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Scientific American. / Volume 12, Issue 1 Scientific American, inc. etc. New York Sept 13, 1856 0012 001
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~II titutifii THE ADVOCATE OF INDUSTRY, AND JOURNAL OF SCIENTIFIt~, MECHANICAL, AND OTHER IMPROVEMENTS VOLUME XII. NEW-YORK, SEPTEMBLR 13, 1856. NUMBER 1. T HE Sciontific American, PUBLISHED WEEKLY At 123 Fulton street, N. Y. (Sun Buildings.) SlY MIJNN & CO. 0. D. MUNN~ S. H. WALES~ A. E. BEACH. ~ Agents may also be found in all the prin- and towns in the United States. Single of the paper are on sale at the offire of publication and at all the periodiral stores in this city, itrooklyn, and Jersey City. TFRM~~ a-year,~j in advance and the re- mainder in six months, L~ See Prospectus on last page. No Traveling Agents employed. Trial of Reaping Machines in Englasid. A trial of Reaping Machines, under the di- rection of the officers of the Royal Agricul- tsiral Society, took place on the 13th and 1.4th of last month, near Coichester, England.... Four machines were entered to cut a field of wheat, consisting of 54 acres. The machines were a McCormicks, hy Burgess and Key; a Bells by Croskill; a Husseys, by Deane & Dray; and a Palmers. All the machines were severely tested, on level and rolling ground, and on furrowed land, and worked well thc whole time. The Judges awarded 20 to Bells; 15 to Ilusseys, and 15 to McCormicks. In m~king tlte awards, the Judges said From the re- sults of these trials, we regret to observe that very little improvement Itas been made in this class of machines since last year. They consider that for general harvest purposes, the machines of Croskill (Bell~s), and of Messrs. Burgess & Key (McCormicks), are to he pre- ferred ; but for reaping only, they thinkDrays (Husseys) decidedly the best machine. A Prairie Steam Plow. Bronson Murray, who has suggested the awarding of a prize of $50,000 for a success- ful steam plow for the prairies, and who has offered to subscribe $500, has published anoth- ei~ letter in the Prairie Farmer, calling upon the rich farmers of Illinois to come forward with their subscriptions. He has received a number of letters from inventors on the sub~ ject, and is positive that such a plow will yet be invented. This is the right spirit. The best way to excite inventors to effort is to set before them proper motives and sufficient in- ducements. We hope the farmers of Illinois will respond to the noble suggestions of Mr. Murray. of stock, H, fitting, as before described, into Another a ivantage of the improvement is the threads in the ring, A, it follows that wilen that the buti of the tree is cut off at right an- stock, H, is moved around it will also be fed gles to the ti unk, so that no recuttincc or re- inward towards the center of the tree. In this sawing is ne essary to fit the end of the log manner a steady, but very gradual inward for the mill. The stump is also left fiat, which feed of the cutter is produced, the advance of hastens its c ecay. Chopped stumps are left the tool stock at each complete revolution with crevice,, and become covered over with around the tree being only equivalent to the substances w ileb prevent tile entrance of mois- width of one screw thread. ture, and cot sequent decay. The inventor in- This invention has been tested by a working forms us thu with the assistance of this in- machine, and found to operate with entire vention he c mu cut down trees in less than success. For cutting down locust trees and half the time that the same can be cut with other species of valuable wood, it effects an an axe. Th parts are all simple, strong, and important saving, as it may be applied so as effective. Ti e method of fitting the machine to cut close to the surface of the ground. In to the tree ai d again disengaging it, is conve- some localities the loss of wood for want of nient and q iick. For further information some means of cutting close down is from $3 address the inventor, No. 212 Broadway, to $5 per tree. Room 10, Ne ~v York City. IMPROVED SAD IRON. the iron is moved; an abundant supply of air is likewise constantly furnished to the fire, and proper combustion thus steadily main- tained. In our engraving, fig. 1 is a perspective view of a complete iron, A being the shell, and A the top or cover. In fig. 2 the cover, A, is removed in order to exhibit the interior arrangements. The fuel used is fine charcoal, which is de- posited any where on the inside of the bottom of the shell. Access is had to the interior by removing the top, A, which is conveniently done by taking omit the key, B. C are the draft openings, which are cast in tubular form and extend from the front of the iron, inward, to the rear part, as shown. D are the escape openings, placed immediately above the ter- mination of the draft tubes. The openings, D, terminate, externally, on the sides of the in- struneent, and when the latter is in use there can be no ingress of ah, as the mouths of D are never brought ugaimist the air. Both the draft and escape openings are so arranged that the ashes caunot, under any circumstan- ces, blow OUt. Tue booths of the openings, C, are tarnished with valves, B, which may be opened or clos~d at Isleasore, and the heat thus perfectly regulated. The front end or nose of the instrument, F, is shaped like a fluting iron, for which purpose it is intended to be used. This invention is rapidly coming into gen- eral use, and is considered far superior to the sad irons commonly employed. Invented by Ceo. W. Bishup, Brooklyn, N. Y. Patented May 6,1856. Address or apply to D. Tilton, 39 1.2 South street, New York City, for fur- ther information. Tunnel shrusrigh tin, Green Mountains. The Worcester, Mass., Palladium, states that the great Iloosic Tunnel, of the Troy and Greenfield Railroad, through the Green Moun- tains. is progressing with spirit. Messrs. Haupt and Gaibraith, have contracted to com- plete the whole line, and they commenced ac- tive operations on the tunnel on the 1st of May last. They have now penetrated 200 feet into the mountain, and progress at the rate of between 4 and 6 feet per day, leaving the walls and ceiling of the tunnel in a very smooth condition. The work is done in three sectionsone gang working in advance of the other. The first gang of ten men opens the headway at the top of the tunnel, 6 1-2 feet high and 14 feet wide, then follow the second and third gangs at intervals of about fifty or sixty feet, each taking the whole width and a proportionable share of the remaining depth, so that when the tunnel is completed, the aper- ture will be 21 feet high and 24 feet wide. There are two sets of men,one working by night. the other by day. No loss of time on account of the weather, summer or win- ter, and the work is to he pushed with the utmost vigor. The rock is mica slate, inter mixed with quartz, and yields very readily to the drill and blast. It is a great workone of the greatest of the kind ever undertaken in the world, and if completed it will be a tri- umph in civil engineering for which the Amer- ican people may well lie proud. -------~ Standing Tree Cutter. Our engraving illustrates a novel improve- meat for cutting down trees, for which a pat.. ent was granted to Mr. G. C. Ehrsam, of New York City, June 25th, 1856. Toe tree is encircled at its base by a strong iron ring, A, which is hinged, so that it may be readily opened and closed for adjustment. Screws, B, bear against the tree, and hold the ring firmly in place. The cutting is done by means of a cutter, C, which is carried round and round the tree by means of a circular rack, D. The rack fits into a cavity at D (fig. 2,) in ring A, and is moved by a pinion, E, power being applied to a crank in the man- ner shown. The tipper edge of ring A, is covered by a fiat ring, F, which is lunged, the edges where it opens being brought together and secured by means of the projecting ears, G G. These ears are firmly attached to the ring, F. They are hollow, and through their interior passes tile tool stock, H, which carries the cutter, C. I is a ferule, whuich holds the ears together. Thte upper edge of the ring, A, has screw threads cut upon it, throughout its entire cir- cumference (see fig. 2.) The lower surface of the tool stock, H, also has corresponding Improved Sad Iron. blowing out if ashes when the instrument is screw threads, which rest in and fit the screw The invention herewith illustrated belongs moved. This s caused by a defective arrange- threads of A. There is a depression in the top to that class in which the fire for heating the meat of the (raft openings. of rack, D, to suit the shape of the lower part iron is carried within the same. Irons of this The impror ament before us consists in such of stock, H, so that when the rack goes round kind are generally attended with a serious oh- an arrangem at of the draft openings that the, it carries with it stock H. The screw thread section, to wit: the injury of the work by the ashes cannot )lOw out, no matter how quickly of a casual star gazer. Time Expected omit. The news by the last steamer from Europe contains an account of a comet seen by a gen- tleman at Limerick, Ireland, for several nights. The Limerick Observer states that it is the long-expected comet of 1556. It is our opin- ion that if such a comet had appeared, Limer- ick would not be the first place where it would have been seen. The observers in the obser- vatories of Europe and America, with their powerful instruments, would rather get ahead MACHINE FOR CUTTING ~OWN TREES. ~ 1111 ~cb~ntific ~metic~n4 -5 (Iteported Officially loi tho Scientific American.] LIST OF PATENT CLAIMS issued from the United States Patent Ollice FOR THE WEEK ENDING SEPTEMBER 2, 1836. BUCKLE FOR IX trAutNO APPARELEdward Parker, of Plymouth, (cnn. 1 claim, swaging or cutting the blank, or the Low b, and Lop it, entire or in one piece, from a metal plate, and serurhtg the tongue, D, in the buckle, by bending or clmicg the cross-piece, C, around the shank c, oubstantially as described. ROTARY STEAM ENOINEoJOhn liobingson, of New Brighton, Pa. I do riot claim the hollow shaft or piston- head. B, whIr a passage or pas~ages in its periphery, to admit or carry off its propelling gas or fluid, as such but with a lateral arrangettient of said passages in relation to the radial piston, and ciii hying a irtitirate transverse partition in Ilte troll-sw tired, ti form islet and ottllet chambers at opposite cods of tlte piston, has before been used. Itut I clohn, the acrangenrent of the piston G, prnjectittg radic:rtly itito, within or througir the hollose head, D. and forming inlet and otittet cavities or passages, c, c~, and b, on either side of it, across its a-hole breadltt, or face, substantially as described, for the purposes set forth. (ANOLE MottitNo MActrussEsJohn itohingion. of New Itrighton, Pa. 1 claim, attaching a series of molds, I, to endless chains It It, which havi- an intermittent rooveme,it~ tire msstds being termed of two parts, and Otiened acid closed at the proper tinre by tire jaws, J, operated for the purrsose specilicit. also claim, drawing the condtcs from Ilte molds, by means of the jaws it n, attacheit to the rod L, arranged and operated tisr tIre purpis-,- sh,issii. I fucther claim, in cotisection -isith the jaws, In) (n), the plate P. operating for the tsrrrtrose itt turning or con- veying the candles into the receptacle Q. CusuotcsLewis Lamb, ofEerlin, toun. I do riot claim employing in a tub Irvo concentric shafts sersarasety, provided with one or more daber to revolve with them. But I claim, applying the auxiliary dasher to the shaft of tire rotary dasher, witirout arty oilier sturtr. so that the shaft of the rotary dasher may revolve on the hub of tIre auxiliary dasher, iii combination with applying to tIre in- side suctace ol tIre tub, a stop or prijection, or squivalent means, arranged as descrilsed, atrd by which tire auxiliary dasher may be shipped from revolving with the other dasher, when both are riced in tire cistern, and the churn is in operation, as described. ALE AND BEER CoOLERsJames McIntyre. of Somer- ville, Mass. I do not claim connecting an ale or liquid so that tire heated liquid, white descending iii a channel between plates, shall be rooted by cisoler curreirts of wa- ter or liquid urade to flow in a conitrary direction, against the outer surface of said plates tsr channel, as described. Nor do I claim arranging tire wntcr and ate chran- nehs in a zig-zag, serpentinc, or equivaterit mariner, with respect to one another, as describedso as to produce ant effect as stated. lInt I claim, the combination of the has-ants p n, and rate o, with Ihe ale and water chambers, triocs m m, arid zig-zag passages; the sante being for tire purpose, or to accomplish results as set forth. CoNDE-esrmts FOR STEAK ENunacsBavid Matthew, of lihihadehphia, Pa. s I claim, the combinration of the fiat vertical tubes, conneched by hrocizontat tubes with new rose pipes inside, and surrounded by the outer case, to cssndense, by ihe combined actian of air and waler, sub- otanitially as described. Pmtorcos or STnrFrNmron thAT ItorstossJos. McCrack- err, of Broohchyn, N. Y. I chalur, the price-is of stirhenirig wool hat bodics, by ariduhating the Is it bodies betisre ap~ plying the stiffening, as a means of gratloating and cont- trolling the quantity and depth to whirhi the stiffener can penetrate tire body of the felt, in conirbinranion with a pearhash solution of shellac for stiffening the tip or crown, and a pearhash and sal soda, corrahinied with a solution of shellac, for stiffening tIre brim, snibstantial- hy as described, and for the purposce set forth. MANUFACTURE OF BLACK BOTTLE GLASSJohn F. McCuthy, of Gonzales county, Texas I do trot claim as new, the process of re-heating tire batch, as applied to the ingrediensti heretofore used for making black gtass, but only as applied to and necessary for the barcir, if the specified clay slate is used as onto of the constituent ingre- dienti. 1 claim, the introduction of the above specified clay- slate as one of the ingredients inn compounding the usnual batch for the manufacture of black class, in the proportion and in the manner as specified. Pcowshtenaiah C. Hoyt, of Port Washington, Wis. I claim the adjustabie rotary mold board, K K, combined with the beam, B, arid franre, R, the whole being ar- ranged in the manner described. RAKtNO ATTACHMENT FOR IIEAPERSM. G. Hubbard, of Penn Yen, N. Y. I claim, the jointed rake bar, B, attached to tIre upright, f, anrd connected with the puBey, c, as described, for the purpose set forth. MACHuNE FOR TEsTINO AxEsWarren hunt, of East Douglass, Mass. 1 claim the described method for testing the trueness of axesconsisting essentially of the bar c, and slotted gauge hilate E, operating in the manner sub- stantially as set fortht. SearNo BEDsTEADWin. H. Kimball, and Andrew J. French, of Lynn, Mass., (assigniors to themselves and Amos K. Not ci, of same phare) We claim, arranging and combining tonethet and with the flame or bedstead A, the springs F F F, and their connection rods ft G ft. in man- ner essentially as set fhrth; the rocker bars B E, the lcvers B I B C, bars B E, straining screw rod H, and crank nut I the whole being made to operate substantial- ly in the manner specified. llArmvcoTmneo MACHINEsWin. A. Kirby, of ituffaho, N. N. I claim, the combination of the main wheel K, single plate II, arid rim L, when connecting and operating to- gether in the manner and for the purpose as described t I also claim the hanging the seat to the plates H, and to the standard S. as described. PEN AND PENCIL CAsEJobn H. Knapp, of New-York Cisy I do not claim the manner of operating the pencil slide, viz., by the spirally slotted tube II, and the straight siotted tube F, for that has been previously used, and the pen slide 1), is also well-known, amid in common use. Itnit 1 claim, phacing the pen slide D, over or upon the tube It. which encloses the slotted tubes F II, tire at-eve parts being arranged as shown, so that the pencil slide is shoved out at the opposite end, and the working pacts rendered so compact, that an extremely portable and ex- tensive case is obtained au described. CnmARormts FOR SHOT POUCHEsJohn K, llathaway of New York City s 1 claim in combination with tue slide of a shot charger a hocking apparatus, substantially such as described, to prevent the accidental opening of the charger, but readily unlocked by the user, as set forth. 1 also claim the shots, 1 2 1 4 & c., on the tube, B, and the tonigue button and spring on the tube, C, in comnbination, as a device for adjusting and holding said tubes as set forth. PnowsJoseph B. Ilarris, of Byhahia, Miss. s I claim combining with a sub-soil plow a mold board, movable to different hights, substantiaBy in the manner and br the purposes specified. ADJUsTABLE CUT-OFFS FOR STEAsI ENOnNEOAn- drew Bartupee and John Morrow, (assignors to J. P. Maigh, Andrew Bartupee and John Morrow,) of Pith- burg, Pa. We claim the combination of the T-shaped lifter, slide, screw and stops, or their equivalents, con- structed and arranged as described, and operating as an adjustable cut-off for steam engines, in the manner set forth. FOUNTAnN MULlED PENCharles Ketchum, of Penn BUCKLE FOR WEAn tED APPARELWin. Sladeof Gum Nan, N. N. s I claim, a fountain ruling-pen, substantially Creek, Ga. s I chair r, the double-jointed buckle, coD- as specified. i structed substantially as sel forth. BEDsTEADsCharles H. Gould, of Concord, N. H. s I GRAnK AND GaAs HARvEsTERIOren Stoddard, of claim the within described spring bed bottom, construct- Bush, N. N. I do no claim the pivotted cutters K, irre- ed essentially of the slats, B, pivoted at the lower ends, spective of the peru larity of their relative position or the bar, t -, springs, B, and band, E, operating in the man- movemcnh with each other, as shown. inner substantially as set forth. I claim, the cutters K, pivotted to the finger bar B, and operated by the cams (al, on the shaft L, when said cams BoRnNo AND MornTmsmxo hUEsHenry Hayes, of are placed in varying positions, as described for the i ur Quincy, Ill. I claim, first, the adjustable frame it B B e set forth. -, POS B. wrth rts attachments, substantially as described, and for the purposes set forth. INVALID CHAIRS . B. Faihhant, of New-York City I Second, the application of the rider, H, to the carriage, claim, the combinati n of the chair and adjustable drop ft substantially as described and for the purposes set or extension back, wi h the rack K, and adjusting or sup- forth. poriling rod, P, for lh, purposes substantially as set forth. Third, the combination of the index, 1, the lever, s, and the roller, t, substantially as described and for the puc- STRAW CUTTERS Shelton N. Thompson, of Barry Co., poser set forlh. Ky. I am aware that the nroving knives of straw cutters, have beets held up to the fixed knivcs thereof by means (AnENDAR CLocKsEdwin Allen, of Glastenbury, of springs, set screw , and other devices. I therefore (onn. I do not claim the lever, C, and stop pints, d, on make no claim to an djustabhe or a yielding knife. tire month wheel, as their equivalents ace found in But I claim, the ar angeinent of the fixed knife B, the the calendar mechanism of John Wilhianras, patented shaft A, and spring F as describedwhereby the revotv- Sept. II, liii. ing cutters are held a rigidly parallel to the fixed cutter, But I claim, first, tire change wheel, E, and year as if they were unyic ding, and are as free ho yield for the wheel, 1, or its equivalent fitted, as described, to rotate passage of obstacles, i s those cittlers which yield inde- with the month wheel, B, and carrying the leap year pendently of the acre and sisafis, by which they are car- wheel, ft. occupying such a position omt the change wheel med. os no represent tIre nnonth of Februarysaid change wheel receiving every month one twelftla part of a complete ro- SELF.WAITIND T. nrr.EAhdehah Watson, of Fah- tation on its axis, independently of the month whesh, and mouth, Ky. s I claim, he waiters B B, wire racks C C, tire heap year a-heel receiving every year, in addition to and driving cord E, -ombined, arranged anad operating, its revolution around the axis of the change wheel, one- substalatially as set fc -th. tourtli of a conaplele rotation on its own axis, the narove- inent of the change wheel and leap year wheel being C URTAtE FIXTURE iFerdinand Wuterich and Conrad produced by any nneans equivalent to those described, Hagan, of New-Neck and the said wheels combined and operating upon the tion City We do not claim the apphica. the of a scrohh spring wound up by the running doa-n of lever, C, suhistantially and for the purpose described, curtain, and then drawing up the same by its recoils, Secoird, Ihe internally notched ring, I~, on the driving aswe are aware the s me has been done before. wheel, M, or its equivalent, that rca omits motion from But, we claim, ODPI orting one end of the shaft, N, in a the month wheel to the yearly rotating month card, coin- movable slide, E, con rected with the lever G, which is lined with the lever, Q, and its locking pitt, t. and the made to act upon the saur F, as described. pin. z, on the month wheel, the whete operating substan- CUTTIND BEvnCE F sn HARVESTERSC. Wheeler, Jr., tialty as described, to hock the wheel, III, or its equiva. of Poplar Ridge, N. .s I claim, attaching the fingers, C, leer, and through it, the month card, till the thn!s for to the finger bar, B, rod the caps, B, to the fingers, as moving the sante, and then urhocking it as long as is cc- shown, and Iraving a hate, B, placed en each fingeron quired to effect the inovemenit. which plates, the tee- Ia (f,) of the sickle, rest, and work; the whole being arcs ged as described, for the purpose HAntVEsTERsHower Adkins, of Plymouth, Ill. n I set forth. clainra the rake operated by means of the crank, N, and guide blocks, Q h, substantiahiy as described for the pur- BORmED IIUBS FOR BoxrsSaml II. Nocum, of Shel- pose specified. byville, Ind. n I chain - operating the bits, e e, by the ad- justable feed rods, nn, and lever in, with the mechanism FEEDIND PAPER TO PNnnoTnNo PecescoDavid Bab- described, or its equis ahent, ins conthination aith the eight sort, of Croton, Conn. s I daunt the stocks, in nr, witha anti-friction wheels c c c c c c c c, temper screas o o and points, n n, attached, said stocks being placed in a rerip- k k, that confine the nub B, and expose a true circle to rocaling frame, operating as shown arid described for tire the bits. e e, at any esiced distance from the hub. purpose set forth. RE-ISSUE - (OTTeR SEED PLANTER5B. J. hteecherof Green- HANGING AND ST tAININO RECmPROCATtEO SAws vihie, .ttiss. I claim the courbination ofthe endless Se- Isaac N. Forcester, o Centerville, Na. Patented Oct.30 des mifacranged plates with the slotted discharge tube, it-Il I claim, the ma nec of hanging reciprocating saw constructed, arranged, and operating substantially as and blades, by forming tI treeD, or by attaching to the ends for tIre purposes set forth, and brent edges there f, ears or guide flanges n n, fig, 2, ROTARY STEASm ENOINEP. B. M. Carmichael, of heok champs q q, and shank devices, r, r, t, fig. 4 n so that a the tension or strain, md the drall of the blades will be Leroy, N. N. n I claim tIre rotary engine composed of - tn a direct line long itudinally, through the base of the piston with an eccentric rim, d d, whose interior fits at tee one point to the outer of the cylinder, and its anterior an th and front edge if the blade, whereby the ahohe of a diannetricaihy opposite point, to a central circular block the surface, or the ph; te part, of the saw-blade is heftfree, B, said rim workimrg within a slotted rocker, H, ~ ~ - unstrained, and dives ed of all rigidity, and stiffness, sub- dilating abutment, H, the whole operating - stantially as describen substantially I also claim the adj istabhe guide phate, with the slotted as set fhrth. or grooved gauge pier ss, g g, fig. 1, and x y, x y, fig. 3, as set forth. ARRESTING CARBON IN CItiRNEYOIlezekiahi Chase, of Lynn, Mass. I do not claim tIre introduction sfjets of water into a chimney, fbc the purpose of arresting sparks or carbomiaceous tniatter, as I ann aware that such has been accoitaplilned before on the chimneys of loco- motive engines. My inventiolt is more properly an in. provemenin err that for which letters patent were granted June lttth, 15s7, to James A. Cutting and George Butter- field, of Boston, Mass. TIre most essential feature of my improvement and that a-Inch differs fl-em anytiring in the apparatus of t utning antI Butterfield, being that part of Imry device whose olfice is to produce a thin sheet of wa- ter close to and surroninding the cdge of a ineniscus de- flector placed over the mouth of tire discharging flue within the chimney. Nothing of this kind is found in tire invention of Cutting and Butterfield, wherein streams of water only are employed. Inn iny improved smoke con- suming apparatus I use streams and a deflector, as do Cut- ting and Butterfield, but in addition to the principle com- mon to bohr, I so arrange the jet pipes that the jets of wa- ter may fall OD the top of the deflector, and be discharged over its edge ma a thin sheet. I claim arrangimag the jet pipes, the deflector, and dis- char0e flue so that tire water may first fall on the lop of ihe deflector, and be discharged ira a thin sheet over its cdge aird around tIne mouth of the discharge flue, as set forth, and this whether the streams tall directly downward front the jet pipes and upon tire deflector, or whether they may be first discharged upward, and next be caused to fkil back and upon the top of the deflector, and so that such streams may serve riot only to arrest carbonaceous martcro which may escape or pass by and rise above the deflector, but to return them and cause them to be thrown into the receiver, B, after they have fallen with the streams upon tIre said deflector. FILTERBavid N. B. Coffin, Jr., of Newton, Mass. r I claim the method substantially as described of applying the filtering diaphragm, and also combining therewith the additional layers, as and bbr the purpose sef forth. STREET SPRIwIrLERJohrn F. Briggo, of New Neck City I am aware that fixed perforated pipes have been employed for the purpose of sprimrkling in many branrrhes of manufacture, and that waste cocks have been provided in shower baths which open amid drain the pipe with the closing of the main cock or valve. But I am not aware that any have attempted to employ such for the purposd of watering streets, or have ever at- tempted so to ronstouct and connect an awning pole or a sign pole that it may serve this purpose I claim the peculiar arrangement of the perforated and slightly inclined pipe. A, in connection with the uprights, C and B, or with equivalent brackets from the neighbor- ing building, and with the valve, B, the waste passage, F, tnd the water main, B, when arranged in such a manner that it may serve the doubhe purpose of supporting asvn- ings. signs, lamps, etc., and of rapidly and effectually sprinkling the streets. PURnEYnEG OILCummings Cherry, of Pittsburg, Pa. n I do not claim any of the individual parts ~f my apparatus per se. But I claim the arrangement of the horizontal retorts, I I, as conbined wills the copper heads, J and L, of the certifying chamber, Q, oh the steam conduits to the oil boiler, and of the agitating apparatus, in the manner and for the purposes described. DIsTILLING CRUDE OILCummings Cherry, of Pitti- burg, Pa. r I claim providing upright retorts for tIre manufacture of oil from bituminous coal, wilh a closed top, and an opening at their bottom to be immersed in water. in the manner and for the purpose substantially as descriled. BRYnEG OmnCuininings Cherry, of Pittsburg, Pa. s I do net claim the admixture of litharge or rosin to vegeta- ble or animal oils in the manufacture of dressing oil. lint I claim preparing the oil, and for the purpose spe- cified. HAY RAKESHankles Heaberhin, of Scipio, Ind, I claim, the combination of the revolving rake with the adjustable spring bow, N, so that said rake may be set to trip, and be tripped with such variable motion of the foot, g, as maybe desired; the whole being arranged and epe- rating in the manner and for the purpose set forth. IIARvEsTInoD MACHINESJoel N. Shelley, ofRareford Pa., and Jas. Stauffer, of Ilosensack, Pa., (assigners tc Win. Watson, of Sr. Paul, Bin.) n We do not claim, hhe supporting of the frame of a harvester, on two main a-heels, in the manner of a cart, with a caster wheel in front of them, as the frame of a harvesting machine patented to Edward Badlaw, Jr., on the l~th day of Sepi, itsit5, is thus supported. We claim, the combination of the driving wheel G, supporting wheel F, raster wheel L, hinged tongue K, and the main frame, when the said parts are arranged, and operate in relation to each other in the manner set forth. WHIFFLETREE FOR BETACHtED HORSES FROSt CAR- RIAGESN. N. Selbyof Fairview, Pa.; I claim, the ap- plication of the spring, b, the whole length of the whiffie- tree, and turned over at each end, forming loops for the harness tugs, in combination with the belt f, pins ii, and fulcrum d, operated by the levers g and h, substantially as - detcrib~.l. 11 bert Fulton. A new biograp uy of this eminent manthe first who built really practical steamboat, and established tteam navigationhas just been given to the vorid by J. Franklin Reigart, of Lancaster, Pa. The author has devoted much labor and I esearch in producing a com- plete history of F ilton and his invehitions, and he appears to ha- -e done so in the spirit of one who loved his sul ject, and it does him great credit in every pt rticular. Fulton was b urn in Little Britain (now Fulton,) in Lanc tster Co,, Pa., in 1765. His father emigrated from the north of Ireland, and was a descer dant of the Covenanters, who emigrated from ~ cotland to Ireland during the persecution. Rob nrt received a common school education, and at an early age exhibited a fine taste for drawil g and mechanism. At 17 years of age he b ~came a professional artist in Philadelphia, but being consumptive, in a few years afterwards he was induced to take a voyage to Englan I for the benefit of his health. In London he wt s kindly received by Benja- min West, his -ountryman, and painter to King George HI His remarkab e mechanical genius soon made him knowi to Lord Stanhope and the Duke of Bridgi