he expectorated with more ease, and that his cough was less dry, and less fre- quent. He thought that the fumigation which he had by ac- cident received, might have contributed to it; in consequence he recommenced it, keeping his doors and windows shut, and walking amidst the cloud of smoke, that arose from the mix- ture. At the end of four or five days he found himself per- fectly cured. He mentioned his discovery to the surgeon of his regiment, who, without believing its virtue, tried it upon a soldier who was dying in the hospital of a most decided pub monary complaint. After having had him taken to his house, he made him undergo every four hours a fumigation, proportion- ing the quantity of smoke to the strength of the patient, who as he was very weak might have been suffocated, if the smoke had been too strong. After the second day the sick mans cough assumed a milder character, and in six weeks he was perfectly re-established. And now upon this, as Rabelais says, amuse yourself and drink cool. Trandation of Savages Lift. Tke Life of Savage, an English poet, has just been trans- lated into French, by M. le Tourneur, the same who translated Youngs Night Thoughts, a poem of the finest black, that it is possible to imagine, and which the translator has found the means to get read by a people whose thoughts are rose-coloured.

Cure for Consumption 210

210 Grimms .Ailemotrs. [July, Cure for a Consumption. I will not answer for the efficacy of the receipt which yon will find indicated in the following recital; but if my remedy serves no one, at least, it can do no harm. Read it, and make use of it, if you are in want of it, if you have faith in it, or if you have bottles to cork. An officer in garrison at Rochefort, worn out with trying all the remedies 1)rescrihed, to cure him of an obstinate cough, ceased using them, and resumed his common mode of living. He soon began to raise blood, and his breast appeared affected, he still persisted in doing nothing for it. One day having had a cask of wine drawn off, he had half a pound of rosin, and half a pound of yellow wax brought into his room, which he melted in an earthen vase over a chafing-dish, to seal his bottles. This operation having taken up about an hour and a half, he thought at the end of that time, that he expectorated with more ease, and that his cough was less dry, and less fre- quent. He thought that the fumigation which he had by ac- cident received, might have contributed to it; in consequence he recommenced it, keeping his doors and windows shut, and walking amidst the cloud of smoke, that arose from the mix- ture. At the end of four or five days he found himself per- fectly cured. He mentioned his discovery to the surgeon of his regiment, who, without believing its virtue, tried it upon a soldier who was dying in the hospital of a most decided pub monary complaint. After having had him taken to his house, he made him undergo every four hours a fumigation, proportion- ing the quantity of smoke to the strength of the patient, who as he was very weak might have been suffocated, if the smoke had been too strong. After the second day the sick mans cough assumed a milder character, and in six weeks he was perfectly re-established. And now upon this, as Rabelais says, amuse yourself and drink cool. Trandation of Savages Lift. Tke Life of Savage, an English poet, has just been trans- lated into French, by M. le Tourneur, the same who translated Youngs Night Thoughts, a poem of the finest black, that it is possible to imagine, and which the translator has found the means to get read by a people whose thoughts are rose-coloured.

Life of Savage 210-212

210 Grimms .Ailemotrs. [July, Cure for a Consumption. I will not answer for the efficacy of the receipt which yon will find indicated in the following recital; but if my remedy serves no one, at least, it can do no harm. Read it, and make use of it, if you are in want of it, if you have faith in it, or if you have bottles to cork. An officer in garrison at Rochefort, worn out with trying all the remedies 1)rescrihed, to cure him of an obstinate cough, ceased using them, and resumed his common mode of living. He soon began to raise blood, and his breast appeared affected, he still persisted in doing nothing for it. One day having had a cask of wine drawn off, he had half a pound of rosin, and half a pound of yellow wax brought into his room, which he melted in an earthen vase over a chafing-dish, to seal his bottles. This operation having taken up about an hour and a half, he thought at the end of that time, that he expectorated with more ease, and that his cough was less dry, and less fre- quent. He thought that the fumigation which he had by ac- cident received, might have contributed to it; in consequence he recommenced it, keeping his doors and windows shut, and walking amidst the cloud of smoke, that arose from the mix- ture. At the end of four or five days he found himself per- fectly cured. He mentioned his discovery to the surgeon of his regiment, who, without believing its virtue, tried it upon a soldier who was dying in the hospital of a most decided pub monary complaint. After having had him taken to his house, he made him undergo every four hours a fumigation, proportion- ing the quantity of smoke to the strength of the patient, who as he was very weak might have been suffocated, if the smoke had been too strong. After the second day the sick mans cough assumed a milder character, and in six weeks he was perfectly re-established. And now upon this, as Rabelais says, amuse yourself and drink cool. Trandation of Savages Lift. Tke Life of Savage, an English poet, has just been trans- lated into French, by M. le Tourneur, the same who translated Youngs Night Thoughts, a poem of the finest black, that it is possible to imagine, and which the translator has found the means to get read by a people whose thoughts are rose-coloured. 1815.] Grimms .Miemows. 211 It is true that this complexion begins to fade. M. le Tourneur understands English well, and writes French with harmony and purity. This biography of Savage is ;nteresting; it is the delineation of an unfortunate man, of an inconsistent character, of an impetuous genius; of an individual sometimes benevo- lent, at others malevolent; at one moment haughty, at another r~nan; half true, half false; in everx thing more deserving of compassion, than hatred, of contempt than applause; agreeable to hear; dangerous to frequent; the best lesson thai we can have on the inconvenience of the acquaintance of poets, their want of morality and of propriety. The work would have been delightful, and to be compared with the memoirs of the Count de Gram- mont, if the English author had intended to have composed a satire on his hero; but unhappily he is in earnest.* The account of the life of the wretched Savage, son of Anne, countess of Macclesfield, who to get a separation from her hus- band, avowed herself to be with child by Lord Rivers, is in- terrupted by extracts from the different works of Savage, and most of them very fine. This countess of Macclesfield was a strange woman, who persecuted an offspring of love, with a rage that was sustained for many years, that was never extin- guished, and that is founded on nothing. If a poet had thought proper to introduce into a drama or a romance, a character of this kind, he would have been hissed, and yet it is in nature. Nature then is sometimes hissed, and why not? does she not merit it? The life of Savage is followed by that of Thomson, author of the Seasons, and of some tragedies. Nothing is to be said of him, except that he is the very contrary of the other; his biography is tiresome. it is necessary for the happiness of those who have to deal with men, that they should resemble Thomson; for the interest and amusement of a reader, that they should be like Savage. I will only say one word of the Seasons of Thompson compared to the Georgicks of Virgil; the muse of Thomson is like our lady of Loretto, and the muse of Virgil a Venus: one is rich and covered with diamonds the other is beautiful, naked, and with only a simple bracelet. Virgil is a model of good taste; Thomson is well calculated to corrupt that of young writers. * it would have been amusing to have heard Dr. Johnsons reply to this criticism of Baron Grimm. 212 Grimms Memoirs. [July, Sir W. Jones letter to Perrou. January, 1772. M. Anquetil du Perron, of the royal aca- demy of inscriptions and belles lettres, published, about six months since, his travels in India, with a translation of the Zend- Avesta, and the sacred books of the Guebres attributed to Zo- roaster. This trash formed three enormous volumes in quarto, that cannot he either sold or read. The publiek had conceiv- ed a favourable opinion of this work, which had been announced and expected for a long time. it was known that the author had passed many years in india, without any other design than that of learning the ancient Persian among the Guebres, in order to be able to translate their sacred books, and to bring us exact notions of their religious principles, their tenets, and the worship of the adorers of fire. It is known that the Guebres have the exclusive privilege of being persecuted by the Ma- hometans, who with this exception tolerate all religions easily enough. Exterminated in Persia, they have taken refuge in Hindostan, where the reigning religion obliges them to be ex- tremely circumspect. They are then naturally mysterious, concealed, and suspicious towards strangers. M. Anquetil was not sorry on his return to France, to assure us, that he had sur- mouuted all the obstacles that were opposed to the object of his voyage, as well as an infinity of physical dangers. And when he was told that he had probably made himself a Guebre to succeed in his design: he gave a significant smile, and shew- ed a certain air of satisfaction at being suspected of this apos- tacy. At length, after many years waiting, the publick had an opportunity of judging of the extent of its obligations to M. Anquetil. it had been decided, that if these were the original books of Zoroaster, this legislator of the ancient Persians was a most signal dotard, who mixed up a heap of absurd and su- perstitious opinions, with a little of that common morality, which may be found in all the laws upon earth. It is evident that it was risking his life very uselessly, and very laboriously, to go to the extremity of the globe to seek for such a collection of nonsense. it was not worth going so far after folly, for all nations hav~ a sufficient fund of it. But this is not the only fault of M. Anquetil. if you have the palience to examine his work, you will find in it throughout tPat charac- ter of frivolity, that discovers a traveller to be full of narrow prejudice , of presumption and vanity, to whoni you car.

Sir William Jones 212-214

212 Grimms Memoirs. [July, Sir W. Jones letter to Perrou. January, 1772. M. Anquetil du Perron, of the royal aca- demy of inscriptions and belles lettres, published, about six months since, his travels in India, with a translation of the Zend- Avesta, and the sacred books of the Guebres attributed to Zo- roaster. This trash formed three enormous volumes in quarto, that cannot he either sold or read. The publiek had conceiv- ed a favourable opinion of this work, which had been announced and expected for a long time. it was known that the author had passed many years in india, without any other design than that of learning the ancient Persian among the Guebres, in order to be able to translate their sacred books, and to bring us exact notions of their religious principles, their tenets, and the worship of the adorers of fire. It is known that the Guebres have the exclusive privilege of being persecuted by the Ma- hometans, who with this exception tolerate all religions easily enough. Exterminated in Persia, they have taken refuge in Hindostan, where the reigning religion obliges them to be ex- tremely circumspect. They are then naturally mysterious, concealed, and suspicious towards strangers. M. Anquetil was not sorry on his return to France, to assure us, that he had sur- mouuted all the obstacles that were opposed to the object of his voyage, as well as an infinity of physical dangers. And when he was told that he had probably made himself a Guebre to succeed in his design: he gave a significant smile, and shew- ed a certain air of satisfaction at being suspected of this apos- tacy. At length, after many years waiting, the publick had an opportunity of judging of the extent of its obligations to M. Anquetil. it had been decided, that if these were the original books of Zoroaster, this legislator of the ancient Persians was a most signal dotard, who mixed up a heap of absurd and su- perstitious opinions, with a little of that common morality, which may be found in all the laws upon earth. It is evident that it was risking his life very uselessly, and very laboriously, to go to the extremity of the globe to seek for such a collection of nonsense. it was not worth going so far after folly, for all nations hav~ a sufficient fund of it. But this is not the only fault of M. Anquetil. if you have the palience to examine his work, you will find in it throughout tPat charac- ter of frivolity, that discovers a traveller to be full of narrow prejudice , of presumption and vanity, to whoni you car. 1815.] Grimms .Memoirs. 213 neither grant esteem nor confidence. He is a second Abb~ Chappe. The one talks to you about his furs, his picturesque attire, his halts in the midst of mountains, the balls and fetes given him by the ladies of Siberia. The other gives you nar- rations full as interesting to inform you that he sat out with a complexion of lilies and roses, and that he was every-where taken for the Adonis of France. If our travellers and our writers continue in this noble strain, it will not be said that we have never left our childhood, but that we have fallen back into it. An Englishman, M. Jones, has given, in a French letter, a fraternal correction to M. Anqueril du Perron, in which is com- prised an examination of his translation of the books attributed to Zoroaster. After having very properly animadverted on some of the im- pertinences of M. Anquetil, on the subject of England, M. Jones dwells on the folly of a man who loves his life, and ex- poses his florid complexion to learn what nobody understands, and which it is neither useful nor agreeable to be acquainted with. He proves often and clearly, that M. Anquetil, with all his solemn pride, founded on his believing hiniselt to be the only man in Europe acquainted with the ancient language of the Persians, may be strongly suspected of having only very com- mon and very confused notions about it. This pamphlet is, in general, that of a learned and enlightened man, and one of excel- lent sense. With some slight corrections, and rather effacing than adding, one could make a work of this pamphlet, that M. de Voltaire might avow.* It may be perceived that M. Jones has studied this illustrious writer; it may also be seen that he is one of those foreigners who is not fascinated with French mu- sick. They have done the Abbe Chappe the honour to refute him in Russia, in a pamphlet entitled .dn~idote. Some attri- bute this work to the celebrated Princess Daschkoff, others to N. Falconet, a French sculptor who is erecting the statue of Peter the Great, at St. Petersburgh. In this antidote there is too much abuse; but the letter of 1W Jones is a model of the intinner in which those rash travellers should be treated, who only make the tour of the world, to acquire the right of talking nonsense. ~ Grimm here renders great justice to this celebrated letter 0f Sir Wm Jones when it is considered the exalted opinion entertained of Voltaire, the at the height of his fame; while the former was a young man, whose great talents were yet but imperfectly known NORTH-AMERICAN REVIEW. Observations on the effects of the Corn Laws, ansi of a rsse or fall in the price of Corn on the agriculture and general wealth of the country. By the 11ev. T. 11. Malthus, pro- fessor of history and political economy in the East India College, Ilertfordshire. Third edition, London, pp. 47. THis pamphlet contains an impartial but very brief statement of the general arguments on the policy of the Corn Law. It is in(leed the abstract theory, if we may so say, of those Laws, without descending into any details or calculations of much con- sequence, and with a few remarks to suit it to this particular season, it has very much the appearance of being copied from one of the learned professors lectures at the India College. We presume, nevertheless, that other paragraph makers have already condescended to supply these deficiencies of Mr. Mal- thus, and we doubt not that according to the usual industry of the British metropolis, several hundred ponderous pamphlets have breathed their last, hefore this time, in the same good cause. We regret, however, not having been able to see ano- ther pamphlet since published by Mr. Maithus on the same sub- ject, and which, we understand, recommends more snongly than the present one, the necessity of restrictions on importation. The well known sagacity, candour, and moderation of this gen- tleman on every thing which relates to political economy; and his situation in life, beyond the influence of the prejudices of habit or interest, or ministerial patronage, give to all his opin- ions the strongest claim to attention. Before giving a more enlarged account of this subject, which has often created the greatest agitation, and produced the most conflicting opinions in France and England, we presume a short sketch of the His- tory of the Corn Laws may not be unacceptable. The first very certain information, which we have about the Corn Laws in England is in the reign of Henry VI. Permis- sion was given by Parlhmient in 1461 to export wheat, when it

Observations on the effects of the Corn Laws... by Rev. T. R. Malthus 214-234

NORTH-AMERICAN REVIEW. Observations on the effects of the Corn Laws, ansi of a rsse or fall in the price of Corn on the agriculture and general wealth of the country. By the 11ev. T. 11. Malthus, pro- fessor of history and political economy in the East India College, Ilertfordshire. Third edition, London, pp. 47. THis pamphlet contains an impartial but very brief statement of the general arguments on the policy of the Corn Law. It is in(leed the abstract theory, if we may so say, of those Laws, without descending into any details or calculations of much con- sequence, and with a few remarks to suit it to this particular season, it has very much the appearance of being copied from one of the learned professors lectures at the India College. We presume, nevertheless, that other paragraph makers have already condescended to supply these deficiencies of Mr. Mal- thus, and we doubt not that according to the usual industry of the British metropolis, several hundred ponderous pamphlets have breathed their last, hefore this time, in the same good cause. We regret, however, not having been able to see ano- ther pamphlet since published by Mr. Maithus on the same sub- ject, and which, we understand, recommends more snongly than the present one, the necessity of restrictions on importation. The well known sagacity, candour, and moderation of this gen- tleman on every thing which relates to political economy; and his situation in life, beyond the influence of the prejudices of habit or interest, or ministerial patronage, give to all his opin- ions the strongest claim to attention. Before giving a more enlarged account of this subject, which has often created the greatest agitation, and produced the most conflicting opinions in France and England, we presume a short sketch of the His- tory of the Corn Laws may not be unacceptable. The first very certain information, which we have about the Corn Laws in England is in the reign of Henry VI. Permis- sion was given by Parlhmient in 1461 to export wheat, when it 21~ 1815.] Maltitus on the Corn Laws. should be 6 shillings and 8 pence per quarter. The inland commerce of corn was also opened in the 18th of the same king by allowing any collector of the customs to grant a license for carrying it from one county* to another.t hi 1612 directions were given to the kings officers to purchase corn for the purpose of establishing magazines, when the price should be below 32 shillings. Considering the relative value of other articles, this appears to be a great price for those times. In 1753,~ on a complaint from the exporters of corn, that the bounties were not paid, a bill was passed that an interest of 3 per cent. should be allowed upon every debenture for bounty till the principal was paid. In the four or five following years the high price of corn occasioned frequent riots, in which many lives were lost, and a large amount of property destroyed. During that period the Legislature forbid the exportation of grain, re- moved the restriction upon the importations, and prohibited the distillers from using wheat. The scarcity is attributed to the ~ regratters, forestallers, and engrossers of corn. But in & 773 Mr. Burkes celebrated bill repealed all former acts of the Le6islature, and corn was allowed to be exported when below 44 shillings, and imported when above 48 shillings. Adam Smith pronounces this the best bill which could be made in the circumstances of the country. In 1804 iinporta- lion was admitted at above 63 shillings, and exportation below 48. The twelve maritime counties regulated the price. Since that the distillers have been prohibited from using grain for a short time. rrhe object of the present bill is to prevent impor- tation except the price should be above 80 shilliiigs the quarter. The first reading of the bill was had last February, and passed by a vote of 235 in favour of the restrictions, and 35 against them. The third reading was passed, we believe, last March by an increased majority. In the House of Lords a protest of 11 peers was entered; signed, however, by no mcmbe of much political consideration. Lord Lauderdale, who is es- teemed one of the best informed economists in that body, and who, we observe by the list of publications, has written a ~ Hume, vol. iii. p. 215. t Ibid. vol. vi. 175. Smollet, vol. iii. p. 345. t~ Smollet, vol. iv. p. 32. Smollet. 1 Chap. v. b. hr. Wealth of Nations. 216 .Malthus on the Corn Laws. [July, pamphlet upon the subject, voted in favour of the bill. These are the principal facts in the history of the English Corn Laws. It is very well known, however, that Coin Laws are not a re- cent contrivance of Legislators. They were adopted by seve- ral nations of antiquity, and among others by the Athenians, who were forbidden to export corn from Attica; and all who brought it from foreign countries, were compelled to carry it to the market at Athens. The citizens were also prohibited from buying more than a certain quantity, but the price should be raised above the ordinary rate, which was about 3s. 9d. sterl. a bushel. We may as well observe, that the late discus- sion of the Corn Laws involved no allusion to party feelings or views. Mr. Malthus begins this pamphlet by a statement of the argu- ment of A. Smith* respecting the influence of corn upon the price of labour, and an exposition of the erroneous principles upon which it rests. This doctrine of Dr. Smith has been exploded several years, and there are various publicatioust in which hints and conjectures of its inaccuracy are developed, though excepting the edition of that author lately published by Mr. Buchanan of Edinburgh, we do not recollect to have seen so formal a refutation of it as the present one of Mr. Malthus. It is immediately obvious that the influence of corn upon the price of labour is one of the most important points of view in which this question can be considered. This therefore must be our apology for repeating the arguments of Mr. Malthus and other writers upon this interesting subject. The substance of his (A. Smith) argument is, that corn is of so peculiar a na- ture, that its real price cannot he raised by an increase of its money-price: and that, as it is clearly an increase of real price alone, which can encourage its production, the rise of money- price, occasioned by a bounty, can have no such effect. It is by no means intended to deny the powerful influence of the price of corn upon the price of labour, on an average of a considerable number of years; but that this influence is not such as to prevent the movement of capital to, or from the land, which is the precise point in question, will be made ~ Wealth of Nations, cli. 1,2, 3, b. I. 4 Among others, see chap. 10, Malthue on Population 1815.] .Maltltus on the Corn Laws. C ? 21~ sufficiently evident by a short inquiry into the manner in which labour is paid and brought into the market, and by considera- tion of the consequences to which the assumption of Adam Smiths proposition would inevitably lead. The expenditure of the lower classes does not consist altogether in food, and still less in g~in; it is composed of the arlicles of house-rent, fuel, soap, candles, tea, sugar, clothing, inc at, milk, butter, cheese, and potatoes. It is calculated that the proportion of bread is .2 parts in 5 of the whole co~ sumption, and though these divi- sions are liable to considerable variations, it is apparent that the division of corn, so far from regulating the price of la- bour, has only an adjusting power of 2-5ths, and even still less, (if it was necessary to make such close calculations) since seve- ral divisions in the scale are articles of growth, where the influence of the price of corn in the importing couut1y can- not be felt to the same degree. As a still farther proof tW t corn and labour rarely preserve an invariable proportion, it i. only necessary to observe the manner in which a m rket is sup- plied with labour. in general the price of commodities is regu- lated by the demand and the supply, and unless the consumer is willing to pay a fair value for the commodity, it is withdrawn; or the next year the supply is only accommodated to the num- ber of those who are willing to pay this value. But in the case of labour the operation of withdrawing the commodity is neces- sarily slower and more painful. The same supply of labour must continue in the market not only the next yeai, but in~ny years to come; consequently, if the advanced price of provis- ions is not so great that the labourer can but support his family, he will continue to suffer a gradual diminution of his waaes, till a suspension in the progress of population causes the market to be understocked with labour ;in which case a competition for labour will restore in some degree the proportion between the price of provisions and labour. A contrary effect happens when a scarcity of labour raises its price beyoi d the just level; this is obviously relieved by an increase of population, and the value of labour is sunk doxvn to a corresponding balance with the value of provisions. The last argument, and which to our minds is perfectly conclusive, is thus stated by Mr. Malthus Vol. I. No. 2. 28 218 jIialthus on die Corn Laws. [July if we suppose that tbe real price of corn is unchangeable, or not capable of experiencing a relative increase or decrease of value, compared with labour and other commodities, it will follow, that a riculture is at once excluded from the operation of that principle, so beautifully explained and illustrated by Adam Smith, by which capital flows from one empl~ment to another, according to the various and necessarily fluctuating ~vants of society. it xvill follow, that the growth of corn has at all times, and in all countries, proceeded with a uniform unvaryin b pace, occasioned only by the equable increase of agricultural capital, and can never have been accelerated, or retarded, by variations of demand. It will follow, that if a country happened to be either overstocked or understocked with corn, no motive of interest could exist for withdrawing capital from agriculture in the one case, or adding to it in the other, and thus restoring the equilibrium between its different kinds of produce. Of the numberless facts illustrating the errour of the doctrine, that labour is the standard measure of value, and corn k the measure of labour, we shall mention only oneboth be- cause it is a remarkable proof of the opinion now universally entertained, and also a melancholy instance of the pernicious effects of system upon a mind so acute and mathematical as that of Adam Smith. From the reign (1327) of Edward III. to the reign (1485) of Henry VII. a days earnings, in corn, rose from a peck to near half a bushel ;and from Henry VII. to the end (1603) of Elizabeth, it fell from near half a hushel to little more than half a peck. In the III. of Edward corn once rose 13 times its value.* If we need farther evidence, what can be more conclusive tban the condition of our country, where wages of labour are high, food generally cheap, and clothing generally dear. This circumstance, mentioned by A. Smith,t and which would some- what have embarrassed that sagacious author, if he had always reasoned from his own data, is sufficiently explained to every schoolboy in the nation by the abundance of land, the thinness of population, extent of commerce, & c. From the observations already niade, we believe, that we are entitled to consider corn as subject to no very peculiar Davenant, JL ~t I Wealth of Nations, cli. 8 b. 1. 1815.] .J[Ialthus on the Corn Laws. 21 ~i laws, and in discussing the policy of a system of corn laws, it is chiefly necessary therefore to attend to the common principles which have an influence in diverting the resources of a nation~ For this purpose, Mr. Maithus makes the three following divisions. First, Whether, upon the supposition of the most perfect freedom of importation and exportation, it is prohable that Great Britain and Ireland would grow an independent supply ofcorn. Secondly, Whether an independent supply, if it do not come naturally, is an ohject really desirahle, and one which justifies the interference of the legislature. And, Thirdly, If an independent supply be considered as such an ohject, how far, and hy what sacrifices, are restric- tions upon importation adapted to attain the end in view.~ Upon the first point, Mr. Malthus quotes from the evidence given in the house of commons, hy which it appears that the huilion prices of corn at Dantzick the last four or five years have not exceeded 32 shillings a quarter, and the Baltick merchants have expressed an opinion, that if a permanent mar- ket could he secured in London, corn would he raised expressly for it. It also appears from the same evidence, that during the :,ame period the price of corn has heen in London 78 or 80 shillings, and even at that rate it was cheaper to import some corn than to devote more capital to the land. This remarka- ble difference of price is sufficiently accounted for hy the im- mediate accumulation of manufacturing and commercial popu- lation and capital, compared with those of any other country in Europe, the great profits resulting from these investments of property; also, the heavy weight of taxes, the expenses of en- closures, and the high price of lahour, which upon an average is more than douhle that of any people in Europe. We may also remark that in 1804* the limit below which importation was not allowed was 63 shillings. That in the 13 years end- ing in that period the average price was 62 shillings, and not- withstanding they paid during that time 30,000,0001. for grain mo foreign nations. We shall here copy, as farther confirma- tion, a few results from a table puhlished by order of parliament; not having room for the whole, we can only make a short verage. Annual Re. ister for i~O4. 220 .f~ialtitus on the Corn Laws. [July, iMPORTED. EXPORTED. Meal & Meal & Years. Corn. Flour. Corn. Flour. Quarters Cwt. Quarters Cwt. 1792 642596 7757 357489 174729 Years of uncom~ 1793 1088781 211588 79430 115740 mon scarcity. 1794 1066248 13013 153265 139909 1795 463939 124239 17643 66444 1801 2087614 1123714 28617 94814 1802 751004 252736 144745 160813 1803 507484 309569 114006 105233 1804 925755 17072 188019 120179 1812 243833 53038 137530 83195 1814 945587 82165 170145 286189 1815 945587 82165 146851 285140 From this it is apparent how great the excess of impurtatiui is above exportation, though it has decreased latterly. The importation from Ireland is of course not here included. In 1764,* corn was allowed to he exported from France only, however, in French vessels and manned with French sailors, and as far as we have been able to ascertain this law has never heen repealed. Considering, that the importation limit is now proposed to be adjusted to 80 shilliubs, tbe lowest rate by which the farmer can at present he protected, and considering also that by an universal freedom of importation and exportation, equalizing the price of corn in all the markets of Europe, assisted by the increased quantity which America could send advanta be ously to her own commerce, it will he found, accord- ing to the opinion of Mr. Malthus, that the average pri& e in the London market would not exceed 45 shillings. With these views and statements before us, we confess that we do not see in what way the opinion of Mr. Malthus which we are about to quote, can be resisted. Nothing can be more certain, than that if the prices of wheat in Great Britain were reduced by free importation, nearly to a level with those of America and the continent, and if our manufacturing prosperity were to continue increasing, it would answer to us to support a part of our present population on foreibn corn, and nearly the whole probably of the increasing population, which we may naturally expect to take place in the course of the next twenty or twenty-five years. pp. 22, 23. Minutes of Evidence. i815.] Malt/tus on the Corn Laws. 2~2 I. The second point proposed by Mr. Maithus certainly em~ brices We u ost iiierestin~ details, and as no such freedom expe ted (which is the groundwork of the last proposi~ tioli,) the coz sideration of the present division, is undoubtedly th~ m~ 1 i{ortant of all. I lie i~ei~-ral principles of political economy teach us to buy ali o~a om n~Wt~es ~yr e we can have them the cheapest; aid pahips ihei~ is no general rule in the whole compass of mc science, to xx hrnb fewer justifiable excel)tions can be found in pr~ctwe In the simple view of present wealth, popula tin ii [Thi ci, three of the most natural and just objects of fl;I; ~ irn~ ~tion I cin hardly imagine an exception ; as it is bx stHct adh-ience to this rule that the capital of a C ~ c~n ever be made to yield its greatest amount of pro ~ r r~ a~ ocates of the Corn Laws have therefore to prove, that me present is a proper exception, which at once reduces it to pinction of advantages and disadvantages,and which xvo1J be no very diflicult matter, provided they were allowed to es.ahnsn their axiom by the notions and practices, which hale erevailed for centuries in the intercourse of all the coun- trje~ of the xxerid. The fact is, that the commercial code of the European nations in particular is merely a budget of re- str1ctions, bountias, and drawbacks. The natural level of trade is every-where disturbed and diverted by the contrivances of legislators; and the necessity of raising a revenue, the satisfac- tion ol distressing an enemy, or a temporary suffering at home, have gradually reconciled the economists to the relinquishment of the most beautiful as well as leading principles in their sci- ence. For many years England has suffered no manufacture of any foreign nation, except Russian crash, and a few other coarse articles, to enter its ports; the commercial interest has also been creating to itself a most unrelenting monopoly by the various orders and kinds of navigation acts. The numerous bounties and indulgences to trade and manufactures the a gri- cultural interest has submitted to, whether from ignorance, pa- triotism, or interest, we have not time to inquire; but it may be a subject of surprise, that while the two first interests have been fortified in every possible way against the participation of strangers, the agricultural interest should at this moment be in a great measure forsaken, and e.. posed to a partial ruin by the 222 Malt iws on the Corn Laws. [July, competition of foreign produce; and especially when the bross value~* derived from the land constitutes more than half the income of the British empire. To this the specious reply may be made, that the political situation of Europe the last thirty years, has given the farmers more than an equable share of ad- vantages; and therefore in the present change they are only suffering the same hardship to which all speculators are expos- ed. If this were true, which is not altogether the fact, it does not acquit the legislature of the evident injustice of first en- couraging too much, and then neglecting to take proper precau- tions for the protection of the farmers. By protectin6 duties, drawbacks and taxes on almost all foreign commodities, capital is prevented from leaving those trades, the prices of the products of which have been in- creased by domestick taxation: while, if the ports were thrown open to the free admission of foreign corn, agriculture would be exposed to the loss of capital, occasioned by the competi- tion of foreigners, who not being burdened by the same weight of taxation, would possess the most obvious advantages in the contest with our home growers. It may fairly indeed be said, that to restore the freedom of the corn trade, under these cir- curnstances, is not really to restore things to their natural level, but to depress the cultivation of the land below its natural proportion to other kinds of industry. And though, even in this case, it might still be a national advantage to purchase corn where it could be had the cheapest; yet it must be allowed that the owners of property in land would not be treated with strict impartiality. p. 35. Neither do we think it a fair argument on the part of the ma- nufactures, that notwithstanding their protecting duties, the ar- ticles of their manufacture could not be made so cheap in any other country,if so, where is the necessity of protecting du- ties? But it must be true that when these restrictions were im- posed, England could not support a competition; and even now, we imagine, the Americans could carry her some articles of India manufacture cheaper than she could make them herself. ~ ~~h~ whole annual produce is estimated at 430,000,0001.; of this the product of agriculture is 216,000,000. In a population in England alouc of about 13,000,000, about 6,000,000 are agricultural. See Colquhouns trea~ tise, & c. i815.] Maithus on the Corn Laws. 223 We readily admit with A. Smith (chap. v. b. 4,) and Mr. Maithus, (pages 26 and 27,) that neither bounties nor restric- tions produce either cheapness, or what is of more conse- quence, steadiness of price. But we may make here a short statement of the average prices of corn the last two hundred years, principally as an instance of the frequent and striking discordance between fact and reason, if we will not take the trouble to reconcile them by the melancholy assistance of wars, famines, revolutions, and taxes, as is deplorably necessary in the present case. s. d. The average price of wheat from 1605 to 1670* was about 37 In 1670, slight protection taken for farmer, average for IS years 36 7 From 1690 to 1750, avera~e about 36 Corn Laws altered in 1757, and in a great measure SUSI) ended in 1773, the average the 40 years of the last century was about ~ To counterbalance the advantages of a ~free trade in corn, it is alleged, says Mr. Maithus, that security is of still more importance than wea}th, and that a great country, likely to excite the jealousy of others, if it become dependent for the support of any considerable portion of its people upon foreign corn, exposes itself to the risk of having its most essential supplies suddenly fail at the time of its greatest need. That such a risk is not very great will be readily allowed. It would be as nmch against the interest of those nations which raised the superabundant supply, as against the one which wanted it, that the intercourse should at any time be interrupted; and a rich country, which could afford to pay high for its corn, would not be likely to starve, while there was any to be pur- chased in the market of the commercial world. The first answer to this paragraph is made by Mr. Malthus in his Essay on Population, chap. 10; the same ideas are faintly repeated ~n several parts of this pamphlet. There cannot be a doubt that in the course of a few years, (now, 1813) we shall draw from foreign countries 2,000,000 quarters of wheat annually. If under these circumstances any commercial discussions should arise with those countries, with what a weight of power they would negotiate! The periodical return of such seasons of dearth as those we have lately experienced, I con- sider as absolutely certain upon our present importing system~ ~liautes of Evidence. and Malthus on Population, chap. 10. 224 .ilIalihus on (1w Corn Laws. [July, I would ask, is it politick merely with a view to our natio~al greatness, to render ourselves thus dependent upon others for support, and put it in the power of a combination against us to diminish our pop lation 2,0u0,000? To prevent thesc & sas- ters, I see no other way at present than a system uf Corn Laws, & c. In a note to the same chapter, There has never yet, been an instance in history of a large nation continuing ith undimi- nished vigour to support 4 or 5,000,000 of is population on imported corn. In spite, however, of the peculiar advantages of Great Britain, it appears to me clear, that if she contini es yearly to increase her importation of corn, she cannot esimpe that decline, & c. Events have shown that there is consi e- rable more apprehension than truth in these forebodings; but as a proof that they are not altogether visionary, it should be re- collected that Prussia several years since laid a high duty upon the export of corn from her ports, when there was an alarming scarcity in Great Britain. We should moreover bear in mind the restrictive system adopted in this country. Our sal)ient notion of starving John Bull, is really a very thread hare story among the ambitious projects and machinations ol our republick ; and though contrary to all human experience and calculation he did escape starvation outright, we could make him at least pay higher prices for his corn, and perhaps force him to the neces- sity of raising for himself. The expectation of this necessity is therefore a powerful argun~ent on the side of the Corn Law advocates. A nation neither can, nor always ought, to bend to its interest; and it is as impossible to curb the bursts of sudden indignation or the rancour of long nourished pre- judices, as it is to calculate the consequences of them. Eng- land with such means of power and oppression, so liable to provoke jealousy and hatred, perhaps risks too much if she trusts to other nations the feeding of 3 or 4,000,000 of~er population. Besides, corn is not like most other commodities, of which the deprivation for a few months only occasions a little suffering. A suspension of the usual supply for half a year may bring about the most frightful commotions and mise- ry, and though we do not undertake, as we have already said, to insure absolute starvation, it would cost the nation at any rate a few broken heads and broken windows. how many facts and confirmations does the history al- ready ended of a ~re at nation furnish to theories and con- 1815.] .Malt/tus on the Corn Jaw~. 225 jectures. We cannot help alluding here to the fate of Rome, though we are very far from saying that Rome was subvert- ed by depending upon Egypt for its supply of coim or that the distribution of it among the people was one cause of their cor- ruption ; but those different circumstances occurred about the same time ;and in such speculations we are not only apt to blend the cause and the effect, but also to judge of the fate of different institutions, in far different times, by a rule borrowed from whatever affords the most conspicuous example of decay. 4 Narn qua dabat ohm Imperiuin fasces, legienes, omnia, nune cc Continet, atque duas tant~irn res auxias opta~it. Panem et circenses. According to the returns made to Parliament in the a course of the last session, the quantity of grain and flour ex- ported in 181 1, rather exceeded, than Pall short of, what was impQrted: and in 1812, although the average price of wheat was one hundred and txventy-flve shillings the quarter, the balance of the importations of grain and flour was o~ ly about one hundred thousand quarters. From 1805, partly from the operation of the Corn Laws passed in 1804, but much more from the difficulty and expense of importing corn in the actual state of Europe and America, the l)rice of grain had risen so high, and had given such a stimulus to our agricul ture, that with the powerfid assistance of Ireland, we had been rapidly approaching to the growth of an independent sup- ply. Though the danger therefore may not he great of de- pending for a considerable l)OrtiOn of our subsistence upon for- eign countries, yet it must be acknowledged that nothing like an experiment has yet been made of the distresses that might be produced, during a widely-extended war, by the united operation of a great difficulty in finding a market for our mann~ facturers, accompanied by the absolute necessity of supplying ourselves with a very large quantity of foreign corn. pp. 2830. We have not introduced the remarks of Mr. Maithus as any thing like principles, because the high price of grain, & c. doubtless arose from political eventsbut princi- pally for the sake of present armment, to show the capability of Great Britian to supply itself during the most expensive \Tol I. No. 2. 29 226 Jlialthus on the Corn Law.~. [July and disheartening period of her war with France ; and also to show what is meant by the powerful assistance of Ireland, a subject entirely passed over in this short pamphlet, but which, as far as we are able to judge, deserves to have considerable weight. *lt is well known that Ireland possesses much fertile land, though now more occupied in pasture than is profitable. tt is besides well known, that the inhabitants are badly fed, badly clothed, and badly governed. The proportion of them, however, in 1809, was 4,000,000 agricultural, in a population ofA6,000,000; the quantity of cultivated land had largely in- creased, the wages of labour, which are (t809) now 10 1-2d. per day, have increased more than a third the last thirty years, a greater increase than was ever before known in the same period. These highly beneficial effects are solely to be attributed to the extension of her export trade of corn, and not to any increase of her manufacturing capital, because the exportt of linen, the manufacturing staple, has decreased the last ten years. Quarters. The four yearst ending 1704, the export of wheat from Ire. land was annually, 7,106 The fifteen years of the present centnry, it is annually upon ~ 550 34~ an average, The export is independent of flour and meal, of which the export in 1814, was 188,385 cwt. The benefits had been re- ciprocal, and we find that the article of woollens exported to Ireland from Great Britain had increased from 2,100,000 yards, to 3,790,00011 annually, from 1805 to 1814. It is the opinion of Mr. Newenham that corn can be brought from Ire- land as cheap as from any part of the world, and considering the number of uncultivated acres, the fertility of the soil, and the cheapness of labour, this appears a very fair opinion. Such a trade, besides rendering great Britain independent in some measure for her corn, possesses the rare advantage of employing two capitals in the same country; a trade, generally speaking, of all others the most lucrative.Y For very ample details upon the increase of agriculture in Ireland, the improved condition of the peasantry in consequence of it, and her ability * Newenharn and Wakefield; passim. iNewenham, Appendix. ~Ibid. Table published by Parliament, already referred to. Mimites of Evidence. Wealth of Nations, chap. 5. b. 2. 1815.] Maltitus on the Corn Laws. 22 ~ to supply Great Britain and the colonies with much greater quantity of corn than has yet been drawn from her, we beg leave to refer our readers to the works of Mr. Newenham and Mr. Wakefield, particularly the last. Mr. Maithus is fully convinced of the danger to be appre- hended to national tranquillity and happiness, from an exces- sive proportion of manufacturing population, and he says, With a view to the permanent happiness and security from great reverses of the lower classes of people in this country, I should have little hesitation in thinking it desirable that its agriculture should keep pace with its manufactures, even at the expense of retarding in some degree the growth of man- ufactures. The wages of the manufacturing class are ex- posed to incessant and cruel fluctuationsfrom the breaking out of warthe restoration of peacecaprice, fashion, and a thousand motives which it is obviously impossible can be under the controul of a government. These variations frequently be- ~et and overpower this unfortunate class with rapid alternation of poverty and debauchery, both equally wasting, and alike pernicious to morality and happinessthe best, and among the lower classes, the only safeguard of which is regularity and constancy of employment and profit. However much we may deprecate fluctuations of wages in the manufacturing pop- ulation, a similar liability in the agricultural community is more permanently injurious. This, then, we conceive to be one of the strongest arguments for the necessity of Corn Laws in Great Britain. An interest~ which provides so large a pro- portion of the whole food of the nation, upon whom every man more or less depends for his daily subsistence, ought from ev- ery consideration of prudence to be placed above the changes by which all other interests~ are tossed about. It is surely a criminal want of proper foresight and insight to place the ex- istence of so large a proportion of the population, as would now depend upon foreign supplies, if no corn laws were adopted, within the caprice and pleasure of foreign nations. Thou shalt not muzzle the ox that treadeth out the corn. The sudden and terrifick fall of wheat from 125 shillings to 45 shillings, was necessarily followed by great alarm and dis- tress. The farmers were obliged to dismiss their labourers they could not pay their rents, and a bankruptcy of a con- siderable portion appeared inevitable. These appearance~ 2i .ALikus on tire Corn Laws. tJuiy~ were still more striking and afflicting in Ireland, where, as be- iore mentioned, the increase of agriculture has been very rap- id since the beginning of this century. Such a situation justi- fies the temporary interference, at any rate, of the government. During the xvar, capital was every moment accumulating upon agriculture ; the profits were certain, and the value of rents rose so rapidly that landlords got in the habit of letting their lands only for one yeara pernicious scheme; and the shortest way to bring back again the unproductive days of the cotta- gers . ,~ We have only applied the doctrine contained in the following passage. It may be observed, that though it might by no means be advisable to commence an artificial system of regulations in the trade of corn; yet if, ,by such a system already estab- lished and other concurring causes, the prices of corn and of many commodities had been raised above the level of the rest of Europe, it becomes a different question, whether it would be advisable to risk the effects of so great and sudden a fall in the price of corn, as would be the consequence of at once throwing open our ports. One of the cases in which, ac- cording to Adam Smith, it may be a matter of deliberation how far it is proper to restore the free importation of foreign goods after it has been for some time interrupted, is, when particular manufadures, by means of high duties and prohi- bitions upon all foreign goods, which can come into competi- tion with them, have been so far extended as to employ a great multitude of hands. t p. 34. We now come to the third and last proposition. The evils which must always belong to restrictions upon the importation of foreign corn, are the following 1. A certain waste of the national resources by the em- ployment of a greater quantity z~f capital than is necessary for procuring the quantity of corn required. 2. A relative disadvantage in all foreign commercial trans- actions, occasioned by the high comparative prices of corn and labour, and the low value of silver, as far as they affect exportable commodities. 3. Some check to population, occasioned by a check to that abundance of corn, and demand for manufacturing Wealth of Nations, Digression concerning value of silver, & e Wealth of Natiow~. b. iv c. 2. p. 202. 1815.] .iliialthus on the Corn Laws. labourers, which ~vould be the result of a perfect freedom of importation. 4. The necessity of constant revision and interference. which belongs to almost every artificial system. Pp. 36, 37. These are certainly real evils. By taking more capital to raise at home the necessary quantity of corn that it would cost in a foreign country, the substance of the first evil we raise in like degree above the level of other nations the price of la- bour, and depress the value of silver below that levelthe sub- stance of the second evil. This is in reality the definition of the commercial resources of one nation to struggle with ano- ther. We shall quote the remark of Mr. Malthus, to which we shall add one or two observations. It is true, that during the last twenty years we have wit- nessed a very great increase of population and of our ex- ported commodities, under a high price of corn and labour; but this must have happened in spite of these high prices, not in consequence of them; and is to be attributed chiefly to the unusual success of our inventions for saving labour, and the unusual monopoly of the commerce of Europe, which has been thrown into our hands by the war. When these inven- tions spread, and Europe recovers in some degree her indus- try and capital, we may not find itso easy to support the com- petition. The more strongly the natural state of the country directs it to the purchase of foreign corn, the higher must he the protecting duty of the price of importation, in order to secure an independent supply; and the greater consequently will be the relative disadvantage which we shall suffer in our commerce with other countries. This drawback may, it is certain, ultimately be so great as to counterbalance the effects of our extraordinary skill, capital, and machinery. pp. 37, 38. In the first place, it has been demonstrated that the price of corn has an influence of not more than two fifths upon the price of labour. Now, it is probable that the price of corn for many years to come, will not much exceed 80 shillingsthe limit above which importations are now proposed to be allowed and which of course will prevent of itself a great excess. The equalized price has been fixed by Mr. Malthus at 55 shil- lings during the most perfect freedom of exportation and im- portation. But no one supposes that freedom can last long, 230 MaltItus on t4e Corn Laws~ LJul)~. and it is fair logick to assume, that it will soon be disturbed. We therefore think that the eqalized price ought to be adjusted higher than this, and a few calculations have satisfied us, that from the chances of wars, dearths, taxes, & c. the equalized price would be about 65 shillings, if not more. The labourer would therefore pay about 15 shillings more a quarter, which is one fifth, and one third of a fifth advance. The effect of this upon his wages is somewhat as follows: The average wages are per day - - 30 pence.* Of this 30 pence there are for corn 2-5 equal to - - - 12 pence. Upon this 12 pence there h. an) 21-3 making the) advance of 1-5 and a 1-3 of 1-5 whole wages equal 32 1-3 equal to about ~to about which, if the exploded doctrine of A. Smitht could be true, would make an advance of about 8 per cent. upon the whole annual produce of Great Britaina thing perfectly impossible from the obviously little effect labour has upon valueowing to the different value of the materials, the extent and perfec- tion of machinery, & c. We do not give this hasty calculation as an anticipation of the effects of the Corn Laws; for suppos- ing that wages should rise in that proportion, a thing by no means to be expected in a country, demonstrated by Mr. i~Ial- thus$ to have a surplus population even in time of war, we know that it cannot have a corresponding effect upon the price of commQdities. But this result must be pernicious, though the lower classes will at first be benefited by the Corn Laws from the great number of them employed in agriculture, who would certainly be left without employment, if the farmers should not be protected. It is to afford this argument, the only one of much moment against the Corn Laws, a short illus- tration, that we have been induced to lead our readers through this dry calculation. In the second place,the inference of Mr. Malthus is cal- culated for a state of universal peace. But we are afraid that he announces to us better tidings than the world has a right to expect. It would seem as if the eternal curse was again gone Sir F. M. Eden. This is a little higher perhaps than the average, but it is more convenient, and we wish to do full justice to the advanced price. Wealth of Nations, chap. v. h. iv. I Essay on Population. 1815.] Malt/tus on the Corn Laws. 231 abroad and I will put enmity between his seed and thy seed; it shall bruise thy head, and thou shalt bruise his heel. On the tranquil shores of our country we fondly, but perhaps false- ly, cherish the maxim, that we make war to obtain peace. But in Europe this humane principle unhappily appears to be re- versedthey make peace to renew war. What if these mighty masters have removed, or enlarged, or narrowed the lines and boundaries of kingdoms? What if France is curbed within its ancient border, and Poland is exalted to its ancient standing? They have not rooted out or softened away the black and bloody propensities of the human heart. The fiery and rancorous passions of revenge, jealousy and ambition still remain, and will it not hereafter be seen, that the subjugation of a powerful nation has made it regard with a deadly hate a large portion of Europe that before it only despised? We know that there is something like an air of ridicule in auguring the coming condition of the world either from the signs of times past or present; for that surely must be beyond con- trol and calculation, which has assumed the awful and myste- rious marks of a terrifick romance, and already passing the wildest starts of common chances, might justly be styled mira- culous in the fearful confusion of good and evil which it has brought about, if we did not associate with that word something of a sacred and unerring import. At any rate there is a bitter consolation in recollecting, that the world has more than once before had a universal peace, and that the repose which the great powers of Europe obtained at the celebrated treaty of Utrecht was disturbed in four or five years by an open war of one of the contracting parties, and by jealousies, quadruple alliances, and preparations for new wars among the rest. Upon the peace of Aix la Chapelle in 1748,~ Voltaire makes this remark, ou voyoit entre toutes les nations une corres- pondance mutuelle; lEurope resembloit ~ une grande fa- inille r~unie apres ses diff~rents. But in 1755,~ unel6~re querelle entre Ia France et lAngleterre pour quelques ter- rains sauvages vers lJcadie, inspira une nouvelle politique a tons les souveraines de lEurope. This was certainly a sli0ht cause for dividing la grande famille against itself; hut it was the beginning of one of the most glorious wars, guided Si& le de Louis XV. chap. .~1 .Ililaltlius on ihe Corn Laws. 232 [July, by the greatest minister which England ever s axv ;and it has always been reckoned one of the principal causes in accelera iing the downfall of the French monarchy. In the third place, suppose a universal peacewe are in- clined to believe that Great Britain was never better able to maintain a competition with the nations of the continent; bet machinery was never so perfect, her resources never more con- densed ; her colonial possessions never better secured, and her credit never more undoubted in every part of the knoxvn world, though her national debt was never so great; but is it greater now in proportion to the wealth of the nation, than when Mr. ilume made his unfortunate prophecy? Let us take France her manufactures were established by Colbert ;* he incorpo- rated an East India Company, established the woollen mann- factoryof glass, & c.improved those of silk, & c. This was nearly a hundred and fifty years agoand what are they now? what competition can they bear with the English? It is true the commercial industry of France has been checked hy perpetual wars; but lately a considerahle impulse has been given to her manufactures from the continental system,but we know at what pricebesides, she may have wars again without continental systems.~ From 1756 to 1788, the price of wheat in France was 25 shillings, in England during the same period 46. Very nearly the same proportion is now maintained; France being 46, and England about 8.3. Eng- lish manufactures flourished then, why not now? When wheat was at 73,taxes were 34,OOO,OOO1.t they are now above 60,000,0001. and it does not exceed upon an average S3s. On the other hand it should be considered, that the debts of the different nations cannot be very trilling--the taxes necessary to he levied will impede the progress of wealth more than in the common proportion, as they have very small commercial or manufacturing funds to draw fromthe ma- chinery of every description is at least fifty years behind Great Britainthe more capital they devote to manufactures, the higher of course will be the price of corn. But above all, Minutes of Evidence. I Si& le de Louis XlV. chap. xxix. t Ibid. 29. We have seen no statement of the debts of Prussh, Austria, Russia, and others; but by the expose of the abbe Montesquien, of Jidy 13, 1814, it appears, that the total of anticipations and misapplications of funds by the ~ild government of France,~is1,3tW,4G2,OOO francs. 1815.] Maithus on the Corn Laws. 23~3 the greatest security Great Britain has against competition is the almost total absence of capital on the continent, and the want not only of credit and money resources, but the whole materiel of machinery, of commerce, manufactures and agri- culture is greatly diminished. The few last pages of this pamphlet are occupied with sonic remarks upon the currency, which do not materially affect the question. We shall therefore relieve the reader from these ob- servations, already so much extended, by a short extract, con- firming the opinion which Mr. Malthus has more decidedly expressed in his Essay on Population, chap. 10. In the present state of things then, we must necessarily give up the idea of creating a large average surplus. And yet very high duties upon importation, operating alone, are pecu- liarly liable to occasion great fluctuations of price. It has been already stated, that after they have succeeded in produ- cing an independent supply by steady high prices, an abund- ant crop which cannot be relieved by exportation, must occasion a very sudden fall.* Should this continue a second or third year, it would unquestionably discourage cultivation, and the country would again become partially dependent. The necessity of importing foreign corn would of course again raise the price to the price of importation, and the same causes might make a similar fall and a subsequent rise recur; and thus prices would tend to vibrate between the high prices oc- casioned by the high duties on importation, and the low prices occasioned by a glut which could not be relieved by expor- tation. It is under these difficulties that the parliament is called upon to legislate. On account of the deliberation which the subject naturally requires, but more particularly on account of the present uncertain state of the currency, it would be desi- rable to delay any final regulation. Should it however be determined to proceed immediately to a revision of the present laws, in order to render them more efficacious, there would be some obvious advantages, both as a temporary and perrna- nent measure, in giving to the restrictions the form of a con- stant duty upon foreign corn, not to act as a prohibition, but * The sudden fall of the price of corn this year seems to be a case pre. cisely in point. It should be recollected however that quantity always in some degree balances cheapness. VOL. I. No. 2. 30 t?eport of AianuJacture. [July: as a protecting, and at the same time, profitable tax. And with a view to prevent the great fall that might be occasioned by a glut, under the circumstances before adverted to, but not to create an average surplus, the old bounty might be contin- ue(l, and allowed to operate in the same way as the duty at all times, except in extreme cases. pp. 45, 46. Upon the whole then we must coincide in the opinion of Mr. Malthus. As a principle, we are heart and hand opposed to any interference of the legislature in the direction of capitals, and we hope the mischief which has arisen from some attempts, xviii prevent a recurrence to them in this country. But xve have shown that legislators in England have for many years assumed the privile~e of intermeddling in the concerns of the merchant and manufacturer, and that they have occasionally taken under their powerful patronage the agricultural interest. We therefore confess that the impression upon our minds is, that those English statesmen are in the right who think that this is not the moment when they ought to stop. .1 Statement of the Jrts and Manufactures of the United States of slinerica, for the year 1810. Digested and pre- pared by Teach C oxc, Esquire, of Philadelphia. Phila- delphia, d. Cornan, Jr. 1814, 4to. THE subject of manufactures, it might well be thought on a first view, would always be treated as a matter of calculation, and calm deliberate reasoning, yet like all others subject to human restriction, it has been most frequently involved in pas- sion and prejudice. Political animosities, financial wants, local combinations, narrow views, or impracticable theories, have often destroyed old, and prevented the success of new estab- lishments. And ii in the United States, fewer blunders have been committed than in most other countries, there are too many facts to shew, that this has been more owing to the libe- ral, unshackled, beneficent spirit of our institutions, than to the peculiar sagacity, or prospective wisdom of those, by whom the regilations in regard to the manufacturiub system are con- trolled. it is one of the most difficult and complicated questions of political economy, to decitL when, and to what extent, legisla