watermen of mechanical tastesand he w ts soon distinguished by his great neatness i a drafting, and ability as a Civil Engineer. He was a dweller and a wanderer in Em ope for many years, gaining much experience in courts and camps, but his mind was all tI e while taken up with the great idea of stet m navigation, and rendering his native land ii imortal by its first successful application. Thit he accomplished successful- ly in 1807. His irst boat, the Clermont, was built and launchl d in New York. James Watt built the engines for it, according to Fultons plan, and thus tire genius of two great men were blended and combined, in this, the glori- ous result of sten m navigation. Some have enc eavored to detract from the justly earned fa ne of Fulton, by setting up claims against hi, a of not being the original in- ventor of steam navigation. Mr. Reigart does not set up t .ny such claim for him, but justly places his nlaims upon the proper basis of having rende- ed it successful by his im- provements, aftel many others had failed to do so. This is enou ~h to render his name famous forever, as the father of Steam Navigation,~ Much credit is d te to Miller and Symington, and others,for w iat they had done before him, - but without detrt eting from their claims, Ful tons name must rank above theirs in the scroll of great inventors. The volume is beautifully illustrated with fine colored engravings of the various steam- ers which Fulton built, and with copies of his original drawings and paintings, and a por- trait of himself. It is a valuable acquisition to the literature of our country. Fulton sleeps under a plain slab in Trinity Church yard, in this city; but he has a monument in every steamboat on our waters. August Storms It is a remarkable fact that between the 1st and 24th of August a severe storm of wind and rain visits our country every year. It gen- erally commences in the Gulf of Mexico, and proceeds in a curve round the Atlantic coast, and penetrates hundreds of miles into the in- terior. The storm this year was the most se- vere that has taken place in a great number of years, and committed great ravages. It is also somewhat remarkable that severe storms visit England in the same month. Great fresh ets take place, the same as have been expe- rienced this year in so many districts of our country. Of old they have beeen designated Lammas floods~Lammas being the name for the 1st of August. Making Watches in Switzerland. A large proportion of the work bestowed upon the manufacture of watches in Switzer- land, is done by cottagers, who cultivate the earth in the summer, and in the winter shut themselves up with their families during tite inclement season which lasts three or four months. The whole family then devote them- selves to the work of making watch move- ments. Not only the children work, but the dog turns a wheel and puts in motion a lathe or a pair of bellows. First, the rough part of the movement is made by water power. Par- ticular parts are assigned to the young mem- bers of the family; while others are employed in putting the plates and wheels together. When a sufficient number have been prepared, the master transports them on the back of a mule to some town or village, where he sells them to little master watch-makers who complete the movements, or else they are sold to travelling agents, who case them in silver or gold. (irotus in Europe. The late news from Europe describe the harvests as being nearly completed, and the crops excellent. In France, where it was sup- posed the crops would be much reduced by the great indunations in some of the valleys, they have turned out to be very good. It is believed that the average yield will exceed that of 1855. New Linhihonse. A screw pile lighthouse has been erected on the spit abreast the Narrows of Boston Har- bor. It is a hexagonal structure elevated on seven iron piles, and is surmounted with an iron lantern. The light is designed to clear the spit by vessels passing through the main ship channel. It is illuminated with a lense light of the sixth order, elevated 35 feet above high water mark. Russian Rails. The Russians have commenced to manufac- ture rails for their railroads, and they are said to be superior to the English, although some- what dearer. Prior to the late war all their rails were imported from England. Two great proprietors of Russian forges have engaged to to manufacture all the rails required for the new railroads. Knives should never be dipped into hot wa- ter, as it injures the handles. They may be placed upright in the water in a mug, by which plan the handles will be kept dry. Never let waste vegetables, bones, & c., ac- cumulate in an an ash-pit near to the house they generate injurious gases. Mr The human system, in its vital or muscular power, is very analogous to an electric ma- chine. If metallic iron is boiled in a solution of sulphate of alumina, the iron will dissolve, and a sub-sulphate of alumina is thrown down as a white precipitate. Proceedings of the American Association for the i~.dvancement of Science. This Association is looked upon by the great mass of our people as the embodied re- presentative of American science, but in our opinion its proceedings come short of entitling it to such a distinction. Its Eighth Annual Meeting, recently held in Albany, N. Y., was the largest ever witnessed and more papers were read and more discussion elicited than at any previous meeting. Reports of these have been circulated by the daily papers in awful quantity throughout the length and breadth of the laud, and to us they appear to misrepresent the real practical scientific char- acteristics of our people. What is science hut well arranged facts derived from study and observation 1 It is not mere speculationby- pothesis,it is positive truth. This being the case, those papers on merely speculative sub- jects read and discussed at the late meeting of the Association, were little better theu idle reveries. Hours were spent in discussing whether the worlds of the solar system once existed in the form of gas, and whether the matter of the asteroids once revolved as a huge flat disk. How vain, for it never can be positively determined how the worlds were made. Conjecture and calculations respecting a state of matter that may never have existed is not science. The undue prominence given by the Asso- ciation to papers of no practical utility what- ever, has characterized all its meetings. Ag- assiz is justly, we believe, characterized as the greatest naturalist living, but really, the information which even he has presented is more curious than useful; and the same may b~ said of the great mass of the papers pre- sented at the late meeting ; they were ponder. able in quantity, but imponderable in quality. The world would have lost nothing useful had they never been made public. The ideas of some of the sevens seem to be as fossiliferousso far as they relate to useful information that would benefit mankindas the fossil elephant, mastodon, megatherum, and hippopotamus. One of the most useful papers read was by Prof. henry, of the Smithsonian Institute, on the proper mode of constructing public build- ings, according to the laws of acoustics, for speaking; and yet, one of our daily papers stated that it was more a practical than a scientific paper,~~ and this, we suppose, is just the idea which too many have of science. We contend that science is scarcely worthy of the name if it is not practical ; hence we assign the chief place to that kind of information which is the most useful and practical. No papers were read on new discoveries in chemistry relating to its applications to the arts; none on any of the great manufacturing interests of our country, which require so much real science to conduct and carry on; none on civil or mechanical engineering; none on practical mining; none on shipbuilding; none on any of the useful arts whatever. We hope that the succeeding meetings of this Association will be more fruitful in the elemination of new and useful discoveries than the past, and that science in deed, and not in name, will characterize all the papers which may be presented. The following continues the condensed ex- tracts of some of the most interesting papers read, from page 410, last Vol, New Astronomical InstrumentMr. Alvan Clark, of Cambridge, Mass., read a paper ona new instrument of his own invention for meas- uring the distance apart of stars too distant to be brought into the field of view of a teles- cope. Within a year from the first thought of the instrument entering his mind, he had built a telescope of six inches aperture and 103 inches local length, mounted it equatorially, governing its motion by ~ spring govern- or clock, provided the two eye-pieces, and as a substitute for a filar micrometer, arranged a mode of using pieces of glass ruled with a ruling machine. Experiments had demon strated the feasibility of using the two eye- pieces in this way, and of obtaining by them very accurate measures of the distances of stars, which are from three to one hundred minutes of space apart. The success of the instrument was, however, greatly due to the .1 spring-governor, which keeps each star upon the wire accurately bisected. Prof. Pierce rose and said that the new mounting of the telescopea modification of the Munichwas exceedingly beautiful, more so than even the Munich, and vastly superior in convenience and value. The spring govern- or also was put into the best condition for good action there, the heavy mass of the tel- escope acting directly as a balance wheel and controlling all irregularity of movement. In short, the instrument satisfied all reasonable requirements for equatorial mounting. Prof. Hackley bore testimony to the value of the instrument, which he also had visited. .4 Great BarometerProf. Henry, of the Smithsonian Institution, read a paper upon a large barometer in the hall of the Institute. Attempts have several times been made to form barometers of water instead of mercury. One was by Prof. Caniell, in the hall of the Royal Society, in which a glass tube was em- ployed, filled with boiled water while in a boiling statethe lower surface of the water was covered with castor oil to prevent con- tact with the air, but this precaution was found not to be sufficient. Air was absorbed by the oil, and the nitrogen of this air absorb- ed by the water. Another atttempt was made to exclude the air by a thin film of gutta per- cha left after the evaporation of naphtha. But a valid objection to water arises from the vapor which will fill the top of the tube. Prof. Henry had decided to use sulphuric acid which does not give off any appreciable va- por, nor absorb any air. The objections to its use are the liability to accident, and its affini- ty for water. But care can guard against accident, and the moisture can be aborbed from the air which touches it by a drying tube apparatus containing chloride of calcium. The construction was intrusted to Mr. James Green of New York. The tube is two hundred and forty inches long and three-fourths of an inch in diameter, inclo sed in a brass case two and a half inches in diameter. The mechanical details of the instrument we need not repeat. The whole of the apparatus is inclosed in a glazed case one foot square. Electrical ExperimentsProfessor Henry described a most interesting set of experiments with electricity. He has discovered conclu- sively that there are not two kinds of electri- city, according to Dufaye, but that it is an in- dentityrather a force or an ether that oper- ates in oscillations by direct and reflex mo- tions. He has discovered that thunder storms exert an influence over a great extent of coun- try. He magnetized needles by thunder storms seven or eight miles distant. The principle of magnetising a needle he explained by considering that if the direct wave of the fluid or electricity imparted say 50 units of magnetic force to the needle, and the reflex wave took 10 units from it, then the next di- rect wave imparted 5 units, the expression would be 50 p.lO n.J-5 p.=45 units of mag- netic force with which the needle would be magnetized. One night a terrific thunder storm took place in Washington, and being in the Smithsonian Institute he heard some loud noise, as if some- thing was knocked down in the tower, which is over 120 feet high. He sent up a man to see what was the cause, who, after going up and making an examination, came down, and reported that nothing was injured, but that he heard a loud hissing noise, which he could not understand. The Professor mounted up to investigate the phenomenon, and found the point of the conductor glowing with electric- ity, and the hissing noise proceeding from the rod. He attributed this to the successive dis- charges of the fluid producing an intermit- tent vacuum around the rod, and that the small ex losions were uroduced in some such manner. His experiments also led him to conclude that it is not safe to carry electric conductors down through the holds of vessels because sparks are liable to he given off from them, and these might ignite a cargo of cotton or other combustible substance. He thought it would be more safe to connect the conduct - ors outside with the sheathing of the vessel. This Association adjourned on the 29th ult~ to meet on the 12th Aug. 1857, at Montreal C. E. Prof. Bailey of West Point, was elected President for next year. Vice President, Prof. Alexis Caiw dl, of Rhode Island. General Secretary, P: of. John Leconte, of South Car- olina. Pern anent Secretary, Prof. Joseph Lovering, of Jambridge. Preserving Timber. Mzssas. Ei IToasIn an article on Bon- cherie~s Pro ess for Preserving Wood from Decay,~ in y mr issue of Au~ust 23d, you state that in Lov eli there is a factory for preserv- ing timber by the use of a solution of chloride of zinc (Bun ~ff5 process) which is a good preservative, but this is the only factory of the kind, w believe, in our country, thus showing tha there is little demand for pre- served timbe ~ & c. It is true hat timber is so plenty that the subject of pi eserving it could not be expected to receive th same attention here as in Eu- rope, still ye ~ will doubtless be gratified to learn that th factory above mentioned is not the only one ~stahlished in the country. The Verm nt Central Railroad Co. has, at Northfield, a extensive apparatus for Bur- nettizing t es, bridge timbers, & c. Many thousand tie preserved by this process were laid down fo er years since upon their road and as yet e~ hibit not the least signs of de- cay. Our te egraph company has had some poles so prej ared this season, by way of ex- periment. T he expense does not exceed six- teen cents e ch. It is begi aning to be felt that telegraph lines, to pay. must be substantially and relia- bly built. q here is an increasing demand, by companies, f r the most durable kinds of tim- ber, and I dc aht not that the ~Burnettizing,~~ or some oth r process for its preservation will. at no great distance of time be generally adopted. J. H. Nonais. White Riv ~ Junction, Vt., Aug. 21, 1856. [We are o Iliged to our correspondent for the above 1 tter. After many inquiries we were unable to learn of any establishment for preserving ti uber in our country, excepting the one at Lo cell. It affords us pleasure to hear from him of the one connected with the Ver- mont Centre R. R., also the testimony he has presented as o the value of this method of treat- log timber. We are confident that all our large raliro; ds would find it profitable to adopt the sa ne means to preserve their rail- road ties, & . impro ymca in San Francisco. Mzssas. E DITORsIn this city the extensive metallurgict I works of Messrs. Wass, Urnay & Harasty c mmenced a few weeks ago. They purchase th tailings from quartz mills, and operate upo them to extract all the gold. Hitherto the ;e tailings were thrown away at the quartz r dlii; they are the refuse of the gold quartz after it has been operated upon with mercur ~ by the miners. It has long been known that these tailings contained much gold, but tht question was, how to extract it. In the work. named above, these tailings are melted with fluxes, and the gold recovered. It is believed hat millions of gold which was formerly cos sidered lost will now be obtain- ed. The great idea of building a bridge over the Bay of San ~rancisco to Contra Costaa dis- tance of at I mat ten milesis now mooted in this city. - ~ company has been formed to carry out tI e project, and application for a grant has os ce been made to the Legislature, and will be ~enewed. A large s igar refinery is also about to be built, so tha;, you will perceive, our industry, our arts, an I manufactures are progressing amid all the turmoil and exciting scenes with which we I ave lately been visited. J. Mosnzsnza. San Fran isco, Cal., Aug., 1856. Spontaneon CombustionVainabie Warning. Mzssas I nIToasIn No. 51, last V ol.of the SCIENTE ic AMERIcAN, I observed an article on the SpOl taneous Combustion of Sawdust used as pac lug around steam pipe. Having a large stea n pipe packed with it, I proceed- ed without moments delay to examine it and found t to dust completely charred, ap- parently re ;dy to ignite. Of course, I order- ed it remc red at once. Believing that this one article may have saved my property, amountine o many thousands I think it will be only a little short of absolute insanity to he without so valuable and faithful a monitor. And every business manyes, in fact, every man who desires to succeed in the world would find a very great auxiliary to his suc- cess by taking and carefully reading the Sci ENTIFIC AMERIcAN. G. W. SnITH. Glen Aubury, Broome Co., N. Y. Coai Barning Locomotives. Mzssas. EDIToRsIn No. 50 Vol. 11, Sci- ENTIFIC AMERIcAN, there are two notices of Coal Burning Locomotives. I never thou~ht before that master mechanics and the officers of railroads were so ignorant of the manner of consuming coal in locomotives. Mr. Clark, of the Illinois Central R.R., has put the com- pany to some unnecessary expense in the alter- ation of the engine in question all that was necessary for him to do was to take a bar of wrought iron four inches deep and one inch thick, a ad forge it into a frame for the bars to rest upon, and also make grate bars of the above named bar iron, and put them in the furnace one inch apart. These raise the grate high enough, and fit it to burn coal. And in order to keep the smoke box clear of sparks, all that is necessary is to put a liftin~ pipe (like that which Ross Winans uses in the smoke box of his engines), and curve the exhaust pipes to suit. En eo~o MAHONY, Alleghany City, Pa. Magnetism of Railroad Rails. Mzssas. EDIToRsOn our r~ liroad here ~here is an uphill grade, running N. W.; of 80, or 90 feet to the mile, on which each of the individual rails are magnetsthe upper end a south pole and the lower a north pole. I pre- sume all railroads are the same that have an inclination, no matter what direction they run, or from what mine the iron came from, be- cause there is a law of magnetism that all bars of iron become magnets the moment you raise them from a horizontal position. The lower end becomes a north pole and the upper a south pole. This is north of the equator, but south the opposite. This magnetic law has not been considered enough on board ves- sels in relation to local attraction, and has doubtless been the cause of their running on shore sometimes. J. 0. Bloomfield, N. J., Sept., 1836. Main Springs of Watch s. Mzssas. Eoiroas.I received a watch late- ly in order to set it in repair, and found the main spring broken into as many parts or pieces as there were coils around the reel. The fracture formed a straight line from the center to the circumference. I examined it, and found that it could not have been effected by a visible tool. During twenty years cx- perence I found no main spring broken at more than one place at once. I supposed that electricity had done this. When I inquired, the owner said that he stirred somethin~, in the watch with the blade of his pen-knife, which was magnetized. Does not this fact in- dicate a powerful effect upon cohesion I To all acquainted with magnetism, & c., it is well known that other parts in watches are greatly affected by this agent; and as I have for many years seen no remarks upon this point in pub- lic prints, some good hint would, no doubt, he of value to many of your readers, though the most of them may be familiar with these mat- ters, a demonstration of so plain and so in- structive a fact should induce more carefulnese with valuable watches than is usually bestowed upon them. HENuv ZUPPINGER. Bloomsburg, Pa., Sept., 1836. Ilaroincters. Mzssas. EDIToRs.I see by a late number of the SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN, that a correspon- dent in Indiana states that he has a barometer which does not operate correctly. It may not be a good one, but I think the barometer re- quires to be marked in some respects accord- ing to latitude. I have one that I bought of Capt. Eldridge, of the Collins line of steam- ships; it was made by Blunt, of New York, and with but one mark upon it, and th~ t was change.~~ Other marks I have put on my- self, and I must say it will indicate the chan- ges of weather correctly ninety-nine times out of a hundred. I have owned it two years. T. B. JoHNsoN. Medford, Mass., Sept., 1856. 3 I ~ citnti~c ~n~trii~an+ This saves at least one half of the time it the different tin hers is likewise the same would take to do the same in the old manner, then we would et the square so as to move by and does the work better, because the square each pressure tI e size of the joists, and one will move just such a distance, consequently space, then dra r a line, and mark the size of the lines will present a uniform character, and the joists to th first line drawn, repeat the give the whole an appearance of accuracy and same and you ~ ill have all the lines exactly neatness, the same distan e apart as the first two lines Again, suppose a builder has to furnish the so the draugh sman is enabled to do double lumber plan for a floor, the size of the joists is the amount of ~ ork, and better, because there the same throughout, and the distance between can be no varia ;ion in the movements of the _ C~1J (~flbCfltI~Qfl$4. Improved Dravdn~ Instruments. Our engraving illustrates an improvement which is designed to facilitate draughtsmen in the ruling of parallel lines. It consists in a device for moving the rule over the surface of the paper, the arrangement being such that the instrument traverses a certain distance at each pressure of a trigger. Parallel lines are thus ruled with great rapidity and exactitude. There is also an arrangement for graduating the distance between the lines, which is highly useful in parallel shadin~. Figs. 1 and 2 illustrate a triangular rule for ruling parallel lines, fig 1 being a perspec- tive view, and fig. 2 a sectional elevation, showing the mechanism for moving the in- strument. A is a slide, the bottom of which projects through a slot in the rule, B, and rests on the surthoc of the paper. The bottom of A is covered with india ruhber so as to form a bet- ter frictional combination with the paper. C is a trigger hinged to the top of the rule at a, and connected by means of n inclined rod D, with the top of A. When trigger C is pushed down, the slide, A, is pressed firnily upon the paper, and held, serving as a fulcrum the inclined rod, D, acting as a lever to carry the rule forward. The rule thus moved being held by the finger from slipping back, the trigger is released, and the slide, A,is brought back to its first posi- tion by means of a spiral spring, E, which is attached at one end, A, as shown. The trig- ger being thus alternately pressed and re- inased, the rule is caused to travel over the paper, step by step, and the lines drawn by its edge, will all he equi-distant from each other, The great convenience of this improvement will be apparent when it is rememhered that the ordinary method requires the pricking off of each line by the dividers, in order to render them accurate. The space between the lines is changed by means of the cam button, G, which may be turned against the end of the slide, A so as to regulate the distance moved by the rule at pleasure. A, it will be observed, pro- ects up through the top surface of the rule, in order to meet cam G, which is conveniently I located. Fig. 3 shows the application of the im- provement just descrihed to a T-square, with the addition of a self-acting attachment, which alters the space between the lines ruled. This is useful in all kinds of linear shading, as for example in drawing cylinders or col- umns. The mechanism for moving the rule is substantially the same as that just described the slide, A, being placed in front so as to rest on the edge of the drawing-board. The al- teration in the space between the lines is ac- complished by having the cam, G, (figure 3,) made in the form shown, the slide, A, being connected with another slide, H, having a fol- lower, I, iv hich bears against the surface of G. J is a rod attached to cam G, and K anoth- er rod, through one end of which J slides the other end of K is furnished with a pin button, L, which is affixed to the surface of the board and remains stationary. When the trigger, C, is pressed, the square advances, and in conse- quence of rod, K, being fixed at one end, rod J moves and turns cam G; and the cam, G, acting on the follower, H, the rule can only move further or less, according to the con- figurations of the cam. The lines ruled may thus commence very fine and gradually widen, as desired, and vice versa. To illustrate the uses of this improvement, let us suppose we have a number of window frames with sash, & c., to be laid out. The right position of the window frame is given, and we want to finish up the window. Let us suppose the engraving is made three-eighths by one foot, and the frames are ten by six inches wide, then set the square so as to move three-tenth inches, and bring the edge to the already given point; draw one line, say the inside one of the window; give the trigger, C, a pressure, which will move it three-six- teenths of an inch, then draw the second or outside line, and so on until it is completed. IPROV~) DRAWING INSTE UMENTS. T-square. The mechanic 1 draughtsman is often called on to shade a section of some part of a building, or machine; with a brush and ink it would be disfigured, while a line shading would be an ornament to the drawin~ ; but it is so very difficult to give the line shading a uniform appearance that most draughtsmen have abandoned it altogether. The square, with the aforenamed apparatus attached to it will make line shading more handy and eco- nomical than any other. The same ink used for common lines can be used for shad- ing. For machinists and draughtsmen this im- provement is quite indispensable; there is a call for such an instrument in every screw or bolt, where he hi s to represent a thread, and where he lies no v to move his square or tri- angle by the eyc or waste hours after hours in measuring the size of the thread for a small number of screw m, which, with this appara- tus can be finishi d in as many minutes. In drawing machint i, where a part is shown in section, line shad tug is at once the only sha- ding that will mc st accurately define the va- rious portions. The simplicity of the whole arrangement is such as to enable any person to become per- fectly familiar a ith its use in a very short time. Invented my R. Eickmeyer. Patented March 11, 1856. For further information ap- ply to J.T. Bates 08 Broadway, N.Y., room 10. IMPROVEJ~ENT IN CARRIAGES. Improvement in Carriages. The improvements illustrated in our engra- ving are the inventions of Mr. Geo. Kenny, of Milford, N. H. They consist, firstly, in a method of preventing all rattling of the whif- fletree. This is done by filling the clip piece, A, with rubber or other elastic substance, the bolt, B, which connects the whiffietrees, C, with the hounds, D, passing through the rub- ber. In fig. 2, which is enlarged, A is the clip piece, and a the rubber. It is obvious that the rubber will not only prevent all noise, but also obviate wearing of the parts. It like- wise acts in part as a spring upon the whiffie- trees, preventing any unnecessary movement, always keeping them in place, etc. The ex- pense of this improvement, both in first cost and for any subsequent renewal, is quite in- significant, but the advantages secured are important. The second improvement relates to the construction of the fifth wheel, the upper sec- tion of which, E, is made with lips, so as to cover the lower section, F. A washer of that no dust can enter. The durability, tight- ness, and safety of the king bolt is thus great- ly increased. We have seen certificates from a number of persons who have these improvements in use, and they speak of them in the highest terms of commendation. They are devices which will unquestionably render all vehicles, to which they are applied, safer from accident than they otherwise could be, besides saving time, trouble, and much expense for repairs. Address the inventor as above, or Geo. N. Davis, 152 Congress street, Boston, Mass., for further information. Patented July 29, 1856 improved Nautical Instrument. We havelately examined an ingenious instru- ment by Ralph Reeder, of Cincinnati, which combines three important uses: first, it exhibits to the eye, at a glance, the local variation of the magnetic needle, with unerring certain ty. Second, it exhibits the altitude of the sun, and thus enables the mariner readi- ly to compute latitude. It also exhibits the true time, and, by comparison, by the aid of the chronometer, shows the longitude. A chronometer is connected with the instrument. Without drawings it would be difficult to con- vey a good idea of its construction. It ap- pears to be a practically useful invention, des- tined to render important assistance in navi- gation. It is based upon strictly scientific principbs. Mr. Reeder has been engaged upon this invention for about twenty years, and has at last conquered every obstacle. The Scientific American. A new volume of this useful and admirably conducted weekly will commence on the 13th prox., and we commend it to the attention of every mechanic, inventor, engineer, farmer, man of science, and to every profession. Its illustrations of valuable inventions and de- scriptions of patented discoveries cover the entire field of ingenuity, both at home and abroad. Its editorials are the result of exten- ded experience, and embody the mo t practical suggestions in the simplest manner. Phila- delphia, which is the great manufacturing center of the country, should take at least ten thousand copies of this important work. [Our friends, Messrs. Wallace & Fletcher of the Philadelphia Sun, will accept our thanks for the above friendly shake of the hand. We are indebted to many editors throughout the country for their kind notices of the ScIENTIF- ic AMERICAN. ice by Machinery. The Cleveland, Ohio, Herald states that there is a machine at the Cuyahoga Works, in that city, which makes a tun of ice per day. The ice is made in cakes of 6 by 12 inches thick, weighing 32 lbs. each. It is also st ted that the expense for manufacturing only amounts to $5 per tun. Franklin Institute ExImilsitlon. This Institute will hold its next Annual Exhibition in Janes Building, Chestnut st. Philadelphia, during the month of November. A brilliant meteor recently passed over Webster County, Iowa, illuminating the whole heavens for a few seconds. The source of these meteors is yet a mystery. - ~ Revenue of British Railroads. The total income of railroads in Great Brit- ain for the first six months of the present year amounted to 49,940,490. leather is introdu ad between the two surfa- ces, and the entra ice of dust and dirt is thus prevented. Addil lonal strength is also given by this plan, to th fifth wheel, a good, smooth, easy bearing aiwa ys preserved, durability in- creased, etc. The method of combining the sections of the fifth wheel is also an improvement. It usually consists o a simple loop, G, attached SPLENDID PRIZES.PAID IN CASH. to the reach, for the purpose of holding up The Proprietors of ihe SCIENTIFic AMERICAN will pay, in Cask, the following splendid Prizes for the the lower section, F. The novelty, here, con- largest Lists of Subscribers sent in between the present sists in furnishing the loop, G, with an elastic time and the first of January, 1817. to wit rubber roller, I, w ~ich bears up against the For the largest List, ~20O For the 2nd largest List, 175 lower side of secti a F, and keeps it constant- For the 3rd lar~est List, 1 ~0 ly in contact with E. See fig. 3. For the 4th lar,,est List, 125 For the 5th largest List, 100 The transit or king bolt, K, which unites For the 6th largest List, 75 the body of the ye tide to the front wheels, is For the 7th largest List, 50 generally subjecte I to great strain, but is here For the 8th largest List, 40 For the 9th largest List, 30 entirely relieved. (See fig. 4.) It passes down For the 10th largest List. through the cente of a box, J J, one section For the 11th largest List, 20 of which fits into he other, with a washer be- For the 12th largest List, 10 tween. The strab which commonly falls up- Names can be sent in at different times and from dif erent Poit Offices. The rash will be paid to the order on the king bolt i. thus sustained by the lips of the successful compelitor, immediately after the 1st of of the box, J J, ai d they are so closely fitted January, 1857. ~, J?i~j.2 ~~ (5 Fi5j ~dcntific ~mctic ~n+ ~cicntifh~ ~nwrican., NEW-YORK, SEPTEMBER 13. 1866. Our New Volume. Eleven years have now passed away since the SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN commenced its ex- istance, and from a very humhle heginning it has grown up to he an institution in our coun- try. It occupies a place and a position among our Press peculiar to itself. It is the Advo- cate of Industry, the Repertory of American Inventions, and the herald of new and useful information relatincr to Science and the Arts. Many changes for the hetter have taken place since it commenced its career. Previous to hat period our inventors, mechanics, artisans and manufacturer possessed no watchman on the tower to which they could refer for that peculiar information so necessary to their interests and welfare. Many period- icals. ho th before and since its origin, have at- tempted to occupy the s~ me field, hut they did not serve the public in the same capacity. A vast range of correct information relating to scieiwe and all the arts, and extensive means to ohtain the latest and most reliable informa- tion on nearly all subj ects are required to conduct such a periodical; without these it would neither he profitable nor useful to the public. Invention, Science, and Art have progressed at a most wonderful rate during the past eleven years, and it affords us much pleasure to witness the influence our journal has exer- cised in stimulating inventive genius, in cor- recting errors in science, and in disseminating useful information. The past year, especially, has heen extraor- dinarily prolific in useful inventions, andjudg- ing from the past, we expect that the next will exhibit a still greater increase. It has heen our objectand we have always accomplished itto make each succeeding vol- nine superior to its predecessor; our readers, therefore, may expect that the present one will he the hest ever published. We take this opportunity to return thanks to our subscribers for their patronage, and the many expressions of kindness received at their hands. These stimulate and encourage us to renewed efforts in the cause of science and the dissemination of knowledge. Our Prizes. We invite the attention of our readers to the list of Prizes which will he found on another page of this paper. From many sections of the country we have received the most gratify- ing evidence of the interest which they ex- cite. Clubs are forming and a generous ri- valry for the prizes offered, is springing up. It should he understood and rememhered that we employ no tray eling agents to col- lect suhscriptions for us, hut in lieu there- of; we offer handsome rewards in cash to all who will volunteer to get up clubs. This sys- tem we find to give much better satisfaction than the agency plan. The latter mode is suhject to malpractice, and often occasions great confusion. But where individuals, known and residing in a community, take the matter in hand, confidence is at once secured, and the success of the canvasser rendered almost cer- tain. The sum of one thousand dollars is offered hy us this year, for distribution among those who choose to take part in the formation of clubs. Read our advertisements,~ponder them well and then act. To Our Correspondents. Our thanks are due to our correspondents, who, from every quarter of the country, have from time to time furnished us with news of the progress of events in their localities, and with much valuable information relating to almost every subject in science, art, mechan- ics, practical chemistry, and agriculture. Our correspondents, generally, are men of sound sense, who endeavor to write clearly, who un- derstand what they write about, and who are intelligent in all that relates to the really use- ful They belong to every walk of lifepro- fessors en colleges, mechanics, civil and me- chanical engineers, chemists, teachers, farmers, m nufacturers, and merchants. ~ Scientific Ladies.Experlments with Condensed Gases. Some have not only entertained, hut ex- pressed the mean idea, that women do not pos- sess the strength of mind necessary for scien- tific investigation. Owing to the nature of wo- ~ duties few of them have had the leisure or the opportunities to pursue science experi- mentally, hut those of them who have had the taste and the opportunity to do so, have shown as much power and ability to investi- gate and observe correctly as men. We have Miss Mitchell, who has been awarded the King of ~ prize medal for her discoveries in astronomy; and there is Mrs. Somerville of London, whose work on physical geogra- phy is one of the finest contrihutions to phys- ical science ever published. So highly gifted is this lady, and so profoundly versed in the sciences, that the late Prof. Caidwell, of Louis- ville, who had an opportunity of conversing with her, and also seeing her perform some ex- periments, declared she was deeply acquaint- ed with almost every hranch of physical sci- ence. Other cases might he mentioned, hut these are sufficient for our purpose. Our con- stant readers will rememher that several ar- ticles from different persons appeared in the last volume of the ScIENTIFIc AMERICAN, re- lating to solar heat at the surface of the earth. he question was introduced hy Win. Par- tridge, of Binghamton, who took the posi- tion, that density of the atmosphere, and not the angularity of the suns rays, was the prin- cipal reason why it was warmer in valleys than on the tops of mountains. Ills views were opposed hy other correspondents, hut none of them supported their opinions with practical experiments to decide the question this we are happy to say has been done hy a lady. A paper was read hefore the late meeting of the Scientific Association, hy Prof. Renry for Mrs. Eunice Foot, detailing her experiments to determine the effects of the suns rays on different gases. These were made with an air pump and two glass receivers of the same sizefour inches in diameter, and thirty in length. The air was exhausted from one and condensed in the other, and they were hoth placed in the sun light, side by side, with a thermometer in each. In a short period of time, the temperature in the receiver contain- ing the condensed air, rose thirty degrees high- er than the other; thus proving conclusively that the greater density of air on iow levels is at least one cause of greater heat in valleys than on mountains. Experiments were also tried with moist air, and its temperature was elevated ahove dry air. Rydrogen gas was placed in one receiver and oxygen in the other, when the temperature of the former rose to 1040, hut the latter to 1060 Fah.; while, in carbonic acida more dense gas than either it rose to 126~. It is believed and taught hy geologists that during the period preceding the carboniferous era,when the coal bed ma- terials were formingthat the atmosphere of the earth contained immense quantities of car- honic acid, and that there was a very eleva- ted temperature of atmosphere in existence, in comparison with that of the present day. Those who helieve that this earth was once a fiery ball, attribute this ancient great atmos- pheric heat to the elevated temperature of the earth; hut Mrs. Foots experiments attrihute it to a more rational cause, and leave the Plutonists hut a small foundation to stand upon for their theory. The columns of the SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN have been oftentimes graced with articles on scientific suhjects, hy ladies, which would do honor to men of the highest scientific reputa- tion; and the experiments of Mrs. Foot afford abundant evidence of the ability of woman to investigate any subject with originality and precision. Expenses of Railroads. From the report just published of the Su- perintendent, D. C. MeCallum, Esq., of the New York and Erie Railroad, for the month of July last, we gather some interesting facts regarding the working expenses of that road. The cost per mile for engineers and firemen is 622 cts.; for waste, oil, and tallow per mile, 160 cts.; for repairs of engines per mile 8~66 cts.; for fuel per mile, 13~38 cts. Total cost per mile, 2876 cts. The greatest item of expense is uel, one cord heing required for every 2767 ~niles, the cost of which is $360 cts. Our ra iroads will soon be compelled to employ coal as fuel. No less than 10 032 cords were onsumed on this railroad in July in running 2 17,687 miles. The numher of cords of wood con umed per annum, at this rate, amounts to 20,384, or a pile 182 miles long, 4 feet high, and 4 broad. Our forests must soon go dow a before such fiery dragons as our railroads, wI rich, with but few exceptions, use wood for fu( I exclusively. The cost per mile for fuel for each tun drawn amoc nts only to 88-100 cts., but we find that mIre dead weight is carried than useful load 14,277,440 tuns of useful load were carried per mile, and 16,007,339 tuns of dead load. The weight of the engines, cars, & c., being ~lassed as dead weight, paying nothing. A great saving would be effected ii some of th a dead load could be dispensed with. The exper se for repairing engines is also very great, iveraging $866 per 100 miles; and allowin; an engine to run 100 miles per day for 300 days during the year, the cost amounts to $2,698. The price of an engine heing about $10,000, it destroys itself; at this rate, in abo it four years. We are of opinion that a pen ~ctly constructed railroadone avoidin~ raj id curves and steep inclines, and having a olid well-laid trackcould be worked for .t least one half the expense in- curred on 01 .r best railroads. At presen the stocks of the majority of our railroads an very low; few of them are in a paying cond ition, and unless they can reduce their workh g expenses we do not see how they can retriev( themselves, and become profita- ble and pay ag concerns. cent American P& ,ients. Grain ant Grass harvesterBy Oren Stod- dard, of Bu ti, N. Y.In the ordinary harves- ters the cut era all act simultaneously upon the grass, nI d the resistance, as thus combined is confined Co one point in the stroke. The sickle bar as no work to do except at the moment of :utting, and then the resistance is sudden and great. he motion of the machine is therefore rregular or jerking, which is b d in its effects upon the animals, etc. The pres- ent improve vient consists in placing the cut- ters all at ( ifferent andes to each so other, that the op ration of cutting, instead of being confined to single part of the stroke of the sickle bar, will he continuously going on, throughout ;he whole stroke. This equalizes the moveme at of the machine very much. Harvester. By C. Wheeler, Jr., of Poplar Ridge, N. Y Consists in a peculiar method of fastening the fingers to the finger bar. so that only or e bolt is required for each. Great strength is also imparted to the fin0ers with a small wei ~ht of metal, and the fingers may be readily r moved, if broken and replaced by new ones, I he perfect part being retained. The nut oft cc holding bolt is so arranged that its nut does not obstruct the free passage of the cut gras or grain over the finger bar. Harvester Rake.By M. G. Hubbard, of Penn Yan, ~. Y.Consists in having the bar to which th. rake is secured, provided with a joint and at ached to an upright. The inner end of the foresaid bar is connected with a pulley near its periphery, and the parts are so arranged th it, as the pulley is rotated, the rake will sv eep over the platform and rake the grain theref om, and then rise and pass to the front end of the platform, descend, and again sweep over the platform. Candle lit old.By John Robingson, of New Brighton, P i.Consists in attaching a series of molds to endless chains which have an in- termittent notion. Said molds, when filled pass throng i a water reservoir, which cools the tallow, nd also pass and rest for a suita- ble time, ov er jaws, by which the wicks are drawn throm gh the molds, the molds opened: and the cam dies withdrawn from them and deposited in a proper receptacle. The inge- nuity displa fed in this improvement, entitles the inventom to an honorable position in the ranks of gelius. Harvester. By Homer Adkins, of Plymouth, IllConsis ;s, first, in operating the sickle by moans of a aotched or scolloped rim attached to the driving wheel, and a lever provided with rollers. Second, supporting the machine by three wheels, one of which is a swivel wheel attached to a frame, and so connected with the main frame as to swivel or turn it, as de- scribed. Third, in a rake operated by means of a crank and guide blocks. Pen and Pencil CaseBy John H. Knapp, of New York CityConsists in having the pen slide fitted over a tube which encloses the pencil slide, the parts being peculiarly arrang- ed so that the case may be made extremely short, and still rendered capable of being con- veniently extended by means of the usual slide. BuckleBy Edward Parker, of Plymouth, CounConsists in striking or swaging the bow and ioop in one piece, from a metal plate, and securing the tongue therein by bending the center cross piece, which divides the bow and ioop around the shank of the tongue. Improvement in Step- Waters for VesselsBy Stephen Saunders, of South Kingston, H. I. Stationary stop-waters have been placed in the spaces between the timbers of the hulls of vessels, of such a shape as to leave a narrow space between their lower edges and the in- ner surface of the planks, for the purpose of preventing the water that enters said space from rushing so rapidly downwards when the vessel is careened, as to produce what is tech- nically called i~blowing,~~ or the forcing of a portion of the water out through the cracks of the flooring planks. There is, however, a disadvantage attending the use of stationary stop-waters, viz., when a vessel has been for some time running on a wind, or in a careened position, the water will all accumulate below the stop-waters on the lowest side of the vessel; and when it becomes necessary to put the vessel before the wind to pump out, it will require a long time for the water to pass through the narrow openings. The present improvement consists in render- ing the stop-waters vibratory, as shown in the accompanying diagram, where a a are the swinging stop-waters, pivoted at their upper edges, and arranged respectively to swing in towards the center of the vessel, 6, space be- tween the sides and planking; c c limbers; keel. The advantage of the vibrating stop-waters, a a, are as follows: When a vessel is running on a wind, all the water which the vessel makes above the stop waters, which are on the lowest side of the vessel, will be arrested by said stop-waters; and when it becomes necessary to pump out the vessel, and she is brought up before the wind for that purpose, the said stop waters on the side of the vessel that was depressed will swing inwards, and allow the water outside of them to readily flow inwards to the pump well. Another advantage is that when a vessel is rolling whilst running before the wind, the water will be prevented from flowing outwards from the space above the keel. The stop- waters are suspended on pivots at their up- per angles, and they are so proportioned that wuen en a vertical position their lower edges will be in contact with the bottom planking of the vessel. The usual lumbers or apertures, c c, must be made in the lower sides of the timbers, to allow the water to find its way from the ends of the vessel to the pump wells. There are other advantages connected with the use of this improvement which will readi- ly suggest themselves to those acquainted with marine affairs. Patented July 10th, 1866. Address the inventor as above for further in- formation, or apply to T. L. Randlett, No. 167 South st., New York City. Rotary EngineBy P. D. M. Carmichael,Iof Leroy, N. Y.This invention consists in a ro- tary engine that is applicable either as a mo- tor, to be operated by steam or other fluid, or as a pump for raising or forcing water or other fluids. The engine is composed of a piston with an eccentric rim, whose exterior fits, at one point, to the outer wall of the C ~cicntific ~nheric~i n+ cylinder, and its interior at a diametrically opposite point, to a circular center block, said rim working within a slotted rocker in an os- cillating abutment. Rotary EngineBy John Robingson, of New Brighton, P a.This invention relates to ro- P ry engines having a piston which is fixed relatively to the rotating shaft, or only to a slight extent yielding, and sliding abutments. The improvcment consists in a certain novel arrangement of induction and eduction passa- ges on opposite sides of the piston. Calendar ClockBy Edwin Allen, of Gins- tenbury, Conn.This invention consists in certain novel means of effecting the chan~es in the movements that are rendered necessary by the different lengths of the months which render the construction simpler, surer, and cheaper. Paper Feeder for Printing PressesBy Da- vid Babson, Groton, CtConsists, first, in a peculiar means of picking up the sheets of pa- per, one at a time, and carrying them to end- less hands, which convey them to the printing cylinders. Second, in a device for elevating or feeding the pile of sheets upwards, as fast as they are taken off hy the mechanism pre- viously mentioned. improved Door SpringBy G. L. Bailey, of Portland, MeIn this improvement the power of the spring, A, is applied to the door through the medium of the levers, B C, which have the toggle joint action. The tendency of the spring is to throw the short lever, B, outward, and this draws the inner end of the long lever, C, also outward. The outer extremity of long lever, C, is then pressed inward against the door, to which it is fastened. As the door closes, the ends of the two levers, where they join, straighten, and thus increase the pressure on the door. In this manner the greatest pressure of the spring is always ~ppiied when the door offers the greatest resistance, to wit., when standing slightly open. Another advantage of this arrangement is that the travel of the spring is essentially les- sened, in consequence of the crank arm being made to turn inward when the door is opened. The necessity of its being strained to an un- due degree when the door is opened wide is thereby almost entirely obviated. The dura- bility of the spring is thus increased very much. The whole travel of the spring is about one-eighth of a turn. Further information will be given by the patentee as above, or by J. A. Knight & Co., 334 Broadway, this city. Patented April 1.5th 1850. X Guano Nand Non Est inventus. Some time ago it was announced in some of our papers that a guano island, not laid down in any map, had been discovered by one of our merchant ships in the Pacific ocean, and con- siderable excitement was created respecting it, as it was stated that cheap guano would soon be obtained therefrom in unlimited quan- tities. Such islands have turned out a delu- sion so far as guano is concerned. T he U. S. sloop-of-war Independence in its recent cruise in the Pacific, was ordered to take a peep at the Islands, and report to the Government. It did so; and Captain Mervine in his report says Intense interest appeared to pervade all minds, fore and aft, as the ship neared the promised El Dorado of the mercantile and ag- ricultural interests of our country. The de- lusion, however, was but transitory; a nearer view revealed to our astonished vision the whole islands covered with a deep green man- tle of luxuriant vegetation, indicative certain- ly of the strength of the soil and heavy rains common in this locality, as also of the worth- lessness of the deposit thereon as an article of commerce. The value cf guano is, I believe, determined by the amount of ammonia which it contains, which is generated by successive deposits of bird lime in rainless districts. That there is a large deposit of bird lime on the island in a state of decomposition, the vegetation and great number of birds hovering over it abundantly ~ Manufacture of Malleable Iron without Fuel. At tie meeting of the British Association for the Advancement of Science, held in Chel- tenham, Eng., last month, H. Bessemer, of London, read a paper on a new method of making malleable iron from pig iron, which deserves the attention of our iron manufactur- ers, as the process is very original, is stated to be perfectly successful, and destined to revolutionize the processes of manufacturin~ malleable iron and steel. The following is the substance of his paper, which we have condensed for out columns For the last two years his attention had been almost exclusively devoted to the manu- facture of malleable iron and steel, with but little progress, until within the last nine months. The idea occurred to him that if mol- ten pig iron at a glowing heat was run into a chamber and a blast driven through it, that the five per cent. of carbon in it would unite with the oxygen of the blast, producing in- tense combustion, because carbon cannot exist at a white heat in contact with oxygen. He therefore put up an apparatus capable of con- verting about 7 cwt. of crude pig into mallea- ble iron, and so successful was the result that crude pig was rendered into malleable iron in half an hour. lie then put up a cylindrical vessel 3 feet in diameter and S fret high, like an ordinary cu- pola furnace, the interior of which he lined with fire brick. At about two inches from the bottom are inserted five tayre pipes, having nozzles of fire clay. At one side of this ves- sel, half way up, is a tap hole for running in the crude molten pig iron from a common blast furnace, and on the opposite side is another tap hole, to run out the metal when the process is completed. A hiast of air of a pressure of 8 pounds to the square inch is let into this cylinder a few minutes before the crude iron is allowed to flow into it from the blast furnace. The molten crude iron is then let in by its tap, and it soon begins to boil and toss about with great violence. Flames and bright sparks then begin to issue from the vessels top; the oxygen of the air from the blower combines with the carbon in the metal, evolving a most intense heat producing car- bonic acid gas, which escapes; the metal is deprived of its carbon without roasting, by fuel, as by the common mode, and thus it is rendered into malleable iron. By this simple process the heat generated is stated to be so intense that all slag is thrown out in large foaming massses, and all the sulphur is driven off; together with deriorating earthy bases, so that the metal is completely refinedmore pure than any pud- dled iron. It is also stated that one workman by this process can convert S tuna of crude pig into malleabie iron in about 30 minutes. Its advantages are painted in such dazzling colers that we are afraid to rely upon them implicitly. If they are such as Mr. Bessemer has described, a new era in the iron manufac- ture has dawned upon the world, and mallea- ble iron will soon be reduced to a price but little above common pig. We hail every improvement in the manufac- ture of iron, either to cheapen its price or im- prove its quality, as of vast consequence to mankind, because it is the principal material employed in the mechanic arts; it is the great material agent of modern progress in physical science. Without it we would neither have steam engines, steamships, railroads, cotton or woolen mane factories; we would be as de- ficient in machi nery as our forefathers who ived in the age of bronze. An immense mount of fuel is employed in the common p ocess of rendering pig iron malleable. It a roasted in a furnace by fire heat for a very long period until its carbon is made to unite with the oxygen, to which it is exposed to form carbonic acid, which is driven off. The new p ocess accomplishes the same result without V ie use of any fuelthe carbon in the metal bel: ig made the agent to decar- bonize itself. The beat prod iced by this process is also stated to be so reat that scrap iron placed in a small chambet near its top is smelted. By this process steel of different qualities, it is also stated, can be pi iduced by tapping the metal at different sta ~es of the process after it boils in the cyl nder. The ~1erriruacs Boilers. This new sten a frigate has been lying in our harbor for 5 me time, and it is stated that her boilers are undergoing extensive altera- tions by the rem val of a vast number of tubes 160 in eachi nd the plugging up of their holes. The obje ~t of these changes is to im- prove their dint , which was defective. Will the boilers of ti e other five new steam fri- gates have to be altered for the same reason l The cost of such great alterations cannot be small. If the hi hers of the Niagara are con- structed in the same manner exactly, they should be alterec before they are finally fitted up. It is our op nion that many of our boiler makers and engi ieers commit great mistakes in packing too ix any tubes in their boilers in order to obtain a greater amount of heating surface, at the ex cease of injuring their draft. There are mat me and locomotive boilers now in use that would give better results if one fourth, at lea tt, of their tubes were taken out. In many I oilers too little combustion space is allowed, and this defect combined with too many to bes (which add to the cost of a boiler) make ti em slow generators of steam and also wasters )f fuel. Fai of Ili American Insittine. Extensive prep rations are now making in the Crystal Paine for holding the next Fair of the Institute, hich is to open on the 22d of this month, an I continue until the 25th of October. Its last Fair was the best ever held. and it is believed that this one will fir surpass it. Its present of icers are men of energy and spirit, nnd they a ate they will do their best to make this Fair in unrivalled exhibition of American Industin ~. We hope that 11 exhibitors will have their machines and art des perfectly nrran~ edin full working con ition and fully displayed on the very first day of the Fair, so that it will open without confusion, and in perfect or- der. It has aiwal a been a just cause of com- plaint against the arrangement of fairs of. the Institute, that the r have opened premnturely in disorder. We also urge a on the Managers to require all exhibitors to dace proper labels on their articles, especiall machines. These should give the names of the inventors or makers, and contain brief des riptios of their character and operations. Impartial repor ;s of the machinery and manufacturies exi ibited will be given in our columns. Lgrge and Small Steamers and Sea Sickness. The editor of tie Nautical Magazine states that the size of v asels do not influence sea sickness, but their shape. He states that the Great Eastern will roll beyond measure on ac- count of her form, and that sea travelers will bear him out in th assertion, that they are not the less subjec ted to sea sickness in large steamers than in small onesas a general ~ This may b t so, but having made some sea voyages in ste amers and sailing vessels, it has not been out experience. The adriatic, now getting in her machinery at the Novelty Works, it is expected, will be ready to make her trial trip in October. It is anticipated that she will beat the Persias best voyages. Recent Foreign inventions. Lustering Colored FabricsEdward Schis- akar, of Halifax, Eng., patentee.This inven- tor has discovered that