A Statement of the Arts and Manufactures of the United States of America, for the year 1810 234-247

t?eport of AianuJacture. [July: as a protecting, and at the same time, profitable tax. And with a view to prevent the great fall that might be occasioned by a glut, under the circumstances before adverted to, but not to create an average surplus, the old bounty might be contin- ue(l, and allowed to operate in the same way as the duty at all times, except in extreme cases. pp. 45, 46. Upon the whole then we must coincide in the opinion of Mr. Malthus. As a principle, we are heart and hand opposed to any interference of the legislature in the direction of capitals, and we hope the mischief which has arisen from some attempts, xviii prevent a recurrence to them in this country. But xve have shown that legislators in England have for many years assumed the privile~e of intermeddling in the concerns of the merchant and manufacturer, and that they have occasionally taken under their powerful patronage the agricultural interest. We therefore confess that the impression upon our minds is, that those English statesmen are in the right who think that this is not the moment when they ought to stop. .1 Statement of the Jrts and Manufactures of the United States of slinerica, for the year 1810. Digested and pre- pared by Teach C oxc, Esquire, of Philadelphia. Phila- delphia, d. Cornan, Jr. 1814, 4to. THE subject of manufactures, it might well be thought on a first view, would always be treated as a matter of calculation, and calm deliberate reasoning, yet like all others subject to human restriction, it has been most frequently involved in pas- sion and prejudice. Political animosities, financial wants, local combinations, narrow views, or impracticable theories, have often destroyed old, and prevented the success of new estab- lishments. And ii in the United States, fewer blunders have been committed than in most other countries, there are too many facts to shew, that this has been more owing to the libe- ral, unshackled, beneficent spirit of our institutions, than to the peculiar sagacity, or prospective wisdom of those, by whom the regilations in regard to the manufacturiub system are con- trolled. it is one of the most difficult and complicated questions of political economy, to decitL when, and to what extent, legisla 1815.] Report of Manufactures. 235 Live interference is expedient ; in almost all cases it should rather follow than originate ; the most laboured statute, and greatest encouragement, may sometimes fail, even when cir- cumstances appear favourable ; and at others, manufacturing establishments have started up, and obtained a permanent foot- ing in defiance of the predictions, and discouragement of the most experienced and dispassionate judgment. In every coun- try of Europe, as well as in America, persevering cifoit, and enormous expenditure, have been in many eases lavished in vain. Every nation can produce facts to falsify the most inge- nious theory. For instance, according to received ideas on this subject, a theorist would have said that in the state of Mas ~achusetts, where the winter was severe, the people frubal, do- mestick, and possessed of freeholds, that sheep would be kept for the sake of their wool; coarse woollen garments and blank- ets would be made by the people, and they would obtain from forei ~o countries the few objects of luxury which they consum- ed; they would manufacture nothing but articles of the coarsest kind and of the first iiecessity. This seems perfectly reasona- ble, and such would generally be the result, yet one of the earli- est manufactures, antl which was carried to considerable extent in the county of Essex, was not blankets, but thread lace. Every country might produce similar exceptions. In Spain, Italy, Germany, and France, many manufactures have failed under the particular patronage of government, arid even in England some results of the same nature may be found. These instances will be. more multiplied in future, since a rage for manufactures has taken possession of most of the govern- ments of Europe; who have attributed the wealth of Great Britain to the perfection of her manufactures, which is indeed a very great source, but not the only one by her power. It is the great fault of the European nations to legislate too much; the enterprise of their people is often impeded, and constantly shackled with prohibitions, or restrictions. In France, for ex- ample, the government have varied their schemes in regard to the manufactures of silk and cotton. The former were greatly injured by the revolution, because the difference of dress that took place, and the loss of a good deal of foreign commerce, lessened the demand for them. The cotton manufactures were gradually springing up to replace the silk; for a peiiod, it was the policy of the government to encourage the cotton fabricks; 236 Report of Manufacture tJuly, all of a sudden tbis scheme was changed, every effort was made to discourage them, and revive the fashion and use of silk. The cotton still struggled along, till a new tarif of the govern- ment to encoumge the growth of the raw material in France, laid such an enormous duty on foreign cotton, that the manu- factures were completely paralized. It may be easily supposed how precarious they must be, under such arbitrary and capri- cious control. But in France, as well as in some other coun- tries, it was not only manufactures and commerce, but agricul- ture also that was restricted. A cultivator in one department was allowed to plant a certain quantity of tobacco, in another, beets to make sugar; but this could only be done by the per- mission of the government, and the punishment was severe for any infringement of their regulations. The object was to place the people in a state of dependence, that subjected them in cvery thing to the prying, despotick vigilance of the state; and the purpose of all this watchfulness was not, as was pre- tended, the impulse of paternal affection, but sug~ested by the grinding, insatiable extortion of fiscal cupidity. If we look at the country of Europe, where there is most freedom, and the greatest stability of property, we still find a variety of impediments, a number of restrictions, the remnants of barbarous times, that cannot be removed without serious in- jury, though they are in many respects mischievous. Such are the custom-house duties and regulations between England and Ireland, the statutes of the ancient corporations, which prevents a man from working at a trade if he has not what is called the freedom of the city. These things are slowly reforming, but will never be wholly obliterated. It is one of our most distin- guishing privileges to be free from all these embarrassments. Industry, sagacity and enterprise were unfettered, and the con- sequences we have all witnessed. To shew them more forci- bly, we have tried the system of restriction, and the whole en- ergy of the country was fast dwindling to the European scale of production. In a luckless moment, a few statesmen con- ceived a jealousy of commerce, and though agriculture and manufactures were developing themselves through its instrumen- tality with the utmost vigour of growth, yet it was conceived, that the former was noxious, and, if curtailed, would increase the importance of the latter. So because a certain river is wider and deeper at its mouth than in its earlier progress, 1815.1 Report of Manufactures. 237 and washed the walls of a flourishing city, the people in the flourishing villages above, determined to throw a dam across its entrance to the sea to widen it above. The refluent ~ur~ rent gradually retreated, till it stagnated in the very sources of the mountains. The experiment has been costly, we trust tIe- cisive. The mind is dazzled in considering the advantages of our situation. The vast extent of the United States is open to in- dustry, to establish itself in the most favorable spot for its pecu- liar pursuits, to exchange its produce with distant states, without duties, monopolies, or prohibitions. Every year witnesses some new manufacture in one district, some new product of the surface, or the interior of the earth in another. lVlassachnsetts creates an extensive manufactory of straw bonnets. Georgia adds sugar to her rich produce. The coasting trade of the United States increases daily in importance; what must it hecome in a few years? will it not be the same as if the whole continent of Europe was united under one heneficent gov- ernment ? The manufactures of the north and the rich products of the south exchanged without restriction ; without jealous rivalries to depress, counteracting duties, prohibitions and personal restraints, to force this district to produce what another can do more advantageously, how rapid, how graat must be the prosperity that will ensue ! The advantages of our situation are so obvious, the general effect is so genial, that we can hardly bring ourselves to helieve that local prejudices, mean jealousies, base political intrigues, and short- sighted im- practicable attempts of One section to trample on the feelings and interests of another, will ever be suffered to destroy this fortu- nate national condition. in addition to this freedom of industry, and facility of ex- change, we may place the following advantages tlistance from other manufacturing countriesabundance of wat ci privileges in some districts, of coal in others,ample suppiJes of the raw matertalsremarkable skill in the use and invention of machine- rythe proximity of almost every part of the country to iiavi- gable watersand a country not overstocked with popiihtion. On this last point it may be necessary to add some explana- tion. When we are talking about the prosperity cf m~ nnf~ictnres, commerce, or agriculture, we do not spe~ik cc wding lo the European or Chinese standard. We do not consider that 238 Report of ~ianufactures~ [July, country prosperou~, however extensive its production may be, where the majority of the inhabitants are brutally ignorant, and reduced to the minimum of subsistence. If a man is obliged to live on a pint of rice daily, as in some parts of Asia, if he is unable to obtain more than a scanty supply of potatoes, or coarse bread, destitute not only of luxuries, but necessaries, as in most parts of Europe, that his toil may pro- cure a luxurious landlord a plentiful crop, or swell the re- ceipts of a manufacturer or merchant to millions, still it is only disease and deformity. The frequency of wars have so in- volved the governments of Europe, that they are constantly devising new exactions, whose first effect is to impoverish the labourer, and increase the poor. The United States are pros- perous, because every man has the comforts of life; and if he chooses, the poorest man, at the outset of life, may obtain a competence. If our merchants are prosperous, the sailors are well fed and well paid. If the farmer is every year improving his farm, the labourers who work hard have also high wages, plenty of substantial food, and even luxuries. The same is true of the manufacturers. As there is plenty of land, neither commerce nor manufactures can be so overstocked, that the profit shall depend on the competition for subsisting with the smallest portion of the common comforts of life. This facility then of changing from one pursuit to another, leaves us the power to introduce every species of labour-saving machinery, without fear of starving those who were before employed in making the same article. This can only be done partially in most countries of Europe. In England, there are some kinds of work that are still performed by manual labour, that are in this country by machinery; such, for instance, as the sawing of timber into boards, joist, & c. There are many countries where improvements in different kinds of manufacture cannot be in- troduced, the establishments having been burnt when it was at- tempted ; and for many years past, riots, occasioned by the in- troduction of machinery, have kept some part of the country in commotion, and required the presence of a military force for the protection of the manufactories. It is then in a con~ siderable degree advantageous, that our population should not be so overstocked, as to prevent the free use of all improve- ments in machinery. The price of labour ha often been cited as a circum- stance, that was decisive against the success of manufacture~ 1815.] Report of Manufactures~ in this country. On this subject there are many erroneous impressions. The labour of women and children, who are employed in most manufactures, except those of the metals, in much larger numbers than men, is sometimes cheaper than in England. Besides, it is a singular fact, that all the manufac tures, which we have so far matured as to do away the neces- sity of importation, are those, where manual labour, and that of the most expensive kind, is almost exclusively employed. Such are for instance, books, hats, shoes, paper, saddlery, some articles from iron, & c. & c. it certainly then is not the price of labour, that prevents our manufacti res from being much more extensive. The principal reason has been a more prof- itable employment o~ capital in other ways. in England,the average produce of capital engaged in manufacture~, does not yield more than six per cent. in lilany bra ches it has for years past not exceeded three or four. The rapid accumulation of capital here is every day remedyng this defect, and could our manufacturers be satisfied with the same profits that are re- ceived in Europe, there would e no want of capital. Ev- ery year, however, greatly increases the capit I invested in manufactories. Their prosperity will be more solid for being gradual. The tables which follow Mr. Coxes report are extremely lmf)erfect ; from some states, returns of particular branches are wholly wanting ; still, it contains a collection of valuable materials, and is calculated to give a strong impression of the actual extent of manufactured produce in the United States~ Mr. Coxe estimates the whole value of the manufactures of the Union, including domestick spinning and weaving, and the labour of every artisan down to a village blacksmith, at 200,000,000 dollars for the year 1813. it appears that our manufactures consume more raw material than is produced within the country, in every instance except cotton ; that this, therefore, is the only raw material, of which we can export more than we import. That the increase of manufactures has kept pace with, if not outrun the produce of the raw material, as in the instances of lead and wool. The incre~se of hemp and iron has been considerable, the former will soon be adequate to the demand of the home market, and no rloubt, increase to an article of export. Of iron there is an immense deficit but the quantity from our own mines is increasing. We still receiv the largest portion of our copper and lead from for~ ciga countries. Report of Manuftictures. 240 [July; The most interesting passage in Mr. Coxes digest, is the following account of the cultivation and manufacture of sugar in Louisiana. If those fine and extensive regions, whose pro- ducts are wafted into the Bay of Mexico, can be cultivated by a white population, and there is no physical impossibility against it, as has been absurdly pretended by the advocates of slavery, we shall look upon that country with far greater interest, than it could have before excited; and if the experiment succeeds, of which there can be no doubt, if it be fairly tried, we shall be proud of adding to the experiments we have already given the world, another memorable proof that the pertinacious abuses of avarice and ambition, are as false in their pretences, as noxious in their effects. The Sugar of the Cane. This interesting commodity is, in the United States, in the crude form, little more than an agricultural production, and in its best refined condition, an elegant and grateful manufacture. After the acquisition of a cane district by the purchase of Louisiana,* it was appre- hended that the constitutional impediments to the importation of slaves would have, at once, deprived us of much cane sugar, which our newly acquired country could produce, and in some degree affect the prosperity of the Delta of the Mis- sisippi. But the reported production of 9,671,500 pounds of the sugar of the cane in Lower Louisiana in the year 1810, with 179,000 gallons of rnolasses,t is considered as far short of what that country will be quickly made to produce, by the general adoption of the new and various operations, in the culture of the cane and manufacture of sugar, which are found to be practicable. This new mode of managing sugar lands appears to be worthy of particular attention and statement. Instead of the employment of slaves, requiring a bur- densome advance of capital, and an expensive subsistence, the occasional labour of neighbouring, transient, hired white persons is often used to prepare the grounds with the plough and harrow, to plant the new canes, to dress the old ones, and to clear the growing plants from weeds. The same or other white labourers are afterwards employed by * It is found since 1810, that sugar is produced on the whole coast of Georgia. There were made also 239,130 gallons of distilled spirits out of 239,13t~ gallons of molasses in Lower Louisiana, in the year 1810 1815.] Report of .Mant~factur 241 the planters to cut and stack under cover the ripened canes, so as to prepare them for the grinding mill and boiler. The operation of plantirg occurs after the sickly autumnal season, and before th~ vernal, and the operation of cutting also occurs in the healthy season, at the end of the following autumn. The service is therefore not unhealthy. It is considered to be expedient that the planters who own, and they who cultivate the soil, should not expend great sums in the establishment of mills and sets of works on all the sugar estates, afte. the manner of the West Indian colonies of the European states. But it is found much more convenient and profitable to leave the business of grinding and boiling to one manufacturer of rnu.scovado sugar, for a number of planters. These persons, like the owners of grain mills and salving mills, can be employed for a toil in kind, or part of the produce, or for a compensation in money. By this method, a tract of three miles square, or three hundred and twenty perches square, which would contain twenty-fl ye plantations of above one hundred and two acres each, may be accommodated by one central manafactory of muscovado sugar from the cane stalks: for none of these plantations will be more distant from the boiler than a single mile; a mere city porterage or cart- age. Refineries for making white sugar and distilleries may be added, and the economy and accommodation to the plan- ters will be more complete. The effect of this division of labour and ownership will be, rapidly to bring into the most complete an(l productive culti- vation, all the cane lands in the United States; and to ad- vance the various manufactures of this valuable and wholesome agricultural production. The easy and cheap maintenance of cattle, the abundant supplies of provisions, and building mate- rials for nm n and beast, and the abundance of fuel and cask lumber, with the benefits to our planters from being more fre- quently and comfortably their own stewards and overseers, will greatly redound to their convenience and profit. Their exemption from duty on their muscovado sugar, their refined white sugar, and their molasses, is a very great advantage to the manufacturers of it from the brown sugar and molasses of the United States. Persons interested in commerce and manufactures, or even in agriculture, when they see an administration of political Vol. L No. 2. 31 242 Report of JI1anufttcture~. jjJuly, philosophers taking their concerns into consideration, feel like cats at the sight of an air pump, or frogs at a Galvanick battery; and the result in both cases is generally to ascertain the strepoth of vitality in the parties; and the experiment is sometimes con- tinue(1 through protracted sufferings till this is exhausted. It was with shuddering anxiety, that we perused Mr. Coxes be- nevolent views for this part of the country, in particular, which we here extract. Since an ardent passion for ships, commerce, navy, fishc- ries, and those monopolies of trade, which are produced by navigation law, appear to have taken full possession of the minds of European statesmen, and sir~ce the possession of no more than eight millions of acres of land, shorn of its wood, and destitute of pit coal, hy Massachusetts proper, Connecti- cut and Rhode-Island, manifestly denies to the good people of those three interesting sections of our country, a considerable standing in productive agriculture, an(l even creates some dif- ficulties in the prosecution of certain branches of manufactu- ring industry, it would be gratifying to men of a brotherly dis- position towards those eastern states, in other parts of the Union, if a convenient system for the promotion of the arts and manufactures could be devised and adopted. It is wor- thy of the serious and liberal consideration of all the rest of the Union. The limited size of those three states, the lightness of the original growth of much of their woodlands, the rarity of cal- careous substances for building, the consequent use of wooden buildings, and the quantities of wood requisite for the repair of those buildi%s and for fuel, suggest the propriety of the utmost possible use of all their water falls, instead of an inor- dinate use of steam enginery and other modes of operation requiring fire. The utmost use should be made of all the eastern water powers by a skilful formation of their mills and machinery. The want of land in that district, renders it advisable to consider the easiest and cheapest modes of human and ordi- nary animal subsistance. The cultivation of the potato, and of other things of similar fecundity, demand the closest consi- deration of every friend to those eastern states. Animal strength and spirits are no where more conspicuous than in the country which suppors its population, beyond all others. by that vegetable. 1815.] Report of Manufactures. 243 The improvement of roads and canals leading towards Massachusetts, Connecticut and Rhode-Island, from the sur- rounding districts, of greater extent and production, are mani- festly of the utmost importance, as they facilitate and cheapen the introduction of raw materials, grain and other productions of the soil of less populous or more fertile districts. A due attention to the river, bay and sea fisheries is dicta- ted to those eastern states by their unalterable interests, not only with a view to foreign trade, but as a source of food; whale bone, oils, skins, and spermaceti, for the nourishment a~id employment of their manufactures. It merits dispassion- ate consideration, particularly by the manufacturing citizens, whether the articles produced by the foreign fisheries, of the nature offood, ought or oujit not to be dutied and prohibited, and whether all those, which are capable oh use as materwis employing manufacturers; or in the frugal lighting or gene- ral economy of the manufactories, ought or ought not to be exempted from duty. These are new, and it is admitted, very nice questions, which arise principally between the manu- facturing interest, in the eastern seaports of the United States., and those on the seaboard, who pursue the business of the fisheries. The fish oils are, indeed, of universal utility among our leather dressers. The comparative value of the leather manufactures of Massachusetts, Connecticut and Rhode-Isl- an(l, on the one part, and the fisheries on the other, is in fa- vour of their leather business, especially in Connecticut and Rhode-Island, which did not partake largely in the exports of the fisheries, for some years before the present war. The economy of fuel is so important to the internal busi- ness of the old eastern settlements, that it merits further con- sideration. There are manufactures of metals, which require little or no use of fire, such as wire-drawing, cut-nail making, stamping, grinding, and cutting nails and machines, turning and boring mills. Metallick objects like these are best adapt- ed to those old settlements, which have become deficient in wood, and have not pit coal. There are other manufactories which require little or no fire such as carding, spinning, and fulliug mills: oil, paper, snuff, starch and powder mills. Works like these, also, will prove highly convenient to districts, which are illy supplied with fuel. Household manufactures are perfectly suitable to such districts, because the fire neces ~244 Report of J1Ianta~ctures. [July~ sary for culinary and other domestick purposos, is all that is required. As the present war and the existing blockade have breatly interfered with the transportation of southern raw materials to the old and populous settlements of Massachusetts, Connecti- cut, and Rhode-Island, it appears that wool is a much better object of staple manufacture in those states, than cotton, and it seems expedient for them rather to attend to sheep, than even to possess horned cattle, mules and hoes. To an observ- ing and reflecting people, who can hest give practical direc- tion to the most suitable branches of their ox ~n industry, it ap- pears suflicient to offer, by way of example, such principles and such suggestions, in regard to the mode of encouraging manufactures, as have been mentioned. It is however on fre- quent and serious reflection believed, that Massachusetts pro- per, Connecticut, and Rhode-Island, will derive many advan- tages, from an investigation and application of the principle~ suggested. pp. 57, 58. The tone of condescending protection toivards the good people of those three interesting sections of our country, is certainly amusing; but however grateful we may be to Mr. Coxe, for this, we must not, in a moment of good humour, be thrown off our guard: we must protest against, as strongly as we deprecate any schemes for the improvement of our affairs; and however it would be gratifying to men of a brotherly dis- position towards those eastern states, in other parts of the Union, if a convenient system for the promotion of the arts could be devised and adopted, we cannot afford to give them this ~ratification. The truth is, we have tried it, and we prefer being let alone. We felt for a moment some uneasiness at the folloxving hint. The aggregate of the areas of the lakes is as great as a con- siderable sea. The caviar and isinglass are objects of atten- tion in Russia. The sturgeon, of which they are made, is the decipenser Ruth: et Stur. Linna3i. It abounds in the fresh waters of the Don and the Wolga, and is suitable for our lakes. Now in the first place, it certainly is not desira- ble to introduce such a gross and disgusting eatable as caviar; and as to isinglass, which is not made from sturgeon, it would have been quite as patriotick to encourage the substitute prepared from codfish, suggested by the inge- nious Mr. Murdock in England, when the war prevented its 1815.] Report of Manufactures. 24 coming from Russia; and for which the London brewers made him a present of two or three thousand pounds. Yet, if Mr. Coxe can persuade the administration to stock the lakes with dolphins or sturgeons, as they have already done it with ships of the line, there is at least no necessity to embroil themselves with the Russian government, by trying to seduce their sub- jects; hut they may find the .dccipenser Ruth: et & ur. Lin- nei, or at least a very near relation, in great abundance in the rivers of Maine. Among the queer things in this report, is the following re- mark upon sculpture in Greece and Egypt. Other causes have l)een assigned for the different course pursued by the Greeks and Egyptians. Mr. Coxes theory did not occur to the Abbi~ Winkleman. It appears that even in the south, the presence of various raw materials, and still more the great redundancy of cotton have excited innumerable and valuable manufac- tures. It is believed(by whom?) that to the excitement pro-. duced by the presence of the finest marbles, more than to a peculiar eminence of genius, that the Greeks and Romaris owe their possession of the beautiful and grand fabrications from those materials. The invention of statuary occurred in Egypt, but it did not rise to any perfection, in a country des- titute of fine marhle. The close attention that is necessary to comprehend a work of this kind may be imagined from the following sentences It is believed that a (Iry air is very favourable to the health of sheep, and to the fineness and delicacy of the wool, and it is - presumed that the United States may entertain a just confi- dence in the success of their woollen manufacture, from their enjoying an atmosphere of this character. The most suc- cessful woollen manufacture in the world is found in an insular and humid situation; our success therefore may become very great. It was also intended by means of these facts adduc- ed or as presented in the communication to the Treasury, to bring into view a part of the general and technical grounds on which manufactures appear to stand in this country, and in modern times when manual labour has been wonderfully substituted by various devices, which in a very great degree have superseded and abridged the use of hands. Having hazarded a very zealous and sanguine promulgation of that 246 Report of Manuflictures. [July, topick in favour of manufactures twenty-seven years ago, in a publick discourse, which was passed to the world in numerous copies and editions, ~he limited degree of notice which labour saving machinery, devices, and processes had subsequently received in the United States, was a matter of surprise and regret. This last sentence is above all comment. Calculations like the following are favourite ones with the author. If the whole country were occupied, like certain dis- tricts, in any particular manufacture, nails, or shoes for exam- ple, the market would run the risk of being overstocked; yet we do not perceive what is his object, if it be not, to excite such a general exertion. Pennsylvania. the greatest nail making state, produces at the rate of nine pound of nails for each person in the state, which is at the rate of 65,000,000 of pounds for the whole white population of the United States, were equal attention paid to this gainful economy of time and labour. p. 3t. We must express the most unfeigned regret, that Mr. Coxe was employed to prepare this statement of the manufactures of the United Sates. in reading his performance, we could not help compassionating the lot of men in office; the publick are always prone to blame them, and do not consider how much they are perplexed. When Mr. Gallatin resolved on leaving the Treasury, one of the most sagacious movements ever taken by that subtle minister, at the very moment when the anxious solicitude of Mr. Jefferson about the appropriation of a sur- plus revenue was completely dissipated; when the invaluable scheme of husbanding our essential resources was at the full tide of successful experiment, how do we know the share, that this book had in assisting his determination? After la- bouring all day to devise the best means of carrying on war without taxes, and expecting a little relaxation in the evening from the reports of Mr. Coxe, he finds that he has employed a writer that abounds in such rash assertions as the following: Not a building for man, for cattle, nor for the safe keeping of Roduce or merchandize, not a plough, a mill, a loom, a x~heel, a spindle, a carding machine, a fire arm, a sword, a wagon, or a ship can be provided without the manufactures of the iron branch.The uses of leather are of the utmost importance to health, the facilitation of industry, the diffusion oflknowledge. ~mnd the military operations of the United 1815.] Porters Journal. 247 States by land and sea.The spinning wheel, the loom, and the frilling mill are real aids to manual labour.Our inex- haustible stock of wood actually cumbers much excellent soil, and suspends its cultivation and improvement.ln regard to the importance of agriculture~ the most correct convictions of mind are umversal. it may be safely (safely !) alleged, that the natural and cultivated trees of the United States are ren- dered by manufactures a very great benefit to the landed in- terest.And these novel assertions are accompanied by such phraseology as this; adversary belligerentsthe Anierican mindtesting the correctness of this allegationthese facts from the most considerable return, are respectfully adduced and rendered prominent, in order to evidence by the relative truthsbonn cannon for the reception of the ballto possess every able-bodied white man in the United States of a sword or a pikeaS very profitable and as moralizing rivals of dis- tilled spirits, all the other drinks, such as fermented malt li- quors, cider, currant wine, perry, an(l grape wine are respect- frilly conceived to merit a sanctioned investigation and per- spicuous display for the use of the community. It is not surprising that the Secretary of the Treasury preferred going to Europe, to remaining in the situation in which he was placed. Journal of a Cruise made to the Pac~fick Ocean, by Captain Dirid Porter, in the United States frigate Essex, in the years 1812, 181 ~3, and 1 814. Containing descriptions of the Cape de Verd idands, Coasts of Brazil, Patagonia, Chili, and Peru, and of the Gallapagos Islands; also, a full account of the Washington Groupe of Islands, the .Ikianners, Customs, and Dress of the Inhalntants, ~c. ~c. illustrated with fourteen engravings. In two volumes. Philadelpbia, published by Bradford and Inskeep; and Jbraham H. Juskeep, .JVew-York; and for sale by 0. C. Greenleaf, Boston; and William Essex and Son, Lexing- ton, Ken. U. Palmer, printer. 1815. THOUGH there have been so many expeditions by difl?rent nations, so many scientifick voyagers, arid such copious ac