wool, hair, silk, cot- ton, and various textile fabrics, when impreg- nated with the salts or oxyds of copper, or those of lead, can be acted upon by reducing or deoxydizing agents, such as the proto-salts and oxyda oftin and iron, arsenic acid, arsen- ites, and sulpharaenites and sugar, so as to impart to them a bright lustrous appearance. The goods are therefore first treated with so- lutions of the salts or oxyda of the metals first named above, then reduced by a solution of sugar, which is preferred by the patentee. The goods thus treated are stated to have a bright shining appearance. This process is most successful with what are called steam colors, in calico printingthat is, submitting the goods in the finishing operation to the ac- tion of steam in a close chamber. Mineral ManureA. MeDougal, of Man- chester, Eng., patenteeThis invention con slats in submitting coprolites to the action of sulphurous acid and steam, by which, the pat- entee states, he obtains manures, gelatinous matter and fatvaluable products truly. Cop- routes are the remains of extinct animals and their excrements found in different parts of England and other places, enclosed in the limestone formation. Liebig states, in his Lt- ters on chemistry, that in the remains of an extinct animal world, En gland is to find the means of increasing her wealth in agricultural produce, as she has found the great support of her manufacturing industry, in a fossil fuel the remains of a vegetable world. TATe are not aware of any discoveries of cop- rolites made in our own country, no doubt they exist and will yet be exhumed,andper- haps by the invention of Mr. McDougal, they may be made available for our farmers, and supersede the necessity of expending so much annually for guano. .1rrase~ isi~ Propellers in VesselsGeorge Napier. of Londou, and John Miller, of Glas- gowboth engineerswe understand, have secured a pa~eat for the following peculiar ar- rangement of propellers for steam ships. The proI;eller is placed on a short shaft mounted in a sliding frame placed in the de d- wood, in which it has bearings down to the keel. A portion of the dead-wood and rud- der post support the sliding frame in rear and front, and the sliding frame can be moved ver- tically up and down. A vertical driving shaft is fitted to the frame, and..hns a bevel wheel on it, which gears with another on the shaft proceeding from the engine; also by another with the short shaft of the propeller. This frame can be so moved that the propeller can be made to operate at different depths. It is our opinion that no advantage can he obtained by such an arrangement. Water be- ing an almost incompressible fluid, its density is about the same at all depths; hence the re- sistance tc the propeller is about the same at all depths. The present method of arranging propellers is so simple and permanent that a cumbrous frame, with extra shafts and gear- lag, like those of the above patentees, appears to be the reverse of an improvement. Rotary EngineCharles C. Joubert, and L. A. Bordier, of Paris, France, have lately patented, in England, a rotary engine, some thing on the principle of the wing pump. A thread is formed on the extension end of a shaft, upon which a piston paddle is keyed. This works in a cylinder having two openings one for admitting and the other emitting or exhausting the steam; there is also a fixed partition in the inside of this cylinder. When steam is admitted into the cylinder it presses against the paddles on the shaft, and gives it a rotary motion. This is one of the oldest and most simple of rotary steam engines ; it is well known in this country. The Quick st Atlantic Voyage. The steamer Per ia made her last trip from I The hark of the Mammoth Tree, from Cal- this port to Liverp ol in 9 days, 2 hours, and I ifornia, which has been exhibited in this city 40 minutes steami ig. This is the shortest J in the Crystal Palace, is now on exhibition in passage ever madf between the two ports. f London. ,r,) #~ __ Q flRES~O DTSQ~ Jr L. B. M., of GaYour brick shield and wooden curb for sinking in your well, as the digging proceeds, will an- swer very wellif the sand is hard, moist, and compact; but if it is quicksand, it will not answeras the sand will fill in under it. Use hydranlic cement for the wall of the well, both inside and out, and also for joints, as far as practicable. You ran make a very good hydraulic cement of well-burned litne asid brick-dustuse one part of the latter to four parts of lime. A. N., of CoonIf you put less zinc into the muriatic acid, it will not crystallize so readily. Alt chloride of zinc solutions, if very strong, will deposite the chloride of elsie in crystals. To obtain pure nitrate of silver from an ansalgatn of silver and cs;pper, dissolve the metal in nitric acid, and then add some pieces of copper; the acid will unite with the copper and leave the silver, which will sink to the bottom in the form of a gray powder. Throw away the green, acid liquor, wash the gray powder and re- dissolve it in nitric acid. McA. & Bin., of Phila. We have received the gyra- scope. An article on the subject will soon appear. 1. J. II., of mdWe advise you to get Campbell Mor- fills works on Soap and Candle Making, published by Parry & McMillan, Phila. C. H. A., of OhioIt is very difficult to keep out wa- ler from the outside of a ~.,, .~ - is the only course you can adopt. Use good hydraulic ce- onent. W. McK., N. Y.An upright saw would be the best for your purpose, as you would require a 40-inch circular saw to do some of your work. If you had plenty of power we would advise you to get a circular saw. C. W. A., of MichFine maslic varnish is used for wall usaps. Any puce white resin dissolved in makes a good varnish for maps, drawings, & c. M. S. B., of LaA syphon cannot elevate water from a lower depth than thirty-three feet. You must employ a pump in the mine of 500 feet described by you. B. & 0. of N. Y.The Woodworth Patent has not been extended. It is a most sad and hopeless case to its advo- cates. They might just as welt abandon it first as last. There are good men and true in Congress who will block every attempt at smuggling it through without fair and open debate upon its merits J. II. of LaThe method of making ink described by you is well-known and used. It was described in our columns some years since. S. W. Wilson, Yandalia, ItichWishes to procure the best spoke tenoning lathe louse, Will some of our read- ers please to inform him. Z. L. of mdIn all likelihood, the bore of your barometer-tube is rough, which thus causes the mercury to adhere to its sides, and prevents its rising and falling by an increase of friction. Suspend it in such a manner that it can swing, and the evil may be corrected. It is cer tainly a very defective instrument. W. Sil. of OhioThe philosophy of separating butter from milk, by churning, hitherto entertained by chemists is, that agitation changes the arrangement or order of the particles of the milk, and the constituents separate from one another. No decomposition, It is stated, takes place. A. P. M. of N. VThere is no work on telegraphing, which contains the precise information required by you. J. P. K., of AlaTimber walls made double and packed with straw, make a good ice-house. You may use stone, brick or wood for the wail, taking care to have the walls double, with a good non-conductor between themsuch as sawdust, fine charcoal, or straw. C. W. 11cC. of 111.Yours will meet ivith attention in due season. J. B. of MissThere is no recent work published on clock and watch making. Reeds work is the only one we are acquainted with, which is considered reliable. R. K. T. of N. J.We do not understand your problem. as you have stated it. You should describe your method of dividing the circle. Moneyreceived at the SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN Office, on account of Patent Office business for two weeks end- ing Saturday, Sept. 6, 1, T,W.B.,ofN.Y,,$30;J.H.F.,ofVt., 27;T,S.B., of Iowa, $22; B. H., of Pa., $25; II. C., of Pa., $30; D. W.G.,ofN.Y.,$5O;T.B.,ofYa.,$30; S.Y.,ofN.Y., $23; N.C.A.,ofConn.. 00;J.F.S.,ofN.Y.,$25; S. If. Co., of Mass., $250; L. IR., of Mass., $25; J. It., ofPa., $25; It. A. & C. Kof Vt., $53; J. P., of Pa., $10; S. & Sof N. J., $30; J.L.M.,ofPa., 30; B. C. A., of 0., $30; J. Pof N. V., $25; L.A. O.,of Pa., $25; B.G.N. of Wis., $23; B. & T., of Ca., $25; H. C., of Mass., $27; Bof 0.. $30; S.I.,ofN.V., 27; J.P., of Cono., $20; G. & B., of Ill.. $17; J. S.. of L. I., $30; T. J. T., ofN.Y., $55; C. Itof N. Y.,$15; T. Vof Cal., $30; C.W.G., of Coun., $20); D.C , Jr., of Ala., ~30; J. C. G., of 0., $55; G. It. T., of Ilass., $40; J. H. H., of N. V., $30; J. M,3{.,ofN.J.,$75; J.R.t3., ofO.. $40; W. N. M., of It. 1., $25; D. It. & Co., ofPa., $25; A. If. J., of Va., $25; W. II of Wis.. 30, C. S., of Ky., $33; A. 0., of N. V., .25; Jil., of N.Y., 30; It.& C. Pof Md., $30; SIt. & Co.,ofO..$55;W.T..ofO.,$53;D.& S.,ofLa.,$30; CF. Sofltass, $12;J. B., ofIll., $25; S. Z. K., of Tex., 25; II. & B..ofN.Y.,$t4t; .. J.C.,ofMo., $30; G. 13,. of N. V., $27; C. H. S.,ofMass., 30; J. it., of Mich., $30; S. Soflnd., 20; A. W. & Son, of N. V., $30; A. McL. & Co., of N. V., $30; M. & F.,ofL. I., $55;T.P.,ofFrance,$315;E.P.& J.A. C., ofN.V., $30; J.P.,ofPa.. $25; L.W.R.,ofllass.,$27. Specifications and drawings belonging to parties with the following initials have been forwarded to the Patent Office during two weeks ending Saturday, Sept. 6th T. S. B., of Iowa, J. H. F., of Vt. , D.C., ofIll. ; J. A. Itoflnd.; S.V.,ofN.V.; B. II., of Pa.; LAO., of l~a.; R.P, B., ofO.; B.& T.,ofGa. t J.O.,ofN.V.,L. Rof Mass.; N.& B.,ofN. V.~ JR., of Pa.; J.F. 5., of N. V.; J. G. M., of London, 3 cases; B. C. N., of Wit.; J. Pof N.Y.; E.A.D..oflnd.; D.W.G..ofN. V.; B. C., Jr.,of La.; G.& B., of ill.; S. I., of L.L; H.C., of Itass.; A.O.,of N.Y.; D.M.& Co., ofPa.; AM. Jof Va.; J. MR., of N. J.,3 cases; TV., ofCala.; W. N It. of 11.1 C T. S., of Mass T F. DsP., of Conn.; ~JA GD., ofN.V.;T.B.,ofN.V,;E.A.& C.K.,ofyt.t ~ W.B.B.,of Coon.; J.B.,ofMich.; S. Z.H.,ofTex.;T, P., of France. important Items. MoOELsInventors, in constructing their models, should bear in mind that they must not exceed a foot in meas urement in either direction. They will also remember that the law requires that all models shall be neatly and substantially made of durable material. If made of soft wood they should be painted or stained, We shall esteem it a great favor if inventors will always attach their names to such models as they send us. It will save us much trouble, and prevent the lia- bility of their being mislaid. PATENT LAWS AND GolD - TO INi ESNTURI.This pam- phlet contains not only the lasvs but ail information touching the rules and regulations of the Patent Office. Price 12 1-2 cents per copy. A Circular, giving in- structions to inventors in regard to the size and proper construction of their models with other useful informal lion to an applicant for a patent, is furnished gratis a this office upon application by mail. RECEIPTsWhen money is paid at the office for subscrip- lion, a receiptfor it will always be given; but when sub- scribers remit their money by mail, they may consider the arrival of the first paper a bona fide acknowledg ment of the receipt of Ilasir funds. FOREIGN SUBOCRIBERSOur Canada and Nova Scotia patrons are solicited to compete witla our citizents for the valuable prizes oflered on the next volume. [It is important that all who reside out of the States should remember to send 25 cents additional to the published rates for each yearly subscriberthat amount we are obliged to pre-pay on postage.] Terms of Advertising. Twenty-five cents a line each insertion. We respect- fully request that our patrons will make their adver- tisements as sloort as possible. Engravings cannot be ad- mitted into the advertising columns, ~ All advertisements must be paid for before insert- tog. IMPORTANT TO INVENT- ORS. ?Wi lIE IINDERSIGNEI) having had TEN years .U practical experience in solicitingPATENTS in this and foreign countries, beg to give notice that they con- tinue 10 otter their services to all who may desire to se- cure Patents at home or abroad. Over three 5/sssesasmrt Letters Patent have been issued, whose papers were prepared at this Office, and on an average Isfteesa, or soc-third of atlIhe Patents issued each week, are on cases which are prepared at our Agency. An able corps of Engineers, Examiners, Draughtsmen, and Specification writers are in constant employment, sehich renders us able to prepare applications on the shortest notice, while the experience of a long practice, and facilities which few others possess, we are able to give the most correct counsels to inventors in regard to the patentability of inventions placed before us for ex- amination. Private consultations respecting the patentability of in- ventions are held free of charge, with inventors, at our office, from 9 A. M., until 4 P. M. Parties residing at a distance are informed that it is generally unnecessary for them to incur the expense of attending in person, as all the steps necessary to secure a patent can be arranged by letter. A rough sketch and description of the improve- ment should be first forwarded, which we witl examine and give an opinion as to patentability, without charge. Models and fees can be sent ivith safety from any part of the country by express. In this respect New York is more accessible than any other city in our country. Circulars of information will be sent free of postage to any one wishing to learn the preliminary steps towards makiog an application. In addition to the advantages which the long experience and great success of our firm in obtaining patents present to inventors, they are informed that all inventions pat- ented through our establishment, are noticed, at the prep. cc time, in the SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN. This paper is read by not less than 100,000 persons every week, and en- joys a very ride spread and substantial influence. Most of the patents obtained by Americans in foreign countries are secured through us; while it is well known that a very large proportion of all the patents applied for in the U. S., go through our agency. MUNN & CO. American and Foreign Patent Attornies, Principal Office 128 Fulton street, New York. ANEW ROPE MACHINEPatented July 15th, 18513, far excelling all others heretofore known, it so 00 a new but now well tested principle, that combines simplicity with utility, beauty of workmanship, and great speed, with small requirement ofpower, in the manufac- ture of cordage. The proprietor is desirous of a purchaser of the right for one or more States; or a person to dispose of them who would advance from $1000 to $3000 on the right. For certificates and a knowledge of svhere it may be seen in operation, inquire of Messrs. TOUSLEY & REED, Engine Manufacturers, 95 Maidenlane, N. V. 1 E~ LOWING MACHINERY FOR SALEA pair J~ of double acting Blowing Cylinders, 41x30 inches, in perfect order. Also a horizontal Steam Engine, 16x anches, at the Atlas Foundry, foot of Wayne street, Jer- sey City. 1 1* AGENTS WANTEDWESTCOTT, COGSWELL & CO., manufacturers of WesIcolts Railway Door Springs, are now prepared to otter the most perfect arti- cle yet invented, Agents wanted in every county of un- sold territory in the United States and Canada. For agencies or rights, address It. H. BABCOCK, General Agent, No. 3 Cortland ot., N. V. 11* F OR SALE, ON LIBERAL TERMS.Rlghts for the whole U. S., in JIENISONS CARPET FAS- TENER, Patented last month. The American Mechanic, containing a description of this long-sought substitute for carpet tacks, will be sent to the applicant, by mail, on re- ceipt ot one postage stamp. Address, A. K. AIISDEN, Patent Broker, Rochester, N. V. 3* 1[RON PLANING MACHINE, made by Naysmitl~ U. Ilanchester, England, wiil be sold very cheap, It will plane 7 ft. 8 in. long, 3 ft. I in. wide, 3 ft. 4 in, high, and has offset pieces to plane 5 ft. wide. Price, $350. It. HOE & CO., Nos. 29 and It Gold street. FOR SALETO COACH LACE WEAVERS AND TWISTERSA large Coach Lace Loom, made in London, with Shuttles, Treddles and Tackle all complete, one large Twisting Wheel, 12 hooks, with gimp heads, all complete. Also, a quantity of Fringe Looms, suitable for a large factory, to be seen at 105 South Sixth street, Wil- 1iamsburgh. P. BRAMOHSTE. 1* E~ R. SMITHS CRYSTAL GALYANlC BATTE. UP RYThis Battery never requires cleaning, runs tO hours without sloppioglben, at an expense of one cent and one minute, runs sixty hours longer, and soon contin- ually. Price, in conjunction with my Magnetic Machine, $12. Those who have the blue vitriol battery can have it replaced with the Crystal Battery for $3. SAMUEL B. SIIITH, Electro-Ilagnetist, No. 37 Canal-st., N. V. 1* WhR. SMiTHS ELECTRO-CHEMICAL BATH, .U~ for the extradition of mercury and other deleterious minerals from the body, now runs on the same principle. Price $65, with full instructions. SAMUEL B. SMITH, Electro-Magnetist, 77 Canal street, New-York. 1* I AM an ingenious inventor and a practical machinist, poor but honest, and if any one will suggest to me a machine for invention, I will invent it for ooe-half the Interest; I will give satisfactory references before I com- mence. EDWARD M. CAMPBELL, Boston, Mass 1* NW. ROB INSONS PATENT HEAD TURN lNG Ah 13 PLANING MACHINE, for Heads of all kinds and de criptions; it will make from 200 1o 350 heads per hour, of the most perfect description. There will be one so e chibition at the Crystal Palace, N. V., at the Fair of the American Institute, in October, where those inishine fo Machines or State rights can see it in operation and jm dge of its nierits for themselves. Alt communications in relation to machines and rights should be addressed Is ROBINSON, SCRIBNEIL & CO., Keeseville, EssixCo., N. V. 1 4 A CARD.I will apply my Rotary Pendutum Gover- nor to any sod Engine driving a Cotton factory, and having sufficien power, and engage to regulate it so as not to require a cha: ge of count in timing strokes, and if an- other cotton fact try can be found to equal it, I ivill forthit ills the person I aving it so applied. IOIIN TREIIPELt, No. 1 South Six h street, Philadelphia. 305 THE PATh NT DECISIONTo the Editors of the SoIxceTIs mc AMERmOAN The statement in your paper of this mc roing in regard to the verdict of the jury in the case of ( sorge Pa,~e vs. Georgia, is a perverted one. It is true I mat the verdict was in favor of the defend ant, but not upo; the ground stated in the Elmira Adver- tiser, which you copied. On the first ballot of the jury there were 7 for the plaintiff and S for the defendant. The jury then t coceeded in take up each question separ- ably First, th y passed upon the question ofpriority of invention, and m ended in favor of plaintiff. George Page. The next questi .0 was, Did the detendant infringe the patent? Upon his question tlae jury stood 0 for plaintiff and 4 for defem dant, and so stood until 5 octock in the morning, and ut imately brought in a verdict for defend- ant, upon the Is timony of one of the witnesses for detend- ant, ivho swore hat he had tended the mill from the time it started, aiod t oat it never had end-play. And as this formed the ess ore of the infriogment. and it was not proven by the v itnesses of complainant that the mill had been worked w th end-play, though the fact is notorious that it had beet so worked, the jury found br the de- fendant, though they unanimously decided that the pri- ority ot inveoti. n belonged to George Page, thereby sus- taining the vali. ity of his patent. GEORGE PAGE & CO., Baltimore, A; gust Id. 50 4 ANEW A ~D SCIENTIFIC INYENTIOXDr Cheever Galvano-Electric Regenerator. Patent issued Jan. 15th 1036. A circular relating to the use ofthe instrument, eml racing a general treatise of atony of the spermatic orgar ;, the result of which tends to softening the medullary s obstance of which the brain is composed may be had gr; tis, and wilt be sent to any address by mail by their in ticating a desire to receive it. All letters should be direr ad to DR. J. CHEEVER, No.1 Tremont Temple, Boston 51 4* A LEXAND dRS COMPOUND Parallel Sawing Machine, for making lath from the slab or board cross-cutting, ci ping, and sawing miter, all combined in a cheap, simple and compact manner, is illustrated in No. 50, Scient fir American. Sash factories, cabinet shops, carpente shops. etc., should have these machines. Price $60. Cot aIry and State ri5hts for sale. Address TillS. J. ALIt KANBER, Westerville, ~ranlctin Co. Ohio. 505* jI ACHINE BELTING, Steam Packing, Engine HoseTI a superiority of these articles manufac- tured of vulcar ized rubber is established. Every belt will be warran ed superior to leather, at one-third less price. The Ste; m Packing is made in every variety, and warranted to s and 300 degs. of heat. The hose never needs oiling. an I is warranted to stand am;y required pres- sure; together with all varieties of rubber adapted to mechanical put poses. Directions, prices, & c., can be ob- tained by mail or otherwise, at our earehouse. New York Belting mod Packing Co., JOHN H. CHEEVER, Treasurer, No. 6 Deyscreet, N. V. 40 10 NO. 1.~S t~O,OOO VALUABLE TO EVERY- body. A few weeks ago CIIARLES BRADUIELD, of Philadelphi; - opened a tiew Agricultural implement Store at Fifth smmd Chestnut streets. One spacious room he appropriate I entirely to new inventions. See below. NO. 2.IV ENTORS, PATENTEES, & c., were all cordiall - invited to place their models here, free of charge, and 1 me Philadelphia papers say there is al- ready six to e ght hundred thoussoddollars worth of patents in this oom, and visitors from all parts of the world visit them to see them. . 51 4* hd~th6b YOUNG MEN for big wa~es. Honest, DeIroit~mch asy, and sure. Send stamp to Box 533, 51 4 P OLYTECI INIC COLLEGE of the State of Peon sylvania, West Penn Square, PhiladelphiaOr- ganized on the plan of the Industrial Colleges of Conti- nentat Europe, and the only College in the Union in which gentlem. n graduate in the industrial professions. Fourth year, r ommencing Monday, Sept. 11th, 1036. Faculty, Math smatics and Engineering, Prof. 5.11. Pea- body; Genera and Applied Chemistry, Prof. A. L. Kennedy t Me. hanics and Machinery. Prof. H. It. Boo- cher m Geology Mineralogy, and Mining, Prof. A. W. King; Archite local and Topographical Drawing, Prof. J. Kennedy; M deco Langua5es, Profo. B. Steinthat and V. De Amarell . For catalogues andfurther information Apply to A. L. KENNEDY, 512 Prest. of the Faculty. Uth~b~I YOUNG MEN can make 500 per cent. U~F~J~.F or over at home or abroad. But small means requires. Business new, easy, neat, respectable. For full partir mlaro address (enclosing a stamp) WILLIAM hART, 51 3* Mayville, Dodge Co., Wis. B. FIJI TS & CO., Commission Agents for the Manage nent an Sate of Americamo and Foreign Patent Rights, )ffice, No. 23 Congress sI., Boston, Mass. 51 4* SWISS Dl fAWING INSTRUMENTSA full stock of hesa celebrated lostrunmeists always on hand. Catalog irs gratis. AMSLER & WIILZ, 51 4 211 Chestnut ot., Plmiladalphia. GREAT W ESTERN MACHINERY AND PAT- ant Ageoc It. H. ELLSWORTH having disposed of his interest i m the firm, the business hereafter welt be conducted unds r the firm amid style of DAVID RICH- ARDS & CO. We are prepared to sell all kinds of val- uable improvem menlo and machinery throughout the Unt- Ied States. Fo further intormation address DAVID RICHARD & CO. 51 6* No. 64 Randolph ot., Chicago, Ill. E NGINEEI3 INGThe undersigned is prepared to furnish sps cifications, estimates, plans in general or detail of steams hips, steamboats, propellers, high and low pressure engines, boilers and machinery of every descrip- tion, Broker to steam vessels, machinery, boilers, & c. General Agent or Ashcrofts Steam and Vacuum Gauges, Allen & Noyas Metallic Self-adjusting Conical Packing, Fabers Water luage, Sewello Salinometers, Dodgeons Hydraulic Lift ig Press, Roeblings Patent Wire Rope for hoisting and ste ring purposes, Machinery Oil of the moot approved kind. etc. CHARLES W. COPELAND 27 eowlf Consulting Engineer, 64 Broadway CLOCKS fo Churches, Courl Houses, & c. Regula- tors and soil pieces for jewelers, railroads, offices, & c. Also glass ials of any size for illuminating, and other kinds manu cI red and warranted by the subscriber. JOHN SHERI V. Oakland Works, Sag Harboc, N. V. 37 l2eow CLARKS I ATENT WATER REGULATOR The only ps rfecl security against steam boiler explo- sions, caused 1 y want of water. Every steam boiler should have on.. Regulators sold and applied and rights for most of the itates and Territories, for sale lay S. C, HILLS,l2Plat:st,,N.V. I 4oow* P ORTABL 13 STEAM ENGINES.S. C. HILLS No. 12 P1st it., N. V., offers for sale Ihese Engines, with Boilers, lumps. Heaters, etc., all complete. and very compact, I om 2 to 10 horse power, suitable for print- ers, carpenlers, farmers, planters, & c. A 2 1-2 horse can be seen in slori, it occupies a space 5 by 3 feet, weighs 100 lbs., price 240 t other sizes in proportion. 1 e3w TU~ HE NINTH ANNUAL EXHIBITION OF THE U Maryland Institute for the Promotion of the Me- chanic Arts will be opened at the Institutes spacious hall, Baltimore, on Wednesday, Oct. lot, and continue to Oct. 29th, 1056. Goods for exhibition amsd comompetition wilt be received at any time prior to Friday night, Sept. 26th. after which for exhibition only, except such as the Commiltee shall be satisfied were disp olcimed in time to have reached the Ilall by that day, but failed to do so from unavoidable detention. The co-operation of Ihe omanufacturers, mechanics, artists, and the cssmmurity generally is respectfully solicited. Circulara embodying the regulations and blank applications for space, with all other informalion, will be promptly furnished by ap- plication to John S. Selby, Actuary of the institute. JOSIICA VANSANT, 514 Clanirman of tIme Exhibitioma Committee. IRCULAR SAWSWe respectfully call the atte tion of mam,ufacburers oflomber to the great improve- ments receistly introduced in the noanutioclure of our Circular Saws. Beimig sole proprietors of Southwells patent for grinding saivo, we are enabled to grind circular saws from six inclines to six feet with the greatest accuracy and precision. The inipossibility of grinding a saw with- outleaving it uneven in thiclrness Isas always been ac- knowledged by practical saw makers. This casmoes the saw to expand as soon as it becomes slightly heated in worir- log. When limb tokes place the saw loses mIs stiffness, and will not cut in a direct line IX e will usairont our sows to be free from these defects they are made perfectly even in thickness, or graduahy increase in thickness from the edge to the center as may be desmred. As Ilsere are no thicV or thin places the friction vim the surface of the saw is uniform, consequently ml wmll remain stiff and true, and will require less set and less poiser. Will saw smooth, save lumber, and emil not be liable to become un- true. This is the oldest etabtmslmment now in existence for the manufactore of circular saws in the United States, havin~ been established in the ~eor 3S.oO. Orders re- ceived at our Warehouse, No 40 vim ress ot., Itoston, 4433 WELCH & GRiFFITJOS. NITT NG MNCIIINESCircimlar and straight knitting machisses of all sizes and gauges on hand and made to order. WALTER AIKE N, Franklin, N.H. 46 13* AGES PAT NT P ~RPETUAL LI. KILN, will burn 100 barrels of lime with three cords of wood every 24 hours; likewise my coat kiln will born 130 bushel wito 1 tuh bituminous coal in the some those; coal is not mixed with limestone, Rights for sate. 45 r C. D. PAGE Rochester, N. V. ~ ST ~AM ENGlNE~From 3 to 43-horse power ~ also portable engines atmd boilers; they are first class engines, and will be sold cheap for cash. NM BURDON, 102 Front ot., Brooklyn. 41 If OLD f[UARTZ M1LLS of the most improved con- struction; will crush more quartz and do it finer than any machine now in use, and costs much less. WM BURDON, 102 Front at., Brooklyn. 41 If V AILbO C4LIdBRATED POIITAIIL 2 ST4A2 I Engines and Saw Mills, Bogardims Horsepowers, Smut Macmines, Saw and Grist Mill irommo and Gearing, Saw Gummers, Ratchet Drills, & c. Orders for light and heavy forging and ca.stings executed with dispatch. LOGAN & LIDGl4RWOOD, 13 1y5 9 Cold 51., N. V. F ILMER - CO.. Electrolypers, and Manufacturers of Electrotype Materials, 120 Fultomi sI., N. V. Mold- ing Presses, Batteries, Cases, Backimmg Pans, Shao.i.;g Ma- chines, Metal Kettles, Planes, Blocks, Building Irons, etc., etc., on hand, or furmoished at short mootice, and at moder- ate charges. Adams Improved batteries and black-lead machines also for sale. 23 If AGHS PATE. T CIRCULAR SAW MILLS ivitla Steam Engine and Boiler, ott hand and for sale lor $1500. at Schemick a achine Depot. 