Journal of a Cruise to the Pacifick Ocean, by Captain David Porter 247-275

1815.] Porters Journal. 247 States by land and sea.The spinning wheel, the loom, and the frilling mill are real aids to manual labour.Our inex- haustible stock of wood actually cumbers much excellent soil, and suspends its cultivation and improvement.ln regard to the importance of agriculture~ the most correct convictions of mind are umversal. it may be safely (safely !) alleged, that the natural and cultivated trees of the United States are ren- dered by manufactures a very great benefit to the landed in- terest.And these novel assertions are accompanied by such phraseology as this; adversary belligerentsthe Anierican mindtesting the correctness of this allegationthese facts from the most considerable return, are respectfully adduced and rendered prominent, in order to evidence by the relative truthsbonn cannon for the reception of the ballto possess every able-bodied white man in the United States of a sword or a pikeaS very profitable and as moralizing rivals of dis- tilled spirits, all the other drinks, such as fermented malt li- quors, cider, currant wine, perry, an(l grape wine are respect- frilly conceived to merit a sanctioned investigation and per- spicuous display for the use of the community. It is not surprising that the Secretary of the Treasury preferred going to Europe, to remaining in the situation in which he was placed. Journal of a Cruise made to the Pac~fick Ocean, by Captain Dirid Porter, in the United States frigate Essex, in the years 1812, 181 ~3, and 1 814. Containing descriptions of the Cape de Verd idands, Coasts of Brazil, Patagonia, Chili, and Peru, and of the Gallapagos Islands; also, a full account of the Washington Groupe of Islands, the .Ikianners, Customs, and Dress of the Inhalntants, ~c. ~c. illustrated with fourteen engravings. In two volumes. Philadelpbia, published by Bradford and Inskeep; and Jbraham H. Juskeep, .JVew-York; and for sale by 0. C. Greenleaf, Boston; and William Essex and Son, Lexing- ton, Ken. U. Palmer, printer. 1815. THOUGH there have been so many expeditions by difl?rent nations, so many scientifick voyagers, arid such copious ac 24 S Porters Journal. [July, counts published of the islands and coasts of the Pacifick ocean; yet the distance, the grandeur, the beauty of those countries, the magnificent serenity of the climate, the wonderful produc- tions of animate and inanimate nature, and the still uncivilized state of mankind in that part of the globe, make us open every new description of them with avidity. The blissful condition of the inhabitants of St. Domingo, when that fine island as first discovered and devastated by the Spaniards, was perhaps inferiour to the state of the natives, in many of the islands of the Pacifick. The general characteristicks of beauty of per- son, of gentleness and goodness of character, which are com- mon to so many of them, furnish one of the most striking illus- trations of the influence of climate on the disposition and habits of men; while the first peopling of those islands, and the pro- gress they have made beyond most other savages in several of the useful and ornamental arts, give occasion to a variety of reflections. Some of their productions very much resemble the Egyptian, and though they have never produced any monu- ments, to compare with the imperishable remains of that people, this may perhaps be rather owing to their moie recent origin, their smaller numbers, and smaller population, than to an infe- riority of talent; since many of their structures are by no means insignificant, and sonic of their productions full of inge- nuity and taste. Proofs of this, besides the relations of other navigators, are furnished by the edifices dj~scribed by Captain Porter in the principal island of the Washington groupe, as well as in many of the ornaments, and particularly by the de- lineations in their practice of tattooing. The Essex being at sea only for warlike purposes, not em- ployed in a voyage of discovery, was of course unprepared for such an undertaking, having neither scientifick men nor appa- ratus necessary for such a purpose. The ship even was not fitted for the voyage, which was only the continuance of a cruise at the discretion of her commander. The important ser- vices rendered by captain Porter, in giving a partial protection to our valuable whale fishery in the South Seas, and the enormous loss inflicted on the enemy, by the capture of almost every one of the ships they employed in that trade; and the termination of his cruise in the Bay of Valparaiso, by one of the most desperate and gallant conflicts on record, are all familiar to the P315.j ~orte~~~ Journal. 24~ publick, and do not fall within our present purpose to notice, as they would lead to other topicks of discussion than those we have in view; for the same reason, we shall not take up the question of the conflicts with some of the tribes in the island of Nooaheevah. The quarrel with the Happahs, it was perhaps justifiable under all circumstances to settle in the manner he did, particularly as it was attendcd with such trifling injury; but the war with the Typees, we most stronjy protest against. Captain Porter has with great fairness stated all the motives that engaged him reluctantly, in the expedition against them, and the evils that followed it, to those unfortunate natives; he was placed in an arduous and critical situation, and his conduct should therefore be judged with reference to all the circum- stances. We think that the course he took was a great errour of judgment. Independently of all considerations respecting his right to wage war with that tribe, the imminent hazard to which he exposed himself and his men in that perilous under- taking, was of greater importance than the object he had to accomplish. If they had all perished, and from his relation it is wonderful that they escaped, the loss to their country and themselves would have been much more serious than the de- struction of his prizes, which it was one of his objects to pre- vent. We shall commence our extracts with some account of Porto Praya in the island of St. Jago. Since the visit of the Essex, however, a new governour and a more numerous garrison have been sent to these possessions, and their treatment of the Con- stitution in her last cruise was very different from that shewn to the Essex. At 9 oclock on the morning of the 28th, I waited on his excellency, accompanied by some of the officers. He was engaged at the time on some business at the custom-house, as I was informed, and could not be seen until about 11 the second in command, however, major Medina (who spoke such English as he was enabled to pick up from the captains and crews of such American vessels as touched at the Isle of Mayo for salt, where he was governour,) entertained us during the interval, making offers of his services in procuring the supplies, of which we gave him a list; and, after making the necessary arrangements, and fixing on the prices, we waited on the governour, whom we found at his house, dressed in all his splendour to receive us. His reception was of the Vol. I. No. 2. ~32 250 PorLers JournaL most friendly nature, and I am persuaded he was much pleased to see us in the port. He appeared astonished that I should have sent in for permission to enter the port. I inform~ ed him, that as the Portuguese were the allies of Great Britain, I had entertained doubts whether he would feel authorized to give us protection against a British force, should it appear; hut so soon as he had granted permission for us to enter the port, those doubts were removed. He expressed much re gret that the war had deprived them of the advantage arising from the American commerce, as they had been cut off from all their supplies, and were now destitute of bread, and every other comfort of life, except what the island afforded, which consisted chiefly in live stock and fruit. He told me that a little flour, or any thing else we could spare, would be most acceptable to him; and invited me to make my dinner with him, on such scanty fare as he was enabled to give me; add- ing, if 1 would come on shore next day, he would endeavour to provide something better. I accepted his invitation with as little ceremony as it was given; and although there was but little variety of meats, he had an abundant supply of the best tropical fruits I ever tasted. The oranges were very fine. We this day commenced watering; but, after having to roll the casks about 500 yards, found great difficulty in getting them from the beach, on account of the heavy surf. On the 29th, I again dined with the governour, and from that time until the morning of the 2d of December, we were occupied in getting on board refreshments and water; but of the latter we were only enabled to get about 5000 gallons. The beef was very dear, and very poor; a bullock weighing 300 weight, cost 35 dollars; sheep were 3 dollars, but very poor; oranges 40 cents per hundred, and other fruits in the same proportion, and in the greatest abundance. It is sup- posed that the ship had not on board less than one hundred thousand oranges, together with a large quantity of cocoa-nuts, plantains, lemons, limes, casad~, & c. & c. Every mess on board were also supplied with pigs, sheep, fowls, turkeys, goats, & c. which were purchased very cheap; fowls at three dollars per dozen, and fine turkeys at one dollar each; many of the seamen also furnished themselves with monkeys and young goats as pets, and when we sailed from thence the 1815.] Porters four. ial. 251 ship bore no slight resemblance, ~s respected the different kind on board her, to Noahs ark. In the town of Praya there are nut more than thirty whites; the rest of tbe population is made up of slaves and free ne- groes, making altogether not more than three thousand, of whom about four hundred are soldiers; all the officers, cx- cept three or four, are mulattoes, and their priest is a negro, who possesses considerable polish in his manners. The sol- diers are generally destitute of clothing from the waist up- wards, and it can be asserted with a certainty of adhering strictly to the trutb, that there are not five serviceable miis kets in Praya. Most of them are witl~out any locks, their stocks broken off at the breech, their barrels tied into the stocks with a leather thong, or a cord made of the fibres of the cocoa-nut; and it was no uncommon thThg to see a naked negro mounting guard, shouldering a mu~ket barrel only. Their cavalry were in a corresl)Ond ing style, mounted on jack-asses, and armed with broken swords. The governour informed me, it bad been 10 years since they had received any pay, or supplies of clothing or arms. The guns of different calibres mounted about Praya, for the defence of the place, although in commanding situations, are in a state equally bad as the muskets of the ne~roes. They are placed on ships carriages, which are old and rot- ten, scarcely holding together, without platform, shelter, or breast-work, except a slight dilapidated one before the saluting battery, and another in as bad a state on the west point of the bay. The whole number of guns amounts to thirty; and for them chiefly they are indebted to a Portu- guese frigate that was lost by the negligence of her officers about three years since. Port Praya could be taken, and every gun spiked, by thirty men In his way to the Brazils he touched at Fernando de No- ronha, and here finds a letter from Commodore Bainbridge to him, as coming from captain Kerr of, the Acasta to Sir James Yeo; this stratagem made use of to disguise their course is quite justifiable in war, but it is perhaps inexpedient to publish it, as it will in some degree defeat the success of similar plans on future occasions. His description makes this island, p6opled with convicts, and destitute of women, the most wretched spot on the globe 252 Pc rters Journal. [July, The Portuguese island of Fernando de Noronha, is in lat. 30 54 28 south, and l~ing. 32~ 36 38 ivest from London. It is well fortified in eve cy part, and its population consists of a few miserable, naked, exiled Portuguese, and as miserable a guard. The governour is changed every three years, and during his term of se~vice in the island, has the privilege of disposing of its produce to his own emolument. Cattle in abundance, hogs, goal~s, fowls, & c. may be had there, as well as corn, melons, coyoa-nuts, & c. & c. Ships, formerly, fre- quently touched there for refreshments, wood, and water, but for seven months prior to the arrival of the .lcasta, none had been there. There are no females on the island, and none are permitted to be there, from what motives I cannot con- ceive, except it 1e to render the place of exile the more hor- ribie. The watering-place is near the beach, at the foot of the rock on which the citadel is placed, and it is with the ut- most difficulty and danger that the casks can he got through the surf to the boat. The island produces wood in abun- dance, but the Portuguese do not permit it to be cut for ship- ping any-where, but on a small island to the east of Fernando, called Wooding Island. This island is in tolerable good cul- tivation, and produces their principal supply of vegetables. There is no boat in the island, and the only means of com- munication between Wooding Island and Fernando, is a small raft or catamaran, which is carefully kept in one of the forts, and is capable of hearing only two men. An abundance of fish may be procured with but little trouble with the hook and line. As clothing is not in use here; as hunger may be grati- fled without labour; and as there is an appearance of cheer- fulness, those who are not in chains may be supposed, in some measure, reconciled to a state as good perhaps as any they had formerly been accustomed to. The governour caused his catamaran to be launched through a surf (which twice filled our boat, and was near destroying her,) and despatched it to Wooding Island for fruit for ns, but before she returned we had left this miserable Botany Bay of Portugal. pp. 40, 41. Having resolved, after his arrival on the coast of the Bra- zils, for reasons which he details, to go into the Pacifick Ocean, he took all the prccautions in his power to double Cape Horn with safety. His experience of this enterprise 1815.] Porters Journal. 253 makes him fully agree with those navigators, who have repre- sented the undertaking as most painflul and dangerous. The whole account of his passage round the Cape will be read with interest, but we will have only room for one or two fragments at the close of it. It was with no little joy, we now saw ourselves fairly in the Pacifick ocean, and calculating on a speedy end to all our sufferings; we began also to form our projects for annoying the enemy, and had already equipped, in imagination, one of their vessels of 14 or 1 6 guns, and manned from the Essex, to cruize against their commerce; indeed, various were the schemes we formed at this time for injuring them, and had, in fancy, immense wealth to return with to our country: and, as the gale continued to blow from the S. W. every hour seem- ed to brighten our prospects and give us fresh spirits; and on the last of February, being in the latitude of 500 S. the wind became moderate and shifted to the northward, the sea smooth, and every prospect of mild and pleasant weather. I consequently determined to replace the guns, and get the spars on the spar-deck; but before we had effected this, the wind had freshened up to a gale, and hy noon had reduced us to our storm stay-sail and close-reefed main-top-sail; it in the afternoon, hauled around to the westward, and blew with a fury far exceeding any thing we had yet experienced, bring- ing with it such a tremendous sea, as to threaten us every moment with destruction, and appalled the stoutest heart on board. To attempt to convey an idea of the fury of this gale by description, would be fruitless; let it suffice to say, that it was rarely equalled, and I am sure never was exceeded. Our sails, our standing and running rigging, from the succes- sion of bad weather, had become so damaged, as to be no ionger trust-worthy; we took, however, the best means in our power to render every thing secure, and carried as heavy a press of sail as the ship would bear, to keep her from drifting on the coast of Patagonia, which we had reason to believe was not far distant, from the appearance of birds, kelp, and whales, which I have heretofore found to be a tolerable sure indication of a near approach to land, and from the clouds to leeward, which appeared as if arrested by the high mountains of the Andes. From the excessive violence with which the wind blew, we had strong hopes that it would be of short con- 254 Porters Journal. [July, tinuance; until, worn out with fatigue and anxiety, greatly alarmed with the terrours of a lee-shore, and in momentary expectation of the loss of our masts and bowsprit, we almost considered our situation hopeless; and to add to our distress, our pumps had become choaked by the shingle ballast, which, from the violent rolling of the ship, had got into them ; the ship made a great deal of water, and the sea had increased to such a height, as to threaten to sxvallow us at every instant; the whole ocean was one continued foam of breakers, and the heaviest squall that I ever before experienced, had not equal- led in violence the most moderate intervals of this tremendous hurricane. We had, however, done all that lay in our power to preserve the ship from the violence of the elements, which seemed united to effect our destruction, and turned our atten- tion to our pumps, (which we were enabled to clear,) and to keep the ship from drifting on shore, by getting on the most advantageous tack; we, however, were not enabled to wear but once, for the violence of the wind and sea was such, as afterwards to render it impossible to attempt it, without hazard- ing the destruction of the ship, and the loss of every life on hoard. The whole of the 1st and 2d of March, we anxious- ly hoped for a change, but in vain; our fatigues had been con- stant and excessive; many had been severely bruised, by be- ing thrown, by the violent jerks of the ship, down the hatch- ways, and 1 was particularly unfortunate, in receiving three severe falls, which at length disabled me from going on deck; the oldest seaman in the ship had never experienced any thing to equal the gale. We had done all in our power to save the ship (except throwing her guns overboard, which I reserved for the last extremity,) and now patiently waited for the tempest to lull. It had already blown three days without abating; the ship had resisted its violence to the astonishment of all, without having received any considerable injury; and we began to hope, from her buoyancy and other good quali- ties, we should be enabled to, weather the gale. We had shipped several heavy seas, that would have proved destruc- tive to almost any other ship; but, to us, they were attended with no other inconveniences, than the momentary alarm they excited, and that arising from the immense quantity of water, which forced its way into every part of the ship, and kept every thing afloat between decks. However, about 3 oclock 1815.] Porters .Journal. of the morning of the 3d, the watch only being on deck, an enormous sea broke over the ship, and for an instant destroy- ed every hope. Our gun-deck ports were burst in; both boats on the quarters stove; our spare spars washed from the chains; our head-rails washed away, and hammock stanchions burst in; and the ship perfectly deluged and water log~ed, immediately after this tremendous shock, which threw the crew into consternation, the gale began to abate, and in the morning we were enabled to set our reefed fore-sail. In the height of the gale, Lewis Price, a marine, who had long been confined with a pulmonary complaint, departed this life, and was this mornin0 committed to the deep; but the vio lence of the sea was such, that the crew could not be permit- ted to come on deck, to attend the ceremony of his burL I, as their weight would have strained and endanbered the safety of the ship. When this last sea broke on board us, one of the prisoners, the boatswain of the Nocton, through excess of alarm, ex- claimed, that the ships broadside was stove in, and that she was sinking; this alarm was greatly calculated to increase the fears of those below, who, from the immense torrent of water that was rushing down the hatchways, had reason to believe the truth of his assertion; many who were washed from the spar to the gun-deck, and from their hammocks, and did not know the extent of the injury, were also greatly alarmed; but the men at the wheel, and some others, who were enabled by a good grasp to keep their stations, distinguished themselves by their coolness and activity after the shock; and 1 took this opportunity of advancing them one grade, by filling up the va- cancies occasioned by those sent in prizes, and those who were left at St. Catharines; rebuking, at the same time, the others for their timidity. And now we began to believe, that the elements had ex- hausted all their rage on us, for the sky became serene, and we were enabled to make sail; the wind shifted to the S. XV. and brought with it the only pleasant weather we had experi- enced since we had passed the Falklarid Islands: but here again we were deceived, for, before night, it began to blow in heavy squalls, with cold rain, and reduced us to close-reefed fore arid main topsails, and reefed fore-sail; bitt, as the wind was fair, we consoled ourselves with the pleasing reflection. 256 Porters Journal. [July. that we were every i~oment receding farther from the influ- ence of the dreary and inhospitable climate of Cape Horn; and, on the 5th of the month, having passed the parallel of Chili, our sufferings appeared at an end, for we enjoyed plea- sant and temperate weather, with fine breezes from the south- ward; and, for the first time during our passage, were ena- bled to knock out our dead-lights, and open our gun-deck ports. The repairs of our damages went on rapidly, and by night the ship was, in every respect, excepting wear and tear, as well prepared for active service, as the day we left St. Caihirines. Our latitude at meridian, was 390 20 S.; and we had a distant view of part of the Andes, which appeared covered with snow. Albatrosses were as usual about the ship; several fish, by sailors denominated sun-fish, were seen; and we frequently passed a white and apparently gela- tinous substance, which we had not an opportunity of exam- ining. There was every prospect of a speedy arrival in some port on the coast of Chili, and I directed the cables to be bent, using every means in our power to guard them from the effects of rocky bottom. But, before I proceed farther, as this journal may acciden- tally fall into other hands, I shall take this opportunity of of- fering some hints to those, who may succeed me in attempt- ing the passage around Cape Horn; and this I feel myself the more authorized to do, as we have effected it in, perhaps, a shorter time with less damage, and labouring under more dis- advantages, than any others who ever attempted it ; and that too by struggling, at an unfavourable season of the year, against a constant succession of obstinate and violent gales of wind. And I am the more strongly induced to offer these hints, conceiving it to be of the utmost importance to naviga- tion, to give any information, derived from experience, which may tend to enable navigators to overcome the obstacles which nature seems designedly to have placed, to deter man- kind from all attempts to penetrate from the Atlantick to the Pacifick ocean; and, as various opinions have been given on the subject, my advice may differ from that of others in several points: but as my measures have proved success- ful in the end, and as it is not founded on mere conjecture 1816.] Porters Journal. and hypothesis, it is to be presumed, that it may deserve the attention of seamen, for whom alone it is intended. In the first place, 1 must caution them against those errone- ous expectations, which the opinion of La Perouse is unhappily calculated to lead them into, and, perhaps, has proved fatal to many ships, by inducing their commanders to believe, that the passabe around Cape Horn is attended with no other difficul- ties than those to be met with in any other high latitude; and thereby causing them to neglect taking tl)ose necessary pre- cautions, which the safety of their ships, and the lives of those on hoard, require. He says, to use his own words, 1 doub- led Cape Horn with much more ease, than I had dared to imagiuc; I am now convinced, that this navigation is like that of all high latitudes; the difficulties which are expected to be met with, are the effects of an old prejudice which should no longer exist, and which the reading of Ansons voyage has not a little contributed to preserve among seamen. On the 25th of January, La Perouse entered the Streights of Le i~iaire, and on the 9th of February, he was in the Pacifick, in thc parallel of the Streights of Magellan, making his passage in 14 days. On the 13th of February, I passed the Streights of La Maire, and was in the latitude of those of i~i gellan on the 26th, making a passage of 13 days, a little more than a month later in the season than he passed the cape ; and as my passage, against such violent gales, was made in one day less than his, I am at a loss to conceive what should have oc- casioned his delay. I have the utmost respect for the mem- ory of that celebrated navigator, and regret that I should have cause to differ with him in opinion in any point, and particu- larly on one of so much importance, as the doubling of Cape Horn from the east. Indeed, ample as has been the infor- mation he has given on every other subject that has come under his notice, I am almost induced to believe, that many of his observations on this matter have been suppressed by his editor ; and that the remark is the effect of national prejudice, which ever has, and ever will exist. The passage round Cape Horn, from the eastward, I positively assert, is the most dan- gerous, most difficult, and attended with more hardships, than that of the same distance, in any other part of the world; and none should attempt it, without using every precaution to Vol. 1. No. 2. 258 Porters Journal~ Liuly gudrd against accident, thaj prudence or foresight can suggest) pp. 8487,8890. After getting round the Cape, he called at Mocha to obtain some refreshments. There are great plenty of wild horses and hogs on the island; they killed some of each, hut found the horses the finest eating. From thence, he steered for Valpa- raiso, and thus describes the appearance of the coast, and his first sight of that place. On the latter part of the 12th, light airs sprung up from the S. XV. and the weather began to clear off slowly, and every eye was engaged in searching for a sail, as the fog moved to leeward. Nothing, however, was to be seen but a wide ex- panse of ocean, hounded on the east by the @eary, barren, and iron-hound coast of Chili, at the back of which the eter- nally snow-capt mountains of the Andes reared their lofty heads, and altogether presented to us a scene of gloomy soli- tude, far exceeding any thing I ever before experienced. The winds now freshening up, enabled us to make sail to the north- ward; and as the weather was clear, I determined to keep close in with the coast, that no vessel might be enabled to pass between us and the shore unobserved; but in the course of our run this and the next day we could discover no vessels of any description, or the least trace of the existence of a human being on the coast, except in one instance, when a fire was lighted in the evening in a small cove, probably by some in- dians, or persons engaged in smuggling, and intended, no doubt, as an invitation for us to land. On the morning of the 13th, we discovered that our main top-sail yard was badly sprung, and were compelled to get it down and replace it with another, which we were so fortunate as to have on hoard ; and on the afternoon of that day, we made the point three or four leagues to the south-west of the bay of Valparaiso, and called by the Spaniards Quaranmilla. This point, as you come from the southward, may be known by its sloping off gently towards the sea; and close to the end of it is a small rugged island, or rather large rock, about the height of a ships masts. About 8 P. 1~l. I brought the point to bear N. N. E. distant about four leagues, and then hove to, with the hope of intercepting some vessel in the morning, bound to Valparaiso, as all vessels bound there en- deavour to make this point; but at sunrise, not discovering a 1815.] Porters Journal. 259 sail, I determined to look into the harbour, and see at once what hopes we had in this quarter, and accordingly steered away for point Quaranmilla under all sail, doubling it at the distance of half a league. After passing this point, we per- ceived some scattering rocks lying some distance from shore, and shortly afterwards opened a handsome bay, with a fine sandy beach, and perceived a few fishing boats engaged there in fishing; and wishing to have some communication with them, I hoisted the English ensign and pendant, and a jack for a pilot, but none of them appeared disposed to come along side. In the bottom of the bay was a small enclosure with a hut, and on the top of the next projecting point was another small building, apparently covered with tiles; and on the sides of the neighbouring hills were several cattle grazing. These were the only marks of civilization we had yet met on the coast, and nothing whatever appeared to indicate our approach to the most important city of Chili. With the exception of the few cattle that grazed on the arid rocks, the two huts be- fore mentioned, and the miserable looking fishermen, the coast here had the same desolate appearance as the rest we had seen, and since we had left Mocha but little of it had escaped our ob- servation. It was in vain that we sooght for those handsome villa~es, well-cultivatetl hills, and fertile valleys, which we had beer] prepared to meet in this part of the world. The whole coast is skirted by a black and gloomy rock, against the perpendicular sides of which the sea beats with fury. At the hack of this rock, the country appears dreary beyond (lescription: yellow and barren hills, cut by torrents into deep ravines, and sprinkled sparingly here and there with shrubs; but not a tree of any size was to be seen on this whole extent of coast. When the weather was clear, we al- ways saw the Andes; and as they were never clear of snow, they were not calculated to give us a more favourable impres- sion of the interiour. The next point which presented itself, on the top of which the afore-mentioned tile-covered house was situated, was the point of Angels, which I had learned formed the western point of the Bay of Valparaiso; and as I l)erceived some rocks ly- ing off it, I doubled it with a stiff breeze from the southward, at the distance of nearly half a mile, keeping the lead going, 260 Porters Journal. [July, but got no bottom at the depth of sixty fathoms. As we round- ed this point, 1 sought with my glass the city of Valparaiso, or some proofs of our approach to it: first a long sandy beach, on the opposite side offered itself to view; next a large drove of loaded mules, coming down the side of the mountain by a zigzag pathway; and, in an instant afterwards, the whole town, shipping with their colours flying, and the forts, burst out as it were from behind the rocks, and we found ourselves becalm- ed under the guns of a battery prepared to fire into us. The scene presented to us was as animated and cheerful as it was sudden and unexpected; and had I not hoisted English col- ours, I should have been tempted to run in and anchor. pp. 98100. The manners and customs of Chili are not without their pe- culiarities, as will be shewn in the following extracts. There is a slight account of the government and state of parties in that remote province. It may be hoped that the emancipation of South America will eventually be one of the advantages result- ing to the world from the unhappy convulsions of Europe. Agreeably to the governour s invitation, we attended his party, where we found a much larger and more brilliant as- semblage of ladies, than we could have expected in Valpa- raiso. We found much fancy and considerable taste displayed in their dress, and many of them, with the exception of teeth, very handsome, both in person and in face; their complexion remarkably fine, and their manners modest and attracting. This was our first impression on entering a room, containing perhaps 200 ladies, to whom we were perfect strangers. Minuets were intro(luced; country dances followed; and the ladies had the complaisance and patience to attempt with my officers, what they had never before seen in the country, a co- tillion. The intricacies of their country-dance were too great for us to attempt; they were greatly delighted in by those who knew them, and admitted a display of much grace. With their grace, their beauty of person and complexion, and with their modesty, we were delighted, and could almost fancy we had gotten amongst our own fair country-women; but in one moment the illusion vanished. The ballas de tierra, as they are called, commenced: they consisted of the most graceless, and at the same time fatiguing movements of the body and limbs, accompanied by the most indelicate and lascivious motions, 1815.] Porters Journal. 261 gradually increasing in energy and violence, until the fair one apparently overcome with passion, and evidently exhausted with fatigue, was compelled to retire to her seat; her rosy cheeks and fair complexion disappeared in the large dreps of sweat that ran trickling down her neck and bicast, atid were succeeded by the sallow tinge which nature had boun- tifully bestowed. They daub themselves most lavishly with paint ; but their features are agreeable, and their large dark eyes are remark- ably brilliant and expressive; and, were it not for their bad teeth, occasioned by the too liberal use of the maui, they would, notwithstanding the Chilian tinge, be thought hand- some, particularly by those who had been so long as we out of the way of seeing any women. pp. 107, 108. The course of the ship was next directed to the Galiapagos Islands, and here an account is given of an Irishman, that, taken in conjunction with the scenery, is admirably suited to a pencil like Salvator s. These islands are all evidently of vokanick production; every mountain and hill is the crater of an extinguished vol- cano; and thousands of smaller fissures, which have burst from their sides, give them the most dreary, desolate, and in- hospitable appearance imaginable. The description of one island will answer for all 1 have yet seen ; they appear un- suited for the residence of man, or any other animal that can- not, like the tortoises, live without food, or cannot draw its subsistence entirely from the sea. Lieutenant Dowues saw on the rocks with which the bay was in many parts skirted, several seals and pelicans, some of which he killed ; but, on searching diligently the shore, was unable to find any land-tortoises, though they no doubt abound in other parts of the island. 1)oves were seen in great num- bers, and were so easily approached, that several of them were knocked over with stones. While our boat was on shore, captain Randall sent his boat to a small beach in the same bay, about a mile from where our boat landed, and in a short time she returned loaded with fine green turtle, two of which he sent us, and we found them excellent, it may be seen by captain 1~Iacys letter, that on the east-side ot the island there is another landing, which he calls Patss landing; and this place will probably immortalize an Irishman, named Patrick Watkins, who some years since left an English ship, 262 Porters Journal. [July and took up his abode on this island, built himself a miserable hut, about a mile from the landing called after him, in a val- ley containing about two arces of ground capable of cultiva- tion, and perhaps the only spot on the island which affords sufficient moisture for the purpose. Here he succeeded in raising potatoes and pumpkins in considerable quantities, which he generally exchanged for rum, or sold for cash. The appearance of this man, from the accounts I have received of him, was the most dreadful that can be imagined ; ragged clothes; scarce sufficient to cover his nakedness, and covered with vermin; his red hair and beard matted, his skin much burnt, from constant exposure to the sun, and so wild and savage in his manner and appearance, that he struck every one with horrour. For several years this wretched being lived by himself on this desolate spot, without any other ap- parent desire than that of procuring rum in sufficient qtianti- ties to keep himself intoxicated, and at such times, after an absence from his hut of several days, he would be found in a state of perfect insensibility, rolling among the rocks of the mountains. He appeared to be reduced to the lowest grade to which human nature is capable, and seemed to have no desire beyond the tortoises and other animals of the island, except that ot getting (Irunk. But this man, wretched and miserable as lie may have appeared, was neither destitute of ambition nor incapable of undertaking an enterprise that would have appalled the heart of any other man; nor was he devoid of the talent of rousing others to second his hardihood. He by some means became possessed of an old musket, and a few charges of powder and ball; and the possession of this weapon first set into action all his ambitious plans. He felt himself strong as the sovereign of the island, and was de- sirous of proving his strength on the first human being who fell in his way, which happened to be a negro, who was left in charge of a boat belonging to an American ship that had touched there for refreshments. Patrick came down to the beach where the boat lay, armed with his musket, now be- come his constant companion, and directed the negro, in an authoritative manner to follow him, and on his refusal snapped his musket at him twice, which luckily missed fire. The ne- gro, however, became intimidated, and followed him. Pat- rick now shouldered his musket, marched off before, and on his way up the mountains exultingly informed the negro 1815.] Porters Journal. he was henceforth to work for him, and become his slave, and that his good or bad treatment would depend on his future conduct; but arriving at a narrow defile, and perceiving Pat- rick off his guard, the negro seized the moment, grasped him in his arms, threw him down, tied his hands behind, shoulder- ed him, and carried him to his boat, and when the crew had arrived, he was taken on board the ship. An English smug- gler was lying in the harbour at the same time, the captain of which sentenced Patrick to be severely whipped on board both vessels, which was put in execution, and he was after- wards taken 00 shore handcuffed by the Englishmen, who compelled him to make known where he had concealed the few dollars he had been enabled to accumulate from the sale of his potatoes and pumpkins, which they took from him ; and while they were busy in destroying his hut and garden, the wretched being made his escape, and concealed himself among the rocks in the interiour of the island, until the ship had sailed, when he ventured from his skulking place, and by means of an old file, which he drove into a tree, freed him- self from the handcuffs. He now meditated a severe re~ venge, but concealed his intentions. Vessels continued to touch there, and Patrick, as usual, to furnish them with vege- tables; hut from time to time he was enabled, by admister- ing potent draughts of his darling liquor to some of the men of their crews, and getting them so drtmnk that they were ren- dered insensible, to conceal them until the ship had sailed; when, finding themselves entirely dependent on him, they willingly enlisted under his banners, became his slaves, and he the most absolute of tyrants. By this means he had aug- merited the number to five, including himself, and every means was used by him to endeavour to procure arms for them, but without effect. It is supposed that his object was to have surprised some vessel, massacred her crew, and taken her off. While Patrick was meditating his plans, two ships, an American and an English ve~sel, touched there and applied to Patrick for vegetables. He promised them the greatest abundance, provided they would send their boats to his landing, and their people to bring them from his garden, informing then) that his rascals had become so indolent of late that he could not get them to work. This arrangement was agreed to; two boats were sent from each vessel, and 264 Porters Journal. [.July~ hauled on the beach. Their crews all went to Patricks ha~ bitation, but neither he nor any of his people were to be found; and after waiting until their patience was exhausted, they returned to the beach, ~vhere they found only the wreck of three of their boats, which were broken to pieces, and the fourth one missing. rrhey succeeded, however, after much difficulty, in getting around to the bay opposite to their ships, where other boats were sent to their relief; and the com- manders of the ships, apprehensive of some other trick, saw no security except in a flight from the island, leaving Patrick and his gau~ in quiet possession of the boat; but before they sailed they put a letter in a keg, and moored it in the bay, where it was found by a captain Randall, but not until he had sent his boat to Patricks landing, for the purpose of procuring refieshments; and, as may be easily supposed, he felt no little inquietude until her return, when she brought him a let- ter from Patrick to the following purport, which was found in illS lint. SIR, I have made repeated applications to captains of vessels to sell me a boat, or to take me from this place, but in every in- stance met with a refusal. An opportunity presented itself to possess myself of one, and I took advantage of it. 1 have been a long time endeavouring, by hard labour and suffering, to accumulate wherewith to make myself comfortable, but at different times have been robbed and maltreated, and in a late instance by captain Paddock, w~mose conduct in punishing me, and robbing me of about 500 dollars, in cash and other arti- cles, neither agrees with the principles he professes, nor is it such as his sleek coat would lead one to expect.* On the 29th May, 1809, I sail from the enchanted island in the Black Prince, bound to the Marquesas. Do not kill the old hen; she is now sitting, and will soon have chickens. (Signed) FATHERLESS OBERLUs. Patrick arrived alone at Guyaquil in his open boat, the rest who sailed with him having perished for want of water, or, as is generally supposed, were put to death by him, on his finding the water to grow scarce. From thence he * Captain Paddock was of lie society of friends, commonly called quakers~ iSiS.) Porters Journal. ~65 proceeded to Payta, where he wound himself into the affec- lion of a tawny damsel, and prevailed on her to Consent to accompany him hack to his enchanted island, the beauties of which he no douht painted in glowing colours; hut from his savage appearance, he was there considered hy the police as a suspicious person, and being found under the keel of a small vessel then ready to be launched, and suspected of some improper intentions, he was confined in Payta gaol, where he now remains ; an(l prohably owing to this circumstance Charles island, as well as the rest of the Gallapagos, may re- main unpopulated for many ages to come. This reflection may naturally lead us to a consideration of the question con- cerning the population of the other islands scattered about the Pacifick Qcean, respecting which so many conjectures have been hazarded. I shall only hazard one, ~hch is briefly this: that former ages may have produced men equally as bold and as daring as Pat, and women as willing as his tender one to accompany them in their adventurous voyages. And when we consider the issue which might be produced from a unio~ between a red-haired wdd Irishman, and a copper- coloured mixt-hlooded squaw, we need not he any longer sur- prised at the different varieties in human nature. If Patrick should he liberated from durance, and should arrive with his love at this enchanting spot, perhaps (when nei- ther Pat nor the Gallapagos are any longer remembered) some future navigator may surprise the world by a discovery of them, and his accounts of the strange people with which they may probably be inhabited; and from the source from which they shall have sprung, it does not seem unlikely that they will have one trait in their character, which is common to the natives of all the islands in the Pacifick, a disposition to appropriate to themselves the property of others; and from this circumstance future speculators may confound their origin with that of all the rest. pp. 140145. The description of the Gallapagos turtles is very extraordi- nary, and it seems that the whalers of the South Sea may en- joy a feast that would excite the envy of an alderman. Captain Porter in another place says, one remarkable pe- culiarity of this animal is, that the blood is cold. I shall leave it to those better acquainted with natural history to investigate the cause of a circumstance so extraordinary; my business is Vol 1. No. 2. 34 Porters Journal. [July, to state facts, not to reason on them. From this he does not appear to be aware that there is a numerous class of cold blooded reptiles. The possession of these vessels, besides the great satisfac- tion it produced, was attended by another advantage of no less importance, as it relieved all our wants except one, to wit, the want of water. From them we obtained an abundant supply of cordage, canvas, paints, tar, and every other article necessary for the ship, of all of which she stood in great need, as our slender stock brought from America had now become worn out and useless; and besides the articles necessary for the ship, we became supplied with a stock of provisions, of a quality and quantity that removed all apprehensions of our suf- fering for the want of them for many months, as those vessels when they sailed fro[n England, were provided with provi- sions and stores for upwards of three years, and had not yet consumed half their stock; all were of the best quality; and, were it only for the supplying our immediate wants, the prizes were of the greatest importance to us. We found on board of them, also, wherewith to furnish our crew with several de- licious meals. They had been in at James Island, and had supplied the nselves abundantly with those extraordinary ani- mals the tortoises of the Gallapagos, which properly deserve the name of the elephant tortoise. Many of them were of a size to weigh upwards of three hundred weight; and noth- ing, perhaps, can be more disagreeable or clumsy than they are in their external appearance. Their motion resembles strongly that of the elephant; their steps slow,, regular, and heavy; they carry their body about a foot from the ground, and their legs and feet bear no slight resemblance to the am- mal to which 1 have likened them; their neck is from 18 inches to 2 feet in length, and very slender; their head is pro- portioned to it, and strongly resembles that of a serpent; but, hideous and disgusting as is their appearance, no animal can possibly afford a more wholesome, luscious, and delicate food than they do; the finest green turtle is no more to be corn- pared to them, in point of excellence, than the coarsest beef is to the finest veal; and after once tasting the Gallapagos tortoises, every other animal food fell greatly in our estima- tion. These animals are so fat as to require neither butter nor lard to cook them, and this fat does not possess that cloy- 1815.] Porters Journal. 267 ing quality, common to that of most other animals; and when tried out, it furnishes an oil superiour in taste to that of the olive. The meat of this animal is the easiest of digestion, and a quantity of it exceeding that of any other food, can be eaten, without experiencing the slightest inconvenience. But what seems the most extraordinary in this animal, is the length of time that it can exist without food; for I have been well assured, that they have been piled away among the casks in the hold of a ship, where they have been kept eighteen months, and, when killed at the expiration of that time, were found to have suffered no diminution in fatness or excellence. They carry with them a co~istant supply of water, in a bag at the root of the neck, which contains about two gallons; and on tasting that~found in those we killed on board, it proved per- feetly fresh and sweet. They are very restless when expos- ed to the light and heat of the sun, hut will lie in the dark from one years end to the other without moving; in the day- time they appear remarkably quicksighted and timid, drawing their head into their shell on the slightest motion of any oh.. ject; but they are entirely destitute of hearing, as the loudest noise, even the firing of a gun, does not seem to alarm them in the slightest degree, and at night, or in the dark, they ap- pear perfectly blind. After our tasting the flesh of those ani.. mals, we regretted that numbers of them had been thrown overboard by the crews of the vessels before their capture, to clear them for action; but a few days afterwards, at day-light in the morning, we were so fortunate as to find ourselves sur- rounded by about fifty of them, which were picked up and brought on board, as they had been lying in the same place where they bad been thrown over, incapable of any exertion in that element, except that of stretching out their long necks. pp. 161, 162. The second volume begins with his passage to the Washing- ton Islands, so named by Captain Ingraham of Boston, by whom, and by Captain Roberts of the same place they were first discovered. The English and the French visited them the same year. By all these nations they have received differ- ent names, none of which we think so pleasing or sonorous as the name given them by their inhabitants. For instance, the principal island is called by Captain Porter Madisons Island, 26S Porters Journal. LJuly the English call it Sir Henry Martins Island, and the French Isle Baux. Now unquestionably the Americans have the best right, if indeed there be any right at all in the case, to give them a new name, and .Madisons Island reads better than Sir henry Martins, and much better than the bold, awkward, abrupt French name of isle Baux; but we decidedly prefer the native appellation Nooa/ieevah, to either; it is softer, sounds better, is less liable to be confounded with other places, and has more propriety in its favour. This trick of nicknaming every thin0, so common with the nations of Europe as well as our selves, has many inconveniences, and it is particularly vex tious where a fine sonorous name is abolished, for some ordinary one, which is already given to several places. It will at least he going far enough to make a change when the aboriginal name is barbarous in sound, and difficult to pronounce. The island of Nooaheevah contains eight tribes, who can furnish about nineteen thousand fighting men. They occupy different valleys, and are frequently at war with each other, but these wars are generally bloodless, since in the quarrel between the Tayebs and the Ilappabs, in which the former were assist- ed by Captain Porter, the number of killed was only five, and this was considered a very sanguinary contest. It would be interesting to know what are the checks to population. The climate is mild and serene, the inhabitants prolifick, wars are not destructive, and there is no emigration. Yet there must be some obstacle to the increase of the people, or the island ~vould have been long since overstocked. Captain Porter speaks of two or three small parties that at different periods have set out to go to another island which they believe is at no great distance from them, but the existence of which is very uncertain, and none of the emigrants have ever been heard from; it is probable that they perished. Captain Porter has given a drawing of .Illiouina, the chief warriour of the Tayehs, a very fine figure most curiously tattooed. The beauty and fancy of the lines and ornamenis are very striking, and his whole appearance strongly recalls the coats of mail formerly worn in Europe. The civil chief of the Tayees is thus de- scribed. Soon after I had sent my present on shore, Gattanewa came on board in a boat which I had sent for him, accont~ 1815.] Porters Journat. 269 panied by Mr. Maury. I had seen several of their wari~ours since I had arrived, many of them highly ornamented with plumes, formed of the feathers of cocks and man-of-war birds, and with the long tail feathers of the tropick bird; large tufts of hair were tied around their waists, their ankles, and their loins: a cloak, sometimes of red cloth, but more frequently of a white paper cloth, formed of the bark of a tree, thrown not inelegantly over the shoulders, with large round or oval orna- ments in their ears, formed of whales teeth, ivory, or a kind of soft and light wood, whitened with chalk; from their neck suspended a whales tooth, or highly polished shell, and round their loins several turns of the stronger kind of paper- ~1 cioth, the end of which hangs before in the manner of an apron: this with a black ai~d highly polished spear of about twelve feet in length, or a club richly carved, and borne on the shoulders, constitutes the dress and equipment of a native warrio(ir, whose body is highly and elegantly ornamented by tattooing, executed in a manner to excite our admiration. This is a faithful picture of a warriour, and of the chief of such warriours I had formed an exalted opinion; but what was my astonishment when Gattane~~a presented himself; an in- firm old man of seventy years of age, destitute of every covering or ornament except a clout about his loins, and a piece of palm leaf tied about his head : a long stick seemed to assist him in walking; his face and body were as black as a negros, from the quantity of tattooing, which entirely covered them, and his skin was rough, and appeared to be peeling off in scales, from the quantity of kava (an intoxicating root) with which he had indulged himself. Such was the figure that Gattanewa presented; and as he had drank freely of the kava before he made his visit, he appeared to be perfectly stupid. After he had been a short time on deck, I endeavoured to imprcss him with a high opinion of our force; and for this purpose assem- hled all my crew: it scarcely seemed to excite his attention. I then caused a gun to be fired, which seemed to produce no other effect on him, than that of pain ; he complained that it - hurt his ears: I then invited him below, where nothing what- ever excited his attention, until I showed him some whale& teeth : this roused the old man from his lethargy, and he would not be satisfied until I had permitted him to handle, to 270 Porters Journal. [July. measure and count them over and over, which seemed to afford him infinite pleasure. After he had done this repeatedly, I put them away; and shortly afterwards asked him if he had seen any thing in the ship that pleased him; if he did, to name it and it should be his: he told me he had seen nothing which had pleased him so much as one of the small whales teeth; which on his describing, I took out and gave to him: this he carefully wrapped up in one of the turns of his clout; begging me not to inform any person that he had about him an article of so much value: I assured him I should not: and the old man threw himself on the settee, and went to sleep. in a few minutes he awoke, somewhat recovered from his stupidi- ty, and requested to he put on shore: he, however, previous to his departure, wished me to exchange names with him, and requested me to assist him in his war with the Happabs: to the first I immediately consented but to the latter request, I told him I had come to be at peace with all on the island; that I wished to see him at peace with the Happahs; and that I should not engage in any hostilities, unless the Happabs came into the valley; iu which case I should protect him and his people. He told me they had cursed the bones of his mother, who had died but a short time since: that as we had exchanged names, she was now my mother, and I was hound to espouse her cause. I told him 1 would think of the sub- ject, and did not think it necessary to make any farther reply to the old mans sophistry. pp. 27, 28. Captain Porter gives an account of a singular ceremony among these people called tabooing. The substantive tabboo signifies an interdiction, an embargo, or restraint. An in- voluntary smile was excited, at the coincidence of finding a new word for embargo in Madisons Island, and we shall ex.. tract the passage relating to it, humbly suggesting to those who are competent to decide, the proprietyof adopting it, should a certain series of measures ever be renewed, as the multiplicity of those acts made it very difficult to distinguish them. Though we most fervently hope that the nation may never be tabooed again, yet the word is worth entering in the dictionary of our cabinet language. I am not acquainted with the ceremony of laying on these tabbooes, which are so much respected by the natives. They 1815.] Porters Journal. 271 are, however, laid by the priests, from some religious motive. Sometimes they are general, aud affect a whole valley, as the present ; sometimes they are confined to a single tribe ; at others to a family, and frequently to a single person. ryue word tabboo signifies an interdiction, an embargo, or restrai~t; and the restrictions during the period of their existen e may be compared to the lent of the catholicks. They suPer, during this period, many privations; they are not allowed to use paint, of which they are very fond, to ornament heir bodies; they are neither allowed to dance nor sing; ~he chiefs are bound to abstain from women; nor are they in many instances, allowed to enter the houses frequented by them. They have tabbooed places, where they feast end drink kava ~tabbooed houses where dead bodies are deposit- ed, and many of their trees, and even some of their walks are tabbooed. The women are, on no occasion whatever, allow- ed to enter their places of feasting, which are houses raised to the height of six or eight feet on a platform of large stones, neatly hewn and fitted together, with as much skill and exact- ness as could be done by our most expert masons; and some of them are one hundred yards in length and forty yards in width, surrounded by a square of buildings executed in a style of elegance, which is calculated to inspire us with the most exalted opinion of the ingenuity, taste, and perseverance of a people, who have hitherto remained untioticed and unknown to the rest of mankind. When we consider the vast labour requisite to bring from a distance the enormous rocks which form the foundation of these structures (for they are all brought from the sea side, and many of them are eight feet long and lour feet thick and wide) and reflect on the means used in hewing them into such perfect forms, with tools perhaps little harder than the materials worked on, for the appearance of many of these places strongly mark their antiquity, and their origin can no doubt be traced to a period antecedent to their knowledge of iron, and when we count the immense numbers of such places which are every-where to be met with, our astonish- ment is raised to the highest, that a people in a state of na ture, unassisted by any of those artificial means which so much assist and facilitate the labour of the civilized man, could have conceived and executed a work which, to every beholder, ~72 Porters Journal. [July, must appear stupendous. These piles are raised with views to magnificence alone; there does not appear to be the slight- est utility attending them: the houses situated on them are unoccupied, except during the period of feasting, and they appear to belong to a puhlick, without the whole efforts of which, they could not have been raised, and with every exer- tion that could possibly have been made, years must have been requisite for the completion of them. These publick houses differ not much from the houses he- longing to individuals except in the degree of elegance with which they are finished. Those which I have now in view to describe are situated round a publick square, high up the valley of the Havvouhs, and are sixteen in number. Four large pillars, neatly formed of the hread-fruit tree, are planted in the ground~ extending to the height of twenty feet ahove the surface; in the upper end is a crutch for the reception of a long and slender cocoa-nut tree, which is neatly polished: this forms the ridge-pole of the houses, and is the chief sup- port of the structure. From this ridge-pole, with the lower ends inclining out about five feet, are placed bamboos, of equal sizes, at the distance of two or three inches asunder, with the Lower ends planted in the ground; and to give them additional stability they are neatly and firmly secured hy turns of different coloured sinnet to the well polished trunk of a cocoa-nut tree: across this row of bamhoos is lashed, with the utmost neatness and strength, rdws of smaller bamboos, placed in a horizontal position, and this forms a frame work for the hack part of the house, which also answers for one side of the roof. At the distance of five feet in advance of the aforesaid long pillars are fixed in the ground four uprights, extending eight feet above the surface, having also a crutch for the reception of a cocoa-nut tree, or sometimes a piece of hewn timber neatly fashioned for the purpose. This also ex- tends the whole length of the house, and serves to support the front part of the roof, which~is formed of the same mate- rials, and is secured in the same manner as the hack part of the building. The ends are, in like manner, closed in, as sometimes are the sides, for the distance of twelve feet, forming at.each end of the house a small room. The frame work heing completed, they proceed to cover it, first with the leaves of the palm 1815.] Porters Journal. 27~3 tree, and next with those of the bread-fruit tree, which are laid on with surprising neatness and regularity, and give it an appearance of beauty, security, and durability not to be equalled hy our best mode of shingling. The building is then divided longitudinally into two equal parts, by placin6 from one end to the other, in the middle, the trunk of a cocoa-nut tree: the part toward the front is then neatly paved with smooth stones: the back part is covered with the finest mats, and is occupied as a sleeping place for the whole fami- ly : the middle tree serving for them to place their feet against, and a similar one placed against the back of the building serves them as a pillar. The external and more useful parts of the house being finished, they proceed to or nament it by covering the bamboos, which form the frame work, with different coloured cocoa-nut sinnet put on in the most fanciful manner, while the upright columns are covere(l first by layers of their finest and whitest cloth, which is firm- ly seenred on by the sinnet aforesaid, in such a manner, as to give them, at a short distance, the appearance of being hand- somely and fancifully painted. Sometimes, indeed, the col- umns are richly carved in the form of gods, and give to the whole an air of grandeur and elegance which, although in a style differing from that of every people in the world, does not the less astonish. pp. 4244. The religious ceremonies of these people, as described in this journal, resemble, in the main, those practised in the other islands. The whimsical puerilities make the account interest- ing, but we have no room to extract it. He left them several kinds of seeds, and some wheat which he planted, and instruct- ed them how to cultivate. From the fondness they discovered for bread, it may be hoped that they will succeed in raising wheat. From the gentle, and in some respects superior quali- ties of these savages to most of the aborigines of the continent, civilization may perhaps be gradually introduced among them. The first step among all nations emerging from barbarism, is the worship of Ceres, and no people can be wholly barbarous who are in the habit of eating bread; when this becomes an article of food, the great bases of society, individual property, and permanency of habitation, are already laid. The fatter of these is forced on these natives by their insular situation, and Vol 1. No. 2. ~35 274 Porters Journal. [July their superiority to most tribes on the continent may be partly owing to this circumstance. Captain Porter frequently compares his situation with that of Lord Anson, and the different losses they experienced. But he should recollect the great superiority of ships in the present day, the greater experience in navigation, and the various im- provements that have been made for preserving the health of crews, which are so salutary, that with proper precaution health may be preserved through the longest voyage. The Essex however was not prepared for this undertaking; she xvas only fitted out for a common cruise, and neither her crew nor her stores were selected for a voya~e round Cape Horn. Under these circumstances, there is much praine to be given to the skill and vigilance of her commander. He disclaims all pretensions to fine writing, and gives his journal to the world at the solicitation of those who had seen it, not as the premeditated labour of a regular voyage of discovery, but as the plain journal of a sailor, composed for his own satis- faction. If it pleases the publick, be says he will put it into the hands of some friend, to make a second edition of it more worthy of the publick. There is more fairness than policy in this mode of proceeding. A striking feature in the composition of this journal, is the frankness with which it is written. The author has narrated every thing, and as he has not disguised any thing, that others would have suppressed, he has laid him- self open to those, who are disposed to judge him harshly. We have been sufficiently interested in the perusal of this work to wish that it might have a second edition, and be reduced to the compass of one volume. There are many pages in its present state that are not interesting to the publick. There are several passages that should be expunged. There are occasional mis- takes in the language, that want correction, some of them are perhaps errours of the press. For example, the word trend is obsolete. Johnson gives the authority of Dryden for it, but it is no better than tend of which be supposes it to be a corrup- tion; rig is used as a substantive; herculian for Herculean; bonetta for bonito, & c. & c. There are several plates that are tolerably executed from drawings by Captain Porter. On the whole, if he will put it into the hands of some one versed in the mystery of book making, to correct these little faults, and strike out the useless parts of it, 1 he work may form a very respecta- ble addition to our books of travels. 1815.] The Lord of the Isles. 275 The Lord of the Isles; a poem, by Walter Scott, Esq. Bos- ton, republished by Wells 4~ Lilly. pp. 367, 24mo. Price one dollar. THE poems of Mr. Scott have been so universally read, so often and so elaborately criticised, that nothing new can be said on the subject. The present production, to borrow an expres- sion of Lord Byrons, is another of his triumphs over the fatal facility of the octosyllabick verse; perhaps it may not be more thun an ovation; it cannot compare with the Lay of the Last Minstrel, Marmion, or the Lady of the Lake. There is much mediocrity in this poem; it has no passage that can be placed in competition with several in those just mentioned, nor are there any which are particularly tame and insipid. It is one of the longest of his performances, and the notes occupy as much space as the poem of which they are the foundation. We think in the present instance, as in all he has published since the Lady of the Lake, he has rather added to his fortune than increased his fame; his later works may be reprinted. but the former ones only will be read by posterity. With all our reve- rence for the old school of poetry, for the versification of Dry- den and Pope, and aware how fleeting is that popularity, which was caught by the novelty of his manner, and the romance of his subjects, we still believe, that the freshness, energy, relief and transparency of his description, as well as the vigour and enihusiastn of some of his sentiments, will ensure him immor- tality. The restoration of the Scottish monarchy by Robert Bruce in 1307, and the events attending his enterprise from his return to Scotland, till he fought the decisive battle of Bannockburn form the ground-work of this poem; but a very great part of its interest is derived from a romantick love story which is blended with it, and seems to be entirely the inventiOn of the poet, as he cites no authority for it in the notes, though most of the incidents relating to Bruce, are historical facts. The scene opens in the Castle of Artornish belonging to Ronald, the Lord of the Isles, who was to marry Edith, the daughter of Loin, a principal Scottish chief, the personal enemy of Bruce, and altogether in the English interest. According to the custom of that time, the bride had been taken to one of the castles of her