163 Greenwich sI, New York, A. L. ACKERMAN, hO 10 V lIIULLAR SAW MILLSThe subscriber has on hand, and ho cominstantly manutisciuring lhose cel- ebrated mills. wills s. wo from 30 to 50 inches dianmeter, adapted to .anufactmmrin1 most kinds of bomber, and warranted to give satisfaction, For prices, & c., address W. HERRICK, Northampton, Mass. 45 55 ARR L MACI1IXEILYCROZIER-S PATENT is unrivalled in Isoinst of quality and quanlity of work performed, and may be seen in constant operation at the Barrel Manufactory of the ummodersigned. For rights aiod machires address WELCH & CROZIEII, 43 18* lowego, N. V. 7~i 0 CAR IOUILD IRSFor Sale, one new Upright U. Boring Mill tsr l;oring car wheels. Ilakers price $000, ivill be sold for f.300 cash. Address GEO. S. J.IN. COLN & CO.. Hartford, Ct. 43tf ~ 01$ S~LZOne second-hand 7 ft. power Planing Machine, made by the New haven Manufaclurimig Co. Cost $100. will be sold for 5303 cash itas been used only about four muontho. Also an upright drill by lisa sanae makers. Cost 50, will be sold or $40 cash. Ad- dress GEORGE S. LINCOLN & CO., 47 If 1-tartford, Coon. OIL 1. FLI. All sizes mind any length prompt- lylurnished bye lIES 0. MORSE & CO., No.79 51 Snoos ~TlI13 GuT 1 0 1 Il5 LPlain, also galvanized inaide and ommtsmd old at wholesale by tAIIES 0. MOuSE & CO ho ml Jolso st., N. V. ut inmos F0 113 ~ s.. 1313 H Oursisme, SO N aunts sI, N.Y., Ite- chanscal and genci it Draughinlsnoeso on wood,stone,& c, OiL! C ~ r railroads, steausera, and for mooaclomnery ard burtiin~ Pease. lumproved Itaclu,;e ry and Bonito- Oil wilt sayc unity per coot amid ii mass goon. Timmo oil posseessa qisahmtmes visally esemotiol br lubri ratio5 and burm;in~ s;d boussd so no otties ut at is fared to the put mc unnia the ,omost raliabine I socoms- s -sod practical test br moo 1 skillful en1mnac r and smacl;mtuinsts pronossrmce ml sohoisor atsd cmoeaper thi-ti amos. otl~e aisd the only oil that is so al, cases retinal-ia and is tint siot ~unin The Sciemitinfic A-omeriee-in miser scms-rat lests pos;ioumicesh it superior loony otlie- 11mev have use ti-s.d inor os.oclstn ery. 1. or sale oly Isy tise inovantor Otmd ~.. s.. ItiCs 1 PIal~ . s. Mamost in.uflsto N N. B,Relsaele orde thIed fain an~ past oi lisa I tints-1 Slates and Europe. I if and 1854, having decided Iloat the pamant granted to Niebi- olas G. Norcross, of dale Feb 12, 1830, for a Jiolari~ Pla- ning Machine for Plaiting hoards and Plastics not an infringememit of the Woodwortb Pateol. htights to use the N. G. Norcrosss patented macnine can he purchased on application to N. G NO CROSS, Oftice br sale of rights -t 27 State street, Boston, amod Lowell, Mass, ltf N ER5 IIAY 3K I FG. CO.Macboinists Toots, Iromm Planers, Engine and Hamid Lathes, Drills, Bolt Cml- tars, Gear Cutters, Chucks, & c., on hand and finishin... These Tools are of superior quality, and are for sate low for cash or approved paper. For cuts giving fssll descrip- tion and prices, address, New haven Manufaclnrin5 Co -, New haven, Coon. ilIf ARRISONS 30 INCtI GRAIN MILLSLa- test Patent. A suopply constantly on hand. Price $2011. Address New Haven Manufacturing Co., New Haven, Coon. SlIf 01 ER INCIIUSTATIONS PREVENTED A simple-and cheap condenser manufactured by Win. Bordon, 102-Front st..Brooklyn, will take every par- ticles of lime or satt out of the eater, rendering it as pore as Croton, before entering the boiler. Persons in want of such machines will please state what the bore and stroke of the engines are, and what kind ol water is to be used. 41 If eS 8 c~C~tI1tjfiC ~nItrIC~ rn~. ~ciencc an~r ~rt Experiments with the Chinese Sugar Cane. Some of the seeds of the Chinese sugar millet having been obtained by Ex-Governor Hammond, of South Carolina, he has recently reported the results of his experiments, which have been published in the Charleston lifer- cury. He planted a pint of seed on half an acre of rather poor soil, on the 22nd of last March; the seeds were dropped 18 inches apart in 3 feet wide rows. When the plants came up they were frequently hoed, to keep down grass and weeds. On the 22nd of July some of the advanced heads had passed the milk stage, and he had a rude mill put up, consisting of two wooden rollers, to ascertain whether the millet would make syrup. About 17~0 canes were cut, and 400 passed through the rollcrs twice, and the remainder four times; the yield was 194 quarts ofjuice, and ten selected canes put through the mill seven times, yielded three quarts. The juice was received in common wooden tubs, and tested with a thermometer, and a sacchrometer hav- ing a scale of 40 degrees. The temperature of the juice was 78~ Fah., the strength 233, and floated a fresh egg. It was boiled in a deep old-fashioned cow pot, for seven hours, and yielded 32 quarts of tolerable syrup. Next day he selected more of the canes in ditierent stages of progress, and submitted them to the mill seven times, and from every 10 again ob- tained 3 quarts of juice. This was also boiled, and he obtained a rather better syrup. To every five gallons of the cold juice a tea- spoonful of limewater was added. The canes were one inch thick at the butt, and seven feet long, after cutting off the head. The syrup was equal to the best New Orleans. Respect- ing this plant, Ex- Governor Hammond says I did not attempt to make sugar, not hav- ing prepared for that. There can, however, be no doubt that sugar can be made from such syrup as this. And, as they make more syrup in the West Indies per acre than they do in Louisiana, only because the cane matures bet- ter, it is not unreasonable to infer that the millet, which matures here perfectly, and will even make two crops in one year, will yield more and better sugar than the Louisiana cane. Beginning to cut the cane as soon as the head is fully developed, it may be cut for a month before it will all ripenhow long after that I do not know. A succession of crops might be easily arranged so as to insure cut- ting and boiling from the 1st of Julyproba- bly earlieruntil frost. I have housed some stalks immediately from the field, to ascertain, hereafter, whether thus treated it will yield juice ani make syrup next ~ Su~ar has now become a most important article of food; it is used for more purposes of cookery than any other agricultual pro luc~, and the demand for it is increasing mom., rap- idly than it can be supplied. This is the cause of its recent great rise in price. We have been assured by a large dealer in sugar and molasses, that our Western States alone now consume more sugar than is produced in our whole country; hence we are dependent for the most of that which wo use on tho West India islands, Cuba especially. It would cer- tainly be of great advantage and benefit to our people if our country produced as much sugar as it consumed and required. This it never will be able to do, we believe, from the common sugar cane, because the climate most suited to its culture in any of the States is not equal to that of the West India Islandsratherit is not properly adapted to the climate of any of our States. We therefore hope our southern planters will give the Chinese sugar millet full and fair trials, and we hope that it may yet prove to be the source from whence our coun- try will be able to supply itself with an abun- dance of good sugar, syrup, and molasses. Photographic Bank Notes. An artist in Paris, M. A gnado, has succeed- ed in deceiving the most expert clerks in the Bank of France with photographic copies o~ bank notes. It was found to be impossible to tell the copied from an original one thousand franc note. English Patents. ~ Improve uf in Tillers or Yokes~ This invention consists in making the stand- ing part of the steering rope or chain fast to the tiller or yoke, the rope or chain being then led through side sheaves or blocks to single or double sheaves or blocks in the tiller or yoke, and then through other single or double side sheaves or blocks to the barrel of the steering wheel. By this arran~ement, all the slack of the steering rope or chain is taken up, and an additional purchase obtained over those arrangements in which the standing part of the rope or chain is made fast to chocks or carlings at the sides of the tiller or yoke, and not directly thereto. It is preferred with a single purchase to place the after side sheaves in such a position that one shall be abaft and the other ahead of their corresponding sheaves in the tiller when that is hard over, or at an angle of 4~, or thereabouts, with the fore and aft line of the vessel. ~)fri7 In order to take up conveniently the little slack that may result from the stretching of the steering rope, when rope is used, instead of attaching the standin part of the rope di- rectly to the tiller or yoke, it is attached to a screw shackle (or by a lashing, if preferred.) which is connected by an eye bolt or other- wise to the tiller or yoke. By means of this screw shackle, the small amount of slack in question may be readily taken up. The cut shows a plan of an arrangement4 when movable sheaves or blocks are fitted at each end of a yoke. A is the yoke; B is the steering rope or chain ; C C are the screw shackles attached to the yoke, A; D D are the sheaves, and E E the single sheaves on the end of the tiller. These latter sheaves are capable of revolving about a pin, F, passing through the yoke, in order that the steering rope may be led more fairly to the side sheaves, D, when the yoke is in any other than the fore- and-aft position. I steam-tight piston, having metallic packings, the piston being exposed to the action of the steam. The top of the piston is pressed down by springs giving a resistance of 80 lbs. per inch. Connected with the piston is a valve, D, for the admission of water from the boiler on to the fire. When the piston is pressed upwards, the v~tlve, D, moves upwards through three times the space of the piston, and by this means opens the communication, F, be- tween the boiler and fire grate. When steam is up in the b her, the superincumbent pres- sure of steam rould force water into the pipe, F, thus causi ~g a constant flow of water through the v~ lye D over the fire grate. It will appear th tt when the pressure in the boiler exceeds 30 lbs. per inch, the piston in the cylinder, C will be forced upwards and open the comm unication for the water to ex- tinguish the fir ~, and thus prevent the possi- bility of an exi losion. [London Engineer. Cultivati sa of American Indigo. The sulphate of indigo (chymic) is used in great quantitiet for coloring silk and woolen goods, and fine sheepskins. It is the princi- pal coloring i igredient for light blues and greens. It is riade by dissolving finely pul- verized indigo i a pure strong sulphuric acid. The very best of indigo is required for its manufacture, N cause inferior indigo requires more sulphuric acid while it gives out far less coloring matter thereby involving a loss of material in con: tection with an inferior pro- duct. All indi1 ~o contains more or less lime, but the inferior kind the most; this is the rea- son why it tak~ up more sulphuric acid to manufacture an inferior chymic. At the presen moment, and for the past two years, the s apply of the first quality of in- digo has not be a equal to the demand for it and that deme ad is constantly increasing. Some very exce lent indigo, well adapted for making chymic used to be obtained from Guatamala, but the kind most esteemed is the first quality ol Bengal, for which we are dependent on a colony of Great Britain. About twelve y ars ago, the best Bengal in- digo could easil r be obtained, but at present it is almost unkno vn in the market. A spuri- ous article, how sver, much resembling it, is abundent, but i does not possess one half the coloring matter of the genuine, and yet it is sold at a retail rice varying from six to four- teen shillings pi r pound. Our object is ~o direct the attention of our southern plantet s to the cultivation of the in- digo plant, and the manufacture of the best kinds of indigo, for inferior kinds are by far too plentiful. About sixty years agoand within that periodsome v 4ry fine qualities of indigo used to be culti ated in South Carolina; its character was , each higher than the finest Guatamala or ti e best Benaal, but it is now unknown in the arts, to the great regret of calico printers, dyers, and leather dressers. In the ferment ition of the indigo plant so much oxygen is absorbed that its manufacture was found to b very injurious to the health of the negroes c a the plantations; this was one reason for giving up its culture; and another, and pe haps the strongest, was the higher profits dt rived from the cultivation of cotton. It app an to us now, however, that with the exercis of sufficient care, the health of the negroes m ay be maintained as well as in the rice culture also that the price which could now be (btained for it would be very I remunerative. U here are hundreds of persons in our country a ho would rather pay two dol- lars per pound fr the best kind of indigo f that quality whi ~h was manufactured at one time in South C irolina, or the kind that was sold for the best Bengal twelve years ago than that which is now sold for seventy-five I cents per pound. We think these considera- tions ought to it iduce some of our planters to engage in the cu tivation of the finest qualities indigo. Since our plain ten have beat all the efforts I of the East Indi Company to rival them in the cultivation c f cotton, it appears to us that honor is 5t mewhat at stake to regain their lost reputation in the cultivation of in- digo. The golden crops of California are still abundant. The iteamer Illinois arrived at this port on the 29th nit., with one million and a half of the yello~ r metal. A joint stock ompany has been formed to deepen the Ihlino s river, and render it naviga- ble at all seasont. This is a commendable en- terprise. The latest acct ants from Polynesia describe severe shocks of tarthquakes in HawaII. Literary Notices. THE WESTMINSTER ltEvsEW......This able Review for the present quarter contains a most inieresting, and on the wholevery impartial article on Foreign Missions. it ought to be extensively read and pondered. The Natural Ilisto- my 01 German Life, etc., Popular Amusements, Frondes History of England & c., form subjects for oilier essays. It is a capital number. Published at 54 Gold si., by L. Scott & Co. THE LorcooN QUARTERLY REvIEw, just issued, con- tasne seven very able articles Savonarola, Grotes History of Greece, canoes of Civil War, principally based upon the more recent publication of H. Guizot. The Police and the Thieves. Public Works and Improve- ments of Paris; a charming ariicte for those who have visited this famous city. The Papal Government, and the Disputes with America; in which the writer takes up the cudgel in right good earnest, in behalf of the sincerity and good faith of our (the British) nation. Ac; Englishmen does not like to admit the possibility of wrong doing on the part of his Government. England is always magnanimous in the eyes of an Englishman. All right we do not object; but, we do insist upon it, that America and American~, are not atways blindly contending ftc wrong. We are among those who think there is yet re- maining a little virtue and good manners amongst us. Leonard Scott & Co. are the re-publishers of the British Reviews. BLAcscwoon~s MAOAzIrcIc..~Tlse present number of this veteran Magazine, opens with a criticisni on Atacaulays late volunse, which is brilliant, but not very pointed The story of the Athelin~s is continued. Ihere is a review of Prof. Aytouns poem, entitled Bothwells. us which is is stated, he is not the editor of this magaziste, as ~as been generally supposed. india, under Lord Pal- Isousie, is the best article, we think, in the number it is full of information. Published by Leonard Scott & Co., No. 54 Gold street, this city. THE AMERICAN VETERINAHY JOISONALTisis is a monthly periodical devoted to the diffusion of veterinary knowledge, edited by Geo. II. Dod, Veterinary Sur,eon, and published by S. H. Thompson, Boston. lIe Isail it a~ a new co-laborer in the walks of science. It is edited with marked ability, and is ticatty printed. it contains much sound and useful Osformation. relating to domesiic animals, and deserves a very extensive circulation. UtoITEn STATES MAGAZINE for September, roistains an illustrated article upon the Presidents House, at Wah- ingion. This house is one of the marks of our repulilcan simplicity, inside and out. and if any of our readers are curious to know alt about the -. ,; hue House let thesis procure a copy of this Magazine. Fuistre aspirants for this domiril will be anxious to ionic upon it is; isirtuce. if not to embrace its realities. .3. M Emerson & tin., N. V., publish the United States Magazine. THE OLO vICARAOE, by Mrs. Itubback, is a novel of an interesting and uniting character. A sound mocality seems to pervade its narratives and conversations. It ap- pears to be a book that may be read with pleasure and satisfaction, Fetridge & Co., Publishers; New-York an Boston. THE ORPHAN SIsTeRs, is an interesting novel by Mrs. Marsh. For sale by E. B. Long, Ann-st., New-York. TWELFTH YEAR Read! Read!! Read!!! The most extensively circulated, the most interest lug, reliable, attractive, and cheapest publication of its kind, is the SCIENTIFIC Ac ERICAN. It has, by far, the largest circulation, and stands, by common con- sent, at the head of alt other scientific papers in the world. Its contributors and Editors are PRACTICAL, ENERGETIC, and EXPERIENCED MEN, whose con- taut endeavor is to extend the area of knowledge, by presenting it to the mind, in a simple, attractive, and practical form. The SCI NTIFIC AMERICAN is printed once a week, in convenient quarto form for bhtding, and pre- sents an elegant typographical appearance. Every num ber contains Eight Large Pages, of reading, abundantly illustrated with ORIGINAL ENGRAVINGS All the most valuable patented discoveries are delinea ted and described in its issues, so that, as respects inven- tions, it may be justly regarded as an ILLUSTRATED REPERTORY, where the inventor may learn what has been dosse before him, and where he may bring to the world a KNOWLEDGE of his own achievements. REPORTS OF U. S. PATENTS granted are also pub- lished every week, including O./ttcjat Copies of all the PATENT CLAIMS. These Claims are published in the ScIENTIFIc AMERICAN so OSoassee s/aft other pa- per:. Mechanics, Inventors, Engineers, Chemists, Mantifac. tucers, Agriculturists, and Peopte of every P ofeasien in Lsfe, will find the SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN to be of great value in their respective railings, Its counsels and suggestions will save them ilsmdrecjo of Dsttars an nually. besides affording thorn continual source of knowledge, the experience of which is be yond pecuniary estimate. A NEW VOLUME commenced September ii, 18113 Now is the time to subscribe! Specimen Copies sent gratis. TERMS OF SUBSCRIPTION....$I a year, or 131 for six months. CLIJBIIATES. Five Copies for Six Months, Five Copies for Twelve Months, Ten Copies for Six Months, Ten Copies forTwelve Months, 815 Fifteen Copies for Twelve Months, ~ Twenty Copiesfor Twelve Months, ~ For all Clubs of 20 and over, the yearly subscription only $140. Post-p~- all letters, and direct to MUNN & CO., 128 Fulton Street, New York. OF TIlE SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN. Hacketts Improved Safety Valve for Boil- ers.The object of this improved valve is to secure boilers from explosion. The ordinary safety valves are supposed to be loaded to 50 lbs. per inch. The new valve consists of a cylinder, C, open at the bottom, fitted with a F

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~tindifi~ ait4 THE ADVOCATE OF INDUSTRY, AND JOURNAL OF SCIENTIFIC, MECHANICAL, AND OTHER IMPROVEMENTS VOLUME XII. NEW-YORK, SEPTEMBEB 20, 1856. NUMBER 2. THE Scientific American, PUBLISHED WEEKLY At 128 Fuiton street, N. Y. (Sun Buildings.) BY MUNN & CO. 0. D. HUNN7 5. H. WALE5~ A. E. BEACH. Responsible Agents may also be found in all the prin- cip al cities and towns in the United States. Single copies of the paper are on sale at the office of publication and at all the periodical stores in this city, Brooklyn, and Jersey City. TERMS~2 a-year,---~t in advance and the re- mainder in six months. l1~ See Prospectus on last page. No Traveling Agents employed. Decrease of American Su~inr Crops. In Louisiana, the yield of sugar has been decreasing for some years past. A planter gives statistics in the New Orleans Crescent which prove this. The sugar cane is propa- gated by cuttings, the same as the potato. It has heen discovered hy experience that no an- nual plant can be propagated by cuttings from year to year in the same locality and in the same kind of soil. The cultivation of the potato affords the most complete illustration of this principle, hence scientific farmers eBdeavor to obtain seed raised at some distance from where they reside, and on soil somewhat different from that in which they intend to plant it. Those who cultivate the sugar cane, in Lonisiania and other places should take meas- ures early to obtain new cuttings and seed cane for their next crops from the West India Islands, in order to improve their yield of su- gar. ~ Trial cC a Sienass Plow. At the late meeting of the Royal A~ricul- tural Society, England, when the trial of reap- ers was held, as noticed in our last number, a Steam Plow constructed by Mr. Fowler was also tested. It plowed one acre and sixteen poles in an hour with an 8-horse power steam engine. Memento Mon. James Bremner, Engineer, who man aged to remove the steamer Great Britain after she was wrecked in Dundram Bay, and after many en- gineers of a far higher reputation had tried to do so, and failed, died last month at his native place, Wick, in North Britain. Beet Root Coffee. A very good coffee can be made of beet root in the following manner Cut dry beet root into very small pieces, then gradually heat it in a close pan over the fire for about fifteen minutes. Now introduce a little sweet fresh butter and bring it up to the roasting heat. The butter prevents the evaporation of the sweetness and aroma of the beet root, and when fully roasted it is taken out, ground, and used like coffee. A beverage made of it is cheap, and, no doubt, equally as good for the human system as coffee or chicory. Artificial Light for Taking PhotographL A very brilliant light has been produced by directing a stream of oxygen gas into the flame of coal gas which had been previously IMPROVE)) BRICK MACHINE. means of rock shaft, D, and rods, E F. The latter has a friction roller, G, upon its upper end, which follows the configurations of cam wheel, H. The latter is attached to gear wheel, I. The actuating power which drives the machine is applied at J. The necessary pressure is effected by means of four pistons, two of which rise through the bottom of mold, C, and two descend through the top. The upper pistons, K, only are shown The lower pistons are attached to a sliding frame, L L, and the upper pistons to a sliding frame, M M, both of which are caused to rise and fall at the right moment by means of a double cam, N 0. This double cam is operated by the shaft which carries I. The movement of the cam is such that the faces of passed through cotton and naphtha in order the two pairs of pistons are made to move to- to surcharge it with carbon. With this light, wards each other, when within the molds, C, using a reflector, a photograph of an engra- the lower pistons rising, and the upper pistons ving was taken by the camera in a very short falling, the clay being pressed, with tremen period, dons force, between them. After the pressure has taken place, the pistons rise until the bot- New Brick Press. toms of the bricks are brought up even with Our engraving shows a new invention for the table, P. The box, B, now comes for- pressing bricks out of dry clay, for which let- ward, and its front end pushes the bricks for- ters patent were granted to Mr. Stephen Us- ward on to table, P. At the same time the tick, of Philadelphia, Pa., July 10, 18~5. lower pistons descend, and the clay falls into The clay, after having been finely pulverized the molds, the upper pistons, K, remaining is placed in the hopper, A, whence it descends suspended and stationary until the box, B, is into the sliding mold boxes, B. These boxes withdrawn, when they descend and press, as move back and forth, and serve to carry the before described. clay forward to the molds, C, into which it Among the novel features connected with falls, and is then pressed. The vibratory this improvement, is the method of allowing movement of the mold boxes, B, is effected by the air to escape from the molds, during the operation of compression; also the mode of expanding the piston so as to compensate for its wear. These features are shown in the sectional I gures, 2 and 3. The pressin ~ face of the piston is formed of rectangular ongitudinal plates, a, having transverse p1 ~tes, d, of the same thickness, their ends as ranged in such a manner as to enable the ou er edges of d, to be brought at right angles against the side edges of a, the four plates th is put together forming a sur- face correspoi ding with the form of molds, C, and exactly f tting the same. The longitudi- nal plates, a, ire separated a short distance from each ott er by thin plates or shoulders, 6, so inserte I as to have a slit, b, between them of sufficient capacity to allow the es- cape of the ondensed air, at the upper and lower parts o the brick, during the operation of pressing, I ut not of sufficient width to al- low the pass tge of any material part of the clay. These ipaces, Is, between the plates, ex- tend nearly ti e whole length, and are increased in width as tI ey extend to the opppsite sur- face of the pla tes until they open into channels, c, which aff )rd a free passage for the es- cape of the a r at the ends of the pistons. The aperturet may be cleaned by the inser- tion of wires r other devices, in case the clay should enter I hem. The plates, a, are secured firmly to the body of the piston. by means of dovetailed projec- tions or tongi es, e. attached to plates a, said tongues, e, b ing inserted in corresponding mortises, whi ~h are larger than the tongues and made slightly tapering on one of their sides so as to admit wedges, f. In case of wear, strips of metal or thin plates are inserted between the ends of the longitudinal plates a, and the transverse plates d, and the beveled or inclined edges,f, and again inserting thinner wedges to secure them together. By thus enlarging the area of the pressing surface of the piston, it is compen- sated for the wear of its edges, and adjusted to fit the molds at all times. The working parts of this machine are all of the strongest character, and the arrange- ment 15 such that they cannot easily get out of ordcr. Both ends of the machine may, if desired, have a set of molds attached, and, thus provided, the apparatus will turn out 20 000 bricks per diem, all pressed in the very best manner. The superiority of pressed bricks is well known. There is a saving of time in their manufacture, so far as regards preparation for the kiln, as they do not re- quire to be dried so long as the common bricks. But for want of some rapid means of effecting the pressure and other obstacles, the expense of manufacturing is considerable. It is be- lieved that in the improvement here illustra- ted, all difficulties have been removed. The inventor has had machines in operation for some time, with such success, as to justify him in believing that pressed bricks can be produced at a cost but slightly, if at all ex- ceeding the price of common bricks. For fur- ~ ther information address the patentee as above. ~A~W 1: d p;ii. .~ ~cientific ~nur can+ [Iteported Officially for the Scientific American.] LIST OF PATENT CLAIMS Issued from the United States Patent Office FOR THE WEEK ENDING SEPTEMBER 9, 1836. SAW SETWyllys Avery, of Salisbury (enter, N. Y. I claim a tcaversing punch, arranged so that it can be vi- brated or turned to suit the form or position of the saw teeth, being set substantially as described. I do not claim a vibrating pin acting upon the teeth of the saw to traverse it endways. Itut I claim the adjustable stationary pin, M, so ar- ranged as to bring the teeth of the saw into a proper 150- sitisn under the setting punch, when the scores between the teeth of the saw are forced into said pin, substantially as described. I di not claim a vibrating fiame to support the saw hung dirocqy opposite the setting punch and anvil. tint I chasm two separate frames, one hung cacti side of the anvil, ac d setting hunch, so arranged that when one is turned back out of the way of the handle the oth- er wilt support and sustain th. siw, substantially as de- scribed. I elaini 5hs revolving blocks for the above mentioned frames, which support the saw during the process of set- hug, substantially as described. DRESS or METALLIc IIEMISPHIIlOICAL GassnlNo MILL Ansoss Atwood, of Tiny, N. Y. I claim the series of radial ogee ribs and furrows, in comblisalion with the iii- termediate or interposing cuss and furrows, cracking teeth, and hemispherical formed grinding surface, com- bined iii the maniier substantially as described. LAnars Rant-sn Sssoni.v.s-.-thenry Adams, of New York City I claim, first, the arrangiag of the near side horas, a, with the leaping horn. b, attached directly to it, on the side of the tree or saddle, near the front, and a short distonce below the head of the sam-, substantially as and for the purpose set forth. Second. having tIne leaping horn attached loosely to the near side horn so as I-s i.e capable of being reversed, and thnis made to serve no a suptsort or rest for the left leg while riding at a slow gait. Besnru-Loaniyo OenreAnrnG. W, Bishop, of Brooklyn, N. Y. I do not confine myself to the partic- ular form of the groove. b c, or of the seenseists. hut I claim the combination of the groove, Is c, made around the seat of the breech pin, and the segments, N N, attached to the breech pin, the said segments being operated bya screw and toggle movement, or other equiv~ alent means ofsprcaidnc or expanding them into the said groove, or withdrawing them thereirom, substantially as described. WOOOEN Penv or BanrsnrsThcsmas Mitchell. of Lansingburg, N. Y. s I claim the combination of a circu- lar saw with a cutting apparatus, formed as described, for the purpose of applying circutar saws to the cutting of this curved figures, saibslassliatty as set f clii. also claim the sonibinalion of the apparatus first claimed with a cronvo saw attached to ass arbor common to both, foaming a toot for lisa- advantageous manufactnsce of brush handles, or other analogous work, sutotantially as sI fonts. MAsyrArTuoseso Dnu,atNcsjstisi Macland, of West hlcidgewoter, Mass. s I claim the masetisod ofoperalirigup- on wool Isy combing, and stibsequsently carding, in the malsaser and for the purpose set forsis. 11 5N505N0 Sssss-s Rs.sussnsssthsristopher N. Nixon, of Ihamsgate, Bug. Patessled in England May ith, 1854. 