The Lord of the Isles, a poem, by Walter Scott 275-285

1815.] The Lord of the Isles. 275 The Lord of the Isles; a poem, by Walter Scott, Esq. Bos- ton, republished by Wells 4~ Lilly. pp. 367, 24mo. Price one dollar. THE poems of Mr. Scott have been so universally read, so often and so elaborately criticised, that nothing new can be said on the subject. The present production, to borrow an expres- sion of Lord Byrons, is another of his triumphs over the fatal facility of the octosyllabick verse; perhaps it may not be more thun an ovation; it cannot compare with the Lay of the Last Minstrel, Marmion, or the Lady of the Lake. There is much mediocrity in this poem; it has no passage that can be placed in competition with several in those just mentioned, nor are there any which are particularly tame and insipid. It is one of the longest of his performances, and the notes occupy as much space as the poem of which they are the foundation. We think in the present instance, as in all he has published since the Lady of the Lake, he has rather added to his fortune than increased his fame; his later works may be reprinted. but the former ones only will be read by posterity. With all our reve- rence for the old school of poetry, for the versification of Dry- den and Pope, and aware how fleeting is that popularity, which was caught by the novelty of his manner, and the romance of his subjects, we still believe, that the freshness, energy, relief and transparency of his description, as well as the vigour and enihusiastn of some of his sentiments, will ensure him immor- tality. The restoration of the Scottish monarchy by Robert Bruce in 1307, and the events attending his enterprise from his return to Scotland, till he fought the decisive battle of Bannockburn form the ground-work of this poem; but a very great part of its interest is derived from a romantick love story which is blended with it, and seems to be entirely the inventiOn of the poet, as he cites no authority for it in the notes, though most of the incidents relating to Bruce, are historical facts. The scene opens in the Castle of Artornish belonging to Ronald, the Lord of the Isles, who was to marry Edith, the daughter of Loin, a principal Scottish chief, the personal enemy of Bruce, and altogether in the English interest. According to the custom of that time, the bride had been taken to one of the castles of her 276 The Lord of the Isles. [July, future husband. It was however a reluctant match on his part, as he had couceived a passion for Isabel, the sister of Bruce, then in a convent at Jotia, where she afterwards took the veil. At the very time that the Lord of the Isles was on his way, from one of the islands accompanied by a fleet of boats, Bruce with his younger brother and sister, were in a frail bark, beating about, afraid to land in a district where they were all opposed to him. The miserable condition of the vessel however, forces him to seek for hospitality at this castle of Artornish. He lands, demands shelter, and with his brother and Isabel, is led into the festive hail, where Ronald Loin, and many Highland chiefs are assembled to celebrate the nuptials, waiting only for the arrival of the abbo t of lona to perform the ceremony. The proud, majestick manners of Bruce leads to a discovery, and the whole party are thrown into the wildest confusion. Loon insists on destroying Bruce in revenge for the death of his rela- tions killed by Bruce and his friends some years before. The presence of Isabel, and unwillingness to marry Edith, joined with national feelings, prompt Ronald to take the side of Bruce, in which course he is followed by many other chieftains. The abbot called upon to curse, blesses Bruce, predicts his success, and then sets out on his return. Loin denounces vengeance, but on taking his departure, finds that his daughter and her nurse have fled. They had disguised themselves and entered the abbots boat. This boat was afterwards taken by some assassins in the service of Loin, who were employed by him to destroy Bruce. Edith, disguised in boys clothes, became their prisoner, and pretended to be dumb. These ruffians are met with by Bruce, and in attempting to destroy him, are all killed, and Edith remains with him; he takes her as his page, his own having been killed in this encounter. There are in the following cantos many interesting scenes with Edith, who re- mains in disguise, and is with the Scottish army at the battle of Bannockburn, where she was left with a numerous body of the attendants in the rear, on a hill from that time called the Gillies (the Scotch term for servants) hill. At a critical moment of the battle, anxiety for Ronald makes her burst into a vehement call to those about her, to fly to their succour. As she was supposed to be dumb, this affected them like a miracle; they all moved on, the English army seeing them at a dis- tance, took them for a reinforcement, and being still more dis 1815.] The Lord of the Isles. 277 heartened, fled from the sanguinary field, in which they had lost the flower of their army. After the hattle, Ronald and Edith are united, and Robert is confirmed on the throne of Scotland. This is a sketch of the main features of the story: we shall make several extracts from different parts, and which may ena- ble those who have not seen the whole poem to estimate it in comparison with his former works. The introductory stanzas to this and many of his other works, are an imitation of Spen- sers introductory verses to the cantos of his Faery Queen. The first of the following extracts is the commencement of the second canto; the next of the sixth, which is strongly descrip- tive of the termination of the late European war; the last. which is the conclusion of the poem, is full of feeling. Fill the bright goblet, spread the festive board, Summon the gay, the noble, and the fair! Through the loud ball in joyous concert pourd, Let mirth and musick sound the dirge of Care! But; ask thou not if Happiness be there, If the loud laugh disguise convulsive throe, Or if the brow the hearts true livery wear; Lift not the festal mask !enough to know, No scene of mortal life but teems with mortal wo.C. 11. 0 who, that shared them, ever shall forget The emotions of the spirit-rousing time, When broathless in the mart the couriers met, Early and late, at evening, and at prime; When the loud cannon and the merry chime Haild news oa news, as field on field was won, When Hope, long doubtful, soard at length sublime, Arid our glad eyes, awake as day begun, Watchd Joys broad banner rise, to meet the rising sun! 0 these were hours, when thrilling joy repaid A long, long course of darkness, doubts, and fears! The heart-sick faintness of the hope delayd, The waste, the wo, the bloodshed, and the tears, That trackd with terrour twenty rolling years, All was forgot in that blithe jubilee! Her down-cast eye even pale Affliction rears, To sigh a thankful prayer. amid the glee, That haild the Despots f~li, and peace and liberty !C. Vt. 27b The Lord of the Isles. ~jJuly, Go forth, my Song, upon thy venturous way; Go boldly forth; nor yet thy master blame, Who chose no patron for his humble lay, And graced thy numbers with no friendly name, Whose partial zeal might smooth thy path to fame. There wasand 0! how many sorrows crowd Into these two brief words !there was a claim By generous friendship givenhad fate allowd, It well had bid thee rank the 1)roudest of the proud! All angel nowyet little less than all, While still a pilgrim in our world below! What vails it us that patience to recall, Which hid its own, to sooth all other wo; What vails to tell, how Virtues purest glow Shone yet more lovely in a form so fair ; And least of all, what vails the world should know, That one poor garland, twined to deck thy hair, Is hung upon thy hearse, to droop and wither there !C. VI. We cannot help remarking, that the facility with which Mr. Scott introduces the most uncouth and barbarous Gaclick names, and blends them with the smoothest versification, cre- ates almost a feeling of vexation in those who often labour in vain to produce harmonious rhymes, with common and flexible words. Many proofs of his power in this respect may he found in this poem. The following passages will shew the force and beauty of his descriptions. The first paints a wild scene near the sea shore in the Highlands, from canto third. The others are fragments from the relation of his voyage among the islands, from the fourth canto. The first of these describes the magnificent cave of Fingal in the island of Staffa. Awhile their route they silent made, As men who stalk for mountain-deer, Till the good Bruce to Ronald said, St. Mary! what a scene is here! Ive traversd many a mountain-strand, Abroad and in my native land, And it has been my lot to tread Where safety more than pleasure led; Thus, many a waste Ive wanderd oer, Clombe many a crag, crossd many a moor. But, by my halidome, A scene so rude, so wild as this. Yet so sublime in barr nness. 1815.] The Lord of the Isles. Neer did my wandering footsteps press, Whereer I happd to roam. No marvel thus the Monarch spake; Far rarely human eye has known A scene so stern as that dread lake, With its dark ledge of barren stone. Seems that primeval earthquakes sway Bath rent a strange and shatterd way Throigh the rude bosom of the hill. And that each naked precipice, Sable ravine, and dark abyss, Tells of the outrage still. The wildest glen, but this, can show Some touch of Natures genial glow; On high Benmore green mosses grow, And heath-bells bud rn deep ~lencoe, And copse on Cruchan-Ben, But here, above, around, below, On mountain or in glen, Nor tree, nor shrub, nor plant, nor flower~ Nor aught of vegetative power, The weary eye may ken. For all is rocks at random thrown, Black waves, bare crags, and banks of stone, As if were here denied The summer sun, the springs sweet dew, That clothe with many a varied hue The bleakest mountain-side. And wilder, forward as they wound, Where the proud cliffs and lake profound. Huge terraces of granite black Afforded rude and cumberd track; For from the mountain hoar, Hurld headlong in some night of fear, When yelld the wolf and fled the deer, Loose crags had toppled oer; And some, chance-poised and balanced, lay~ So that a stripling arm might sway A mass no host could raise, In Natures rage at random thrown Yet trembling like the Druids stone On its precarious base. The evening mists, with ceaseless change, Now clothed the mountains lofty range~ Now left their f6reheads bare~ 280 The Lord of the Isles. LJuly, And round the skirts their mantle furld, Or on the sable waters curld, Or, on the eddying breezes whirld, Dispersed in middle air. And ofi, condensed, at once they lower, When, brief and fierce, the mountain shower Pours like a torrent down, And when return the suns glad beams, Wh~tend with foam a thousand streams Leap from the mountain~ s crown. CANTO IlL Merrily, merrily, goes the hark On a breeze from the northward free, So shoots through the morning sky the lark, Or the swan through the summer sea. The shores of Mull on the eastward lay, And Ulva dark and Colonsay, And all the groupe of islets gay That guard famd Staffa round. Then all unknown its columns rose, Where dark and undisturbd repose The cormorant had found, And the shy seal had quiet home, And welterd in that wondrous dome, Where, as to shame the temples deckd By skill of earthly architect, Nature herself, it seemd, would raise A Minster to her Makers praise! Not for a meaner use ascend Her columns, or her arches bend Nor of a theme less solemn tells That mighty surge that ebbs and swells, And still, between each awful pause, From the high vault an answer draws, In varied tone prolongd and high, That mocks the organs melody. Nor doth its entrance front in vain To old Lonas holy fane, That Natures voice might seem to say, Well hast thou done, frail Child of clay! Thy humble powers that stately shrine Taskd high and hardbut witness mine! C. IV Now launchd once more, the inland sea They furrow with fairy augury, And steer for A rrans isle; The suns ere yet he sunk behind Ben-ghoil, the Mountain of the Wind, iS15.i The Lord of the Isles. 251 Gave his grim peaks a greeting kind, And bade Lock-Ranza smile. Thither their destind course they drew It seernd the isle her monarch knew, So brilliant was Uw landward view, The ocean so serene; Each puny wave in (liamonds roild Oer the calm deep, where hue of gold With azure strove and green. The hill, the vale, the tree, the tower, Glowd with the tints of evenings hour~ The beach was silver she~n, The wind breathed soft as lovers sigh, And, oft renewd, seemd oft to die, With breathless pause between. O who, with speech of war and woes, Would wish to break the soft repose Of such enchanting scene !CANTo IV. The description of fle battle has many flue passages, though ~ts a whole it is inferiour to the battle in Marmion. We regret that we can only take some fragments of it; the 19th, 20th, 24th, and 26th stanzas. The stratagem of digging holes to throw the cavalry into confusion, and which greatly contributed to the loss of the battle by Edward, is related in a very pictu- resque way. it was a night of lovely June, High rode in cloudless blue the moon, Demayet smiled beneath her ray; O~l Sterlings towers arose in light, And, twined in links of silver bright, Her winding river lay. Ah, gentle planet other sight Shall greet thee, next returning night, Of broken arms and banners tore, And marshes dark with human gore, And piles of slaughterd men and horse, And Forth that floats the frequent corse, And many a wounded wretch to plain Beneath thy silver light in vain But now, from Englands host, the cry Thou hearst of wassail revelry, While from the Scottish legions pass The murmurd prayer, the early mass Here, numbers had presumption given; There, bands oer matchd sought aid from heaven. Vol. I. No. 2. 36 The Lord of the Isles. [July, On Gillies hill, whose height commands Tie battle-field, fair Edith stands, With serf and page unfit for war, To eye the conflict from afar. 0! with what doubtful agony She sees the dawning tint the sky Now on the Ochils gleams the sun, And glistens now Demayet dun; is it the lark that carols shrill, Is it the bitterns early hum ? No !distant, but increasing still, The trumpet sound swells up the hill With the deep murmur of the drurm Responsive from the Scottish host, Pipe-clang and bugle-sound were tossd, His breast and brow each soldier crossd, And started from the ground; Armd and arrayd for instant fight, Rose archer, spearman, squire and knight. And in the pomp of battle bright The dread battalia frownd The king with scorn beheld their flight. Are these, he said, our yeomen wight? Each braggart churl could boast before, Twelve Scottish lives his baldrick bore ~ Fitter to plunder chase or park, Than make a manly foe their mark. Forward, each gentleman and knight Let gentle blood shew generous might, 4nd chivalry redeem the fight To rightward of the wild affray, The field shewd fair and level way; But in mid-space, the Bruces care [lad bored the ground with many a pit. With turf and brushwood hidden yet, That formd a ghastly snare. Rushing, ten thousand horsemen came, With spears in rest, and hearts on flame, That panted for the shock! With blazing crests and banners spread, And trumpet-clang and clamour dread, The wide plain thunderd to their tread, As far as Sterling rock. Down! down in headlong overthrow, Horseman and horse, the foremost go, Wild floundering on the field! ~815.] Tue Lord of the Isles~ The first are in destructions gorge, Their followers wildly oer them urge The knightly helm and shield, The mail, the acton, and the spear, Strong hand, high heart, are useless here Loud from the mass confused the cry Of dying warriours swell on high, And steeds that shriek in agony They came like mountain-torrent red, That thunders oer its rocky bed; They broke like that same torrents wave When swallowd by a darksome cave. Billows on billows burst and boil, Maintaining still the stern turmoil, And to their wild and tortured groan Each adds new terrours of his own 1 Unflinching foot gainst foot was set, Unceasing blow by blow was met The groans of those who fell Were drownd amid the shriller clang, That from the blades and harness r ng, And in the battle yell. Yet fast they fell, unheard, forgot, Both Southern fierce and hardy Scot And 0 amid that waste of life, What various motives fired the strife The aspiring Noble bled for fame, The Patriot for his countrys claim; This knight his youthful strength to prove, And that to win his ladys love; Some fought from ruffian thirst of blood, From habit some, from hardihood. But ruffian stern, and soldier good The noble and the slave, From various cause the same wild road, On the same bloody morning, trode, To that dark inn, the Grave 1CANTO VI. One more quotation from the notes is subjoined for the use of our orators. The means hitherto tried to obtain eloquence and inspiration have sometimes failed; perhaps this receipt may be worth trying. Laying on the back in a dark room, with the head hound up, and a weight on the belly, appears to be a singular posture for studying. We hope some of our patriotic speakers may be induced to try the experiment ac- cording to this ancient Highland process, and communicate the result for the publick good~ 2S4 The Lord of the Isles. [Ju1y~ The character of the Highland bards, however high in an earlier period of society, seems soon to have degenerated. The Irish affirm, that in their kindred tribes severe laws be- came necessary to restrain their avarice. In the Highlands they seem gradually to have sunk into contempt, as well as the orators, or men of speech, with whose office that of family poet was often united. The orators, in their langua6e called Isdane, were in high esteem both in these islands and the continent; until within these forty years, they sat always among the nobles and chiefs of families in the streah, or ciicle. Their houses and little villages were sanctuaries, as well as churches, and they took place before doctors of physick. The orators, after the Druids were extinct, were brought in to preserve the gene- alogy of families, and to repeat the same at every succession of chief: and upon the occasion of marriages and births, they made epithalamiurns and pane0yricks, which the poet or bard pronounced. The orators, by the force of their eloquence, had a powerful ascendant over the greatest men in their time; for if any orator did hut ask the habit, arms, horse, or any other thing belonging to the greatest man in these islands, it was readily granted them, sometimes out of respect, and sonletimes for fear of being exclaimed against by a satire, which in those days was reckoned a great dishonour: but these gentlemen becoming insolent, lost ever since both the profit and esteem which was formerly due to their character; for neither their panegyricks nor satires are regarded to what they have been, and they are now allowed but a small salary. I must not omit to relate their way of study, which is very singular : They shut their doors and windows for a days time, and lie on their backs, with a stone upon their belly, and plads about their heads, and their eyes being covered, they pump their brains for rhetorical encomium or panegyrick; and indeed they furnish such a stile from this (lark cell, as is understood by very few: and if they purchase a couple of horses as the reward of their meditation, they think they have done a great matter. The poet, or bard, had a title to the bridegrooms upper garb, that is, the plad and bonnet; but now he is satisfyed with what the bridegroom pleases to give him on such occasions. NOTE 10 to C. II. 1815.) .Meteorological Journals. 28~ METEOROLOGICAL JOURNALS. THE Barometer and Thermometer used in the following observations, are of the best construction. The Baronieter is provided with a floating guage and scale of correction. The heights of the mercury are reduced to the temperature of 550 og Fahrenheit. The instruments are placed upon the side of a building having a northern aspect, about eleven feet from the ground, and thirty-one above the mean level of the sea. CAMBRIDGE, APRIL 1815. Barometer. 30.03 30.15 29.99 30.02 30.23 30,29 30.09 29.92 29.81 30.18 30.30 30.39 30.31 30.26 30.05 30.09 30.35 30.35 30.18 30.00 29.56 30.67 30.04 30. 11 29.37 29.98 29.97 29.98 30.10 30.0~ 29.68 29.86 30.00 30.03 30.01 30.02 29.71 29.71 29.96 30.06 30.1 30.15 29.88 30.5t) 29.51 29.72 30.40 30.46 30.60 30.45 30.18 30.14 30.06 30.13 30.18 30.20 29.98 29.96 29.59 30.04 Thermom.i Face of Sky. 30 34 28 38 51 38 38 3:1 3(1 4u 43 43 48 32 42 37 44 48 4; 3? 38 44 55 Si 3r 37 39 28 33 29 43 28 K 48 51 1 40 33 ;5 38 3833 4331 5 40 38 53 ~0 35, 33 51 38 52 48 38, 32 ST 4 42 63 46~ 43 39; 3337 .32 43 4040 4041 4834 4837 7052 8257 4838 4033 52~42 Fair Clo Clo Clo C~o Gb Gb Fair Fair Fair Gb Fair Fair Fair Fair Gb Fair Cl0 Gb Gb Fair Cbo Gb Fair Fair Fair Fair Gb Gb Gb Fair Gb Fair Gb Gb Gb Gb Fair Fair Gb Fair Fair Gb Fair Gb Fair Fair Fair Clo Gb Fair Gb Gb Fair Fair Fair Fair Gb Gb Gb Winds. W 2 SE N S S W2 SE NW E N SW E WI S W 1 E N W 2 SW NW S W N2 N SE N3 N W NE S SW NE2 SE 1 Ni C~3 W E2 W SW2 El w E E E SE w W Wi N W NW SW W NE NW E NE3 NW NW E S2 SW NE~ Ni N2 Phe figures 1, 2, 3, denote the degrees of force of the wind. Total of rain and snow reduced to water this month, 4.32. t.- 1 29.90 230.14 330.20 430.32 529.78 6 30.33 7 30.37 830.10 9 30.34 1030.36 1129.80 1230.00 1330.09 1429.98 1530.12 1629.85 1730.62 1830.69 1929.98 2029.92 2130.11 22 30.03 23 29.48 24 30.04 25 30.63 26 30.34 2730.14 2830.14 29 30.06 30~29.88

Meteorological Journals 285-291

1815.) .Meteorological Journals. 28~ METEOROLOGICAL JOURNALS. THE Barometer and Thermometer used in the following observations, are of the best construction. The Baronieter is provided with a floating guage and scale of correction. The heights of the mercury are reduced to the temperature of 550 og Fahrenheit. The instruments are placed upon the side of a building having a northern aspect, about eleven feet from the ground, and thirty-one above the mean level of the sea. CAMBRIDGE, APRIL 1815. Barometer. 30.03 30.15 29.99 30.02 30.23 30,29 30.09 29.92 29.81 30.18 30.30 30.39 30.31 30.26 30.05 30.09 30.35 30.35 30.18 30.00 29.56 30.67 30.04 30. 11 29.37 29.98 29.97 29.98 30.10 30.0~ 29.68 29.86 30.00 30.03 30.01 30.02 29.71 29.71 29.96 30.06 30.1 30.15 29.88 30.5t) 29.51 29.72 30.40 30.46 30.60 30.45 30.18 30.14 30.06 30.13 30.18 30.20 29.98 29.96 29.59 30.04 Thermom.i Face of Sky. 30 34 28 38 51 38 38 3:1 3(1 4u 43 43 48 32 42 37 44 48 4; 3? 38 44 55 Si 3r 37 39 28 33 29 43 28 K 48 51 1 40 33 ;5 38 3833 4331 5 40 38 53 ~0 35, 33 51 38 52 48 38, 32 ST 4 42 63 46~ 43 39; 3337 .32 43 4040 4041 4834 4837 7052 8257 4838 4033 52~42 Fair Clo Clo Clo C~o Gb Gb Fair Fair Fair Gb Fair Fair Fair Fair Gb Fair Cl0 Gb Gb Fair Cbo Gb Fair Fair Fair Fair Gb Gb Gb Fair Gb Fair Gb Gb Gb Gb Fair Fair Gb Fair Fair Gb Fair Gb Fair Fair Fair Clo Gb Fair Gb Gb Fair Fair Fair Fair Gb Gb Gb Winds. W 2 SE N S S W2 SE NW E N SW E WI S W 1 E N W 2 SW NW S W N2 N SE N3 N W NE S SW NE2 SE 1 Ni C~3 W E2 W SW2 El w E E E SE w W Wi N W NW SW W NE NW E NE3 NW NW E S2 SW NE~ Ni N2 Phe figures 1, 2, 3, denote the degrees of force of the wind. Total of rain and snow reduced to water this month, 4.32. t.- 1 29.90 230.14 330.20 430.32 529.78 6 30.33 7 30.37 830.10 9 30.34 1030.36 1129.80 1230.00 1330.09 1429.98 1530.12 1629.85 1730.62 1830.69 1929.98 2029.92 2130.11 22 30.03 23 29.48 24 30.04 25 30.63 26 30.34 2730.14 2830.14 29 30.06 30~29.88 .Meteorological Journals. MAY, 1815. Barometer. IThermorni Face of Sky c- G~ C~ c-o~C~ ~- c~ 130.16 30.l430.I2~95439 2 30.15 30.07 29.98 40 5644 29.84 29.92 30.12 30.L 30.13 30.14 30.1( 29.92 30.06 30.06 29.75 27.99 3009 30.22 30.08 29.97 30.02 29.80 30.08 30.19 30.18 30.04 29.95 30.11 30.0~3 29.97 29.75 30.06 30.20 29.03 29.96 29.91 30.02 30.11 30.16 30.16 30.16 30.12 30.13 30.12 30.11 29.98 29.96 ~9.92 30.01 30.04 30.04 30.06 29.96 29.89 29.93 30.04 30.08 30.11 30.14 30.17 30.14 29.94 29.80 29.98 30.03 29.98 29.81 29.98 30.02 30.09 30.13 30.22 30.25 30.1030.06 29.94 29.95 30.01 30.05 30.11 30.12 30.07 29.97 29.76 29.74 29.90 29.99 30.06 30.09 30.1930.20, 40 42 42 39 41 38 43 45 45 45 52 42 46 45 Sc 55 44 41 5C 54 57 65 66 57 62 62 69 53 52 Fair Fair 4037 Clo 5642 Clo 6245 Fair 55~44 Fair 4740 Clo 47 39 Clo 5941 Fair 58 42 Fair 6248 Clo 58 54 Fair 6048 Clo 53Z~8 Fair 56 57 Fair 6448 Fair 51 48 Clo S3 Fair 4038 Clo 5S42 Clo 68 S3 Fair 76 S8 Clo 74 SS Fair 78 58 Clo 74 38 Fair 71 56 Fair 79 66 Fair 7975 Clo 73 52 Clo 68 54 Fair 63 54 Fair Total of rain and snow reduced to water, 2.30. May 28, Thermometer up to 86~ at 6 P. M. 286 iJuly, Winds. 3 4 6 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 Fair Clo Clo F~iir Fair Clo Clo Fair Fair Fair Clo Clo Clo Fair Fair Clo Clo Clo Clo Fair Fair Fair Fair Fair Clo Cl0 Cl0 Fair Fair Fair Clo NW1 El NE2 N NW SE E El Wi Wi NW W W2 NW2 NW2 N W S NW1 NE 2 NW WI WI WI SW SW N W E NEl Wi W W E NE2 W W E NE SW W W W El E W W SW SW N NE NWI Wi Wi W2 W SW W SW2 SW W WI El ~zm -~ c~ ~v ~ ci~ -.~ ~ C~ c~ ~ ~ 2..~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~~:: 7 30 A. M. ~ ~ ~ c,~~f65u 1 P. NI ~ ~ ~ ~& ~ ~-jt ~I~A . ~ l5minutes E ... 0 ~ after su~SCt. ~ Maximum & ~ ofeold. ~ .~ ~ ~ ~ C~ ~ Q1 ~ 0. ~0. ~0 C.~ ~ Maximum -~! 1 ~ ~ C~n ~ ~ CX) ~ C~ ~ ~. ~ ~a of Ie:~t. 7 30 A. M. ~x 0~ ~ ~-.~1- ~ ~~C~ZZOCZ~ ~ 1 P. 1~1. ~ -w ~ ~ ~ ~ 1.., minutes ~ cx c.i cx ~ -.i & .~ ~z t ~ x after sunset. ~ ~CX ~ ~ ~ ZZ~~ 730A.M. Z~ ~: ZZZri~f Z~Z ~ ~ Z-~c,~ c?LZZ ~5minutes after sunset. 730AM El minutes after sunset. L.J CO ~ 0 0 CJ~ CD CD ~ ~ 0 z 0 ~ a 0 a- ~0 .*+I- * a a 0 ~ o ~ a. CD a- CD 0 0 a I ______________ ____________________ ~t 7 30 A. M. 1 P. M. 15 minutes after surwet c~ ~ Maximum ~ ~ aximum M ~a Cic~n of heat. 730A.M. 1P.M. 0 C~ ~ 15 minutes 2 ~ I ~ after sunset. 2~- :~~ZcLw:~cf~ ~ZZ~Z ZZ~ ~ZCL2ZcLci2Z 730A.M. ~ Z~12C~2Z C~~/~ZZZZ ~ZZZ ~~Z ~ ZtLZtTL iS minutes afier sunset. ~ 1730 A. a a I ~ C ~ a a & C ~ 15 minutes after sunset. C CD CD Ca a ~rr~ Ca 0 C CD 0~CD C ~ CD C. C C~rI~ ~ C c ~c ~ZCD CD CDc~ C. ~CDC C. C C. ~.-~C- o CCCD~ ~ PC- CD fr11 ~CD PC ~C CD C- CDp C PC Cc,2 OP IICCCD CC C C1-~CC. a C CL SC C C CD C CD 4815.] ]I/Jieteorological Journals. 289 METEOROLOGICAL JOURNAL. KEPT AT ALBANY, BY DR. JONATHAN EIGHTS. APRIL, 1815, Thermom. f Barometer. Winds. i Weather. S .1. . S ~ 1~3240 38 29.65 80 80 W N W Fair Fair 23638 36~29 70 60 65 S S E Snow Clo 334~4240129.9U 92 90 N XV W Clo Fair 4!40~0o029 8O~ 65~ 58 S S Clo Rain 550484629 15 60~ 85 S N Clo Clo 6~4)4849!99 90 98 30 S E S Clo Rain i56~5~ 50 30 10~29.92 85 W I N Fair Clo & Rn 838 4440129.851 70! 85 S SE! Rain Rain 9j40~50 4630 00~ 3 30.00 N N Fair Clo 104446489995 65 60 5 S E Fair R~in 11 06~5229 40i 40 50 8 i W Clo Fair 12~18o6I469 801 801 801 N XV N W Fair Fair l3~%6.iO29 80 75 701 5 S W Fair Rain 144644 44 99 ~o 60~ 70 N XV N W Clo Clo & Rn 1536524899 90 681 68 S S Fair Clo 164o~6 5029.53 501 55! 5 .N XV Fair Fair 1738555529.70 70! 70 N N Fair Clo 1 8~ i4701 6629.70 701 64 5 5 E Fair Clo 191581585629 5% 50 50 5 E N Rain Clo 2046605329.75! 75 75 N W N W Fair Fair 2150162582985 801 80 5 5 Fair Fuir 99!506054297() 58 5% 5 N XV Fair Clo 2348 o5229.3s1 ~ co! N N do Rain 244854 4629 82!30.5 B) N N Fair Fair 25146~585230.20i 10 8 N S Fair Fair 26~50 68 6 30 5 29.90 85 5 E S E Fair Fair 2758756(329.85 85 90 5 5 Fair Fair 2858865629.80 85 85 5 S E Fair Fair 29 505048 29.80! ~ 70 S XV Rain Rain 30 iG 50 1829.70! 75 851 N NW Rain Clo Disec ses. --Measlw. Remittent Fe vers, Rhcurnatisrns, Gout. Intermittent VoL. 1. No. 2. 37 290 LJuly~ .iiieteoroiogical Journal MAY, 1315. Thermom. Barometer. Wind~. b - .~ Q i . 1486 5029.9w 901 90 N N 2465314829.881 73 78 N N 3461524829.55 56 55 S S E 4~48~565029.68~ 75\ 30 W W 95 95 W W 64315252~29.901 80 80 s s 74815056129.701 801 80 S W 8146524829 K 85 85 N N 94852~5 70 65 S S 0129 80 JQ56434~Qq 7 tO 70 1N XV I I4654150~29 701 75 S 121455556129 801 4 5~ 45 S SE 1354555229 64 70 70 W W I45052,4~1Q9 80 ~0 90 W N 1540l56l50~29 901 901 90 N W 16506058299030 529.85 W S E 1752 56 o~29 701 50 s~ S S 1815662W 29 ~0 7& 75 XV W 03 191485515029.681 62 60 N W N W 20A65046~29.50 68 75 W W 21454515829.501 90 90 XV W 22557216830.0030.0029.85 XV S 23164l78i72~29.851 7230.00 ~ 246417417029.80 80~ 80 5 W 25587062~29.80 80 80 XV N W 2616017065129 9029 90 90 W W 271567470129.90 901 75 W S E 28 6& 801 80126.78 68 60 W W 2970~65162129.60 80 80N W N W 30J8~70162l29.90i 90 90 W. N W 31C6172l66~29.90~ 62 82 5 E S E XVeatlier. o Fair Clo Clo Fair Fair Cl0 Rain Clo Fair Fair Pain Cm Clo Fair Clo Fair Clo Fair Rain Clo Fair Fair Fair Fair Fair Fair Fair Fair Rain Fair Fair Cm Clo Rain Fair Fair ill am Cm Clo Rain Fair Clo Rain Fair Clo Faii Fair Clo Fai Clo Clo Fair Fair Fur Fair Fair Fair Fair Fair Fair Fair Gb DiseasesRemittent and intermittent fevers, measles, gout, catarrhs, rheumatismsThe remittent fevers were attended with a great suffusion of bile; the eyes, skin, nails, being highly colouredTyphoid symptoms werepresent in a number of cases. T e month of May has been uncommonly cold and wetVegetation muc backward. May 19~ rain and thunder. 1816.] .ViaceUaneeue and Literary IntelLjgence. 291 MISCELLANEOUS AND LITERARY INTELLIGENCE. orlIaflS or in AMERICAN ACADEMY OF ARTS AND SCIENCES. Elected at their ssmmsi meet.,, .Pdsv 30, 1815. EDWARD H. HoLyon, M. D. President. JOHN T. KIRKLAND, D.D. L.LD. Vice President. Hon. George Cabot, Rev. John Latlirop, D.D. Caleb Gannett, Esq. Hon. John Davis, LLD. Rev. James Freeman, D.D. COUNSELLORS. Aaron Dexter, M.D. Hon. Thomas Dawes, Rev. Henry Ware, D.D. Charles Bulfinch, Esq. Win. D. Peck, Professor Natural History. John Farrar, Prof. Math. Recording Secretary. Hon. Josiah Quincy, Corresponding Secretary Thomas k Winthrop, E% Treasurer. John C. Warren, M.D. Vice Treasurer. Rev. Dr. Lathrop, Librarian. John Gorham, M.D. Cabinet KeepeL COMMITTEE OF PUBLICATIONS. Rev. Dr. Kirkland. Rev. Dr. Freea Hon. Nathaniel Bowditch, Esq. ProL Willard. ProC Farrar. The Linnuan Society of Massachusetts had their first quar. terly meeting at the Athenmum, in June; when an introductory address was delivered to the members by the Hon. Judge Davis, which we have a hope may be published in the next number of this journaL Thjs society, which has been very recently organ- ised, has already made a considerable progress in collecting a cabinet of specimens in the different departments of Natural History; and their institution will hered~ be a splendid and valuable addition to our scientifick establishments. The Massachusetts Bible Society have made their annual report in June, by which it appears, that they have distributed, in the course of the year, 2296 Bibles and 632 Testaments; that the receipts of the year, including the balance from last year of 52333,63, are 55377,12; that their expenditures are short of this sum 51631,49, which is a balance remaining in the treas- urers hands.

American Academy 291-292

1816.] .ViaceUaneeue and Literary IntelLjgence. 291 MISCELLANEOUS AND LITERARY INTELLIGENCE. orlIaflS or in AMERICAN ACADEMY OF ARTS AND SCIENCES. Elected at their ssmmsi meet.,, .Pdsv 30, 1815. EDWARD H. HoLyon, M. D. President. JOHN T. KIRKLAND, D.D. L.LD. Vice President. Hon. George Cabot, Rev. John Latlirop, D.D. Caleb Gannett, Esq. Hon. John Davis, LLD. Rev. James Freeman, D.D. COUNSELLORS. Aaron Dexter, M.D. Hon. Thomas Dawes, Rev. Henry Ware, D.D. Charles Bulfinch, Esq. Win. D. Peck, Professor Natural History. John Farrar, Prof. Math. Recording Secretary. Hon. Josiah Quincy, Corresponding Secretary Thomas k Winthrop, E% Treasurer. John C. Warren, M.D. Vice Treasurer. Rev. Dr. Lathrop, Librarian. John Gorham, M.D. Cabinet KeepeL COMMITTEE OF PUBLICATIONS. Rev. Dr. Kirkland. Rev. Dr. Freea Hon. Nathaniel Bowditch, Esq. ProL Willard. ProC Farrar. The Linnuan Society of Massachusetts had their first quar. terly meeting at the Athenmum, in June; when an introductory address was delivered to the members by the Hon. Judge Davis, which we have a hope may be published in the next number of this journaL Thjs society, which has been very recently organ- ised, has already made a considerable progress in collecting a cabinet of specimens in the different departments of Natural History; and their institution will hered~ be a splendid and valuable addition to our scientifick establishments. The Massachusetts Bible Society have made their annual report in June, by which it appears, that they have distributed, in the course of the year, 2296 Bibles and 632 Testaments; that the receipts of the year, including the balance from last year of 52333,63, are 55377,12; that their expenditures are short of this sum 51631,49, which is a balance remaining in the treas- urers hands. 7IiisceilaI cous and Literary [July~ ~XFLLS & LILLY, Boston, have just 1)UblishCd, The Lord of the lies, a poem, by Walter Scott, elegantV printed; price in extra boards one dollar. An Essay on the Character and Practical Writings of Saint Paul, by Hannah More, two volumes in one, extra boards, price ~l. Edinburgh Review for November, 1814 ; bein~ No. 47, price to subscribers . 1 25. Edinburgh Review, volume sixth, price to subscribers , 2 nO. A Letter to the Rev. S. Thacher, on the Aspersions con- tained in a late number of the Panoplist, on the Ministers of Boston and the vicinity, by Win. E. Channing, Minister of the Church of Christ in Federal-street, Boston, second edition, price 20 cents sewed; 1 50 per dozen. Latin Classicks, vols 5 and 6, of the works of Cicero; con- isting of Orations. 7rhev Ii ave iii press, and s ~ill be ready in a few days, Disci- pline, a novel: by the author of Self Control; in two volumes I2mo. Also, Memoirs of the Dc Castro family. WILLIAM PLIJMER, JUN. of Epping, N. H. is preparing for pub- lication, a History of the late war between the United States and Great-Britain. In reviewing the causes of the war, an ac- count will be given of the most important controversies and ne- gotiatious, which have taken place between England and this country from the peace of 1703 to the war of 1812, accompa- nied by such notices of French aggressions as seem necessarily connected with the principal subject. Particular attention will also be bestowed on the effects of the war, on the state of parties, and the civil institutions of the United States ; on the internal condition of the country, its commerce, arts, arid manu- factures; and on the probable influence of the late contest on the future relations of the two countries. Four Histories of the late war, besides that of Mr. Plumer s in New-hampshire, are advertised to be published. Some of them with plates. One in Philadelphia in 4 vols. ; one in New- Yorh one at Cayuga, state of New-York; and one in Kentucky. In a short time will be ready for the press, Travels through New-England and New-York. In this ~ork observations will be made concerning the Topo- graphy, Soil, Climate, Agriculture, Natural and Artificial Pro- ductions, Manufactures, Commerce, Learning, Manners, Morals, Government, and Religion, of these countries; the character of he abori ~ ines; the first Colonists, and the present Inhabitants, will be exhibited; and remarks will be made concerning the accounts given of these countries, by Europe~n travellers.

Intelligence 292-294

7IiisceilaI cous and Literary [July~ ~XFLLS & LILLY, Boston, have just 1)UblishCd, The Lord of the lies, a poem, by Walter Scott, elegantV printed; price in extra boards one dollar. An Essay on the Character and Practical Writings of Saint Paul, by Hannah More, two volumes in one, extra boards, price ~l. Edinburgh Review for November, 1814 ; bein~ No. 47, price to subscribers . 1 25. Edinburgh Review, volume sixth, price to subscribers , 2 nO. A Letter to the Rev. S. Thacher, on the Aspersions con- tained in a late number of the Panoplist, on the Ministers of Boston and the vicinity, by Win. E. Channing, Minister of the Church of Christ in Federal-street, Boston, second edition, price 20 cents sewed; 1 50 per dozen. Latin Classicks, vols 5 and 6, of the works of Cicero; con- isting of Orations. 7rhev Ii ave iii press, and s ~ill be ready in a few days, Disci- pline, a novel: by the author of Self Control; in two volumes I2mo. Also, Memoirs of the Dc Castro family. WILLIAM PLIJMER, JUN. of Epping, N. H. is preparing for pub- lication, a History of the late war between the United States and Great-Britain. In reviewing the causes of the war, an ac- count will be given of the most important controversies and ne- gotiatious, which have taken place between England and this country from the peace of 1703 to the war of 1812, accompa- nied by such notices of French aggressions as seem necessarily connected with the principal subject. Particular attention will also be bestowed on the effects of the war, on the state of parties, and the civil institutions of the United States ; on the internal condition of the country, its commerce, arts, arid manu- factures; and on the probable influence of the late contest on the future relations of the two countries. Four Histories of the late war, besides that of Mr. Plumer s in New-hampshire, are advertised to be published. Some of them with plates. One in Philadelphia in 4 vols. ; one in New- Yorh one at Cayuga, state of New-York; and one in Kentucky. In a short time will be ready for the press, Travels through New-England and New-York. In this ~ork observations will be made concerning the Topo- graphy, Soil, Climate, Agriculture, Natural and Artificial Pro- ductions, Manufactures, Commerce, Learning, Manners, Morals, Government, and Religion, of these countries; the character of he abori ~ ines; the first Colonists, and the present Inhabitants, will be exhibited; and remarks will be made concerning the accounts given of these countries, by Europe~n travellers. 1815.1 Intelligence. 293 The j)urnies, whence these observations have been principal- ly derived, have been made through most parts of both coun- tries, and have occupied more than two years. A work of this kind both for ourselves, as well as for foreigners. has long been wanting. We have no good descriptive work or our own country. Those who travel in it for amusement, or in~ struction, are obliged to grope their way without any guide, either to the natural beauties, the remarkable productions, or historical~ anecdotes, a knowledge of which affords such great assistance, and so much increases the pleasure of the traveller. Such work is a desideratum. The publick, when they are informed, as we have been, that the author is the Rev. Dr. Dwight, Pre- sident of Yale College, whose reputation has been too long es- tablished, to require any thing more than the mention of his name, will expect its publication with impatience. Memoirs of John howard Payne, the American Roscius: with criticisms on his acting in America, England, and Ireland. published in Marchprice Cs. The Memoirs and confessions of Captain Thomas Ashe, au- thor of the Spirit of the Book, Travels in America, & c. are pre- paring for the press. This captain Ashe and Sergeant Cobbet, are the two principal authorities for all the libels published in England against the United States. The memoirs and confes- sions, if sincere, of a professed libeller, might be of some use. In London and its subnrhi, there were in the year 1814, 20,170 children christened, and 19,783 persons buried. Of these. 1343 were between 70 and 80592 between 80 and 9088 be- tween 90 and 100and 3 from 100 to iii years of age. The number exccuted in London was seventeen. The Russian Governmcnt has fixed on three depots for the importation of books: the cities of Ri~ a and Revel, and by land. the town of Redeziwilow. Very few books are allowed to pass direct to Petersburgh, and French worl s especially are examined with great strictness. Mr. Swartz has published at Leipsic, the History of Education, from the most ancient times to the present day. He begins by treating of education among the Indians, the Egyptians, the Per. sians, the Babylonians, the Arabs, Phenicians, Carthaummans~ Phry ians and Lydians. The second period, which the writer calls the elassick period, begins x -ith the Hebrews, and passes on to the Creeks and Romans. The history of education among christians is (liVi ed into several pcriods ; the spread of educa~ 294 Arvcellaeoua and Literary Into Wgessce. (July, tionthe methodsthe objectshave all acquired additional consoquence in the estimation of the judicious. The members of the French Institute, whose names were last year cipunged, are Napoleon Bonaparte, Lucien Bonaparte, Joseph Bonaparte, (hyton do Morveau, Carnot, Mo~, Cam. baceres, Merlin, Randerer, Garat, Sieyes, Lakanal, Gregoire, Cardinal Mary, and David the painter. Mr. Olbers of Bremen, one of the most assiduous and success- ful observers in Europe, diacovereda comet near the constellation of Perseus. It can only be seen with the best telescopes. At 55 minutes after 10 oclock, it had 490 V of right ascension, and 390 7 north declination. .The 7th of March, at 40 minutes past?, the right ascension was 490 22, and thenorthdeclination 330 22. Thus it advances slowly towards the constellation of Perseus in a north-east direction. The Arch Duke Charles of Austria has composed a history of the Campaigns of 1798, which is announced for publication in the Vienna papers. Lucien Bonaparte, in one of the notes to his poem on Charle- magne, has announced his intention to publish a second epick at some future tine, the title of which is to be the a~.e& , from Cirnos, the Greek name of Corsica. Vine final expulsion of the Saracens from that island, with descriptions of the manners of the Wanders, forms the subject This poem, the author tells us, is intended to bear that relation to Charlemagne, which the Iliad bears to the Odyssey, as it will be in some measure connected with it; Isolier, one of the subordinate characters in Charle- inagne, being its hero. ENGLisH Nzwsnrsas. By a return made to the House of Com- mons from the Post-Office, it appears, that in 1814, the number of Dailypapera sent to the Colonies was 189,503. charge Lii 14*. do. to the Continent 915,76. charge from Lii to L14 Lv. Number of foreign papers imported was 62,301 from France, 4368 from the N~therlands, 3744 from Germany 5304 from all other parts. The number of newspapers despatched from the general Post-Office to different parts of England, Scotland and Ireland, for three montha in 1814 and 1815, as follows: Duuiv Sensing. fljj1~~ Sense Days. ni. Feb. March, April, 1814. 16,537 US$59 98,378 81,991 Nov. Dee. 1814 Jan. 1815. 17,765 912,039 90,016 74,120. The result is an increase of the Daily Morning Papers of 1229, and a decree in three months of all the others, of 94,228. From this it would appear, that.there are few things more affected by ar than newspapers.

Comet discovered 294

294 Arvcellaeoua and Literary Into Wgessce. (July, tionthe methodsthe objectshave all acquired additional consoquence in the estimation of the judicious. The members of the French Institute, whose names were last year cipunged, are Napoleon Bonaparte, Lucien Bonaparte, Joseph Bonaparte, (hyton do Morveau, Carnot, Mo~, Cam. baceres, Merlin, Randerer, Garat, Sieyes, Lakanal, Gregoire, Cardinal Mary, and David the painter. Mr. Olbers of Bremen, one of the most assiduous and success- ful observers in Europe, diacovereda comet near the constellation of Perseus. It can only be seen with the best telescopes. At 55 minutes after 10 oclock, it had 490 V of right ascension, and 390 7 north declination. .The 7th of March, at 40 minutes past?, the right ascension was 490 22, and thenorthdeclination 330 22. Thus it advances slowly towards the constellation of Perseus in a north-east direction. The Arch Duke Charles of Austria has composed a history of the Campaigns of 1798, which is announced for publication in the Vienna papers. Lucien Bonaparte, in one of the notes to his poem on Charle- magne, has announced his intention to publish a second epick at some future tine, the title of which is to be the a~.e& , from Cirnos, the Greek name of Corsica. Vine final expulsion of the Saracens from that island, with descriptions of the manners of the Wanders, forms the subject This poem, the author tells us, is intended to bear that relation to Charlemagne, which the Iliad bears to the Odyssey, as it will be in some measure connected with it; Isolier, one of the subordinate characters in Charle- inagne, being its hero. ENGLisH Nzwsnrsas. By a return made to the House of Com- mons from the Post-Office, it appears, that in 1814, the number of Dailypapera sent to the Colonies was 189,503. charge Lii 14*. do. to the Continent 915,76. charge from Lii to L14 Lv. Number of foreign papers imported was 62,301 from France, 4368 from the N~therlands, 3744 from Germany 5304 from all other parts. The number of newspapers despatched from the general Post-Office to different parts of England, Scotland and Ireland, for three montha in 1814 and 1815, as follows: Duuiv Sensing. fljj1~~ Sense Days. ni. Feb. March, April, 1814. 16,537 US$59 98,378 81,991 Nov. Dee. 1814 Jan. 1815. 17,765 912,039 90,016 74,120. The result is an increase of the Daily Morning Papers of 1229, and a decree in three months of all the others, of 94,228. From this it would appear, that.there are few things more affected by ar than newspapers.

English Newspapers 294-295

294 Arvcellaeoua and Literary Into Wgessce. (July, tionthe methodsthe objectshave all acquired additional consoquence in the estimation of the judicious. The members of the French Institute, whose names were last year cipunged, are Napoleon Bonaparte, Lucien Bonaparte, Joseph Bonaparte, (hyton do Morveau, Carnot, Mo~, Cam. baceres, Merlin, Randerer, Garat, Sieyes, Lakanal, Gregoire, Cardinal Mary, and David the painter. Mr. Olbers of Bremen, one of the most assiduous and success- ful observers in Europe, diacovereda comet near the constellation of Perseus. It can only be seen with the best telescopes. At 55 minutes after 10 oclock, it had 490 V of right ascension, and 390 7 north declination. .The 7th of March, at 40 minutes past?, the right ascension was 490 22, and thenorthdeclination 330 22. Thus it advances slowly towards the constellation of Perseus in a north-east direction. The Arch Duke Charles of Austria has composed a history of the Campaigns of 1798, which is announced for publication in the Vienna papers. Lucien Bonaparte, in one of the notes to his poem on Charle- magne, has announced his intention to publish a second epick at some future tine, the title of which is to be the a~.e& , from Cirnos, the Greek name of Corsica. Vine final expulsion of the Saracens from that island, with descriptions of the manners of the Wanders, forms the subject This poem, the author tells us, is intended to bear that relation to Charlemagne, which the Iliad bears to the Odyssey, as it will be in some measure connected with it; Isolier, one of the subordinate characters in Charle- inagne, being its hero. ENGLisH Nzwsnrsas. By a return made to the House of Com- mons from the Post-Office, it appears, that in 1814, the number of Dailypapera sent to the Colonies was 189,503. charge Lii 14*. do. to the Continent 915,76. charge from Lii to L14 Lv. Number of foreign papers imported was 62,301 from France, 4368 from the N~therlands, 3744 from Germany 5304 from all other parts. The number of newspapers despatched from the general Post-Office to different parts of England, Scotland and Ireland, for three montha in 1814 and 1815, as follows: Duuiv Sensing. fljj1~~ Sense Days. ni. Feb. March, April, 1814. 16,537 US$59 98,378 81,991 Nov. Dee. 1814 Jan. 1815. 17,765 912,039 90,016 74,120. The result is an increase of the Daily Morning Papers of 1229, and a decree in three months of all the others, of 94,228. From this it would appear, that.there are few things more affected by ar than newspapers. ~8l5.] Obituary. 2~ OBITUARY. DEATHS OF REMARKABLE PERSONS AT DOME. In New-Hampshire. In Bern, the widow Sarah Beebe, in tire 100th year of her are. lie Massachusetts. At Plymouth, Hon. William Watson, aged 85. lIe held various important civil offices at different periods, and through a long life was a most respectable citizen. In Haverhill, Dr. Nathaniel Salton- stall, aged 69. He was desceisded of one of the oldest families in New- England. Never ambitious of publick, he practised all the duties and charities of private life, and died beloved and respected. At Gay-head, Mrs. Skiff, aged 100 years and nine months. In Boston, Samuel Torrey, Esq. aged 57, a respech ble merchant. James Ivers Esq. aged 88 years, worthy citizen. In Alfred, Dr. John hlulbert, aged 83. In Stockbridge, Colonel E. Williams; both these venerable citizens were greatly respected. in Williamstown, [Ion. Daniel Dewey, aged 48, lately a member of Con- ~ress, and one of the Justices of the Supreme Judicial Court of Massachu- etts. In Salem, George Crowninshield, Esq. aged 81. In Rhode-Island. In Providence, Hon. Jabez Bowen, aged 76, for many years Chancellor of Brown University. In New-Jersey. At New-Brunswick, Hon. Robert Morris, aged 71, Dis- Irict Judge of the District of New-Jersey. In Penesylnania. In Philadelphia, Bri,,adier General Jonathan Will- iams, aged 64, born in Boston. He was for many years at the head of the corps of Enaineers, a vice-President of tire American Philosophical Society, and recently elected a Member of Congress. General Francis Curney; eminent for patriotism, services and virtue. . Thomas Willin~ Francis; Esq. aged 48, an eminent merchant. In Lancaster, Rev. henry Muhlen- burg, Dl). abed 63, a distinguished scientifick character. In Maryland. Hon. John Hanson Thomas, a very active and distin- guished politician. General Roger Nelson, a patriot of the revolution, and a member of Congress. fa Virgieie. lion. Matthew Clay, Member of Congress. In Lonisiano. General F. L. Claiborne. DE~THS BY VIOLENCE. lie New-Hampshire. In Dover, James Varney, suicide, by cuttina his throat. In Massachusetts. in Boston, F. Oberhart, a German confectioner, murdered in his shop hetwedn the hours of nine arid ten in the evening The perpetrators have not been discovered. A proclamation has heen issued by the Governour, offering a reward of two hundred dollars for de- tection of the murderers. I Maine. Mrs. Adams, wife of the High Sheriff of the county of Lin- coln, was murdered in- her own house in the middle of the day. Her husband was suspected of having committed this shocking crime, was ar- rested, has been tried and acquitted. In Connecticut. In Reading, Mr. A. Nichols, suicide, by hanging him- self with his garter Ire Ves-mont. In Plattsburgh, Andrew Toy, a soldier, killed accidentally while playing with bayonets with one of his comrades. In Waltham, near Middlebury, Isaac Hobbs, aged 73, was ourdered by his son-in-law, Selab

Deaths 295-296

~8l5.] Obituary. 2~ OBITUARY. DEATHS OF REMARKABLE PERSONS AT DOME. In New-Hampshire. In Bern, the widow Sarah Beebe, in tire 100th year of her are. lie Massachusetts. At Plymouth, Hon. William Watson, aged 85. lIe held various important civil offices at different periods, and through a long life was a most respectable citizen. In Haverhill, Dr. Nathaniel Salton- stall, aged 69. He was desceisded of one of the oldest families in New- England. Never ambitious of publick, he practised all the duties and charities of private life, and died beloved and respected. At Gay-head, Mrs. Skiff, aged 100 years and nine months. In Boston, Samuel Torrey, Esq. aged 57, a respech ble merchant. James Ivers Esq. aged 88 years, worthy citizen. In Alfred, Dr. John hlulbert, aged 83. In Stockbridge, Colonel E. Williams; both these venerable citizens were greatly respected. in Williamstown, [Ion. Daniel Dewey, aged 48, lately a member of Con- ~ress, and one of the Justices of the Supreme Judicial Court of Massachu- etts. In Salem, George Crowninshield, Esq. aged 81. In Rhode-Island. In Providence, Hon. Jabez Bowen, aged 76, for many years Chancellor of Brown University. In New-Jersey. At New-Brunswick, Hon. Robert Morris, aged 71, Dis- Irict Judge of the District of New-Jersey. In Penesylnania. In Philadelphia, Bri,,adier General Jonathan Will- iams, aged 64, born in Boston. He was for many years at the head of the corps of Enaineers, a vice-President of tire American Philosophical Society, and recently elected a Member of Congress. General Francis Curney; eminent for patriotism, services and virtue. . Thomas Willin~ Francis; Esq. aged 48, an eminent merchant. In Lancaster, Rev. henry Muhlen- burg, Dl). abed 63, a distinguished scientifick character. In Maryland. Hon. John Hanson Thomas, a very active and distin- guished politician. General Roger Nelson, a patriot of the revolution, and a member of Congress. fa Virgieie. lion. Matthew Clay, Member of Congress. In Lonisiano. General F. L. Claiborne. DE~THS BY VIOLENCE. lie New-Hampshire. In Dover, James Varney, suicide, by cuttina his throat. In Massachusetts. in Boston, F. Oberhart, a German confectioner, murdered in his shop hetwedn the hours of nine arid ten in the evening The perpetrators have not been discovered. A proclamation has heen issued by the Governour, offering a reward of two hundred dollars for de- tection of the murderers. I Maine. Mrs. Adams, wife of the High Sheriff of the county of Lin- coln, was murdered in- her own house in the middle of the day. Her husband was suspected of having committed this shocking crime, was ar- rested, has been tried and acquitted. In Connecticut. In Reading, Mr. A. Nichols, suicide, by hanging him- self with his garter Ire Ves-mont. In Plattsburgh, Andrew Toy, a soldier, killed accidentally while playing with bayonets with one of his comrades. In Waltham, near Middlebury, Isaac Hobbs, aged 73, was ourdered by his son-in-law, Selab 296 Obituary. [July, Hickox. It is said, that a family quarrel had long existed; on the day of his death, Mr. Hobbs was at the house of Hickox, a contest arose, he was ordered out ofthe house, was followed by Hickox, and beaten by him with a club, so that he died. A jury of inquest pronounced a verdict of wilful m- rder. Hiekox has been arrested. In Peansyluania. At Philadelphia, a young man named Emanuel Caux, shot himself In Maryland, Colonel Jarvis Spencer, assassinated by interposing to save the life of a friend. in Virginia. At Norfolk, nn under-sheriff, killed by a negro, whom he was conveying to prison. In Aorth-Carolina, Bela XV. Strong, Esq. killed in a duel. In South- Carolina. in Charleston, Dr. David Ramsay, aged 81, shot in the street by an insane person. Doctor Ramsay was the most distinguish- ed literary character of the Southern States, aud has published several valuable works. In the same city, a Jew Broker, named Devallers, killed in a quarrel with his brother-in-law, by a stroke from an umbrella stick, Captain E. Dick, of the United States 18th regiment, killed in a duel with Captain Hampton of the 43d regiment. Ia,Georgia, Robert Besseut, Esq. on his way to St. Marya, was robbed and murdered by six spaniards. He had with him in nioney and bonds, about 130,000 dollars, belon~ing to the United ~itates. One of the assassins was shot in the attempt to apprehend him. Two men have been taken up on suspicion. DEATHS OF REMAEEABL PERSONS AaRoAD. In England. Mrs. Abington, a celebrated Actress, at the age of 76. She had retired from the stage many years since. Many of the princip~ 1 char -actera iti the best modern comedies, were originally played by tier. Sir ~Villiam Shirley, Bart, aged 43, grandson of a former governour of Massa- chusettsthe title is extinct, In Scotland. John Davies aged 108. He walked once every week till his death, six miles. Lieu-tenant General Sir James Stuart, who won the battle of Maids. William Harrison, Esq. F. R. S. aged 88. Lady Mary Fitxgerald, .aged 90. Her death was oceasioi ad by her clothes having accidentally caught fire. Captain K. II. Baudin, aged 5~, the last remain- ing officer of the battle of Quebec, in which Wolfe was killed. lit Paris. The celebrated chemist, M. Parmentier, Lieutenant General Count de Serras. lit Vienna. M. Scavinger, one of the best chemists iii Germ~ ny. H lost his life in preparing some Prussia acid, ~vbicti lie spilt on his arm. In Switzerland. Dr. Mesmer, aged dl, the High Priest of Anhual Mag- netism. At Presburg, aged 82, the Princess Dowager of Lorraine. lit Venice. The Austrian General de Chasteller, sinobed by a Venetian ~ady iii a fit of jealousy.

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The North American review. / Volume 1, Issue 3 North-American review and miscellaneous journal University of Northern Iowa Cedar Falls, Iowa, etc. September 1815 0001 003
Books relating to America 297-307

NORTH-AMERICAN REVIEW AND MISCELLANEOUS JOURNAL N~. ILL SEPTEMBER, 1815. The Simple Co bier of 1lgavvarn zn America. Willing to help mend his Native Country, lamentably tattered, both in the upper-Leather aia sole, with all the I~onest stiches he can take. And US will ~o never to bee paftt for his work, by Old English wonted pay. It is his Trade to patch all the year long, gratis. Therefore I p ray Gentlemen keep your purses. By Theodore de Ia Guard. In rebus arduis ac ternii spe, fortissima qu~que consilia tutissima sunt.Cic. In English, When bootes and shoes are tome up to the tefts, (Cobters must thrust their aevies up to the hefts. This no time tofeare Apelles gramm: Ne Sutor quidein ultra crepidam. London, printed by J. D. & R. I. for Stephen Bowlell, at the signe of the Bible in Popes Head-Alley, 1647. Tuss work is in its manner one of the most quaint and. pedantick of a period, when quaintness and pedantry were the fashion; and in its principles one of the most violent and enthusiastick of an age, when violence and enthusiasm in religious affairs were almost universal. The authors political opinions are on the side of the Commonwealth party, though he professes great loyalty to the King: he ~hews himself to be a zealous puritan; and with willin~nes~ Vol. 1 No 8~ Boo s relathtg to America. lo concede whatever is indiferent; he is the stubborn advocate of the most violent inlolerance and relentless per~ ~ccut ion. The work ho vever is extremely curious, as the production of a scholar and a man of talents at so early a period o our history, and as a tording many inferences re- specti rig the state of society at that time. The author wa iYadwniet 1 ard, horn at ilaverhill, in England, in 1570, the son of a clerjim n of the esta li ied church. lie re~ ceived a degree of Master of Arts at Cambridge in 1595. lie first studied law, travelled over several countries of the Continent, lie studied under Pareus at Heidelberg, and there can ~lit the principles of Calvinism, which proved afterwards to be of the most violent sort. He came to this country in 1634, and remained here some years, and was for a short period settled as a preacher at Ipswich, called Ag. awam by the lndi~ us. ~Le, returned to England in 1647, and settled~a~ ~ie~eid~ Mjhere he died.* The following extract ujil give an idea of his principles and ~iyi~. My heart hath naturally detested fonre things: The staudinp of the Apocr r ha in the Bible ; Forrainers dwell- irig in my Countrey, to croi d our native Subjects into the corners of the Earth; Aichymized comes; Tolera- tions of divers Religions, or of one Religion in s egregant ~hap es: He that IVugly a~ cuts to the last, if he exam- ines his heart by iay-light, his conscience will tell him, he is either an Athiest, or an Heretique, or an Hypocrite, or at best a captive to o e lust: polypiety is the greatest impiety in th world, rue R l:~ion is Ignis pro bationis, which doth ci are I ornogenea & segregare hetero- genea. Au easie b ad ma~ ~oon demonstrate; that the premen- tioned Pianters, by Tol -rating all Religions, had immazed thei s I es in th mo t ii tolerable confusions and inextri- cabie .1 raidon7 t or d e ~er heard of. I am perswadcd the Devill hil ~s fe ~as n ~er willin~ with their proceedings, for feare it won d ir i.e his xvii d and wits to attend such a I rovi~i e. I eake i s riously according to my meaning. lie v all Pcli~ions hou~ enjoy their liberty, Justice iL *ffi the M ntbh Anthology fe.. ay 18 9, under the arti le Retrospecihs Revkrr there is a particul r ceo et of Ward, our his 15 rkc. This probably aihides to Rh de hiaxaL Books relating to Arnertca. 299 due regularity, Civil cohabitation inorall honesty, in on~ and the same Lurisdiction, is beyond the Artiqiie of my comprehension. If the whole conclave of Hell c~ri o compromise, exadverse, and diamaticall contradictions, as to coinpolitize such a multiuionstrous maufrey of hetero- clytes and quicquidlibets quietly ; I trust I may s~y with all humble reverence, they can doe more than d S~nate of Heaven. My modas loquendi pardoned: I intirely wish much welfare and more wisdom to that Plant.~ tion. These extracts are a specimen of th authors i placa- ble and intolerant spirit in religious i atters. Like others of his school, his zeal can only be equalled by his r neon, and not satisfied with condemniub th onls of those who differ from him to eteriial perdition i i the other wo Id, he would devote their bodies to the mon relentie: persecution in this. How strange it appears to reason, ho v natural to human nature, that men who ha~I been driven by perse u- tion to cross the Atiantick, should become persec ito s. How fully it illustrates the maxim, t1~at those who would suffer martyrdom would inflict it. II is political principles, though violent, were not so absurd; there is much truth and sagacity in the followin~ remarks. Wee heare that lajestas Imperii liath challenged ~alus Populi into the field; the one fi~hting for Prerogatives, the other defending Liberties: Were I a Constable bigge enough, I would set one of them by the heeles to keep both their hands quiet; I meane onely in a paire of Stocks, made of sound Reason, handsomely fitted for the legges of their Understanding. If ~Salus Populi began, surely it was not that Sums Populi which I left in England: that Salus Popul was as mannerly a Sums Populi as need bee: if I bee not much deceived, that Salus Populi sufferd its nose to be held to the Grindstone, till it was almost gro~ nd to the gr istles; and yet grew never the sharper for ought I co ild discerne; What was, before the world was made, I leave to better Antiquaries then myself; but I thinke, since the world began, it was never storyed that Salud Populi be- gan with .Lllajestas Irnperii, unlesse Ala jestas fmperii first unharbourd ii, and hunted it to a stand, and then it must either turn head and live, or turn taile and dye: but more have benne soryed on the other hand than 1. cijestas Lu- per ii is willina to he r 1 doubt not I ut fliajestas hnper~ 300 Books relating te-Ameriew. F knows, that Commonwealths cost as much the making as Crones; and if they bee well made, would yet outsell F an iifashioned Crown, in any Market ovefl, even in Smith field, if they could be well touched. But Frecee & Lackrym, are the peoples weapons; so are Swords and F Pistols, when God and Parliaments bid them Arme. Prayers and Testes are good weapons for them that have nothing but knees and eyes; but most men are made with teeth and miles; onely they must neither scratch for Liberties, nor bite Prerogatives, till they have wept and as (kid would have them. If Subjects must tight ; yrared or their Kings against other Kingdoms, when their Kings wili; I know no reason, but they may tight against their Kings for their on Kingdoms, when Parliaments my 5 they may and must: but Parliaments must not my they 5 must, till God sayes they may.* His address to the King, towardp whom he was very bit- ter, is bold and ipsulting, though he pr6fesses great loyalty and tevorenpe. The following is one of the concluding paragraphs of the address. Sir you may now please to discover, your Selfe where you please; I trust I have not indangered you: I presume your Eare-guard will keep farre enough from you what ever I have said: be it so,1 have discharged my duty, let them look to theirs. If my tongue should reach your eares, which I little hope for; Let it be once said; the great King of rat Britain., tooke advise of a simple Cobler, yet such a Cobler, as will not exchange either his blood or his pride, with any Shoo-maker or Tanner in your Realme, nor with any of your late Bishops which hare flattered you thus in peeces: would not speak. thusinthe earsof the worl, u h the mouth of the Presse for all the plunder your plunderers have pillaged; were it not somewhat to abate your Boyall indignation tonrd a loyall Subject; a Subject whose heart hath beene long carbonadoed, des imiam nrbo, in flames of affection towards you. Your Majesty knows or may know, time was, when I did, or would have done you a better peece of service, then all your Troopes and Regi- ments ire now doing. Should I hear any en eman that F follows you, of my yeares, say hee loves you better thau~ ~ I, if it were lawfull, I would sweare by my Sword, he sa4 pzpre than his sword would make good. a Books relating to America. :301 Besides the four things which his heart naturally detest- ~ edthe Apoebrypha, Forrainers dwelling in his country, Aichymized comes, and Tolerations of divers religions ~ he says in another place ; since I knew what to feare, my timerous heart hath dreaded three things: a blazing starre appearing in the aire: a state cornet, I mean a favor- ite rising in a Kingdome; a new opinion spreading in reli- gion. Yet toleration in Religion, blazing stars in the air and the Apocrypha were not the only evils that annoyed him: long hAir and female dress, appear to have caused him full as much uneasiness, and to have excited the same vehe- ment zeal in opposition, as false doctrines, or despotick government. This now seems sufficiently ridiculous, and the present age might be allowed to laugh at such extrava- gance, if every age had not its own peculiar absurdities. Should I not keep promise in spcaking a little to Womens fashions, they would take it unkindly: ~ I was loath to pester better matter with such stuffe; I rather thought it meet to let them stand by themselves, like the Qua~ Genus in the Grammar, being Deficients, or Redun- dants, not to be brought under any Rule: I shall therefore make bold for this once, to borrow a litt!e of their loose tongue Liberty, and mispend a word or two upon their long-wasted, but short-skirted patience: a little use of my stirrup will doe no harme. Ridentem dicere verurn, quid prohihet: Cray Gravity it selfe can well beteame, That Language be adopted to the Theme. 11cc that to Parrots speaks, must parrotise; He that instructs a foole, may act th unwise. It is known more then enough, that I am neither Nigard, nor Cinick, to the due bravery of the true Gcutry: if any man mislikes a bully among drossock more then I, let him take her for all mee: I honour the woman that can honour her self with her attire: a good Text alwayes deserves a fair Margent: I am not much offended, if I see a trimme, far trimmer than she that wears it: in a word, whatever Chris- tianity or Civility will allow, I can afford with Lou Jon inca- sure: but when I heare a nugiperous Gentledame inquire what dresse the queen is in this week : what the nudiuster- P~n fashion of the Court; I meane the very newest : with The Womsn. will ~miie at ihh auiaeP~. hooks relating to America. egge to be in it in all hast, what ever it be, I look at her as the very gizzard of a trifle, the product of a quarter of ta cypher, the epitome of no thing, fitter to be kickt, if shee were of a kickable substance, than either honoured or humoured. To speak moderately, I truly confesse, it is beyond the kin of my understanding to conceive, how those women should have any true grace, or valuable vertue, that have so little wit, as to disfigure themselves with such exotick garbes, as not only dismantles their native lovely lustre, but transclouts them into gant bar-geese, ill-shapen- shotten-shell-fish, Egyptian Hyeroglyphicks, or at the best into French flurts of the pastery, which a proper English woman should scorne with her heeles: it is no marvell they weare drailes, on the hinder part of their heads, having nothing as it seems in the fore-part, but a few Squirrills braines, to help them frisk from one ill- favord fashion to another. These whurnm Crownd shees, these fashion-fansying wits, Are empty thin braind shells, and fidling Kits. lie afterwards mentions a very important fact, that there were five or six who practised these fashions in our Colony: and also mentions that being a solitary wid- dower almost twelve years, he had sometimes thought of going to England for a wife, but had no heart for the voyage least their nauseous shapes and the sea should work too sorely upon my stomack. The following is a remarkable proof of the purity of man- ners in the early slate of the Colony. I would my skill would serve also, as well as my heart, to translate Prince Rupert, for his queen-mothers sake, Eiiz: a second. Mismeane me not. I have had him in mine armes when he was younger, I wish I had him there now: if I mistake not, hee promised then to be a good Prince, but I doubt he hath forgot it: if I thought he would not be angry with me, I would pray hard to his Maker, to make him a right Roundhead, a wise-hearted Palatine, a thankfull man to the English; to forgive all his sinnes, and at length to save his soule, notwithstanding all his God- damne mees: yet I may doe him wrong, I am not certaine hee useth that oath; I wish no man else would. I dare say the 2Devill~ dare nob I thank God I have lived in a Books relating to America. 303 Colony of many thousand English almost these twelve yeares, am held a very sociable man; yet I may con- siderately say, I never heard but one Oath sworne, nor never saw one man drunke, nor ever heard of three women Adulteresses, in all this time, that I can call to minde: If these sinnes bee amongst us privily, the Lord heale us, I would not bee understood to boast of our inno- cency; there is no cause I should, our hearts may be bad enough, and our lives much better. One extract from the conclusion of the book, is selected as a favourable specimen of his style, and another to shew to what horrilide cruelty religious intolerance impels those, who have the power to persecute. Goe on brave Englishmen, in the name of God, go on prosperously, because of Truth and Righteousness: Yee that have the Cause of Religion, the life of your Kingdome and of all the good that is in it in your hands: Goe on undauntedly: As you are Called and Chosen, so be faith- full: Yee fight the battells of the Lord, bee neither desi- dious nor perfidious: You serve the King of Kings, who stiles you his heavenly Regiments: Consider well, what impregnable fl~hting it is in heaven, where the Lord of Hosts is your Generall, his Augells, your Colonells, the Stars, your feilow-souldiers, his Saints, your Oratours, his Promises, your victuallers, his Truth, your Trenches where Drums are Harps, Trumpets joyful sounds; your Ensignes, Christs Banners; where your weapons and armour are spirituall, therefore irresistable, therefore im- piercable; where Sunne and wind cannot disadvantage you, you are above them, where hell it selfe cannot hurt you, where your swords are furbushed and sharpened, by him that made their metall, where your wounds, are bound up with the oyle of a good Cause, where your blood runnes into the veynes of Christ, where sudden death is present inartyrdome and life; your funeralls resurrections; your honour, glory; where your Widows and babes are received into perpetuall pensions; your names listed among Davids Worthies; where your greatest losses are greatest gaines; and where you leave the troubles of warre, to lye clowne in downy beds of eternall rest. What good will it doe you, deare Countrymen, to live without lives, to enjoy England without the God of England, your Kingdome without a Parliament, your ~O4 BOOkS relat jug to America. Parliament without power, your Liberties without stability~ your Lawes without Justice, your honours without vertue, your beings without tranquility, your wives without honesty, your children without morality, your servants without civility, your lands without propriety, your goods without immunity, the Gospel without salvation, your Churches without Ministery, your Ministers without piety, and all you have or can have, with more teares and bitter- nesse of heart, than all you have and shall have will sweeteen or wipe away? Goe on therefore Renowned Gentlemen, fall on resolv- edly, till your hands cleave to your swords, your swords to your enemies hearts, your hearts to victory, your victories to triumph, your triumphs to the everlasting praise of him that hath given you Spirits to offer your selves willingly, and to jeopard your lives in high perills, for his Name and service sake. And Wee your Brethren, though we necessarily abide beyond Jordan, and remaine on the American Sea-coasts, will send up Armies of prayers to the Throne of Grace, that the God of power and goodnesse, would inconrage your hearts, cover your heads, strengthen your arms, par- don your sinnes, save your soules, and blesse your families, in the day of Battell. Wee will also pray, that the same Lord of Hosts, would discover the Counsells, defeat the Enterprizes, deride the hopes, disdaine the insolencies, and wound the hairy scalpes of your obstinate Enemies, and yet pardon all that are unwillingly misled. Wee will likewise helpe you to beleeve that God will be seene on the Mount, that it is all one with him, to save by many or few, and that he doth but humble and try you for the present, that he may doe you good at the latter end. All which bee bring to passe who is able to doe exceeding abundantly, above all we can aske or thinke, for his Truth and mercy sake in Jesus Christ. Amen. Amen. 4 Word of Ireland: Not of the Nation universally, nor of any man ilL it, that hath so much as one haire of Christianity or Humanity growing on his head or beard, but onely of the truculent Gut-throats, and such as shall take up Armes in their Defence. These irish anciently called Anthropophagi, man- eaters: have a Tradition among them, That when the 18 1& .J Books ~~elating to America. Devill shewed our Saviour all the kingdomes of the Earth and their glory, that he would not shew him Ireland, but reserved it for himself: it is probably true, for he hath kept it ever since for his own peculiar; the old Fox fore- saw it would eclipse the glory of all the rest: he thought it wisdome to keep it for a Boggards for himself, and all his unclean spirits imployed in this Hemisphere, and the people, to doe his Son and Heire, I mean the Pope, that service for which Lewis the eleventh kept his Barber Oliver, which makes them so blood-thirsty. They are the very Offall of men, Dregges of Mankind, Reproach of Christendome, the Bots that crawle on the Beasts taile, .1 wonder Rome it self is not ashamed of them. 3 begge upon my hands and knees, that the Expedition against them may be undertaken while the hearts and hands of our Souldiery are hot, to whom J will be bold to say briefly: happy is he that shall reward them as they have served us, and Cursed be he that shall do that work of the Lord negligently, Cursed be he that holdeth back his Sword from blood; yea, Cursed be he that maketh not his Sword starke drunk with Irish blood, that doth not re- compence them double for their hellish treachery to the English, that maketh them not heaps upon heaps, and their Country a dwelling place for Dragons, an Astonish- ment to Nations : Let not that eye look for pity, nor that hand to be spared, that pities or spares them, and let him be accursed, that curseth not them bitterly. This book had several editions in England and in this country, it is now scarce and costs in England about thirty shillings. 4 Journal of Travels from New-Hampshire to Caratuck on the Continent of North-America. By George Keith, A. Mi. Late Missionary from the society for the propagation of the Gospel in Foreign parts, and now Rector of Edburton, in Sussex. London, printed by Joseph Downing, for Brab. Aylmer, at the three pigeons over against the Royal Exchange in Cornhili, 1706. pp. 92. 4to. Tnis is the journal of a Missionary who canie over in 1702, in the same ship with Governour Dudley, and after Vol. 1. No. 3. 39 3b6 Books relating to America. [Septr passing two years in America returned to England. He appears to have had much seal in his labours, and at the end of his book is a list of ten sermons or controversial tracts, that he published during his mission, which seems to have been mainly directed against the Quakers. From his account there were many more congregations of them, than now exist; and this might naturally have been inferred, because, all sects were then occupied in persecuting them: they were then turbulent, fanatical, and increasing; enjoying now, in common with others, perfect toleration and equality, their peculiarities l~ardly prevent their decrease, and they are now the most quiet, as they always were among the most useful citizens. Keith himself had been aQuaker, had recant- ed, and joined the church of Englanil, from whose patronage he obtained a Rectorate. It was a proof of exquisite judgment that he should have been selected to annoy the Quakers, to whom he was particularly obnoxious, not only for his dereliction of their principles, but on account of a money transaction, relating to a bequest made to their poor, of which it seems they were defrauded, though Keith no doubt was innocent. He meddled but little with other sects, yet as might be expected, he could not pass through Boston, in those days, wi~out some skirmishing. This took place. between him and Increase Mather and Rev. Mr. Willard, in which one or two pamphlets were exchanged. In page 2, he says, in speaking of a Stack began by him, answered by Mr. Mather, and replied to by Keith: This [had printed at New-York, the printer at Boston not daring to print it, least he should give offence to the independent preachers there.Temporu mntantur. In page 36 he gives an anecdote of himself that has quite a geneviek cha- racter. He was exposed to some danger in crossings ferry to Rhode Island, during a storm, when the boat he *asin.wa relieved by the exertions of John Burden, a Quaker. After being brought safe on shore,hei offered money to the Quakers men, which he would not all6t.them to accept; he then, thanked him very kindly.for hii*help in our great danger, and said to him, John, yehave bAn the means under God to save our natural life, suffer me to be a means under God to save your soul, by good information to bring you out of your dangerous errours. He replied, George, save thy on soul, I have no need of thy help; then, said I, I will pray for your conversion; he replied, the prayers of the wkk~ i~ I 5j American Language and Literature. ed are an abomination; so uncharitable was he in hi opinion concerning me, (as they generally are concerninb ~ all those who differ from them) though charitable in this action. He speaks of preaching a sermon at a fast in New-York, in September, 1702, occasioned by a great mortality, five hundred having died within a few weeks, and seventy that same week. The difference of population considered, this mortality is as great, as that occasioned in late years by the yellow fever. He complains, that there was a great want of ministers for the churches in Maryland and Virginia, which he says was owing to the incumbents receiving their salaries in tobacco, and the price of it was so low that they could not live. The journal contains few facts interesting to an historian, but a regular notice of his disputes with the Quakers, and every -one of the texts from which he preached carefully record d~ FOR THE NORTH-AMERIcAN JOURNAL~ fJ fL.1..XAJA ft. ESSAY ON LIT RATIJRE. So multiplied are the o~mexions existing between nation and na-. don in modern times, that intellectual originality may justly be regard- ed as one of the greatest phenomena in nature. Lond. Quart. Reviev, Oct. 1814. The remark which stands at the head of this article, comes with peculiar force from the work which contains it. It has, with the writer of the following pages, unqualified belief. He has only regretted that tL uithors of that work .h ye not always written under the influence of so iib~ral a senti- ment. ~ might have found in its truth, some good rea- sons for the barrenness of American Literature. National literature seems to be the psoduct, the legiti- mate product., of a national language. Literary peculiarities anti exen literary originality being, the o~e little more than peculiarities of lang~iage, the other the result of that un- controlled exercise of mind, which a slavery to a cornmos tongue almost necess~ rily prevents. If the we are now asked, why is this coum4ry deficient in literature? I would answer, in the first place, beca e it ~0 ~es~es L e ~am~m