1 chaimn the use or constrasction, as ahalslied to sailing ves- sels, for steering purposes, of the groove or socket, as de- scrilsed, whether the same be fsrsned to extend from Ilse ~sp to, or near to the bottons of the stern post, whether the same be continuous or divided into sections or parts. Second, I claim the rod, continuous or in sectiosus, at- tirhed to this rudder and combined with the groove or other equivalent attached to this st-rn-post. CuTTINo AND DRAWSNG Wsnv.F. Noette, ofBrook lyn, N. Y. First, I claim feedilig the circular plate. N, to the circular cutters, It L, and gauging the same by means of racks, o o, shaft, Q, wstis psosons attached the panel and ratchet, G U, weighted lever, V. or equivalents, and gauge roiher, arranged as shown and described. Secomsd, I claim operating the reel or drum, I, or giv- ing it a vertical vibratory moseossnt by means of the right and left screw cods, it, wills pissions, m m, attached, and made to gear alternately imito the pinion, K, on the shaft, A, by means of the block, B, lever, B, bar, G, and weighted lever, H, arranged as shouvn and described. Third, I ctaim the reel or drum, I, when constructed as shswn, so that it may bs compressed or contracted to allow of the ready removal of the wire from its peri- phery. CAOTIO AISTIrInIAL TOOTH PLATEsJohn L. New- elh, of Binghamton, N. V. s 1 do not claim the electro- type art of depositing metals into casts or molds. Nets her do I claim the making of the cast or mohd. lint I claim cossstruscting the linings in one piece, and simultaneously with the plateby the electrotype process, as set forth. I also claim filling the interstices of artificial teeth, when attached to a metallic plate, with a metalhic pre- cipitate solidified, in the manuser described and for the purpose specified. CAHTOIDoEoJnlins Riedel, of Pheasant Ilill, Ky. s I claim sasaking the pointed ball cartridge, as described and shown. First, g claim that the shape of my cartridge is such that one end is naturally loaded heavier than the other, as relsresented by section a c b d, thereby causing that end to go forward, thus guarding against all revolving motion, except a single winding or peristaltic one. Second, I claim as novel the constructing the hemis- pherical end of the cartridge stronger and heavier than the conical end, having several objects in view, viz., that the loading of elsot or halls on the inside maybe kept to- gether a considerable distance after leaving the gun, that the tighter conical end may serve to keep the whole in the given direction till the cartridge is burst, and when burst on or miesritobase, give free egress to its contents. LoexIlarly D. Itussehl,ofNaugatnck, Coon., I claim liberating the knob arud its stem from all connection with the mairs boht, in freeing the crescent plate, N, by the movement of the smahher bolt, I, as specified, produced by the cross bar, F, or its equivalent, operated by the key of the door, the whole constructed and arranged aubstan~ tiahly as set forth, WINDMILLJohn It. St. John, of Lockport, N. V. s I do not claim, separately and simply by themselves, any of the Darts, asthsey have all been used before. But I claim the arrangement and combination of the parts as described, or their merely equivahents. 1 claim, first, the traverse table and taih piece for car- rying the reduced pact of the main shaft, and for snstain~ log the main shaft horizontally on the screw pivot, G, with the arrangement thereon of the rudder vane for its perpendicular movement. Second, I claim the main shaft with its hinder position reduced, with the circular cogged rack, d, the collar, n n, and the spiral spring, e e, working therewith. Third, I claim the rudder vane, ti, as performing the two offices of keeping the sails to the wind, by moving the traverse tables horizontally, also as carrying the rod, i i, and the governor vane or globe, T, for giving a vertical movement. APPLE PAssERsJohn D. htrownof Cincinnati, 0.~ I chaim the returning or reversing action, as described and aet forth, WAsuIrso MAcaelrsxsIsrael F. htrown, of Colum- bus, Ga. s I claim the slotted cylinder, It, constructed as shown, and having a diagonal or oblique corrugated board, a, at each end, the cylinder being partially im- mersed within the box, A, substantially as deurribe~, si SwExt.mnoo STREETsRobert A. Smith, of Brooklyn, N. V. s I claim, first, placing the main broom cylinder under the axle of the traveling wheels, substantially a.s and for the purposes set forth. Second, the curved guides, f, of broom cylinder axle, concentric uvith the driving pusley for keeping the driv- ing bolad tight in all portions of the said cylinder. Third, hanging the conveyor on its driving shaft, with its lower extrenuity resting on wheels mIsusing on this sur- face of the ground, as specified, Fourth, the arrangemeust of screw, box, and guides with the shaft of the gutter brush, for regulating the ins- ctsnatuen and preventing the oscillation of said brush, as specified. Fifth, uhse combination of the cylinder brush and gut- ter tirush with the elevator, arranged and operating sub- stantiahiy as specified. WAsIIuNG MAcrsneEsRiley Smith, of Towanda, Pa. I am aware that a hand rubbing board has been used in the same machine wilh a rubbing board operated by le- vers this I do not claimn But I claim connecting the hand and lever rubbers by a Isivots d brace, which serves the double purpose of a guide in operating the lever rubber, and a brace for raisimag no and hiolding in a convenient position the hand rubber, the whole being arranged for the purpose and in the manner set forth, STEAd ENonsissWm. A. Clark, of St. Louis, Mo. I claisn the arrangement of two or more pistons on the one histon rod within the one cylinder, divided into compact- unent., the movement of each piston being limited to its respective compartment, and alt the pistons travehing in the same direction, as set forth. FLUID LAarm~sWm. B. Carpenter, of Brooklyn, N. V. s I claim the divided cap or extinaguisher, A A, in combination witha the springs, B D, and the ring, c, the whole operating substantially as described. REcAIsinno RAILWAY BARsJames B Cawood, of Marshall, Mich. s I do not claim the anvil block nor its recesses. I claim the movable press block, B, having its edge forsoed to the side of the rail, G, in combinatioss with another block, I), with its edge of a similar but reversed forso, the movable block to be operated by two cams, or in any other convenient manner, soc the purpose of press- iusg between them a T, or otherwise shaped rail, thereby ficihitating the difficult operation of avetling or renewing the ends of such rails after they have been damaged, in the manner described and for the purpose set forth. ARTIFIcIAL FUELBobert Courtney, of Albany, N. V. s I claim the rendering coal dust or screenings into a merchantable artificial fuel. by combining coal dust with clay, lime, and coat tar, or other bituminous or resinous material, asid subjecting them to all the parts of this pro- cess, iss maniser amud form set forth and described. Fssusreu SAwmNo MILLsCalvin and Geo, S. Bihkes, of Ahhowaystown, N. J. s We do not claim operating the feed wheel by means of pawho operated by the saw frame through the medium of a lever. lint we chaim giving motion to the pawla which actuate the feed wheel by means of the cord, H, and puthey or short cyhinder, fo, and its stud, q. in combination with the slotted lever arm, I., and its plate, B. the same being con- structed, combined, and operated together sssbstanhialhy as set forth. LUIsRIcATuNO TasRosTLE SeIwnnEaGeo. W. Daugh- erty, of Crozerville, Pa., and Thomas G. McLaughlin, of Philadelphia, Pa. s We chaim the lubrication usfthrostle spindles, in the manner and for the purpose substantially as described. Sxnn PLANTERSJOhn Fordyce, of Morgantown, Va. I claim ha combination with the hopper and its adjustable openings, the hinge board, B, and its blocks and figures for regulating the discharge of the grain from said hop- per, and ensuring regular feeding, substalatially as set lbrth. AvTArsalneO HORSEs TO XEHsCLE5Geocge H. Gray, Sen., of Clinton, Niss. I claim the phates, C, attached to the harness as shonen, and the p hates, B, on Ihe shafts A, with loops or clasps, a, attached to the levers, B, with the pins, Is, on them, and the dogs, F, levers, G, and rods, H, as described. LINKs ~F HoRsE PowEatsAlbert W. Gray, of Mid- dletown, Vt. s 1 claim constructing hlse links composing the endless chain of corrugated sheet metal, so that the corrugations shall serve both as hinges for connecting the links and as cogs for gearing with the cog wheel on the driving shalt, substantially as specified. PANS FOR BvAPoBATINo SUGARSamuel It. Gilman~ of New Orleans, La., I claim the evaporator formed by the combination of a train of open boilers, N 0 P Q, the bosher, Q. to recesve the first, and the boiler, N, to receive the last fire, and each of the biters in succession pre- senting an extent of surface to the fire in the reverse ratio of the intensity of the fire, as well as of in, the boilers, cubic capacity, constructed and arranged substantially as described. I also claim the construction and use of a flue, x, form- ed by a series of open boilers, N 0 P Q, and being in a series of sections of its length, divided hongitudally and vertically by water legs, or strata of juice into two or more flues or spaces, the numbers of fines increasing from one section to the next, as the distance from the furnace increases, and the numbers of sections into which it is so divided, corresponding to the number of holes in the se- ries, and each section being shorter than the boiler in which at as placed so as to leave a space between each section where the fine, x, is undivided in its transverse section, substantially as described. HAND Cosine PLANTERSHerman B. Hammon, of Bristolvihle, Ohio, I claim the employment of a hexa- gonah or many-sided revolving wheel, N, having offsets, a4 ad a4 a4 at a4, a plied in connection with the plunger and seed tube, aubsiamutiahly as and far the purposes set forth. REVERSING GEARGeorge Jnengst, of New Vork City I do not claim the deoccibed mode of converting motion, as it is well known. Neither do I claim the substitution of the nipping pawi for the ordinary pawl and ratchet, as that as also well known. But I claim the described arrangement of the disks, g, the screw pivots, e, and Ihe springs, f f, or their equiva- lents, whereby the action of the nipping pawl is reversed and the motion communicated by at changed in direction without any change of direction or cession of motion in the moving power. METALLIC CAR SPatInroBanforth Johnson, of Chi- cago, Ill. , I claim the combination and arrangement of a isumber of springs radiating from a central stud, and secured at the circumference or rim to a box or bed plate. I also claim the arrangement of the convex bed plate, a b, over which the springs bend, in combination with the stud or pillar e, to resist the lateral motion of the car or carriage, the whole combined, arranged, and operating snbstantiahly as set forth. COLLIsIoN APPARATUS FOR R. R. CARSJohn KuIm.. ski, of Charleston, S. C., I claim protecting railroad trains against the injurious effects of cohlision, by the at- tachment to their front and rear of a series of shields, A B C, kept at a distance from bach other by elastic and rigid resistances, B and F, in such a way that a collision taking place, said shields are to fall back snccesshvehy upon each other from the fore to the rearmost, the re- sistamace to yield to the shock alternately and in succession by the operation of tubes and snap locks, H I, or their equivalents, being constructed, arranged, and operating substantially as and for the purpose specified. SCREW CUTTERJOhnW, Lyon of Brooklyn, NV. I chasm the use of the nhsde rest, slsde cutter tool, wire hioholer box, and spring clamp dies, or their equivalents, constructed, and combined, for the purpose of cutting and finishing screws, as set forth. SUsPETeotreO ISV HYIORAULIC PUPPET VALVES.G~O. Flolt, It H. Cole, and Win, A. Clark, of St. Louis, Mo, We claim the combination of the ball, loose socket, and anti-friction asoher, when employed to conned an elas- tic or yielding valve with its stem, subalanhially as set forth. MARBLE SAWING MACHINESJose Toll, of Locust Grove, Ohio s I am aware that there have been hereto- fore machines for sawing marble in taper form, and there fore make no claim to such. But I claim the parhienlar combination and arrange- ment of the lender bars, ~ ~ j j, with the adjustable guide pieces when the same are constructed and arranged to operate in relation to each other, in the manner and for the purposes set forlh. GRAsN AND G SASS HARVESTERWin, P. Maison, of Albion, Wis., I claim the irheel, H, attached to the driving wheel, F, in combissatiosa with the curved sliding lever, G, Ion as aich the driving wheel is hung,) and straight lever, U, when arranged to operate in the man- ner and for the pu rposes set forib. WINOSIILI.B~ hraim Whitman, of Abinglon, Mass, s I claim Ihe comlis ation and arrangement of the rotary wind flume, A, I se series of turning blinds or gate sM, and the mind wI e1 ti, the ~ and made to operale is getiser, aubstanti And isa comban taon with the wind flume, A, the series of turning, r gates, M, and the wind wheel, G, the whole being apph ed and made to operate together sub. stantially as descu shed. And iss combina ion with the wind flume, A, and its wheel, G, 1 clam the series of guide plates, L L L, and the concentric Is buhar tapering case, I, arranged sub- stantially in mann cc as explained.. I also claim arcs uging the transferring shaft, F, in the turnisug axis of the wind flume, A, and so as to pass through the lower journal C, thereof, and thereby enable the wind flume and d iving shaft, H, and its beveled gear to revolve around s inch transfering shaft and ths beveled gear thereol, an transmit power through the shaft, F, under any positto 5 of the rotary flume, A. FORMING HAT BooaxsB, G. Wells, of New York City s I no not el sins the use of the secondary currents of air, nor valves o control them. First, I clalans tue mode of guiding the currents of air from the pickings ylinder in their passage to Ihe cone, substantially as d. scribed. Second, 1 claim the mode of regulating the secondary currents of air by neans of the wedge-shaped apertureu formed by ihe val ces, K K, substantially aa set forth. DRAWiNG OFF YAsTE GASES, STEAM, & cRobertF. Brower, (assignor o Sansuet A. Browec and J. L. brow- er,) of Bloomlield N. V. s I claim Ihe operation of draw- ing off wasme stean s or gases by osechanism or heated cur- rents, from buildis gs or aparlments arhere drying, steam- irg, or chemical o serations are conducted, after Iha man- ner substantially s set forlh, JACQUARD Loo asJ. C. Cooke, (assignor to Hotch- kiss and Merrimam , Manufaclurlaig Co.,) of Waterbury, Cono. s I claim tb s combination of the lifting bar with the shidiasg hook and mocking piece hoc operating the needle, - SecondIalsoc aim the use of a pattern cylinder, hay- log a rediprocatin honizonlaland? vertical movement, combined with lb movement of rotation on its axis, in the manner, and l~ r the purpose set forth. SAW GUMMER L. A. Dole, (assignor to Dole, Silver, and Felch,) of Sa em, Ohio, I claim arranging the cam or movang crank elow Ihe die, either in or below the die block so as to d aw dowus the punch or male die block, substantially as de cribed, 1 claim the cam ever, B, with a movable fulcrum, in combinalion with he opening, C, so conslructed and ar- ranged as to traves se the bar, C, with a positive motion in each direction. us the lever is vibrated, as described. Ssem,soLs,uu BR] oEETL, A. Goodsell, of Southinglon, Conn., assignor to I imself and B. II. Molt, I Claim a com- bination of the too or feet, B B, the claw or pius pointed base, and the hig fi braces, N F, made fast and adjusta- ble to each other I ~ the catches and dovelail tongue, re- ceavung the wedge J, th. whole constructed, combined, and operating as us I forth. HARVE5TSRS.,.N -- H. Seymour and Henry Pearce, (as- signora to himself and B. S. Morgan,) of Brockport, N. Y. s I elsian the pa clicular arrangement of the clutch and clutch lever, wun regard to the conductors seal and platform, amid the shaft, b, from which motion is com- municated to both she rake and sickle, as that the opera- tor from his seat, I aving a distinct view of the platlomm, can engage or d.se gage said rake wimis his foot, whilat the sickle continues lr run, substantially as met forth We also claim it e combination of the universal joint, i, for connecting Ihe shafts, b k, the sleeve 1, and plate, Q, with its guide, in n , aDO gimbal joint, o, for giving the rake its transverse movement, as described. We also claim 11 a bow and rake head, so formed as to inclsne towards th ir outer ends, and so acting as to cause the bent or entang ed straws to slide off on to the plat- form, substantiall3 as described. FAUCETJoseph Goodrich (assignor to the Bostoms Fau- cet ho.) of Boston Mass, u I claim arranging between the caoutchouc spring and the screw cap of the neck Githe faucet, a metallic 5 nunlus or guard ring, in or to prevent the adhesion of th cap to the india rubber Spring, not meaning to claim a metallic washer, as ordinarily used, but the specific ap licalion of a metallic rilug to prevent a difficulty inciden Ito the peculiar relation of parts, as described. I also claim the s crangement of the annular groove in the stena of the vat ye, and with reference to the sides of the spring or valva chamber, in manner and for the pur- pose. or so as to pa oduce the new and useful result, as specified, the said ;roove being intended to receive the loot of the spring no ude tapering, orfrnsto-conical, in man- ner and for ihe pus pose of preventing it from being caus- ed to adhere to she sides of the said chamber by oxyda- lion of the metal, under circumstances, as expressed. SEWING MACHI sEaC. It. Gardner, of Detroit, Mich I claim, first, the ii amp pointed needle having a flexible beard, as describer - for sewing in woven or other close fabrics, in the man aer set forth. Second, the adju table slide, C, so arranged as to close the beard of any S. red needle that may be used in Ihe machine, Third, also the giide, G, consishing of the thread chan- nel, C, and the n edhe passage with the side thereof, either slightly inch ned, as described, or provided at the lop with the inchin ad groove, J, and so operating that the feed motion given 1 s ISa cloth shall carry the thread in p roper position that it shall be caught by the hook or beard of the needle, as described, Fourth, also the I lding plate, or its mechanical equiv- alent for the purpos e specified. I do not claim mu suing several folds or corrugations on the needle at the ss me time, as it is done in machInes 1Gm sewing with a runs ing stitch. Nor do I claim sewing along parallel with the fold, as it is done in hemming, binding, and formic g welts, where the length of the stitch is parallel with the fold. 1 claim sewing os ith a machine through one fold or corrugations of the material at a time, the cloth being fed along at right angle - or nearly so, to the line of the fold, substantially as des aribed. LAMPS FOR BUs NISSO FLUIDSSalmon Bidwell, of Rochester, N. V. s claim the mode of compressing the wick in the manner described, so as to prevent any change in the light caused by the jar of the lamp, and to prevent the escape if the burning fiusfi fastor than is de- ssred, and to secure the gas generated from the same, and to enable the use of any desirable fiusfi for lamp purposes. HARVESTER5~B in. H. Seymour and Henry Pearce (assignors to hiinse fasad B. S. Morgan,) of llrockport, N- V. , I claim, in co ubsnatson wsth the inasn wheel, H, and removable wi eel, N, a frame capable of allowing the shifting ofthe f. riner, and the removing or replacang of the latter, when he machine is to be converted from a reaper to a mow r, or vice versa, substantially as aet forth. FURNACE Saroo RING IRONSJohn Taggart, of Itox- bury, Mass., assign sr to himself and Vernon Brown, of Boston, Mass. I din tin arranging the bellows between the handle and furnace or body of the flat-iron, as circum- stances may requla a. I also claim making the bellows tube or conductor, H, in two separate pie es, in n, and attachang them respec- tively to the cover. nd body of the furnace, so as to oper- ate together when tie cover is down, and to be separated when the cover is m aised, substantially in manner and for the purpose as spec fled. ADJUSTING CAR tIAGE TopsC, W. Sahadee, of Co- lumbus, Ohio s I a isclaim the use of one straight mod or bar of iron, wha n placed on the inside of the back to the sea, with hot u extremities passing through a square hole in the lower e: sd of the top-props, and operated uron by a lever, as that 5 inns no part of my inventian, Neither fbI chain the long perpendicular rods at the back of the seat, as d connected to t he back bow, as that palented by Mr. H~ ntington. But I claim the ls teral rod, D B, in combination with the top props, A. I also claim the erpendicuhar rods, N N, in combina- tion with the haters I rod, B B, and the back of the seat for the purpose oft cowing back or raising up the top, while seated in the carriage, substantially as set forth. the upper or saddle part of harness saddles of metal, giv- ing the required form thereof, by molding, when such 3iddles are so formed, substantially as described, that Ihe heather parts, such as the skirts, can be secured therc~ without stitching, as set forth, or by equivalent means, I also claim forming the upper or Saddle part, and the under or crotch part in combination, so that the skirt and jockeys, if jockeys are used, will be embraced betuveen them, and Secured in the manner substantially as de scribed. ADDITmONAL IMPRONERENT, ROTARY BRICK MACHmNEs,~George Crangle, ofPhil. adeiphia, Pa. Patented June 1, loll s I claim first the substitution of the single square toothed ratchet wheel, B, and the pendulous lerer, N, with its spring, e, in the apparatus described in my former specification, for ro- tatang and stopping the cyhisiders in rotary brick ma- chines, the square toothed ratchet wheel, lever, and spring, being constructed, applsed, and operating, sub- stantially as set horth. Second, I also claim a single cylinder, A, with two se- ries of molds in the same, when the said cylinder is con- structed as described, that is to say, with the partition, b, in the middle, and open at each end s the ms.vabhc bot- toms of the molds thereof being supported at each of their ends by the rims, e e, which ace aclially supported by the noflecs, I t, whilst the roller, an d ils bearings, ii, operate b-tween the said two rims, when Ihe above p arts are constructed, arranged and operated substantially in the manner and for the purpose set forth. Virginia Gold Mines. The New York Tribunat of the 19th inst. contains a letter from J. Winchester on the mining capabilities of Virginia. The follow ing are a few extracts from it are mines on which $100,000 and $300,000 have been expended, and it would puzzle any person to tell what had been done with the money to any better purpose than throwing it into the sea. California is scarcely a more inviting field for the miner than this very State, not a days journey from the commercial capitol of the Union. Facts in proof are not wanting. I am well satisfied that, considering the re- cent improvements in metallurgical science, especially in the treatment of pys-it~erous ores, which form so large a portion of the gold and copper lodes of the Southern States, a new era is about to be opened, in which capital will find the reward hitherto not reislized. The mine at which I am stoppingthe Woodvilleafter years of perseverance under the direction of Dr. S. F. Ambler, has become a success. Dr. Ambler has recently invented and erected a new and admirable contrivance for working sulpburets. I have seen its oper- ation, and have no doubt whatever that he has bit upon a desidesideratum in the reduction of stclphur ores, and the release of the gold It needed but such a discovery to render all the aurj/eroul stdphurets profitable which have ever before stubbornly refused to yield up their treasures, The whole letter leaves an impression on the mind that gold itself exists in the state of an oreas sulphurets and pyriteswhereas gold is only associated with the pyrites of cop- per and iron in some Virginian mines, and is never found as an ore, strictly speaking, but commonly as an alloy, with metallic silver, copper, and some other metals. It is plainly stated that the working of auriferous pyrites gold associated with iron and copper pyrites in Virginia has hitherto been unprofitable, but by a new invention of Dr. Ambler the gold can be released profitably, and Ita new era is about to be opened, in which capital will find a reward not hitherto realized. Virginia is rich in gold quartz, but her Ru- riferous suiphurets have always been consider- ed poor ores, because they require smelting, which is a far more expensive process than that of amalgamation by mercury, where the gold is found unassociated with the suiphurets of other metals. The statement that aurifer- ous sulphurets have ever before stubbornly refused to yield their treasures, is not correct. Dana, our greatest mineralogist, states that it has been found profitable where metallic sul phurets and other ores are abundant in gold rocks, to work them by smelting, and he de- scribes the profits obtained by smelting such ores in Russia, in comparison with the simple treatment of them by amalgamation. If, by the process of smelting, the gold can be pro- fitably reluced from the auriferous pyrites, this can be easily demonstrated without Tory expensive apparatus in any of the Virginia mines. The ores of each mine should be fair- ly tested before expensive reducing apparatus is fitted up, because their character and qual- ityeven when separated but a short distance differ so much from one another. It would be hazardous, in our opinion, to invest capita largely in any mine for the reduction of gold from auriferous pyrites, until it was fairly de RE-ISsUE. monstrated that such investment was beyond HARNESS SAnol EsJohn F. Benniston of Lyons N. a doubt s V. Originally pats nIed Nov. 21115,1846, Iclaim maiing~ , afe and profitable. .5,-:, 10 -5 ~cicwtifi t an+ Forthe Scientific American.l The Hughes Telegraph. In its leading features this invention is a combination of the original Vails Printing Te1egraph,~~ with some modifications ~ and other instruments. It consists of two clock-works, moved by springs or weights, both located in one frame, but operating inde- pendent of each other. The one moves a type- wheel, step by step; the other is for printing the letters, and operates only when called into action by an electro-magnet, in order to push the paper against the type-wheel, for printing one letter, like ~ telegraph and others. The type-wheel is governed by the vibrations of a spring, lying in a horizontal position, and oscillating in a vertical plane; one extremity is fastened to the machine, the other suspend- ed and provided with a compensating slide or weight, which maybe shoved along the spring as required, to overcomc the variations caused by the changes of the temperature,thus answer- ing the purpose of a pendulum. An escape wheel of the first clock-work partakes of the vibration of the spring by means of a vertical connecting rod, and thus the escape wheel is caused to move in a corresponding manner, step by step, with the type wheel. The latter tins on its periphery the letters of the alpha- bet in relief, and one blank space. Below the type-wheel is a cylinder for clos- ing and breaking the current; this cylinder is outside of the frame and revolves by means of cog wheels, exactly in unison with the type- wheel. This cylinder or barrel has upon its circumference pins or projections, spirally ar- ranned at equal distances from each other at one extremity an insulated cog wheel is fast- ened, and a similar cog wheel, likewise well insulated is attached at a small distance from the first cog wheel, and in such a manner as to cause a contact spring connected with one extremity of a telegraph line, to meet alter- nately by the rotation of the cylinder shaft, a cog of the single cog wheel or of the cylin- der cog wheel. The number of cogs and pins equals the number of letters and the blank of type-wheel, say 27. The single cog wheel is connected by a con- ductor, with the helices of an electro-magnet, which is in conducting connection with the ground plate of the telegraph line; but the wheel of the cylinder has no direct connection with the ground, consequently an electric cur- rent passing the contact spring by each revo- lution of the cylinder will alternately pass 27 times through the helices (the cylinder being excluded,) or 27 times through the cylinder if connected with the ground (the electro- magnet being excluded.) For this purpose a metallic bar, having a metallic connection with the ground plate, runs parallel with the cylinder; and a number of springs, horizontal, facing the periphery of the cylinder, are attached to the bar in such a manner that each of the springs may be thrown into such a position as to meet a cor- responding pin of the cylinders, like the springs of a music box. A momentary connection with the ground plate is thus established at every contact of a spring with its pin. The springs are operated by means of keys ar- ranged on a straight finger board, located in a transverse position near the one end of the cyl- inder. Each key is connected with its corres- ponding spring by means of two levers and a connecting rod. By pressing upon the key of a desired letter, its corresponding spring is thrown into a position ready to be struck by its corresponding pin. During the time the cylinder revolves,the type-wheel standing in its proper position the spring will be struck, and a current will pass from the cylinder along the spring to the ground, and influence the elec- tro-magnets of similar instruments (in the same circuit at any distant place,) thus caus- ing the print of the desired letter, by means of the printing clock work, of the other in- strument. The printing is done in the following man- ner Below the type-wheel, which is made to revolve continuously by means of the clock- work, is a printing press lever, and the paper which receives the impression, is fed in between the lever and the type- wheel. The printing lever is raised so as to press the paper against the type wheel at the proper instant, by means of a connect- ng rod which extends from the lever to a crank which is operated by another clock work. The crank is liberated by a detent which is operated by the motion of a perma- nent horse-shoe magnet, lying upon the poles of an electro-magnet. By the touch of a key of the key-board, the electric fluid passes through the electric magnet, and both magnets having now a similar polarity, a spring caus- es the permanent one (previously held by its magnetism,) to raise and to lift the detent which liberates the crank so as to revolve and bring up the printing lever against the type wheel, and print the corresponding letter on the paper. Meanwhile the circuit is broken again, the polarity of the electro-magnet being destroyed, the permanent magnet is pulled down by a lever connected with the press, to its former position, and the detent arrests the crank again. The method of printing seen in ~ and ~ Telegraph