American Literature 307-314

i~ I 5j American Language and Literature. ed are an abomination; so uncharitable was he in hi opinion concerning me, (as they generally are concerninb ~ all those who differ from them) though charitable in this action. He speaks of preaching a sermon at a fast in New-York, in September, 1702, occasioned by a great mortality, five hundred having died within a few weeks, and seventy that same week. The difference of population considered, this mortality is as great, as that occasioned in late years by the yellow fever. He complains, that there was a great want of ministers for the churches in Maryland and Virginia, which he says was owing to the incumbents receiving their salaries in tobacco, and the price of it was so low that they could not live. The journal contains few facts interesting to an historian, but a regular notice of his disputes with the Quakers, and every -one of the texts from which he preached carefully record d~ FOR THE NORTH-AMERIcAN JOURNAL~ fJ fL.1..XAJA ft. ESSAY ON LIT RATIJRE. So multiplied are the o~mexions existing between nation and na-. don in modern times, that intellectual originality may justly be regard- ed as one of the greatest phenomena in nature. Lond. Quart. Reviev, Oct. 1814. The remark which stands at the head of this article, comes with peculiar force from the work which contains it. It has, with the writer of the following pages, unqualified belief. He has only regretted that tL uithors of that work .h ye not always written under the influence of so iib~ral a senti- ment. ~ might have found in its truth, some good rea- sons for the barrenness of American Literature. National literature seems to be the psoduct, the legiti- mate product., of a national language. Literary peculiarities anti exen literary originality being, the o~e little more than peculiarities of lang~iage, the other the result of that un- controlled exercise of mind, which a slavery to a cornmos tongue almost necess~ rily prevents. If the we are now asked, why is this coum4ry deficient in literature? I would answer, in the first place, beca e it ~0 ~es~es L e ~am~m 308 AmeriCan Language and Literature. [Sept. language with a nation, totally unlike it in almost every rela- tion; and in the second, delights more in the acquisition of foreign literature, than in a laborious independent exertion of its own intellectual powers. Unhappily, so enslaving are these influences, that it is hardly to be hoped, that we shall ever make our language conform to our situation, our intellectual vigour and origi- nality. Bitt is it true, that a nation of real spirit and charac- ter will for ever consent to copy, even though it does not get rid of the language it inherited? would not what we have already accomplished in literature be thought well for a young people, if we wrote in our own tongue? Is it not the fact, that when we write we are regarded as Englishmen, and are required to do as well as if we lived in England ? With these inquiries we have at present no concern, our object is rather the causes why we have done no more. The remotest germs of literature are the native pecu. liarities of the country in which it i~ to spring. These are diversified beyond all estimation, by the climate, and the various other circumstances which produce them.Next to these are the s~iid in~titi~itioxts, int~ khich the various tribes of intellectual b~ings resolve themse~lves, for certain speci- tick objects. then follow the relations which issue from these, which constitute the moral, religious, and political states, together with all the other various objects of history. All the circumstances now mentioned as the elements of literature, are essentially peculiar to every nation. And we accordingly find states, even bordering on each other, and the subjects at times of the same government, exhibit- iig striking peculiarities in their literary character. It will not rcfute this remark, to point to a celebrated modern poet of Scotland, and ask how he has done so much with a lan- guage similar to that, nay the same with that, of a sister kingdom. Mr. Scott has given us a mere translation of his national dialect, and has most happily rendered native beau- ties of idiom, and even national peculiarities, by another language. But his works do not form the smallest part of tIle Scotch literature, We look for that in the verses of Allan Ramsay, and in the far sweeter ones of Robert Burns. ii hese authors are essentially original. They not only give us manners, which are but practical, intellectual opera~ Lions, but give them to its in the language, that was made for them, and which only can give them their true form and pressure. 181.5.11 American Language and Literature. 309 It will be easy to shew the importance of a peculiar lan- gu age, to the rise and progress of literature in a country. In the first place, every nation has a strong attachment to its language. This enters into the sum total of its patriotism. Its language is valued, because it is the vehicle of the intel- lectual state of a country to all others. It is cultivated, that the character it may be the means of establishing, may be exalted. Above all other reasons it is loved because it i~ peculiar, gives a peculiar national character, and preserves the intellectual labours of man. Unfortunately for this country, language in itself can never have these attractions, and this importance. The language in which we speak and write, is the vernacular tongue of a nation which thinks it corrupted on every other lip but its own ;of a nation, which has limited its perfection by pronouncing it already perfect ;of a nation whose natural, political, religious, and literary relations and peculiarities, are totally unlike our own. The whole external character of our country is totally unlike that of England. Our descriptions, of course, which must, if we ever haves a poetry, be made in the language of another country, can never be distinctive. They can never possess the peculiar claims which those of native individuality teem with; which are more beautiful to a foreigner, because he is willing in reading them, to heighten the beauties of an obscure passage, by lending it the aid of his own imagination. How tame will his language sound, who would describe Niagara in language fitted for the falls at London bridge,* or attempt the majesty of the Missis- sippi in that which was made for the Thames? It is not meant to be even hinted, that the English language is inca- pable of all that language can do; but that peculiarities of country, especially the great distinctive characteristick ones, and manners likewise, can be perfectly rendered only by the language which they themselves have given use to. I mean a peculiar language. If there be nothing peculiar in the language of a country, if it be strictly the same with that of a nalion very distant from it, to say the least ;if it be a country, or rather na- These are specified because they are the only falls the author recollects to have ~een in Efl~hs?sd l America Lagnage ad LiterWire. I lion of.eaee,* if I may so say, a receptacle in the first place of men who had in view by emigration any thing but a lit.. rary speculation, their descendants will have nothing less at heart than the cultivation of their language, and, other nations will hardly look to them for literary originality. The peculiarities of character of his ancestors will more or less tincture the descendant, and if they depended on others for their language, he will be very willing to look to the same source for his literature, if he should presume to write, however, and endeavour to convey the sentiments end emotions which peculiar circumstances have given birth to in his heart, ifhe should attem1t the still harder task of description, how imcaeable woul foreigners to his country and his home, be, to judge of the truth of his feel- ings or descriptions; and though in his on countrymen the language might excit, kindred feelings, to his transatlantick brethren, how little would there be in his labours to admire, but the America language, and the Americas litewatiwet In matters of science, and especially in those of the fine arts, the new country may even excel the old. B the pursuit of the first, they improve their physical condition, and originalgenius may hi in the labours of his on pen- eN, a language which all nations understand, and which none has been daring enough to monopolize as the peculiar vehicle of its own genius. In science, and more especially in the fine arts, America has done its part for the world. HI loved their excellence in these pursuits half. much Englishmen, or rather English reviewers despise our literary attainment., I would pay a passing compliment to the venerable President of the Academy, and hupt for s sentence of eulogy for the memory of Dr. Franklin, In nothing perhaps can we so little pride purselves,. on account of our ancestry, as for its eptails on our literature. And in the Babel of the revolution, which gave us a differ- at moral and pelitical existence, it is for our literature most heartily to be lamented, thtt we had not found s con- fusion of tongues. We might to this day have wanted a grammar, and a dictionary; but our descendants would have made for themselves a literature. Any man at all This allude, may antis ~rhetly familiar to every reader In this cushy. Eu Great Britain,. the parishes mu., an that the orWnalzMa ehnreh will not eon ala afltheparlahinnasra, new eh!pe4are erected, eanne with the e~ql Vs Ed. 1815.1 American Language and Literatuf 31 conversant willi other 1angua~es besides his o vn, is per~ petually sensible how much the foreign literature depends upon its language. We even read most familiar thoughts, as if they were new. New wor Is, to us, 0ive the old sentiment a new form and sprit. And, I have little doubt, few have read the pleasures of memory, as contained in the Italian of Maffei in his Merope, ~vithout pronouncing it origi- nal, thou ~h he had read the same things before, as well, perhaps, better sun~, by another poet. The importance of a w tional langun e to the rise and progress of the literature of a country, can be ~r ned from all we know of every nation which hm pretended to origb nality. All will be found to have attached so much conse- quence to their own lang~ ag , as to have de pised most heartily, or carelessly r carded, all others but their own. Thus the French, in their best days, slighted the Au~ustan age of England, and even now regard her best liter ry productions with but slight admiration. It is also of great importance for a nation to po~ses~ and cherish peculiari- ties. These result from situation, from mind, or rather from the circumstances which most powerfuily affect the mind. The institutions of government, & c. in the first instance borrow their peculiarities from the charac~cr of the people ; and from the government these are transferre to the people, a peculiarity of leeling is thus found a~ last to result from the government and other various insti- tutions of the country. Unfortunately for tWs country, there is no national character, unle~s its abseuc constitute one: all acknowledge the wisdom which framed its constitu- tion, but how few have been wil ing to permit its influence over their characters? Their biases have all been forei ~n. How unlike is this tG what exists in other countries ? Th smaller as well as the largest states of Europe, have re- garded all others with a jealousy, which has bound them immovably to their national peculiarities. Hence all that we know of them is original. Hence their literary emi- nence. Now if the Germans had cau~ht the foppery of France, and the langu%e of England ; if they had ever adopted the government of the one, and the mode of religion of the other, we sho id not have been dazzled with the Splen(lid obscurity of their metaphysicks, much less over- whelmed with the po :er of their drama, or enchanted with t~ eir sentimentality. The German overument, and the C or- ~$l2 American Language and Literature. [SepL man established faith, gave rise to remarkable character, and their language could alone embody it. The genuine pa- triotism which the political institutions of this country might have produced, and even with the aid of the English lan- guage, might have lent its aid to the rise of literature among us, has been lost in a servile dependence on foreign politicians for political creeds, and the liberality with which nature has ornamented our native scenery, has been unnoticed in a love for the mere descriptions of foreign po- dry. That we are not destitute of the materials for the poet, may be gained from what Mr. Campbell has done with them. His Gertrude only affords us the mournful reflection of regret, that a foreigner can do as much with all that is peculiar now left us, as one of our own countrymen, and that he has done more than we have any good reason to expect from them. There is something peculiarly opposed to literary origi~ nality, in the colonial existence which was unfortunate- ly so long the condition of America. This is mentioned incidentally under the head of the importance of a peculiar language to national literature. This circumstance preclud- ed the possibility of our possessing such a language. All that can be expected from such a colony, made tip of all sorts of materials, speaking not only the dialects of the original lanma~e but the different languages of the three ~ different nations from which it sprung, is to preserve a pu- rity in one of them. It must first choose one, then guard it from even the least corruption to which it would be remarkably liable. It must be for ever jealous to prevent and put down, that adaptation of new terms for new objects, and especially for the new ideas, that different scenes and new relations might give rise to. It must wait for all im- provements from abroad, acquire a literary tone from the mother country, and like the civil jurisprudence of India, should it be as original in literature as that may be in crime, it must wait for a decision on its, merits or demerits, from the higher authorities of London. Farther, as a colony, it would never be supposed capable of altering or improving its literature, any more than its political or religious systems. When did England look to the West-Indies for an~ thing but its su~ars, or to Canada for any thing but its furs. If it should happemi, thi~t a mind of superiour capability should find its birth in such a country, the very character 1815.] American Language and Literature. 313 of such a mind would drive it from home. It might not find time in its greater operations of thought to preserve the perfection of its language, and it would dread the contain. ination of Mill educated and strictly economical association. Snob minds were phenomena in the American colonies, and the possibility of this occurrence was never admitted: hence the agents of government, and the leaden at the bar, & c. like the institutions themselves, were all transatlantick. The growth of prejudice was the natural production of the country, and in due time this flourished into revolution and independence. Farther, so far are we from possessing a literature, that men of some considerable poetical merit, men who have cultivated their talents, have shrunk from American publi cation, and sought in another region for the patrons of genius. This country has a literature notwithstanding all that has been said in this paper to the contrary. But it is uot the least indebted for it to the labour of its colonies. I now refer to the oral literature of its aborigines. In their original language we have names of places, and things, which are but feebly rendered by our own, I should say by the English. Thefr words of description are either derived from incidents, and of which they are famed to cone vey most exact ideas, or are so formed as to convey their signification in their sounds; and although so ridiculous in the English dress to be a new cause for Engiish satire and merriment, are in themselves the very language for poetry, for they are made only for expression, and their ob- jects are the very element for poetry. The language of the Indian is no less peculiar than his manners. With him as with all other beings, language is but the expression of manner. It was made to express his emotions urang his observance of nature, and these emo- tions were taught him at a school, in which the master was nature, and a most unsophisticated heart the scholar. Hence it is as bold as his own unshackled conceptions, aittlasrapidashis own step. Itisnowasrich as the soil on which he was nurtured, and ornamented with every blossom that blows in his path. It is now elevated and soaring, for his image is the eagle, and now precipitous and hoarse as the cataract among whose mists he is lescanting. In the oral literature of the indian, oven when rendered in a language enfeebled by excessive cultivation, every one has Vol. I. No.3. 40 314 American Language and Literature. [Sept~. found genuine originality. Its beauties are most of them to be traced to its peculiarities. We are delighted with what appears its haughty independence, although we feel conscious at the same time it has never been submitted by its authors to the test of comparison. They have not advanced far enough in the diplomacy of letters to hazard a competition with neighbouring tribes.. They are. most per. fectly contented with their language,. and if it may be so called, their iherary condition.. That this remark is core rect I will hazard the following anecdote. A Lancastrian school was established in one of the English provinces in this country, whose benevolent object it was, to improve the intellectual condition of the neighbeuring Indians. One India submitted for a few hours to the task of being taught writing. His rude effprts were applauded, and he was asked if he would return to the school the nest day. His S~ swer is remarkable, and highly characteuistick. How much.will. you pay me for coming. This anecdote is not introduced with a view to show that the Indian .was fearful of the debilitating effects of an. English education on his no- tional literature, but to shew with what perfect contentment he reposed in the knowledge of that which in peculiarly his own. . The length to which this discussion has already extended compels the writer to bring it to a close; and this without entering more fully than has already beendone, on what was considered the second cause of the barrenness of American literature, viz, the dependence of Americans on English literature, and their consequent negligence of the exertion of their own intellectual powers.. ICR THE NORTE~AMflICAN JOURNAL. Is the last number some account was given of the Linnuan: Society recently established in this town. This institution has commenced with considerable ardour, and their cabinet, in different branches of Natural History, contains many valuable articles. At the first anniversary meeting an acU dress was delivered to the members by the Honourable Judge Davis, whose zeal in the cause of science, is only limited by the arduous duties of his important station. A wish to draw the notice of the publick towards this society,. whose object and efforts so. well merit, their applause ant

Judge Davis's Address 314-328

314 American Language and Literature. [Sept~. found genuine originality. Its beauties are most of them to be traced to its peculiarities. We are delighted with what appears its haughty independence, although we feel conscious at the same time it has never been submitted by its authors to the test of comparison. They have not advanced far enough in the diplomacy of letters to hazard a competition with neighbouring tribes.. They are. most per. fectly contented with their language,. and if it may be so called, their iherary condition.. That this remark is core rect I will hazard the following anecdote. A Lancastrian school was established in one of the English provinces in this country, whose benevolent object it was, to improve the intellectual condition of the neighbeuring Indians. One India submitted for a few hours to the task of being taught writing. His rude effprts were applauded, and he was asked if he would return to the school the nest day. His S~ swer is remarkable, and highly characteuistick. How much.will. you pay me for coming. This anecdote is not introduced with a view to show that the Indian .was fearful of the debilitating effects of an. English education on his no- tional literature, but to shew with what perfect contentment he reposed in the knowledge of that which in peculiarly his own. . The length to which this discussion has already extended compels the writer to bring it to a close; and this without entering more fully than has already beendone, on what was considered the second cause of the barrenness of American literature, viz, the dependence of Americans on English literature, and their consequent negligence of the exertion of their own intellectual powers.. ICR THE NORTE~AMflICAN JOURNAL. Is the last number some account was given of the Linnuan: Society recently established in this town. This institution has commenced with considerable ardour, and their cabinet, in different branches of Natural History, contains many valuable articles. At the first anniversary meeting an acU dress was delivered to the members by the Honourable Judge Davis, whose zeal in the cause of science, is only limited by the arduous duties of his important station. A wish to draw the notice of the publick towards this society,. whose object and efforts so. well merit, their applause ant 1815.3 ?he Lines Society. as support, inducod arequeat to their President that he would an for his discourse to be printed, to which he consented with some difficulty, it was not originally intended for publication. An Address to the LinneanSociety of New-England, at theirflrst anniwersanj meeting, at the Boston Athesomm June 14th, 1815. Gathuma otilt JAiuauma Society dfNw-NJS, In attempting a compliance with a request to address this society at the first meeting of all its branches, I find a. renewal of the solicitude which I experienced, when first invited to the honourable place assigned to me by the im- mediate members. I was disposed to co-operate with the founders of the institution in their laudable pursuits, as far as other engagements of more commanding interest should permit, but was apprehensive that it would not be in my power suitably to discharge the duties incident to the situ- ation to which I was invited. The worthy electors, who made the appointment, were pleased to receive my accept- ance with an assurance of much indulgence. On this occasion I shall ask (or a liberal exercise of that indulgence. The considerations which.! have to suggest must be desul- tory. They were necessarily prqpared under many dis- advantages. Natural history, in its broadest extent, may be said to comprehend the consideration of all natural bodies, or all the works of God, in the visible creittion. It was thus con- sidered by Pliny, and that immense magazine of facts and opinions, his natural history, embraces a view of the heavenly bodies, meteors, medicine, the arts, and ail the various uses to which natural bodies are applicable. The accuracy and precibion which characterize modem investigations have led to a division of physical science into maupy4iflbrent branches, and to natural history is assigned a more contracted field. - From the different points of .vjew under which natural bodies and their phenomena are presented or con3idered, originate distinct branches of physical science, as astro- Romy, natural philosophy, and chemistry, leaving to natural history the description of the appearances and properties of natural bodies, and a consideration of the sensible diflbr~ 4nces which characterize them. 318 Daudta Address bqf hr. This limitation of the science is not to be regretted. To those who would aspire to a more extended range, we may repeat a precept which maybe found not less pertinent 3 philosophy than in agriculture. Laudato ingentis nra, Exigaum colito. The judicious naturalist acknowledges the wisdom and propriety of the injunctions by which he is confined, and which separate his labours from those of the chemist, the natural philosopher, the physician, the anatomist, the metal. lurgist, the artificer, an a the cultivator. In his acknow- ledged department he finds abundant materials for employ- ment, and is content with his legitimate survey of the three kingdoms of nature, though it should be merely auxiliary to seeculations of a higher grade, or such as are more specially applicable to humab wants, convenience, or enjoy- ment. In reality, however, as is justly observed by M. HaQy, All the sciences having reference to nature, con- stitute but one science, which we have subdivided so that different minds may decide between them the different branches of studies, and each pursue, to its utmost extent, that which becomes the subject of its choice. We are not to be surprised, therefore, if it should occur that many sciences meet in the same truth, as that .there ,is none, which is not attached to others, in points of contact more or less numerous.~ Collecting the views and objects of this society from its constitution and its letter to the corresponding and honorary members, we infer its dedication to natural history in the limited sense which has been suggested, having in view the research of all that we. are able to discover of bodies, imme- diately, with a view to their classiflcation, and more particularly for the purpose of assembling and determining specimens in the different depertments of the science. Z gentlemen, in the prosecution of your laudable pur- poses, you should confine yourselres to these limits, you will stili have performed a most useful service to your country, and to the whole scientifick community wherever dispersed. The utility and necessity of methodical and systematical arrangement wQuld seem to be apparent, for any considpra. 1815.J The Linnceam Society. ble advancement in the pursuits of the naturalist; but it often becomes necessary to defend the science against the sarcasms of the superficial, or the incautious remarks of some who are considered as wise, in regard to scientifick methods, the nomenclature and terminology which such methods indispensably require. B~fjfou hazarded his gre4 reputation by uniting in censures of this description, dero- gatory to the methodical arrangement which had been gene- rally approved by all who were ievoted to natural science, and especially in regard to the systematical arran~cment of Linnreus. The amiable and unfortunate Malesherbes ex- posed and refuted the mistakes of the celebrated naturalist, on this subject.* This intrepid civilian, who haz rded his life in his manly defence of bis sovereign, was restrained from publishing his sound and seasonable strictures on Buf~ fon by his frien ship for that celebrated man. They have been given to tUe world since his decease, and are a master- ly defence of Linn~eus and his systerA a ainst the most powerful attack, perhaps, which they had experienced.t * Observations de Lernsigsssn-Alaleslserbes, sur Lhistoire naturelle. Paris l79~. t The comparative merits of Lirincens and Buffon were snmm~ rily sketched by the late Mr. Pennant, who will be acknowledged to have been a most competent judge on the subject. The nature of the work to which the following remarks were pre- liminary, dd not lead the author to consider the hotanick lahcurs of the great Swe- dish naturalist, or his arrangement of minerals. It seems to be admitted, that Isis acquaintance with mineralogy was not so extensive, or accurate, as with zoology and botany. Bnt while I thus freely offer my objections against embracing this system of quadrupeds, let me not he supposed insensible of the other merits of this great and extr~ordinary person, [Lien ns.j His arrangement of fishes, of insects, and of shells, are original and excellent; lie Is th, in all his classes, given philosophy a new ian- guage; hath invented apt names, and tau~ht time world a brevity, yet a fulmmess of description, enkeowmm to past ages; he hiath with great industry brought numbers of synonyma ef every animisal into one point of view, and Isath given a concise account of the mises and umanners of each, as far as Isis observations extended, or the imiforma tine of a eumerous train of travelling disciples could contrihmmte. His country may triumph in producin~ so vast a genius, whose spirit invigorates science in that chilly regioms, and diffmmses it from thence to climates snore favourable, which generally a~- knowledge the advantages of its influences. Let us now turn our eyes to a genius of another kind, to whom Use history of quad- rupeds owes vary considerable lights; I mneasm the Csmtc dc Bs{ffsn, ivlso, in tIme most beautiful language, and in the most agreeable manner, Isaths given time aniplest dc - scriptions of the economy of time four-footed creation such is his eloquence, that we forget the exuberasit scanner in whirls lie treats each subject, and time reflections lie often casts on other writers, the creation of his own gay; fasicy. iIavin~ in Isis owum mind a compiehensive view of every animal, he unfortunately deenis it beneath him to shachle his lively spirit with systemeatick arrangement, so tlsat time reader is forced to wander through numbers of volumes in scarels of any avishmed for subject. The misunderstanding between these ta o most able naturalists is most injurious to science. TIme Frcssch philosopher scarcely ucentions the Sicede., but to treat hums with contempt Lien us, in returms, never deigns even to quote H. dc Bstffsa, not withstanding he naist know what ample lights he nuight have drawn from him. [Hii#ary of Quedrsspeds 1sef. L. ~ the rnatonical part w s thus proshuace of 3!. L) A s& cnesss, ate DaiWa Address before (Sept. The necessity of some systematick order is apparent at 4he moment we begin to contemplate the immense variety of nature. Without it all is indistinct and confused. He who reprobates or ridicule. methods and systems, nomen. datum and technical language in the science, would seem to discard the scicnce.itself; he would obliterate, indeed, what alone characterizes natural history as a science, and can hardly merit to be ranked among its votaries. We are, say some, weary of these dry and barren tables, cataloguesand indexes to the Book of Nature. Give us descriptions, full, accurate and complete, of natural objects, and in regard to animals and vegetables We would have their anatomy, their physiology, habib, pursuits, food, em- ployment, mstinct% capacities, mode of propagation, and the application of all things to the benefit, or injury, of man. Ail this is well, and it is granted, that a complete delineation in all thefr relations, of every species in nature (for thCob- jector to systems will doubtless admit of species) is the great desideratum in natural science. If we should pose this work accomplished, it would not supersede e necessity of system, but rather render it more urgent. A work, executed on this extensive scale, would require many ponderoup volumes to comprehend it. So numerous a class of readers would already be acquainted with the name of the object, a descrztion.of which they might wish to p.. ruse, that an alph e ~ order of the articles in such a work would be most convenient But let us suppose an object.presented to view which is unknown. Jt is mention- ed, we will resume, in the immense ~collection, and fully- described; but how is the inquirer to find it! Days, weeks and months might..be occupied An fruitless search, and if found at last, it would be, as it were, by accident. A sys- tematick table, founded on characters derived from the ob- ject itseZ is the only clue which could promptly guide the inquirer in such a labyrinth; and by the convenient roads of classes, orders and genera, condu~t him successfully in his pursuit Die quibus in terris inscripti nomina regum, Nascautur flores~ Says Virgil.To the botanick student, flowers do not, :indeed, present the names of kings, but they make a mon 1815.1 The Linmean Society; Sn, interesting communication; they give sure and ready indi- cation, by which their own names may be ascertained. Let us not be driven from our pursuits by frigid exclama- tions against system;, as factitious and artificial, or by sar- casins on the trifling of names. If these artificial systemt lead us to names, ad names conduct us to things, and things be valuable and desirable, then the useful auxiliaries of systems and names are not to be despised or disregarded. While, therefore, in this institution, you wili exercise your industry ad influence to enrich your collection with every species that can be procured froua the three kingdoms of nature, ad to preserve the specimens with care; you will, we are persuaded, be particularly studious to arrange them in systeanatick order, as well for your own improvement as for the advancement of the science to which your institu- lion is devoted. The Linnucan arrangement and nomenclature will proba- bly obtain, your preference, not merely as a tribute of re- spect to the distinguished naturalist from whom you have derived the name of your society, but from its intrinsick merits, and from the high estimation in which it is almost universally held in other countries.. Such a conformity in. aystem and nomenclature has obvious conveniences, ad prevents the waste of much precious time in verbal inves-- tigations ad the examination of synonyms. If, in this country, we come late into the field of science,. we have the advantage of receiving it in its most improved state, divested of many crudities and useless encumbran-. ces with which it had been involved in its progress to matu- rity. A pure ad classical taste should be cultivated ad form- ed, from the excellent models ad guides within our reach,. ad it is aneminent we. of a society of this description, that it wiU aid in the accomplishment of such ah object,. check without offence individual errour or eccentricities, and offer a dignified and acceptable co-operation with our European brethren in this branch of science. Ourreverence forLinnaus and his immortallabours,sheuld not render us inacce9sible to the suggestions for improve- ment, which are occasionally, presented. There is, doubt- less, much room for improvement, especially in some de- partments to which his attention had not been very parti- cularly directed. On this head,, however,, it may not be: ~i~o Daviss Address before [Sept. amiss to observe, that we should proceed cautiously, and with great deliberation and reserve. The duplicate speci- mens, with which your collection ivill probably be furnished, will enable you to test the merit of uifierent modes of clas- Our country, Gentlemen, owes much to the elder conti- ~ient. The cultivators of natural science, in Europe, have, ndeed, derived rich and valued treasures from these western re~ions but it has, generally, been by the instru- mentality of travellers from among themselves. Fairly considered, however, the settlers of the American wilds have liUle with ~ hich to reproach themselves in regard to those pursuits by which man is elevated and ennobled. They have cot been mere hewers of wood and drawers of water, nor have they indulged in inglorious ease, voiuptu- onsly to enjoy, without mental exertion, the abundance which a happy soil and climate have presented. The es- ~eutial rudiments of education, useful art., commerce, agri- ~uIture, military and naval skill, reli~ion and lays, all in- teresting objects in the economy of nations, have, it must be cknowiedged, uniformly co un uded attention from the ~ir~t sAtlement of the country. It would be a laudable pride, if it should exist, now to en- gage in pursuits, not pe b~ps so essential, but evidently useful, ornau1eutal, and improving, with a zeal which would indicate a hope and expectation of success. Your insti- tution, probably, is in a degree, prompted by considerations of this sort; or rather perhap., you here unco ~sciously, by your establishment, developed a germ, which our country is prepared to nourish and support, and which we would hope is not doomed merely to blossom and decay. The industry and perseverance, manif sted by the immediate members since the establishment of the society are hi~,hly laudable ; and the success which has attended t~eir ever- tions, evinced by the respectable state of the ca met, au- thorizes a pleasing expectation of its future prosperity, and auvance~ ent. The organization of the society and the rules it ha prescribed, appear to h~ ye been judiciously conceived, and the experiment has, hitherto, tend d to assure us that the institution is h~pily adapted to excite and reward attention, and to keep alive that active mt ~rest relative to its peculiar objets, whLh alone can enure or promise a progressive improveine it. 1815.3 The Linnwan Society. & 21 The immediate members of the society are pledged to much assiduity. Their industry, taste, perseverance and skill must be continually exercised in forming, arranging, and preserving the collection which they are ambitions to esta- blish. In the infant state of the society, they seem unwilling it should be supposed, that they consider themselves as conferring honour by the invitations which they have given to many respectable gentlemen to be more remotely con- nected with the institution. They ask for the attention of those associates to the plan and to the pursuits of the soci- ety they ask and hope to obtain, as circumstances may permit, their friendly encouragement and co-operation. In this interesting walk, you will not, gentlemen, be dis- couraged by slight impediments or objections. We may meet with persons, who view a pursuit ~f this description as frivolous, and will ask, what is its use ? If the object we pursue be really of no use and be merely taken up as pastime, it would, indeed, be unworthy any systematick attention, and must be expected to be abandoned when the trifle should cease to please ; but we .apprehend, that the employments sanctioned and promoted by this associa- tion are not of this trivial and ephemeral character. We should be authorized to make this inference from the many great and distinguished minds, which such inquiries have not ceased to interest during a long and honourable life. It would not be difficult, however, to repel the suggestion from a consideration of the science itself, and of its views and objects. The question cui bono? is of vague import. To answer it intelligibly we must first determine what is to be understood by w~e. By the ancients, it would appear, every thing was considered applicable to the use of man either as food or as medicine, and the plant or the animal which was not found adapted to either of those purposes was disregardedA The objector will admit an extension of the list, and if we can assure him that the objects of pursuit are applicable to the arts, or any of the usual purposes in human economy, he will acknowledge, that they are deserving of our attention and study. The list of * Omnia corpora vel in alimentum vel us medicinam creata esse arhitrati simnt Ye- ~cres, adeo ut circa utilitatem corporum naturalium semper quureretur, nuni utilia esent esu, vel num morbum quendam profligarent vel ctiam, quot virtutibus medici~ hoc vel illud gauderet? Et si quudam planta aut animal quoddain ad Inecce pr~edica- menta referri nequiret, hind ut inutile lincjuebatnr. ~Gii1ibert, Fined Botassi~. Sni unno? Resp. C. Gedner.] Vol. 1. No. :3. 41 32~ Daviss Address bejbre [Sept ises, even thus extended, may be considered as too gross an(i limited, and the philosopher will be tempted to adopt the reply which is recorded in one of the academical trea- tises of Linna~us, to have been given by an electrician to a man of rank who observed his experiments, and coldly ask- ed, the use. It is the very quest on, said the philo~opher, put to me, the other day, by Hendrick, the drg-salter. The naturalist ha. the satisfaction of knowing, that very many of the objects of his attention are immediately, or me- diately, useful to man, in the popular acceptation of the phrase; and in regard to the residue, though their appli- cation to human u:e, as ~enera!ly understood, may not be clearly manifested, still he is p .rsuaded, that their place in the sv~ tern is of wise ordination, and that there is an use, thaugh he be not yet indulged with a knowIed~e of it. The ideas of u e, which were cheri hed by the ancient1 Ie(l, probably, to luxurio is and voluptuous refinements, and to an excessive augmentation of the list of medicines. Of this the writings of Pliny furnish abundant evidence. Very few of the prescriptions which he records have stood ihe test of experiment, or are sanctioned by modern prac- tice; and the uses, medical or economical, of a great pro- portion of the vegetable and insect tribes remain to b as- certained. It should be observed, however, that as society advances, and knowledge increases, new uses of natural ob- jects may be expected to appear. But there is a moral use in this fair creation, which cm never be overlooked, and every member of it, however minute, or apparently mean, tends to p omote this noble purpose, and to contribute to that beauty and harmony, by which the spirit of man is re- freshed, ~oothed, and elevated, and beholds a present deity, while he surveys and contemplates the rich and varied scenery of nature. There are satisfactions of this character arising from an enlightened study of the various structures and properties of natural objects which abundantly satisfy the naturalist of the worth and value of his pursuits, though it may be difficult to make this impalpable ground of recom- mendation, altogether comprehensible to those, who indul~ c no such associations. To the sensualist and the sordid, says one to the frivolous votary of fashion, the volume of nature is hermetically seale . To the virtuous mind it cx- hihits uch displays of ~ isdom, power, and happiness as can only b~ exceeded by an emancipation from the shackles of the thick veil of mo lty. Considerations of this or~ 181b.} The Li~ nLean Sociel der may be thought by some too elevated to be derived from such a source, but it is certain that the contemplation of nature, is not unfruitful of the be. t instruction and most consoling intimations and influences. 1 1e love of simpli- city, of truth arid of order, which it generates, is hihhly estimable. The marks of supreme wisdom, and the con- scrousness of paternal goodness, sooth and tranquillize the heart of the naturalist as he surveys the rich domains as- signed for occupation and enjoyment. Analobies of hi4h interest are suggested. He thinks he perceives a corres- pondence between the exhibitions of nature, and the revela- tion graciously granted to man. The various modes of life, which he beholds, demonstrate the plan of omnipotence in a point most interesting to the race, and by perpetual ex- amples or symbols confirm his hopes and expectations of a future existence, by a different modification of his being. These consideration , indeed, may be said to involve a de- parture from the definition of the s ience exp essed ~t the beginning of this discourse. But if allurements, excitc- inents, and enjoyments of this description are connected wilh our pursuits, and naturally more or less accompany them, we will gratefully accept and cherish them, without a solicitous inquiry as to their cxact place in refereice to the science. The uses of our occupation are indeed ever to be regarded. After delineating the more strict requirements essential to the botanist, Add, says Linnteus, whatever uses of nature the physician, the economist, & c. have dis- covered, and of these whatever contributes most to the ~rory of the author of all and to the advantage of human li1e, that at length our posterity may enjoy the meridian light of the science.* Animated by considerations of the dignity and utility of your pursuits, and by the great examples of intelligence, consistency and worth, which we find in the annals of tlic science, we should not suffer ourselves to be disturb d ~ Dugald Stewart, in his interesting speculation concesninr final causes, expresses a wish that the scholastick phrxse fsssal cause, could he dropped from the philosopisi- cal vocahulary, and that the ss ords ends or uses mi~Ist he employed to cow y the same idea. He ahly exposes the mi hken vies s fromwliich these cowidcrassou~ had hean excluded from phyoicki as inconsistent with the acknowi dged rules of uhslo uphizin It is not merely in a nsss-al seen he contends that the ron~ideistsou of us s sute- esting. There arc some pai ts of nature, isa adds in a his Is A is necessas y to complete the phpeical I/scary u iv there are instances in xi hsichi it is p ox ad a po eful, and perhaps iudsspensahle, 01 gan of p4uical docovery Fl a ?hil. lisa ~hlsssd II 13, Boston Ed 1 ~$24 Daviss Address L~efore [Sept. by mistaken apprehensions or misrepresentations. Full well I know, says Pliny, in one of his striking passages, that I shall have but small thanks of many, for the pains which I have taken in composing this history of the world, and of Natures works: nay I am assured that I am by some ridiculed, for spending my time in what are consider- ed such frivolous occupations. But I have this consolation, in these immense labours, that if I am despised, Nature herself is my associate in the contempt, which is cast upon me. We should be unjust, however, to our age and country, if we should entertain any serious or uncomforta- ble apprehensions on this head. Individual devotion to these pursuits is, indeed, somewhat exposed to a~imadver.. skin. It may become excessive, or it may be misdirected. An association such as we have now formed, has the double tendency to secure a wise and dignified course, such as shall acquire the publick approbation, and to confer encour- agement and support, tinder unme~~ited censure, ridicule or reproach. Such a reception, however, is not apprehended. The time, indeed, seems to have arrived, when the reputa~ lion of the country would appear to be somewhat interested in exhibiting among ourselves some further advances in a science, which has so long engaged the zealous attention of enlightened men in other parts Qf the world. Some few have indeed arisen in our country, who have been honoura- ble and applauded labourers, in this department of science. Such were Bartram and Colden, (I speak of those who are departed) and I have seen a catalogue of more than nine hundred articles collected by Governour Winthrop, of Connecticut, in early times, and sent to the Royal Society. The venerable Muhlenburg, whose multiplied labours in one department of natural history, have gained him merited honour both at home and abroad, we must now, with deep regret, place upon the list of departed worthi~s. Spar,,ite humum foijis Pastores. ~IAThile the musick of the groves is turned to melancholy at the untimely death of Wilson, the amiable and intelligent historian of the feathered tribe. Our literary societies, have gven occasional attention to natural history, and several recent esiablishmemts in different states, manifest a spirit which, it may be hoped, will give to our country the 1815.] The I~in,~eati & cietll. 325 credit of contributing its proper share in the general accu- mulation of information in natural science. Devoted excin- aively to this object, we are authorized to expect from this society, more than has hitherto been accomplished among us. Some publick encouragement is indeed desira- ble, but more will depend on the industry, perseverance, and hearty co-operation of all its members, in the proper labours and duties which they have undertaken and are pledged to perform.* When we look among the immediate members, we find youth and activity, and energy, talents, and skill. Their voluntary and assiduous labours have already done much, and promise a respectable standing to the association with which they are connected. In the denomination of this society, it is hoped there is nothing assuming. It was merely wished to obtain a brief and significant appellation, and to express a respectful re- collection and acknowledgment of the eminent talents and worth of a distinguished leader in the science. The terri- torial adjunct, should not be considered as expressive of narrow or partial views. Scientifick associations should be truly catholick. A name of more extended reference, might have appeared presumptuous; and the operative members, it was presumed, would generall~be not remote from the location of the institution. This location is a happy one. We are in the midst of an intelligent, liberal, and enterprising community, and though the first attention of the society will properly be directed to our native pro~ ductions; yet, as the plan of the institution contemplates a collection of natural objects from every country and clime, the commercial expeditions, from this and other parts in Mas- sachusetts, will afford frequent and favourable opporI~unities for the promotion of snch intentions. Natural history admits of numerous co-operators even from the most busy classes of the community. Most men are more or less disposed t~ read in the book of nature; and though the occupations of many may limit them to a paragraph or a sentence, yet they may be induced to render us some assistance. Milton in his fine Tractate of Education, gives a promitient place to Natural History. To set forward all these proceedings, ~ Les voyages fr~quens de Pline et des autres anciens, et les dapenses dAlexandre ~ointes aux soins dAristote pour rassembler un grand nonibre danisnaux, nont jasnais psi tenir lieu des travaux continuels dun grand nonibre dhonssnes r~pandns dans le~ differee ~ nays et occunes sans cesse de m~vee objetOb~. de L. Ma1e,4rrbe~. l~3. 226 Daviss Address before [Sept. says he, in reference to his projected establishment, what hinders but that they may procure, as oft as shall be needful, the helpful experiences of hunters, fowlers, fisher- men, shepherds, gardeners, apothecaries; and in the other sciences, architects, engineers, mariners, anatoinists, who doubtless would be ready, some for reward and some to favour such a hopeful seminary? It should be mentioned, among the advantages of the location, that there is an easy access to the many valuable works on Natural History in the libraries of the institutions in the town and vicinity. The Boston Athena~urn is richly furnished, in this particu- lar, with works scarce and valuable, and which would be of difficult procurement to any individual. There is reason to believe that a connexion of the society with the Athemeum may be formed to mutual satisfaction, and with great utility. May we not hope also, that the youth in our university may be induced by the influences of this institution, and those who patronize it, to avail themselves more generally of the kindred establishment, with which that seminary has been liberally endowed. It was originated and furthered by the enlightened zeal of one whom we delight to remember, and who united a strong and disinterested love of natural science with ~ady application to business, and to the important duties of his station. Milton would give to his pupils such a real tincture of natural knowledge as they should never forget. lie would familiarize them with Cato, Varro and Columilla, as well as the more elegant classicks. Then also, he adds, those poets which are now counted most hard, will be both facile and pleasant, Orpheus, He- siod, Theocritus, Aratus, Nicander, Oppian, Dionysius, Lucretius, Manilius, and the rural part of Virgil. By a competent acquaintance with this science, it may be added, the writings of intelligent travellers and voyagers, acquire augmented interest. He who should himself become a traveller will find manifest advantages from an extensive acquaintance with natural objects, especially those apper- taiing to his own country, and be a more intelligent and welcome guest among the best informed men in the regions which he may visit. Need I add, that these pursuits are peculiarly favourable to health and mental elasticity. No nen have been more prompted to that activity and enter- pr~se so favourable to streiwth and ener~v, than many 1815.1 The Linna~an & cicty. 32l~ distinguished naturalists. The writings, inculcations and example of Linnams excited a spirit of inquiry and research, which led to many laborious journeys and v~ages, in every direction, by many of his ardent and enterprising disciples. Terustrom proceeded to India, Montinus to Lapland, has- seiquist to Egypt and Palestine, Thoren to Malabar and Surat, Osbeck to China and Java, Loefling to Spain, K~hler to Italy, Rolander to Surinam and St. Eustatia, and Martin to Spitzbergen. To this country came Peter KaIm, and the treasures, with which lie returned, were a source of pure and lively satisfaction both to the preceptor and the pupil.* Be induced, my friends, to emulate such exam- pies by an ardent prosecution of the science to which you have manifested an attachment. Much, it may he hoped, may be accomplished without an injurious interference with employments and engagements of more commandi g ol li~a- tion. We are in the midst of a community, who ill not, it is presumed, permit disinterested pursuits of this descrip- tion to languish for want of the requisite encouragement. Great is the influence of a metropolis. That, in which your institution is located, is distinguished for a spirit uni- formly favourable to improvement and to every useful acquisition. The characters and vie ~s of many who have active influence in that metropolis and its vicinity may be misrepresented; but they are pure and generous. Their thoughts and deeds are for the best hood of man in his va- rious relations. Yet there are men, to whom the mild and salubrious air which we enjoy, seems to be irritAi.g or op- pressive, and who appear to re~ard with strange disgnsL the Spirit which actuates our cherished guides and instruc- tors, and predominates in our principal institutions.t it i one of the characteristicks of the science, to which this institution is devoted, that its employments have a ten- * Kaim returned from canada. loaded with a very considerable collection of plants, ~f every one of wisich Linoteus got specimens. Liun is was ill with the gout when KaIm came horfie; however he got up and recovered, tl~rougls pleasure at the sight of the plants. Melons Lissn US, f54 ~ These remarks were prompted by an injurious attack, in a number of the Paswplist, which had then just appeared, on the majority of the clergy in Bostoss and its vicnity, on the University at Cambridge, on the President of that institution and, generally, on the whole class of liberal christians, so denominated by the Pano- 1dist ~vriter. An expression of sensibility, at thsat rude assault, may be thought to have been impertinent to tlse subject of this address, and to the occasion. If it be a trans - giession, however, it will find a excuse with men of generous inds, who wil. consider hardly any opportunity unseasonable f r msuif n~ dsapprobetion of tPr sentiments and style of a calurnajo nublic tem iograpltical Sketche~. LSept~ dency to promote the benevolent affections. No root of bitterness, we are persuaded, will ever be found in the soil which we cultivate. As some men gaze with admiration, says the Vicar ~of Wakefield, at the colour of a tulip, and others are smitten with the wing of a butterfly, so I am, by nature, an admirer of happy human faces. We will not dispute with the Vicar, and his good taste is unquestiona- ble; but there is reason to believe that happy human faces are as frequently found among the admirers of the tulip andthe butterfly, as in pursuits of a more imposing character, and as genuine a relish for all the charities of life. Such, though nothing great or splendid should be accomplished, will be the valued fruit of your pursuits; perhaps also, the condition of our country, may be meliorated and improved by a mild and salutary alterative to mitigate and correct its prevalent asperities. Proceed, my friends, in your new and cherished career with alacrity and hope, and may the pure enjoyment of lib- eral and enlightened minds, devoted to useful and honour- able pursuit, constantly accompany and reward your Ia- bours. FOR THE NORTH AMERICAN JOURNAL. THERE is at the Boston Athenaeum, a work in four thick olavo volumes, entitled Biographie moderne, on Diction- ~aire Biographique de tons les hommes morts et virans, qui ont mar que a Ia per du 18 siecle, & c. & c. second edi- printed at Breslau in 1806. This Biographical Dic- tonary contains some curious articles; a few American names are selected for translation, from which some opinion may be formed of the correctness and value of this work ADAMS, (Sir John,) one of the founders of the Ameri- can republick, was a schoolmaster before that revolution. Being made Vice President of Congress in ff89, he se- conded Washington in avoiding the rupture which the French party wished to provoke with England. While ambassadour of his government to that power, in ff92, he published his defence of Ihe American Constitutions. Be- coaling, by general Washingtons retiring in March, 1 79~, Pre. ident of the United states, he ordered a general fast,