is sub- stantially similar to this. Suppose, now, one instrument at New York and a corresponding one at Philadelphia, their contact springs connected with the cor- responding extremities of the telegraph line, and the type-wheels of both revolving togeth- er isochronously, step by step; both will have to be so arranged that if the contact spring at New York touches a cog of the cylinder cog wheel, the contact spring at Philadelphia, will have to touch a cog of the single cog wheel and so, alternately, vice versa, telegraph- ing will be done. But both instruments will not print a letter at one and the same momant as has been al- leged, but must do so, alternately, like other instruments, as for example, ~ Even if the key of the letter M, at New York, is pressed down earlier than the letter B, at Philadelphia, the letter B will be printed first, and the letter M thereafter, for the reason that in the revolutions of the type-wheel, the turn for B, will come sooner than that for M. As it is possible to make one instrument communicate with all the rest in a given circuit at once, (but only one of them will be enabled to an- swer at the time,) so is it impossible for them to communicate with each other during such an operation, because the whole message will only be received by the first transmitting in- strument, say New York. I shall now try to explain the contrivance by which communication may be precluded from intermediate distant offices though the drawings together with the specification are slightly at variance. A bolt attached to the frame is moved by means of a cam on the crank, towards a flange of the cog wheel which is fastened to the type-wheel shaft. The flange is provided with a slot, which cor- responds with the blank on the type-wheel; another slot corresponds with any given let- ter, by which an office may be distinguished. The flange of the similar wheel of like ma- chines in other offices has two slots, one cor- responding with the blank, the other with the letter, by which such office is dis- tinguished. For instance, an instrument at New York is distinguished by A, Balti- more by B, and Washington by C, and it be desired that Washington communicate with New York, excluding Baltimore, and the in- struments at Baltimore and New York are ready to receive; the first closing and break- ing of the circuit starts all instruments at the same time, the bolt in each, by the first revo- lution of the crank, moving near to the flange. The next breaking and closing of the circuit is effected if the slot of the New York instru- ment is opposite the bolt, and forces the bolt through the slot, not suspending the operation of the instrument, A, but no slot being oppos- ite the corresponding, A, in the instrument at Baltimore, the corresponding bolt is forced against the flange, and instantly suspends the movement of the wheel. Having so far been guided by Hughes spe- cification, I shall, in my next, turn to a closer examination of the merits of the invention, and show what this printing telegraph is, and what may be expected from it; also how far the many promising reports and puffs res- pecting its wonderful capabilities, can be re- lied upon. Cssxs KntcHHoF. New York, September, l8~6. What is tie Cause of Yellow Fever? instruction from it. A farmers occupation Mzssas. En ITORsThe yellow fever has includes a variety of trades, and particularly been, and is nc w raging, to a certain extent, that of the carpenter and machinist, a swell as near this city. No one seems to have any chemistry and philosophy. I hold that an tangible idea c f what the disease really is, agriculturist should be a man of information, (other than y how fever,) what causes it, or of extensive practical knowledgenot a mere where it come from. clod-hopper to plow and dig. I am sorry to The doctors are just as clear as mud~~ on say many of my brother farmers think there is the subject, so: ne asserting it to be contagious, no necessity to cultivate their minds, hence while others s~ y it is not; some prescribing the ironical expression of citizens, there goes one remedy, a~ id some another. They say it a coarse ~ is brought fro n infected ports, mostly from I am a working farmer and pride myself hot climates; go to those infected ports, and upon it, but I cultivate my mind as well as they say it is brought from somewhere ~ my corn, and one great source of instruction, Now the ide has sometimes occurred to me with other works, is the Sc1RNTIFIc AxzascAee. that as nitric cid stains the skin of a yellow RoazRT WIaLETs. color, and is, a you know, a certain poison, it Flushing, L. I., Sept. 1836. is possible tha the nitrogen and oxygen of the ~ ~ atmosphere, a ting upon the fluids in the body, Deceased Inventors. may, to some extent, generate this poison in The Cambridge (Mass.) Chronicle of the 6th the system, an I being conveyed by the blood inst. records the decease of Nathaniel Jarvis to all parts of the system, thus give the skin Wyeth, to whom the ice merchants of Massa- its peculiar co or, while its poisonous effects chusetts are deeply indebted for the great in- causes the dea :h of the patient. I know not crease of the ice trade, by the invention of how the sympi oms of the yellow fever patient implements and machinery now employed for agree with th( se of a person who has swal- cutting awl securing the ice crop with facil lowed some of this acid. ity and rapidity. The Boston Transcript says I think it PC ssible, also, for this acid to be of him generated in 1 w, wet, marshy places, and the By the mechanical skill and perseverance heat of the si La cause its fumes to arise and of Mr. Wyeth more ice of a superior quality impregnate thi air. Would anything of this is now secured in one good ice day than was kind accord w th chemical science? H. consumed by the whole ice trade in 1832. It New York, ~iept., 1836. is not, perhaps, too much to say, that there is not a single tool or machine of real value now [At one tim e, Ozone in the atmosphere was suggested as h sing the cause of cholera, and employed in the ice harvesting which was not lately it has b en suggested as the cause of originally invented by Mr. Wyeth. The annual ice crop of Massachusetts now yellow fever. This subject was brought up at amounts to 200 000 the late meetii .g of the Scientific Association , tuns. Mr. Wyeth was an early explorer of the Rocky Mountains and at Albany. ~ n inquiry was made if ozone Pacific re,ions, understood the Indian lan- had been dete ted in the atmosphere of Nor- folk while the yellow fever prevailed last year, guage, and was an accomplished scholar and also if it had i ecu observed in any place dur- writer, and a close observer of men and things. On several occasions he contributed to our ing the preval nce of cholera. No proof of its columns, and furnished us with useful infor- special presen e in connection with cholera or mation. yellow fever vas presented. No doubt the Paul Stiliman, of this city, died at Plain- state of the at nosphere is the cause of many field, N. J, at the age of 43 years, on the 11th diseasesit bt comes poisonous to some con- inst. He was a native of Rhode Island; was stitutions und( r certain circumstances; but a most skillful mechanic, and inventor of many how refined a ust be the analysis to detect useful improvements in fine instruments em- what that pois on is in the atmosphere. No ployed on steam machineryguages, indica- chemist has y 4 been able to detect what is tors, & c.and had charge, for a number of called malareaiipoes Much has b en said about ozone, but very years, of the important department in the Nov- elty Works in which such delicate instruments vague ideas have been presented as to are constructed. He was an active member what it really is. It is stated to be a condition of the New York Mechanics Institute, and was of the atmospi ere produced by passing a num- highly esteemed as a man for his noble quali- ber of electric sparks through it, by which it ties of mind, intelligence, skill, and ingenu- acquires powe ful bleaching and acidulating ity. His foot was injured by wearing a tight properties. We cannot believe it to have an boot for a few hours; this caused mortifica- identity of eb tracter without an identity ~ tion, for which amputation was performed, composition, a ad our corre5pondent~5 letter is alas, resulting fatally. suggestive in his respect. On the same date, Seth Cheney, distinguished We suppose that nitric acid may be pro- as a remarkable crayon artist, departed this duced in the atmosphere, and that it may be life at Manchester, Conn. His crayon portraits the cause of y illow fever, but although it is a have never been surpassed, if equaled, by any poison, and st: ins the skin yellow there is no other artist, and his ideal sketches evinced a evidence of itt agency or presence in cases of fine imagination and very pure taste. yellow fever. Instead of promoting vomit, ~-____________ this acid is us td in minute quantities greatly diluted, to pre Tent vomiting in some cases of sickness, thus exhibiting different tendencies to that prodi ced by the poison of yellow fever. The color ot the skin has a wonderful in- fluence in pres crying persons from being at- tacked with tI is fever; negroes, mulattos, the Chinese, and r ersons of a swarthy complexion are not so liak he to its attacks as persons of a fair complexi n. This, however, may be thought to be f ivorable to the nitric acid theory of our corresp indent. Nitric acid, no doubt, can be produced in the atmospher c, and by the same means ex- aetly as ozon~. Indeed, this was the very method propot ed by Cavendish and executed by the Royal hhociety, by which nitrogen was discovered to form part of our atmosphere. For several d~ ys sparks from an electric ma- chine were pa~ sed through a vessel containing atmospheric a ir, and the result was the for- mation of ni Lrous acid in the vessel. It was one of the most beautiful experiments ever made in chemi stry. More than two-thirds of the atmospher e is composed of nitrogen. Fi rmers aad Science. Msssas. En ToRsI am a subscriber to your paper, and, a? though a farmer, derive much Ilurstin~- o a large Rifle. On the 3rd inst., while Capt. Dimick, of St. Louis, Mo., was experimenting with a large rifle cannon which he had constructed, it burst into pieces. The front part of it, about five feet in length, blew away from the breech, the latter burst into eight fragments. Some of these, weighing five hundred pounds, were thrown forward from two to three hundred feet, and projected into the air from forty to fifty feet. The gun weighed 7,838 pounds, and was made of fine malleable iron. A Large New Cotton Mill. A cotton factory is now in the course of being erected on the Shetucket River, near Norwich, Conn., by Ex-Governor Sprague; of R. I., which, when finished, will perhaps be the largest in the world. It is to be built of stone quarried in the vicinity; its length 932 feet; width, 68 feet; hight 4 stories. A village for the operatives is also to be erected in the neighborhood. The Ericsson, now employed as an American mail steamer, never arrives until her news is superseded by the arrival of the steamer which leaves three or four days after her. The Ericsson is an old tub so far as speed is con- cerned; but she is economical in fuel. 11 scientific ~n~ctican. ~nbenthrn5+ American Asaoclatlon for the Advancement of scIence. (Continued from page 3.) ChemistryCobaltDr. Wolcott Gibbs read extracts from a very long paper, giving the re- suits of the researches which he and Dr. F. A. Genth, of Philadelphia had been conduct- ing for several years into the nature of those peculiar bases formed by the union of ammo- nia with the sesquloxyd and sesquichloride of cobalt. He alluded to the value of the chro- molithographed scales of color, devised by Chevreul, and the very singular result that in compound cobalt salts the ordinary image al- ways partakes of the peculiar rosy or purple tint of cobalt salts, while the extraordinary image is of another tint, perhaps that of the other bodies present; the salts being examined by reflected light. These investigations in- volve the question of compounds of organic with inorganic bodies, that is, for example, ammonia with a metal, or the radical of alco- hol with a metal; thus ultimately affecting medical chemistry. Dr. Gibbs alluded to a series of substances which he had discovered, and to which he gave the name of thio-co- halts, from their containing suiphurous acid. Prof. T. S. Hunt, of Canada, making some remarks upon the great value of this paper, thought that the thanks of chemists were es- pecially due to Dr. Gibbs for directing their attention to a new mode of looking at salts from the basic rather than the acid side. Prof. Gibbs had shown that one form of ammonia cobalt combined with two equivalents of acid another with three, and had called them hi- acid, tn-a cid, & c., bases. He also spoke of the value of investigating, as Prof. Gibbs had done, the action of said vaporssuch as those obtained by treating saw-dust with nitric acid. .dtomic ./lrrangements.Chemical Laws. Prof. Alexander delivered an address on this subject, beautifully illustrating his views by models, of crystals of different forms, show- ing how the atoms must arrange themselves in the production of different substances. The law was an elucidation of that published in a series of articles in Yol. 4, ScIENTIFIc AMER- IcAN, respecting which no chemist should be ignorant, as too many of them are. The Old ~mericaa Elephant.The remains of the elephant and mastodon, and other ex- tinct giant mammalia, are found in the north- ern parts of our continent, showing that at an early period they were inhabitants of these re- gions. How or why they became extinct no one can now tell, but it has been held forth that the cause was a change of climate. Those geologists who have taught that the earth was at one time a mass of fire, have asserted that it gave to our now northern regions, at one period, a tropical climate, and the evidence they have adduced in support of these views was, the remains of the elephanta tropical animalfound in the northern regions. Col. Foster read a paper on the geography of the fossil elephant of North America, which ex- ploded the theory of the supposed former great heat of our northern regions completely. The fossil elephant of America was not the same as our tropical elephant: he was adapt- ed to a sub-artic climate. He was clothed with fur, and his food consisted of northern plants and shrubs. He said From all the facts, I am disposed to be- lieve that the fossil elephant commenced his existence before the drift agencies had entire- ly ceasedwhen the water stood at a higher levelwhen the contours of the continent were differentwhen a different climate pre- vailed, and when a sub-arctic vegetation stretched far towards the tropicsat a time when the valleys were excavated by the re- turning waters, and the streams assumed near- ly their present direction. I would designate it as the Fluviatile Period. Cotemporary with these fossil elephant and mastodon was the fossil beaver. In bulk he was twice the size of the existing species, and was adapted to a wide geographical range, and tenanted the streams and lakes. Herds of cattle roamed over the plains while the tapir wallowed in the swamps. In the milder regions of the South, visited by the elephant and mastodon deer, all belon;ging to extinct species, while at in their migrations, lived the great leaf-eating the head of tb carnivers stood the colossal megatherium, the mylodon, the megalonxy. lion (Felix At pox) which then, as now, was the hippopotamus, the horse, the elk, and the the monarch c f the ~ IMPROVED RIG FOR V]~SSELS. Figure 1. Fig ire 2. Improved Marine Rig. The invention shown in our engraving con- sists in the introduction of an extra sail and yard, A, between the lower sail, B, and the top sail, C. For this purpose the lower mast, D, is elongated, and strengthened by double shrouds, or rather by dividing the shrouds, as indicated by E F. Fig. 1 is a front view, sails furled; fig. 2 a back view, sails opened. The improved yard and sail is attached to the mast in the same manner as the present lower yards and sails. The inventor reduces the length of the top masts in proportion to the increased length given to the lower masts, so that the weight carried aloft is no greater than that involved in the ordinary rig. The division of the shrouds is alleged to afford a better support for the lower n tasts, notwithstanding the in- creased length The invento, does not claim the dividing of the top sail, as a ~ or Howes rig, but the employment of a separate and distinct sail and yard, which he calls a Storm Yard and Sail, on the lower in ast, so that in the event of a ship losing hr mast heads or topmast, the vessel would still have storm sails and courses remaining, to ~ ork with. It is said that on ships rigged in this manner the yards could be so distribut 4 as to have one reef in the top sail, or n )ne at all, as desired, thereby avoding the in any accidents in reefing. For further inform~ tion address the inventor, Mr. Geo. F. Tresct, Charleston, S. C. applied for. Patent MACHINE FOR DIGGING ]~OTATOESS ers or teeth, J~, which project up between the separating bars, F. In front of these bars (see fig. 2,) is a scoop-shaped mold-board or share, G, which lifts the earth and potatoes, ..~d by the advance of the machine they are pushed back to the base of bars F,where the fingers, E, work through. By these fingers the potatoes are carried over the rounding curve of the separator bars, F, and dropped behind the machine, upon the ground or into any receptacle that may be attached to re- ceive them. The earth is sifted through the bars F, leaving a smooth and even surface wherever the machine passes. The chief features of novelty consist in the curved grate bars, F, by which a hollow is formed at their junction with the mold-hoard, G, for receiving the hill of earth and potatoes. Second, the earth is discharged through in- stead of over the separator bars, F, the raised or rounding parts of which prevent the earth from passing freely over, hut allowing the po- tato to he carried over by the fingers, the earth and potatoes being agitated in their pas- sage from the fore to the after part of the ma- chine. The depth to which the mold board cuts is regulated by levers, H, at the hack of the machine. The two wheels on which the machine runs pass between the hills. The curve of the bars, F, being eccentric to the axis of the cyl- inder, clears the fingers of all vines or roots. A recent trial of this machine proved it to be perfectly adapted to the work for which it is intended. All the driver has to do, is to ride on the machine and guide his team. The apparatus is simple, strong, and dur- able, the whole being made of iron except the pole. It weighs only about three hundred pounds. The machine readily recommends it- self by its neat proportions and philosophical principles. It is adapted to save a large amount of labor, converting what has hereto- fore been a tiresome drudgery into a pleasant recreation. Address the inventor for further information. Chemistry of Electricity. There exists between the living plant and the soil supporting it, an electric current, which always moves in the same direction; that is, the soil is constantly positive, the plant con- tinually negative. This fact was first ob- served by Becquerel, Sen., and for several years it had been pointed out hy him as one of the causes of atmospheric electricity. On repeating his experiments, lately, he was struck by certain anomalies in operating on the hank of a stream, and at certain distances plants. He discovered that electrical currents change their direction and intensity with the chemical composition of the water in the soil; alkaline waters being negative and acid waters positive. A Handsome Tribute. At a recent meeting in the Academy of Sciences, at Paris, M. Boussingault, while ana- lyzing some bottles of water hrought from the Dead Sea, declared that Commander Lynch~s expedition had thrown more light on the cli- mate and topography of that region than any the world has yet seen, although, within the last twenty years many bold travelers have explored that singular lake. New Steamer. The new American steamer ./ldriatic, of the Collins~ line, the largest steamer afloat, is an- nounced to sail from New York Oct. 16th, on her first voyage to Liverpool. SPLENDID PIIIZES.PAID IN CA~Ii. The Proprietors of the SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN will pay, in Cash, the following splendid Prizes for the largest Lists of hub~rribers sent in between the present time and the first of January, 1837, to wit i?sw the iar~est List, ~2 (I For the i3u1 largest List, 175 For the 3rd largest List, For the 4th lrir~est List, 12~ For the 5th lsrgest List, For the 6th largest List, 75 For the 7th laraest List, 50 For the 8th hat est List, For the 9tt~ largest List, 30 For the 10th largest List, 25 For the 1 Ph largest List, 20 For the 12th largest List, it) Names can be sent in at different times and from dif- erent Post Offires. The rash ~vill be paid to the order of the successful competitor, immediately after the 1st of January. 1857. 12 Improved Potato Digger. It consists~of a cast-iron frame, mounted upon The improvement herewith illustrated is two wheels, on vhose shafts A, are two driving the invention of Mr. T. Baker, of Stiliwater gear wheels, B, meshing into pinions, C, on N. Y., for which he has applied for a patent. shaft D. Shaf; D is armed with curved fing {I~ ~ticntific ~n~cric~n+ AN ~l ~cicntifh~ ~ni~rican. NEW-YORK, SEPTEMBER 20, 1856. To Parents and Young Mechanics. There are but few families that have not one or more members who possess a taste for science, art, or mechanics ; to the parents of such we have a few words to say. Such tastes are noble, because they afford evidence of a thirst for useful knowledge, and as knowl- edge is power,~~ they should be fostered and cultivated. The reading and study of works ot an elementary character are necessary for this purpose, but these are not sufficient; those who have such tastes must also read and study periodicals devoted to the propagation of in- formation relating to discoveries, inventions, and improvements. The public mind is so active at the present day, and art and science move on and progress with such rapid strides, that it is positively necessary to employ means of this character to keep posted up in correct information. Many publications contain much that excite the passions, and oftentimes im- part to them a wrong bias; but science ap- peals only to the intellect and the judgment, and its influence must therefore be elevating to every mind that pursues it. Is not this a powerful reason why every family should welcome a scientific periodical and make it a household companion $ Our country is a young giant: its growth in material greatness is a modern miracle among the nations. It presents more openings for young men to rise to renown and wealth than any other. Every mechanic who ac- quires a ~ skill of his business, coupled with intelligence and scientific knowledge, is sure to rise to distinction. On the other hand, an ignorant man, no matter what may be the advantages presented to him, never can arise to distinctionhe lacks knowledgeand is therefore deficient in power to do so. Young mechanics! Yours is the time of life to devote to the acquisition of positive knowledge, before the cares of the world ab- sorb all your time in providing the means of a bare subsistance. A young mechanic should learn to be a good draughtsman; his mind should be imbued with sound scientific information; he should be posted up in the progress of science and he should be able to write and express his opinions freely and correctly. He should have a manly ambition to be intelligent in all that relates to his profession; for those who have no such ambition never can rise to be good mechanics or good citizens. Our inland Navigation. Our country is unrivalled in the means of inland navigation. It has navigable rivers hundreds of miles long, and extending from the center of the continent to the Atlantic Ocean. Such natural avenues of communica- tion are fountains of wealth and power to an energetic and commercial people, and have been the means, almost within the memory of the liv- ing ofraising our country from a colony of three millions of inhabitants to a great commercial nation, second to none in the world and equalled only by one other. Tyre, Car- thage, Athens, yea, all the great commer- cial nations of antiquity were mere dwarts in comparison with the United States of Ameri- ca. Our total tunnage amounts to no less than 500,000,000 tunsabout the same as that of Great Britain; nearly all of this has grown up within the present century. It such has been the rapid rise of our nation in com- mercial greatness, what an immense power will it have become in fifty years from the present date! If it had no great navigable rivers or lakes, like Australia, it never could have become what it is. It might, and no doubt would be a great agricultural country, but nothing more. Its natural commercial fa- cilities of inland lakes and rivers stretching out their arms like fans, and spreading their broad waters to every favoring breeze, confer upon it advantages possessed by no other country or people. A practical lesson teaching us the value of such advantages has just been given by the voyage-the first on recordof a vessel (the Dean Richmond,) loaded with grain, direct from Chicago, in Illinois, for Liverpool, Eng- land. It came down the great lakes, through the canals of Canadawhich exhibit the en- terprise of a kindred peoplepassed down Gulf of St. Lawrence last week, and is now on the broad Atlantic, buff its bil- lows; and when it arrives at Liverpool will have made the most extraordinary voyage on record. Retort 8team Boilers. At a late meeting of the Institution of Civil Engineers, Eng., Thomas Dunn, of Manches- ter, exhibited a model and read a paper on his retort steam boiler. It consists of a series of small boilers all connected together, with the fire passing under them and the return flue over them. This boiler has been used in Manchester, England, for ten months, working two engines of 24 horse power combined, with a consumption of 133 lbs. of coal per hourS 3-4 lbs. per horse power per hour. He was induced to make such a boiler from having been employed to construct a common boiler of 30-horse power for a firm in Canada, which, owing to its great bulk and weight, and the difficulty of transporting it cost three times more than the real price of it at his works. In the conversation which followed the read- ing of his essay, the great expense of trans- porting large steam boilers to a distance was conceded, also that any improvement which would enable a boiler to be made like a ma- chine, in several pieces, and which could be packed in small bulk, and fitted up at the place where it was to be used, would be of great advantage. This was stated to he se- cured by Mr. Dunns boiler. But it was also stated that as his return flue passed over the top above the water line of the retorts form- ing his boiler, the plan was dangerous. To this objection it was answered that being small they were very strong, also that the flue heat merely dried the steam, but did not weak- en the metal nor make it red hot. On this head Mr. Siemens made the following re- marks He thought the steam would certainly be super-heated, to some extent, by the exposure of the upper portion of the boiler, but this would prove an advantage, as steam, in first rising from water was always in a state of transition, containing a portion of water mixed with it, being more or less imperfect as a gas. When this steam was heated a very rapid rate of expansion took place during the first few degrees, from the whole being transformed in- to a perfect gas; but the expansion afterwards progressed at a very slow rate, approximating to that of the expansion of air by heat. Super- heated steam gave an important advantage in working expansivsly, as the steam, on enter- ing the cylinder at the beginning of the stroke at a high temperature, became partially cooled at once, by the cylinder being only at a mean temperature considerably below the highest; and, in this case, with ordinary saturated steam, the consequence of its being cooled was the condensation of a portion of the steam at every strokedepositing a dew on the sides of the cylinder; but if the steam were super- heated sufficiently it would not be cooled down to the condensing point, and no water would be formed in the cylinder. The difficulty in practically applying super-heated steam was the risk of overheating it, in which case it dried up the lubricating material of the cylinder, and caused the piston to grind. The boiler that had been described appeared a good plan for accomplishing the object under safe control. This subject deserves the attention of our engineers and boiler makers. There is noth- ing new in retort boilers; they have been in use, and are so now, to a limited extent, in our country, but only on a small scale-in no in- stance so far as we know, as a substitute for large boilers. Now the question is, Can they not be madeor a modification of them to supersede, advantageously, the immense unwieldy boilers, as large as hay stacks, which are made for steamships and large stationary engines V, We are indebted to Hon. L. D. Campbell for a copy of Report No, 342 Proposed Reduc- tion of the Tariff of Duties. New Jerat y State Agricultural Society. The Annut I State Agricultural Exhibition was held last week at Newark, N. J., and was very largely s ttended. In a pecuniary point of view it wa; a decided success. But as a State Exhibit on it was not very creditable. The supply of specimens, in every department, was quite mei gre, and there was little indica- tion of progr ss or competition. The depart nent of labor-saving machines and invention embraced a small catalogue of common straw cutters, plows, hoes, pitch- forks, horse- powers, thrashers, mowers, & c. We noticed nly a very few objects, in the mechanical ii ~e, that were worthy of note for their novelty. Mr. F. G. Johnson, of Brooklyn, N.Y., had one of his n( w self-regulating windmills in operation, wI ich worked well, and attracted general atter tion. Mr. M. S. Hubbard, ex- hibited a ne-n mower and reaper, which strnck us as being inusually