Modern Biography 328-334

iograpltical Sketche~. LSept~ dency to promote the benevolent affections. No root of bitterness, we are persuaded, will ever be found in the soil which we cultivate. As some men gaze with admiration, says the Vicar ~of Wakefield, at the colour of a tulip, and others are smitten with the wing of a butterfly, so I am, by nature, an admirer of happy human faces. We will not dispute with the Vicar, and his good taste is unquestiona- ble; but there is reason to believe that happy human faces are as frequently found among the admirers of the tulip andthe butterfly, as in pursuits of a more imposing character, and as genuine a relish for all the charities of life. Such, though nothing great or splendid should be accomplished, will be the valued fruit of your pursuits; perhaps also, the condition of our country, may be meliorated and improved by a mild and salutary alterative to mitigate and correct its prevalent asperities. Proceed, my friends, in your new and cherished career with alacrity and hope, and may the pure enjoyment of lib- eral and enlightened minds, devoted to useful and honour- able pursuit, constantly accompany and reward your Ia- bours. FOR THE NORTH AMERICAN JOURNAL. THERE is at the Boston Athenaeum, a work in four thick olavo volumes, entitled Biographie moderne, on Diction- ~aire Biographique de tons les hommes morts et virans, qui ont mar que a Ia per du 18 siecle, & c. & c. second edi- printed at Breslau in 1806. This Biographical Dic- tonary contains some curious articles; a few American names are selected for translation, from which some opinion may be formed of the correctness and value of this work ADAMS, (Sir John,) one of the founders of the Ameri- can republick, was a schoolmaster before that revolution. Being made Vice President of Congress in ff89, he se- conded Washington in avoiding the rupture which the French party wished to provoke with England. While ambassadour of his government to that power, in ff92, he published his defence of Ihe American Constitutions. Be- coaling, by general Washingtons retiring in March, 1 79~, Pre. ident of the United states, he ordered a general fast, 1813.] Biographical sketches. 329 to avoid war, with which the French Directory mena- ced the Anglo-Americans. In the course of these dif- ferences, he refused to recognize D pont, as French con- sul at Philadelphia, and suspended citizen Rozieres from exercising the same functions at New York provisorily. The province of Pennsylvania was the first to approve his conduct. The year 1798 passed in hostile demonstrations and unsuccessful negotiations. After the rupture of those undertaken at Paris by M. Gerry, Sir Adams rendered to Congress an account of the disputes between the two coun- tries, and analyzed their nature and objects; he called the young men to the defence of the country, and Washington to the oaiimand of the American forces, an employment which he promptly accepted. At the beginning of 1799, the order of John Adams to capture French vessels was published in France. This order was found among the pa- pers of the Eliza, an American vessel captured by a French privateer, and carried to Bordeaux. While the Directory were complaining of these hostile acts, Congress, to which Adams had disclosed his proceedings, solemnly approved of them. Nevertheless, at the end of the winter he an- nounced the mission of three agents, furnished with powers to treat and terminate all disputes. The ~2d of December he presented to Congress an account of his administration, and of the advantages that had resulted from it; he laid open the measures which he had been obliged to take, for the suppression of certain rnoven-ients in Pennsylvania, and protested that in these acts he had done nothing to injure the rights of the citizens. He made known the situation of the political relations of the United States with Europe, and especially with France, and announced the removal of the seat of government to the city of Washington. He was then succeeded by Jefferson, put into his place by the friends of democracy. John Adams has collected, with the intention to make it an elementary book, particularly destin- ed to the instruction of youth, a selection of modern travels, of which J. F. Andre published a translation at Paris in 1799. ADAMS, (Samuel,) a relation of John Adams, President of the United States, and older than him. lie is gover- nour of the province of Massachusetts. His talents and merit are vaunted. He died at the close of September, Vol. 1. No. 3. 42 ~t1 Bio~ ~agkicciZ SJceLche~i. [Sept. 18 3, in the 8~J year of his age; he was at that epoch still gov ruour of Bo~on. FRANKLIN, (William.) The life of his father, Benja- min Franklin, who died in 1790, may be found in all bio- graphical works, and we therefore feel ourselves dispensed from giving it; but we must manifest our astonishment, that none of these historians have ever given about his son Wi[ ham, those details, which would have aided in deciding on his own political conduct. William Franklin was born at Philadelphia in 1736, and was brought up with the greatest care. He had a share in his youth, in the astonishing dis- covery of lightning rods, which immortalized his father. He was made an officer at an early age in a provincial re- giment, and attained to the rank of captain. He afterwards accompanied his father to England, visited every thing that was curious in that country, and was presented to lords Bute and Halifax. He was made governour of New Jer- sey, and held that important post, i ~hen the colonies placed themselves in a state of insurrection, against the mother country. He followed in these delicate circumstances, the line marked out to him by gratitude and duty, as the agent of the English minis try. He remained faithful to it in the midst of the general disaffection, and in spite of the solici- tations and example of his father, who till then had shewn him much affection, but who had not the same motives for remaining faithful to England. William was arrested and confined many months in a prison. He could not get back to England till peace had confir ied the independence of America, when he obtained a moder~ite pension, on which he still lives. Governour Franklin was twice married; his first wife died near him during his confinement, without his being able to see her; he had a son by her who is in France; his other wife was an Irish woman. HAMILTON, a major in the service of the United States of America. He was arrested early in December, 179~3, by order of Congress, who ordered that he should be tried as guilty of high treason, for having accepted from Genet, envoy of France, a commission to rah.e 5000 men in the United States destined to serve the French against Eng- land. In l79~ a decree of the National Assembly confer- red upon him the title of French citizen. In 1804 he was killed in a duel by colonel Burr. JAY, (J.) of Sainte-Foiv, administrator of tbe Gironde, deputy of that department to the legislature, and after~ 18154 B~Tograpkica1 Sk A wards to the National Cowrenf a vo~ to I e d ath of Louis XVI. opposed to the party of the f~ n , e p - longed after the 31st of May lb ~OA cu~o Mt of publick safety; was elected ec tai p Ac 1 Jacobins in January, 17~1, a A a ye ~ Thermidor, year 2, he ~a ~e the Con ~mi o I of the arrestation and death of Gua let, a- roux. In December, ff94, he con ~u Ld a ~ s.j Lord Grenville, at that time IVUnist x t ~ I a A 4a~ , a treaty of Commerce and navi iot be ~w L.t ~ix the United States of America. Th A ~y u~i t his effigy at Philadelphia, an I ex ile i s I a I a this negotiator, who had s kewn hinLe o L ~ourab e to e interests of England. JEFFERSON, (T.) Pr ident of th. U dted S at. s of America. Distinguish. by hi patriotis ~ I.i~ qii ments, he commenced by being secretary of I e ~ov rt ment, and afterwards Ambassado ~r in France. He pi - lished, in ff90, Re~exions on Iii Unity of Wei~,hts and Measures, and complained in ff98, in a letter iv i h was made publick, that the English party had obtained the lead in his country. When John Ad nv was elected President of the United States, Mr. Jefferson was made Vice Pre- sident by the French party; he was afterwards named Pre- sident, to fill the place of this same John Adams. The Institute of France made him a foreign associate, and re- celve(l from him a letter of thanks, dated Nov. 14th, 1800. His country owes to him the introduction of the practice of vaccine inoculation, as a substitute for the common van- olous infection. He employed all his means to propagate this beneficial discovery, even among the savage tribes. Jefferson is vaunted for an affability without affectation, a popularity without baseness, intelligence, firmness, and all qualities which constitute a philanthropist. He was re- elected President of the Unit A States in 1805, and at the opening of Congress made a discourse that developed great improvements in the pubJick administrat oa. MARSHALL, a general in the service of the United States, was, in 1798, a delegate extraordinary with Messrs.Pinckney and Gerry to the French Directory, for negotiations which were not attended with all the success, that had been expect- ed. The American negotiators having refused to insevt a stipulation about a loan exacted by the Directory, and iiot having experienced a suitabl reception, the general dc~ 332 Biographical ~ketchcs. [Sept. parted without ceremony for America, to render an account to his government of the state of things, and left his two colleagues at Paris. Another MARSHALL, of the preceding family, has distin- guished himself in England by his knowledge of agricul- ture, and has published an interesting work, in which he treats separately of the state of cultivation in the most fer- tile counties of England. PINCKNEY, a citizen of the United States of America, possessing a high diplomatick representation in his country, was one of the commissioners sent to England in 1794, to arrange the disputes that had arisen with that power. He remained in quality of minister plenipotentiary, and at the end of 1795 made a journey into Spain, to regulate the in- terests of his country respecting Florida. In May 1796 he retired from his embassy in England; but in 1797, he was sent to the French Republick, and was one of the three commissioners, who commenced with that power a negotia- tion that was soon broken up, by the demands of money, that were made by the Directory. He ivent afterwards in qual- ity of Minister from his government to the court of Madrid. In the month of October, 1d02, he quitted his residence to go into Italy, as superintendant general of the American Consulates. He continued to exercise these functions. in 1805. DRAYTON, secretary of the government of New York. The general assembly of that city had him arrested the 5th of December, 1793, and ordered him to be proceeded against for high treason, for having recruited in the United States to form a corps, destined to assist the French against the English. To shew that this misrepresentation, and absurdity is not confined to Americans, the following account of M. Giraud the late French Consul in this town is selected. It is only necessary to remark, that the whole of it is false except the first two sentences. GIRATJD (M. A. A.) a deputy from the department of the cilmarente Im~ferieure to the National Convention, voted for the detention of Louis XVI. After the 27th of July, 1794, he presented a plan for the suppression of the law of the maximum. He afterwards occupied himuself with the sub- jects of publick education, and the importation and circula 1815.] Biographical Sketches. 333 lion of grains and merchandize. In February, 1~95. He was chosen by the Convention to go to St. Domingo with Bourdon de lOise and Vardon; it is well known that these colonial proconsuls did not proceed on their mission. Be- coming a member of the council of Five Hundred, be occu- pied himself with the finances, taxes and customs. In April, 1796, he accepted the place of Commissioner of the Directory to the Colonies, and went to St. Domingo, with Sonthonax, Raymond and Leblauc. He and his colleagues were denounced The 29th of Nhiy, 1799, by Vaublauc, as guilty of various offences, arbitrary acts, & c. After this denunciation Vaublauc proposed to recal him, to render ~in account of his conduct. Afew days afterwards,his return was announced to the council; Tarbe asserted that Giraud had made an important report to the Directory, which had not been communicated to them; Vaublauc, who had denounced him, attested to his repentance, and that he had been se- duced by Sonthonax. It is quite unnecessary to remark on the falsehoods, the ridiculous absurdities, and the whimsical confounding of dif- ferent persons in these extracts. President Adams is first qualified with a ridiculous title, and then confounded with an English compiler of Travels. Four different individuals are blended under the name of Pinckney. But the most preposterous account is that of General Hamilton and Mr. Jay. These blunders are too stupid to be wilful, and yet they are almost too extravagant to be fortuitous. The only American name that appears tolerably correct, is that of Washington, which is perhaps beyond the power of injury by malice and folly. The English characters are also disfigured, but not with such gross caricature. Mr. Pitt, is said to have been extravagantly fond of stately cere- mony and ostentation in private life, the direct contrary of which, is true; and Lord Hawksbury (Liverpool) is said not to have ventured on publick speaking, since his famous speech about the march to Paris, though he has many and many times spoken for some three hours by the dial. If the book had been published a few years later, his Lord- ship would have been classed in the first rank of prophets, since he foresaw the thing so long beforehand. Such works (and how many such have been published of late sears,) are nuisances of the worst kind. 334 Regulation of Th c.~Lead 1Iiine~ f~ept~ TO THE EDITOR. SIR, I ADDRESS ~OU on a subject which causes some incom venience here, and probably, the same difficulty exists in other parts ef the United States; this is the irregularity and diversity of time. There is no common standard, and every district is regulated by a clock of its own. The difference between the time in Boston, and the villages about it, is always considerable, and in some instances it varies upwards of half an hour. There is generally this difference at least betveen Salem and Boston; this often interferes with appointments in business, and in certain circumstances a criminal might be able to prove an alibi on this very ground. In former times, dials were common in every town; and there are few towns or villages in Europe without them. I know but of one exposed to the publick in this part of the country, which is the vertical dial on the east end of the Old State House in Boston, but this is so much defaced, that it is almost useless. It would be a great convenience to many persons, if every city and village had a horizontal dial in some publick, central situation. The clocks and watches might Ihen all be regulated by this, and time would have a common regulator. The period is not very remote when a watch was a rare machine, the hours were then noted by the dial and the hour-glass, now there is hardly any man, young or old, rich or poor, who does not own a watch of some kind; some of which are about the same use to the possessor, when the value of his time is considered, that a parasol is to a lady of colour, whose complexions are often guarded with this contrivance. The expense would be trifling to provide a dial for each town, and much convenience would result from their introduction. J?oston. Yours, 0 TEMPORA! TO THE EDITOR. SIR, I SEND you some account of the works now going on 4 the Lead mine in Southampton; and also of the Basaltick Columns in South Hadley, which may serve to call the attention of the publick to two objects well worth visiting. There are per~ons living in the vicinity who can and ought

Regulation of Time 334-335

334 Regulation of Th c.~Lead 1Iiine~ f~ept~ TO THE EDITOR. SIR, I ADDRESS ~OU on a subject which causes some incom venience here, and probably, the same difficulty exists in other parts ef the United States; this is the irregularity and diversity of time. There is no common standard, and every district is regulated by a clock of its own. The difference between the time in Boston, and the villages about it, is always considerable, and in some instances it varies upwards of half an hour. There is generally this difference at least betveen Salem and Boston; this often interferes with appointments in business, and in certain circumstances a criminal might be able to prove an alibi on this very ground. In former times, dials were common in every town; and there are few towns or villages in Europe without them. I know but of one exposed to the publick in this part of the country, which is the vertical dial on the east end of the Old State House in Boston, but this is so much defaced, that it is almost useless. It would be a great convenience to many persons, if every city and village had a horizontal dial in some publick, central situation. The clocks and watches might Ihen all be regulated by this, and time would have a common regulator. The period is not very remote when a watch was a rare machine, the hours were then noted by the dial and the hour-glass, now there is hardly any man, young or old, rich or poor, who does not own a watch of some kind; some of which are about the same use to the possessor, when the value of his time is considered, that a parasol is to a lady of colour, whose complexions are often guarded with this contrivance. The expense would be trifling to provide a dial for each town, and much convenience would result from their introduction. J?oston. Yours, 0 TEMPORA! TO THE EDITOR. SIR, I SEND you some account of the works now going on 4 the Lead mine in Southampton; and also of the Basaltick Columns in South Hadley, which may serve to call the attention of the publick to two objects well worth visiting. There are per~ons living in the vicinity who can and ought 1815.1 Lead Mine. to give you a better account of them: this is at your service in the mean time. E. H. SOUTHAMPTON LEAD MINE. The lead mine at Southampton is becoming an object of very considerable curiosity and importance. Professor Silliman of Newbaven, who visited it in the summer of 1810, gave an interesting and particular account of it up to that time, in the New-York Mineralogical Journal. The vein, which contains the ore, is very extensive in length; but, as far as it has yet been explored, is very nar- row. Several shafts were sunk, one to the depth of seventy or eighty feet. But it was found extremely troublesome to work them, on account of the quantity of water; which was so great as to make it necessary to keep the machines for carrying it up, going night and day. For this reason the proprietors were induced to abandon the works at the vein for the present; and commenced running a level to it, from the foot of a hill about sixty rods distant from it. It is this level which at present is the principal object of curiosity. The cavity of it is six feet square, and at the time the writer visited it (the middle of June last) extended seven hundred and twenty-six feet. At the further ex- tremity, the perpendicular distance from the surface of the ground to the bottom of the cavern, is one hundred and ten feet ; and where it strikes the vein it will be twenty or thirty feet more. Five hundred feet from the mouth, a shaft for the circulation of air has been sunk, (or rather raised from the bottom, for it was cut through from the bottom upwards,) which is ninety feet deep. Except about one hundred feet at the entrance, which is sand, supported by timbers, the whole course of the cavern is through solid rock. The rock for the first few hundred feet, appears like indurated sand, thickly inter- spersed with pebbles of very hard quartz, from the size of buck-shot to that of a cannon ball. As you advance, the rock grows harder and firmer. At the extremity, it is principally granite of various appearances. In some places,~ masses of quartz and of feispar may be obtained disiinct, that will weigh several pounds. In others it is quite fine and apparently compact. The colours are very various, ~euerally different shades of green. The whole of the

Southampton Lead Mine 335-337

1815.1 Lead Mine. to give you a better account of them: this is at your service in the mean time. E. H. SOUTHAMPTON LEAD MINE. The lead mine at Southampton is becoming an object of very considerable curiosity and importance. Professor Silliman of Newbaven, who visited it in the summer of 1810, gave an interesting and particular account of it up to that time, in the New-York Mineralogical Journal. The vein, which contains the ore, is very extensive in length; but, as far as it has yet been explored, is very nar- row. Several shafts were sunk, one to the depth of seventy or eighty feet. But it was found extremely troublesome to work them, on account of the quantity of water; which was so great as to make it necessary to keep the machines for carrying it up, going night and day. For this reason the proprietors were induced to abandon the works at the vein for the present; and commenced running a level to it, from the foot of a hill about sixty rods distant from it. It is this level which at present is the principal object of curiosity. The cavity of it is six feet square, and at the time the writer visited it (the middle of June last) extended seven hundred and twenty-six feet. At the further ex- tremity, the perpendicular distance from the surface of the ground to the bottom of the cavern, is one hundred and ten feet ; and where it strikes the vein it will be twenty or thirty feet more. Five hundred feet from the mouth, a shaft for the circulation of air has been sunk, (or rather raised from the bottom, for it was cut through from the bottom upwards,) which is ninety feet deep. Except about one hundred feet at the entrance, which is sand, supported by timbers, the whole course of the cavern is through solid rock. The rock for the first few hundred feet, appears like indurated sand, thickly inter- spersed with pebbles of very hard quartz, from the size of buck-shot to that of a cannon ball. As you advance, the rock grows harder and firmer. At the extremity, it is principally granite of various appearances. In some places,~ masses of quartz and of feispar may be obtained disiinct, that will weigh several pounds. In others it is quite fine and apparently compact. The colours are very various, ~euerally different shades of green. The whole of the 336 Lead Mine. [Sept. compound rocks disentegrate on exposure to the atmo~ sphere, so as to appear much like course sand. In the progress of the work several interesting fossils have been found. Very good specimens of sulphate of barytes have occasionally been obtained. At about three hundred feet from the mouth, a small vein of coal was dis. covered nearly at right angles with the level. The coal was not very combustible, and was strongly impregnated with sulphur. Whether it will ever be an object to pursue it, is perhaps doubtful. Nearly a hundred feet farther on, is a vein of slate, about six inches thick, extending horizon- tally across the passage, and rising gradually as it advances, pntil it goes out at the roof. The slate is very soft and disentegrates slowly, on exposure to the weather. This level has already been the labour of about four years ; and it will probably take at least two more, to reach the vein. The nature of it necessarily limits the number of workmen to four or five; aud the rock is so hard that it can be worked only by drilling and blasting. A days labour, with all the hands, advances the work only half a foot. The bottom of it, is covered with water to the depth of two feet; except a few rods at the extremity, where it is kept back by a dam, in order to accommodate the workmen, on which a boat plies to transport the stone, workmen, visiters, & c. The water is supplied and renew- ed, by trickling down the roof and sides, and by a small stream which runs down the perpendicular shaft. To a stranger the passage into the earth is peculiarly striking. You seat yourself in a flat bottomed boat, with two or three lamps in ityour boatman sitting forward, with a short pole in his hands, with which he pushes you along by propping it alternately, from side to side, against the projections in the walls. Till you have passed the tini- bered walls, your posture is very much constrained by the lowness of the roof. You may then sit at your ease, occa- siom Ily nodding your head, however, to avoid a projecting iock. The boatman sings a tune, which resounds through the cavern in a mariner indescribably beautiful. As you approach the shaft, the resounding of the water-fall power- fully impresses your imagination, with the idea of an immense cataract. Having passed this (which falls at the side, only giving you a very slight sprinkling) as you draw towards the end of the cavern, the total darkness, except the feeble light 1815.] Rasaltick Columns. 337 which proceeds from your dim lamps, the thickness of the atmosphere, the sound of the workmens hammers, and the suiphureous smell of the gunpowder, might weli have fur- nished the poets with new images for their descents to Avernus. After viewing the works, and conversin with the workmen, who are very civil, you return in the same way you entered, and will be apt to feel no slight pleasure at again beholding the cheering beams of the sun. BASALTICK COLUMNS. On the west side of Mount Holyoke,* three miles from Northampton, is a series of basaltick columns, in some measure like those of the celebrated Giants Causeway, in Ireland. They form the side of the mountain for a distance of ten or twelve rods, and vary in height fom ~ixty to more than a hundred feet. Their course inclines a little from the perpendicular, slopin~, gently towards the mountain. These pillars are uniformly hexagonal prisms, varying in regularity, their sides being from eight to thirty inches wide. The diameters of the ditThrent prisms are from iwo to four feet. In some parts, several ranges of columns am pear to have been broken away; for the hill below seems composed al:nost entirely of their fragments. The forms of the fragments bear no direct resemblance to the original columns, but are mo~Ay samali rhomboidal prisms, with irregular termin~ i~Ofl5. In one place fo a length of about twenty feet, ten distinct ranges of columns may be seen projecting above, attached by thei Ides to the ran be s within, whose lower portions are gone, vhile corresponding slumps (if they may be so called) are visible mong the rubbish below. Four of these projecting ranges are only about fifteen feet above Mount Holyoke is a part of a range of mountains, that extends from the vicinity of New-Haven, in a north-easterly d~scction, into Massachnsetts, and crosses Con- necticut River between Eastisampton and South-Hadley, when it takes the name above-mentioned. Nearly opposite Northampton, there is a high peak of this inoun- tam, which commands a very extensive view of the surrounding country, and is a very frequent and fashionable resort for parties of le~sure and curiosity. It is to he nhserved, that tise measures and distances mentioned in the above article, are not given from actual measurement, hut from the judgment ot the writer. Being only ors a short visit to that part of the conistry, he regrets that it was not in his power to collect materials for a more complete account of that ijiteresting object of curiosity. Vol. 1. No. 3. .3

Basaltick Columns 337-351

1815.] Rasaltick Columns. 337 which proceeds from your dim lamps, the thickness of the atmosphere, the sound of the workmens hammers, and the suiphureous smell of the gunpowder, might weli have fur- nished the poets with new images for their descents to Avernus. After viewing the works, and conversin with the workmen, who are very civil, you return in the same way you entered, and will be apt to feel no slight pleasure at again beholding the cheering beams of the sun. BASALTICK COLUMNS. On the west side of Mount Holyoke,* three miles from Northampton, is a series of basaltick columns, in some measure like those of the celebrated Giants Causeway, in Ireland. They form the side of the mountain for a distance of ten or twelve rods, and vary in height fom ~ixty to more than a hundred feet. Their course inclines a little from the perpendicular, slopin~, gently towards the mountain. These pillars are uniformly hexagonal prisms, varying in regularity, their sides being from eight to thirty inches wide. The diameters of the ditThrent prisms are from iwo to four feet. In some parts, several ranges of columns am pear to have been broken away; for the hill below seems composed al:nost entirely of their fragments. The forms of the fragments bear no direct resemblance to the original columns, but are mo~Ay samali rhomboidal prisms, with irregular termin~ i~Ofl5. In one place fo a length of about twenty feet, ten distinct ranges of columns may be seen projecting above, attached by thei Ides to the ran be s within, whose lower portions are gone, vhile corresponding slumps (if they may be so called) are visible mong the rubbish below. Four of these projecting ranges are only about fifteen feet above Mount Holyoke is a part of a range of mountains, that extends from the vicinity of New-Haven, in a north-easterly d~scction, into Massachnsetts, and crosses Con- necticut River between Eastisampton and South-Hadley, when it takes the name above-mentioned. Nearly opposite Northampton, there is a high peak of this inoun- tam, which commands a very extensive view of the surrounding country, and is a very frequent and fashionable resort for parties of le~sure and curiosity. It is to he nhserved, that tise measures and distances mentioned in the above article, are not given from actual measurement, hut from the judgment ot the writer. Being only ors a short visit to that part of the conistry, he regrets that it was not in his power to collect materials for a more complete account of that ijiteresting object of curiosity. Vol. 1. No. 3. .3 Letters from Eli. burgk (Sept. the tops of theirstumps; and there is one column of which a space of only a foot in length is broken out. The lower extremities of the upper portions are uniformly convex, and the upper ends o the lower portions as uniformly con- cave; so that if it were possible to suppose they might slide down from their attachments, they appear as if they might fit pretty exactly. This part of the mountain ii covered with trees ad shrubs, wherever there is room between the reeks for a tree to grow. FOIl THU IORTH-AiIflfCAN JOURNAL. Udiubwgh, 1514. Mawr of the bootmakers,. tailors, and others of the useful and elegant arts in Edinburgh have on their signs, from such a street, London; all which, in my humble opinion, proves mitch better than the best marshaller of syllogisms could do in ten tomes, that in respect to fashion, Edinburgh is a tributary province of the south. This is precisely, however, what was seen in London seventy or eighty years ago, when the oracle of the supreme hon ton was fixed at Paris, by the consent of all the nations of Europe; and to this day,I am told, there is still to be seen in some oh scure part of London, ohe of these signs, which probably, in the beginning of the last century, had considerable inSt. ence at the lady mayoress ball; it is, Juan Baptist. some. body tie rue tie Rickelieu a Paris, tient magaz~s tie cot. bellies tic marriage, tie Baptists, tie Peru. pout teindre its cknenx en noir, jail Arabiqne pour he Ladies tie rousseur, eats tie Venus pour oLe, ice rides, graLdangues, & c. all in French, which, no doubt, according to the well known proverb often made the parfumers chattels pass pro magn~gtco. And often have the wise sojourner. under * fSpw bell stopt and stared at this unknown writing on the wall, and, shrewd as they are at diving into the secrets of nature, without once suspecting the mystical charms which the words contained. But it is not the boot. makers alone who condescend to boo to the great mat DowChurchkalargschureh In Chetd% 9ea1 ii times who live within the inuand tithe hell, piuuiliW soaKer.; thu tlwe- trek classical ground. B.t fran the cantaguoeu ti their earns, *1mb elant Who have already spread lbdtfr,twids, into cOhn jearks itS. titan. fllO.J Letter. from EdisburgL a from the south, according to Sir Pertinas; Johnson, when he made his tow, observes, that the imitation of the English is universal; and tough, since his time, the Scotch have, without the lent question plated great numbers of frees, may of which evidently begin to count their circles about the year his book was published, and probably im- proved considerably in their Enghsh pronunciation, the ambition of copying their southern neighbours stili prevails. It is true there are a few, who pride themselves on the false nationality of preserving what they call their native language, ad, ~cause Dr.Johnson and the English abused ad ridiculed them, insist with a sort of absurd obstinacy, Upon dealing out in the broadest accent, the vile Scotch of the common porters ad carmen in the streets. There awe few feelings so exalted ad ?roductive of great actions, as the nationality of the Scotch in most respects; but is it not an erroneous ad contemptible nationality to attempt to continue a language, which, after all, is only a bad dialect of bad English, like the brogues of Cornwall, Somerset and twenty others? But the solid incorporation of England ad Scotland, the breaking upof the old and powerful highland ad lowland families by the unsuccessful attempts of the Stuart family, ad the utter hopelessness of their restoration, the introduction .of Scotch members into the British parlia. inentthese, with other causes, have gradually enfeebled the attachment to their native habits and dialect, and have taught those, and this is the large proportion, who would flourish under English auspices, the importanceof throwing of the highland kilt and the lowland brogue. Speaking of the unfortunate but gallant house of Stuart, there is hardly a retainer left for then~, either upon the mountain or in the valley. The battle of Culloden, the high road to England, and the truly beneficial effects of the union, have extinguished almost to the last spark the feel. ings of sympathy and devotion to that name. It sometimes does happen indeed, when the third or fourth bolde of Chateau blargeau has sunk into the veins of a descendant of a old chieftain, when his blood is heated and mantles on his cheek, when the glory of his ancestors, the swell of the pibroch, the warlike tread of his clan upon the heather, when such bright visions rise to his imagination, it may be that a throb of ancient loyalty returns to his heart, and we may for. moment perceive a slight tings of that exalted 34, Letters from Edinburgh. [Sept and chivalrous gallantry and loyalty, for which, many of the Highland families were so distinguished during the middle of the last century. But I believe that the last of the Stunts has seldom the honour of having