strong and excellent. ~he raking a paratus is extremely simple. Mr. Simon Ingers Al, of Greenpoint, L. I., exhibit- ed a new and ingenious tree cutting machine. The inventic u will shortly be illustrated in our columns. The most ecided novelty in the whole ex- hibition was hr. Win. Baxters Hydro Engine. This consist of a pair of upright pumps, which are en ployed to force a current of water through a sn all turbine water wheel. Power is obtained by the rotation ofthe turbine shaft, Steam is ada iitted alternately upon the upper surfaces of t~ te pistons, and drives them down thus produci ~g the current. The descent of the water in one pump causes it to rise and carry up the piston of the other. There is a simple cut-o T arrangement for changing the flow of steai a from one pump to the other. The engine (fl exhibition worked admirably, and althoug~~ its rated power was only two horses, it di ove one of ~ new planing machines wi ;h apparent ease. The diameter of the turbii e employed was only four inches. We were to A that the shaft revolved 3300 times per ml ante when working at full speed. The invent r claims a considerable advan- tage over U ie common steam engine by an avoidance ol friction. No fly wheel is used, no eccentric , no crank. The machine is very compact, si d we were told that its whole weight was less than the fly wheel used on ordinary en ;ines of the same capacity. A large machii te of 23 horse power is building for a silk fm tory at Paterson, N. J., and an- other for a steam vessel. For driving pro- pellers, law , etc., where great rapidity of shaft is ~ nted, without multiplication of gearing, or loss of space, it appears to be well adapted. T ~e parties interested think that the Hydro-engis e, is destined to make a stir in the world. Mr. Baxters residence isiNewark, N.JI There wat a small display of carriages, but they were a: parently ot the very best descrip- tion. A Shell Phaeton, made by H. M. Mil- ler, of Pate son, was a splendid specimen of art and wor ~manship. The vegel able kingdom was represented by a small co lection of cucumbers, squashes, egg plants, etc. Mr. D. A. Bulkley, of Stone Hill Farm, Williamstown, Mass., exhibited some very creditable specimens of seedling potatoes. )his gentleman states that he cul- tivates som 1600 varieties of potatoes. We noticed son e samples of corn, the ears of which, stripped of husk, were 3 1-2 inches in diameter, e~ hibited by Master J. F. Satterth- waite, of Be iville, N. J. The sho~ of live stock horses, & c., was pretty good what there was of them. Manuf~cti irtng Malleable iron and Steel Without Fuel. The invei tion of H. Bessemer for manufac- turing mailable iron and steel without fuel, described ir our last number, is highly extoll- ed by the I ondon Times, in a copy received since our ar dde was published. It states that the process was fairly tested on the 22d of last month, with entire success, in the pres- ence of the nost eminent iron manufacturers, engineers, tnd scientific men assembled in London fro a all parts of England. It asserts that the ma gnitude and importance of the dis- covery can scarcely be exaggerated, and that the only pa allel to it is to be found in the old but kindred invention of Henry Cort. It says that Nasmyth and Rennie, the famous engin ears, assert that they are unable to forsee the whole advantageous results calculated to spring from it, not to England alone, but the whole world. We advise our iron manufacturers to giv a early attention to this invention; it can easily be tested, and if found to be an improvement they should not delay to adopt it. The experiment alluded to was made in a building in St. Pancras Road, near London. upon 834 lbs. of molten pig metal, run from a furnace into a brick lined cylinder (described last week). under a pressure from the cold air blast below of eight pounds on the inch. The mass soon began to boil up, by the oxygen of the air combining with the carbon of the metal; and as it was intended to make cast- steel from it, the tap was drawn in twenty-four minutes after the commencement of the oper- ation, and the metal allowed to flow into a mold, which formed it into an ingot of ~92 lbs. It was pronounced by the company as- sembled, a fine quality of steela satisfactory experiment of converting crude pig iron into steel in 24 minutes, without fuel. The account of this discovery really appears something more like an Oriental tale than the descrip- tion of a solid, sober invention. Recent american Patents. New Ladys SaddleBy Henry Adams, of New York City.Consists in certain novel arrangements of the saddie horns, which ena- bles a lady, while riding, to sit in a very nat- ural, comfortable, and elegant posture, with both legs hanging close together, instead of having one thrown up to an uncomfortable position, and twisted, as on the common sad- dles. It also gives a very firm, easy, and safe seat for riding at a quick speed, and provides a rest for the left leg in riding at a slow speed. It saves the horse from being injured across the loins, and on the off side of the wither, reduces the cost of manufacture, les- sens the weight, gives beauty and symmetry to the saddle, and places it at a cost very lit- tle above the price of mens saddles. Improvement in India Rubber Overshoes. By J. A. Pease, of New York City.The ah- nexed cut represents a ventilating India Rub- ber Overshoe. By this improvement the un- healthiness and unpleasantness arising from the use of rubbers is entirely obviated. The inner surface of the rubber is ribbed or corrugated, and thus allows a circulation of air between it and the boot over which it is worn. The perspiration of the foot is thus allowed to pass off, the health is promoted, and the comfort of the wearer greatly increased. Piqi In our cut fig. 1 is a perspective view, and fig. 2 an enlarged sectional elevation of a por- tion, showing the ribs. In his patent the in- ventor says I claim making india rubber or gum shoes with the inner surfaces ribbed, corrugated, or otherwise made uneven, for the purpose of al- lowing a circulation of air between it and the boot or shoe over which it is worn; and I claim this, whether it be effected in the precise manner stated or by lining the shoe with a similar ribbed, corrugated, or otherwise raised and depressed surfaced tkhric, as described. Patented Nov. 2d, 1833. Address the inven- tor, No. 304 Broadway, N. Y., for further in- formation. Breech-Loading CannonBy George W. Bishup, Brooklyn, N. Y., opposite New York City.This invention relates to a cannon, the breech pin of which is movable. In order to 13 (~. ~cientif~c ~n~erican. load it, the breech pin is withdrawn, the car- tridge deposited in the barrel, and the breech pin then restored, and firmly secured. The invention consists in providing the breech pin with a number of expanding segments, opera- ted by suitable mechanical means, by which they are drawn into a recess or groove round the breech pin to allow the pin to be inserted in or removed from the piece of ordnance. Af- ter the insertion of the breech pin, the seg- ments are expanded or spread laterally into a groove, so as to form stays to act between the pin and the solid metal of the exterior of the breech. The pin is thus secured, held, and prevented from driving out when the explosion takes place. Hand Corn PlanterBy H. B. Hammon, Bristolville, Ohio.This is another of those contrivances that are carried in the hand like a cane, the planting being accomplished by thrusting the lower end of the machine down upon the ground. The invention consists in a novel arrangement of parts for depositing the seed into the lower end of the tube, ready for being forced into the soil by a plunger, where- by all liability of clogging and bruising the seed is prevented, and increased simplicity and certainty in the planting operation is secured. Washing MachineBy Israel F. Brown, of Columbus, Ga.The clothes are placed in a slatted cylinder, made like a squirrel cage. Said cylinder has within it at each end an oh- li ue corrugated board, and when the cylin- der rotates, the boards cause the clothes to tumble from one end of the machine to the other, thus assisting the cleansing. Saw Gumnier.By L. A. Dole, of Salem, OhioConsists in the employment of a mov- able and fixed die, placed in a stock, so ar- ranged as to form a powerful and convenient instrument for cutting the saw teeth. Improved Harvester.By W. P. Maxson, of Albion, Wis .Consists, first, in operating the sickle by a crank fitted and working within a loop attached to the sickle. Second,in a raking apparatus moved by an endless chain. Third in placing the driving wheel upon an arm of a lever, which is allowed to slide, so that a wheel on the driving wheel shaft may be thrown in and out of gear with a pinion, when desired, and the machine drawn from place to place without giving motion to the working parts. ./lttaching Horses to VehiclesBy Geo. H Gray, Sen. of Clinton, Miss.Consists in a de vice attached to the shafts, and connected with the harness, whereby the usual whiffietree and traces are dispensed with, and the horse read- ily detached from the vehicle if he attempts to run away or becomes unruly. New Method of Drawing WireBy F. Noette, of Brooklyn, N. Y., opposite New York City.The wire is cut from a disk of iron by bringing the edge of the sheet in con- tact with a cutter, somewhat after the manner that a cobbler cuts a shoe string from a disk of leather. The strips of metal, as fast as they come from the cutter, are passed through draw plates of the ordinary kind, which reduce them to wires of the desired size. The wire is then wound on reels. There is a peculiar arrangement for feeding the metal disks up to the cutters. The reels are also so made as to be capable of being collapsed after a sufficient coil has been wound upon them, and thus permit the convenient removal of the wire. Great Trial of Fire Engines. Classic New Haventhe City of Elmshas exhibited a most astonishing and commenda- ble fire annihilating spirit during the past few years, by inviting fire companies, with their engines, from different citiesnear and remote to come up to Collegedum once per annum, and try their skill by throwing tall streams over tall poles. This year three splendid prizes were offered them, of $500, $250, and $100, open to all fire engines. The trial came off on the 5th inst., and nineteen fire engines entered the listsouie from no less a distance than Chicago, Illinois. Each machine played out of 450 feet of hose. The first prize was won by the R~ppo- wan company, of Stamford, Conn., whose ma- chine was made by Mr. Button, of Waterford, N. Y.; the second by the Damper company, Hartford, Conn., whose engine was made by H. Waterman, Hudson, N. Y.; and the third ced to a quart ~r inch bore by incrustation; by the Phccnix company, of Brooklyn, N. Y., also specimens of wrought iron one inch pipe, whose machine was made by Mr. Hunneman, laid down only one year, and was found com- of Boston, Mass. The engine that took the pletely choked up with tubercules of iron rust. second prize was a very old one. It is said The water of I ake Cochituate is hard to sat- that it would have taken the first prize with isfy, when it rusts and crusts wrought and ease, but was scantily manned. cast-iron pipe. If Fresh Pond water contains The hight of the stream thrown by the first any free carb nic or other acid, Prof. Hors- prize engine was 153 feet; by the second 152 ford knows tha; galvanized wrought iron pipe feet; by the third 149 feet. This was pretty will not withst md its action very long. good playing. The result of the trial is quite _________________ flattering to the builders of the successful en- Chronolo;lcal I lecord of Means to Prevent gines, although their reputation as manufac- Corrosion an Deposits In Steam Boilers. turers of excellent fire engines had been es- 1779, Tubular IondenserWatt. tablished long, long ago.~~ 1805, Tubular I njection CondenserEvans. 1807, Tallow in use on the Thames. Parlan Ornaments. 1818, Sediment CollectorsHaliburton. Those beautiful small white figuressingle 1819, Potatoes n use on the Thames. and in groupsexposed in the show windows of 1820, Tubular CondenserBresson. large china ware stores, and on the mantel- 1821, Muriatic ~cid for cleaning boiler scale pieces of parlors are called Parian marble,~~ DArcet. but they are formed of the same materials as, 1821, Barley Cc mbings and Peat in use. fine unglazed porcelain. In softness of tint 1821, Amylace us substances in general sug it rivals the finest marble employed in stat- gested. nary. It is composed of nearly two-thirds of 1821, Blowing tffBoulton and Watt. ground flint, one-third of fine Chinese clay 1822, Change ~ ater or Brine PumpsMands and very minute portions of lime, soda, pot- lay and Field ash, magnesia, and a trace of iron. These are 1822, Lime or quivalent alkali suggested by very carefully calcined, ground, sifted, and Faraday. rendered perfectly impalpable. It is not molded 1822, Tubular (londenserNapier. from a doughy mass, but formed into a creamy 1823, High pres ;ure steam affirmed to forbid consistency (as in the finest porcelain) and deposit. poured into the molds. The models of the 1824, Marbles, Oyster Shells, etc., recommen- figures are made by skillful sculptors, and from ded as collec ors. these molds are taken. The parian liquid, 1824, Oxalate o Ammonia in feed water. when poured into the molds, solidifies, and li 1824, Plate Cor denserJoslin. afterwards slightly baked, until it becomes 1825, Injection ~ondensing system ; first pat- firm, when the molds are taken to pieces, the ent of Howar 1. casts liberated, and the rough parts on their 1825, Mixture fc r cleaning boiler scaleGur- surfaces carefully removed. A single mold ney. cannot be made to cast a single figure, it is 1826, Soap and lorse Chesnuts recommended. the product of several. The head, the 1826, Injection I late CondenserYandall. limbs, the drapery, have so many curves that 1826, Fat Meat and balls of grease recoin- only a part of a figure is produced by one mended. mold, and some groups require no less than 1827, Voltaic m thod for depositsDumas. fifty. 1827, Sediment JollectorsScott. After the molding and first baking, the most 1827, Plate Arc iimedes CondenserWheeler. difficult part has still to be performed, name- 1828, Coal Tar recommended. ly, the building up and keeping the sepa- 1829, Self-Acth ig Scotts CollectorsArm. rate parts in perfect form. All the pieces strong. have to be cemented together, and the joints 1830, Improved 3ediment CollectorsTaylor. so obliterated that they cannot be perceived. 1830, Concentric Plate CondenserChurch. There is also another source of trouble to the 1831, Improved CondenserBerry. parian artistthe shrinking of the material 1831, Tubular C udenser; first patent of Hall. in drying, owing to the great amount of water 1831, Anti-Sedin ent boilerCollier. it contains, and which is driven off thereby. 1831, Charcoal r commended by Ferrari. If one part of a figure shrinks more than its 1832, Re-injectin; Condenser; second patent corresponding part it may produce a wry- of Howard. necked Venus, or a hunch-backed Adonis. 1833, Improved ~ondenserGordon. And even when a figure is all made up, and its 1833, Tubular (ondenser; second patent of parts nicely proportioned and fitted, theyhave Hall. all to be further dried, and finally annealed in 1833, Sperm Oil oots recommended by Bed- an oven, in which processes they are liable to ford. be injured in their form by unequal heating, 18 whereby they may be twisted and cracked. 33, Injection T ibular CondenserHolmes. There is, therefore, a vast amount of waste 1833, Prismatic CollectorsJennings. and breakage in the manufacture of parian 1834, Condensin system; third patent of ornaments, and this is one reason why they Hall. are so dear. But when the gracefulness of 1834, External P. ate CondenserNapier. their execution and their beautiful appearance 1835, Tubular Co adenserPecqueur. are taken into consideration, rivalling as they 1836, External [a jection Tubular Condenser do the finest chiseled marbles, they are, after Symington. all, not dear, for the same work, in marble, 1837, Argue or Prepared ClayChoix. could not be produced at a hundred times 1837, Galvanic P mintSorel. their cost. 1838, Graphite P isteGantier and Kennedy. Parian manufactures, as a new branch of 1838, Cleaning b iler scale, Method ofDear. the ornamental arts, are hailed by the lovers 1838, Air CondenserCollins. of the beautiful, because such works are now 1839, Zinc Prote torsAithans. brought within the reach of the many, and 1839, Plate Condt nserZander. have an elevating influence. 1839, Salt deposii preventing apparatusSea- ward. Galvanized Iron Water PIpe. 1839, Blow-off va yesKingston. Messrs. J. J. Walworth & Co., of Boston, 1840, Common S alt and Muriate of Potash having announced that they were ready to recommended ly Flesselle. furnish galvanized wrought-iron water pip& s 1840, Anti-Corro~ ive PlatingNeilson. for streets and dwellings, preparatory to the 1840, Tubular Al: CondenserCraddock. introduetion of Fresh Pond water, Prof. Hors- 1840, Curved Tul ular CondenserTreadwell. ford, of Cambridge, in the Chronicle, puts a 1840, Galvanic RdntKnapp. few pertinent questions to them. He says he 1841, Quick-lime in feed waterBeale. has been informed that these gentlemen con- 1841, Muriatic Ar ialgamWall. sidered such pipe permanently protected 1842, Tubular Co adenserLynch. against the corrosive action of fresh water, 1843, Mahogany hawdust used. and he requests that a demonstration of this 1843, Salinometei Russell. be given by them, by exhibiting galvanized 1843, Tubular Cc ndenserStephens. iron pipe used for ten or twelve years in New 1844, Inverted cy inder preserversJones. York or Philadelphia. The Professor also 1844, Patent Con lenserSmith. states that he has specimens of two inch cast 1844, Animal Fi er generally recommended iron pipe laid down in Boston, which was ta- by Greaves. ken up after four years, and was found redu- 1844, Anti-deposit mixturesWatteen. 1844, Anti-deposit mixturesRitterbrandt. 1846, Injection Tubular CondenserPirison. 1846, Re-injection Tubular Condenser; third patent of Howard. 1846, Anti-incrustation mixtureDelfosse. 1846, Anti-Corrosive platingEisner and Philips. 1846, Revolving Tubular CondenserCrad- dock. 1846, Anti-deposit preparationGraham. 1846, Patent Mahogany SawdustAnthony and Barnum. 1847, Tubular CondenserEricsson. 1847, Blow-off ValveCopeland. 1848, Anti-corrosive mixturesSeaton. 1848, Acetic Acid and Acetate of Potass re- commended. 1848, Carbonate of Soda used by Harris. 1848, Tubular Air CondenserStenson. 1848, Prismatic Oak ProtectorsCave. 1848, Double Vacuum Tubular Condenser Pirsson. 1849, SalinometerHow and Sewell. 1849, Chamber CondenserUrwin. 1849, Regenerative Plate CondenserSiemens. 1849, Tubular Condenscr and Auxiliary En- I gineEricsson and (apparently) Newton. 1850, SalinometerSpray. 1850, Tubular Condenser and re-heaterBald- win. 1851, Anti-corrosive PlatingGnissell. 1851, Tubular Condenser and Evaporator Lynch. 1851, Anti-deposit mixtureSaillard. 1851, Zinc protectorsBabington. 1851, Mono-zygmatic CondenserMiller. 1852, Preventing SealeSebbald. 1853. Tubular CondenserCrawford. 1854, Tubular CondenserCarpente~. 1854, Tubular CondenserSexvell. 1854, Tubular CondenserWaterman. 1854, Tubular CondenserBrown. 1854, Tubular CondenserBoliman. 1854, Removing ScaleDinipfel. 1854, Preventin~ ScaleSmith. 1855. Coil CondenserIlogu. 1855, Purifying Feed WaterWeissenborn. 1856, Removing IncrustationsEveret and Thomson. 1856, Preventing IncrustationsSloan. 1856, Tubular CondenserKing. 1856, Tubular CondenserMiller. 1856. Tubular CondenserDenniston. Gripes in e inter. The following method of keeping grapes in winter is given by a correspondent of the Rural New Yorker I have packed grapes in various waysin cotton battin~, in cotton wadding, with the stems tied with twine, and with paper between the layersand have arrived at the conclusion that none of these things are necessary, unless the grapes are put into tight boxes. If so packed there must be some dry substance to absorb the moisture, (always passing off more or less until the fruit becomes perfectly dry) otherwise it will mildew and rot the grapes. The fruit keeps the best, I think, to let it hang on the vines as tate as it can and not freeze; pick on a dry day, and place it in shallow boxes, not more than two clusters deep; keep it in as cool a place as you can and not let it freeze, and where there is suffi- cient circulation of air to c rry off the mois- ture. I have kept them in this way until April, and though towards the last they were indented like raisins, they still retained their delicious flavor. scent of Mount Arraat. Five Englishmen have, according to the London Times, recently made the ascent of Mount Arrarat, in Armenia, which tradition points out as the place where Noahs Ark rest- ed, after the Flood. It is 17,323 feet above the level of the sea. It is stated that they reached the very summit, which never had been ascended by any person before. Iron Railroad Cars. Messrs. Passavant and Archer, of this city, have six elegant iron cars for our city rail- roads, nearly completed. They are construct- ed according to La Mothes patent. Our publishers, when they reprint foreign books, should always give the date of their original publication. xv) 14 ~dcntif~c ~n~cv~ ~can K~l 7~?IL1II~ 0 -J--- r J. P., cf N. Y.Colza oil is hold to be superior to sperm for light-houses. Itape seed oil, when purified, is very good for illumination, and is similar to Coiza oil. Sun- flower oil is of greater specific gravity, contains more solid matter, and does not burn with such a clear flame. The purifying of these vegetable oils is somewhat expensive. J. S. of MassYours will be attended to as soon as pos- sitle. W. B. of OhioWe do not know of any fire-proof varnish that is elastic, and fit for maim,, a balloon. 557, McC., of PaWe do not know that we shall pub- lish ass engravin,, of Breeds Wa,,on Brake. If you wish to~ et fish particulars iss regard to this invention, you had better order a copy of use patent from Washington. S., of VaWe are not aware that any patent has been issued of late for an improvement in steam plows, 0. 0., J. II. W., and other anonymous correspondents, are respectfully informed that we will not answer letters eel accompanied with the writers name. We have a right to know the nanses of those who apply to us for information. J. D. M., of VtWe are unable to give the informa tion you want about hay fork makers, and dealers in mallet and auger handles, We are not personally ac- quaioted with any one engaged in such business. S. C. Brinson, Middletown, Pa., wishes to correspond with some manufacturer of malleable spring wire for horse rakes. A. B. it., of 111.Your plan of layisig R. It. tracks is veryg)od. The chief objection is the expense, Ii is not patentabie no company would ever adopt it - 1. A. II., of WisWe are not acquainted with any meth- od of dissolving glue in oil, for coating patients. Coat the patterns with gin, first; allosv the;n lu-dry, and then ap- ply the oil. This may answer the purpose mentioned by you. W. It., of That scissors can be made of cast-iron, we never doubted, for tbat is an easy matter, but that such articles should be manufactured and sold, we hesi- tated to believe ; they must be as poor in quality, as cast iron knives. B. it. G., of Pa.The only way tosupportyour crane. is to sinic it deep into the ground. Iron cranes are all supported at the base. A. solid foundation and a well secured bed plate support the upper parts of the crane, and allow it to swing round freely. V. K., of mdYou will obtaiss, we think, a greater ye- lecity of water in the pipe, thao in the open drain. The only difference betweess the two methods is the friction; the pipe is surely much smoother than the drain, and therefore should offer less resistance to the passage of the water. J. S., Jr., of N. ItThere are various works on the Marine Engine. Scott Russells contains good drawings of the side lever engine, but no other kind. It is publish. ed irs London, the price we do not know, no American work Isas been published on the subject. Tredgold on the steam engine is the most extensive and complete work you could obtain, but its price is highmore than $50. It can be obtained in this city. S. N. B., of N. VOwing to Ihe great speed of a rail- way train, it would be very difficult to operate ~our catch springs, to lift persons from the track. The force of the train would throw them up tutu the air high and dry. J. it,, of CatWe have entered your name on our subscription list for the balance of the $3 paid by you for information not given. J. G., of BrooklynWe can discover nothing new or palesotabte in your washing machine, Stewarts ma- chine, illustrated a few weeks since, is conirived on the same plan. G. C. S., of OhioWe do not know where you can obtain a good hand-book for the mechanic and artisan. J. G., of SteWould you be pleased to give us a brief account of the manner of setting boilers, to which you have alluded. S. B. K., of Ittich.Yeu are entilled to S additional copies for eisa year each. Please send along the names. J. It. E., of LaYou will find a description of the Lithographic Art in the second volume of Urea Diction- ary. The price of the work is Sf. J. W. P., of N. 11.See engraving of Gang Plow, lately published in our paper We have published a usamberof illustrations of improvements intended to accomplish the result you mention. Itichard Show, of Perils, Canada, wishes to procure a machine for turning spokes for carriages to be driven by steam. J. It., of OhioAddress Joseph Lewis, gunamitla, No 14 Pell street, this city. Mr. IV. James, of Utica, N. Y., makes excellent rifles. Moneyreceived at the S osseNvaFee AMERICAN Office on account of Patent Office business for use week ending Saturday, Sept. 13, 18.13 J. P., of N. V., $311; A. Ref N. V., $30; J. V. J., of Mich., $23; It.D.,of N.Y., $35; J.P.,ofConn.,$l2; J. A.& Co.,Eng., Li; J. B. E., of N. Y., $25; E. A. C, of Coon., 30; J. L. It., of N. V., 30; J. P. T., of Ill., $25; J.H. Y.,of Mo., $10; C.W.G.,ofConn..~23; M.& C. Pof Md., $23; J. J. P., of Ohio, $ ; W. G. B., of Ala., $12; T. B., of Va., ,S25; T. S., of Coon., $30; J. W. H., of N.Y., $25; R.P. II., of Ohio, $23; L. T. M., of . $10; B. G. A., of Ohio, $25; H. H., of Miss., $25; J. A.D.,OfN.Y.,$30;J.C.B..OfC0rII.,$40;J. B. Dof Teen., $15; K. U., of Pa., 30; it. W. B., of N. Y., $25; W. B., of L. lof $55; W.D..of LI., $190; It. P. & J.N. Cof N. V., 39; J. P., of Pa., $25; S. W. It., of Istass., $25; V. & B., of N. V.,. 30; 11 W B., of N y,, :55; N. & Co., of London, $100; W, C., of Ala., $50; 0. W. Sof Coon., $45;H. R.II.,of N. Y., .~37- J. L. M., of Pa., $25. Specifications and drawings belonging to parties with the following initials have been forwarded to the Patent Office during the week ending Saturday, Sept. 13th J. L. M., of Pa.; It. P. Bof 0.; B. G. A., of 0.; H. H., of Miss.; J. C. B., of Cone., 2 cases; It. D., of L. I.; J. H. II., 5of N. V.; J. P.. of Cone.; L. J ofN Y~ P., of Pa.; S. W. It., of Mass.; T. D., ofVa.; 2. V. J., of Miehs.; J.B.E.,of N.Y.; C.W.G..ofCoen.;T.P.T of N. V.; H. & C. P., of ild.; J.P.T., of Ill.; II. W. B of N.Y.; W. B. W., of Ohio; J. B. D., of Teen.; H. It H -, of N. V. Literary Notices. lavusos Lire or WAssaareoTose.The second volume of the popular edition of this incomparable work has just been published. It is embellished with a fine portrait of Maj. Gee. Philip Schoyler. It covers a period, begin- ning with the assumption of the command of the Ameri- can armies by the immortal Washington, down to the time of the battle of Princeton. Many interesting facts, incidents, and details, never before made public, are pre- sented, clothed in the charming language and style so peculiarly belonging 10 the gifted author. G. P. Putnam & Co., Publishers, 321 Broadway, N. V. Price $1. i[v Cosrosse NICHOLASBy Rev. Richard Barbour. This is a highly interesting tale of fiction from the pen of a graceful and accomplished writer. The Ingoldoby Legends, everywhere well knows;, are the productions of this author. The present work will fled thousands of readers. Ross & Tousey, 103 Nassau street, New York, publishers. Important items. MonaLsInveetors, in constructing their models, should bear in mind that they must not exceed a foot in mess urement in either direction. They will also remember that the law requires that all models shall be neatly and substantially made of durable material. If made of sofi wood they should be painted or stained. We shall esteem it a great favor if inventors will always attach their names to such models as they send us. It will save us much trouble, and prevent the lia- bility of their being mislaid. PAT NT LAWS AND Gs.rInsc TO INvENTORSThis pam- phlet contains not only the laws but all information touching the rules and regulations of the Patent Office Price 12 1-2 cents per copy. A Circular, giving in- structions to inventors in regard to the size and proper construction of their models with other useful informal lion to an applicant for a patent, is furnished gratis at this office upon application by mail. REcEIPTsWhen money is paid at the office for subscrip- tion, a receipt for it will always be elves;; but when sub- scribers rensit their money by mail, they may consider the arrival of the first paper a hoes fide acknowledg. meet of the receipt of their funds. Fo~arsues SUBsCRIBERsOur Canada and Nova Scotia patrons are solicited to compete will; our citizents for the valuable prizes offered on the next volume. [It is important that all who reside out of the States should remember to seed 25 cents additional to the published rates for each yearly subscriberthat amount we are obliged to pre-pay on postage.] PATENT CLAIMsPersons desiring the claim of any in- vention wlaich has been patented within fourteen years can obtain a copy by addressing a letter to this office stating the name of the patentee, and date of patent when known, and enclosing $1 as fees for copying. BINOaNOWe would suggest to those who desire to have their volumes bound, that they had better send their numbers to this office, and have them executed in a unt form style with their previous volumes. Price of bi;sd- leg 75 cents. INFALLIBLE RULEIt is an established rule ef this office to stop seeding the paper whee the time for which is was prepaid has expired, and the publishers will not deviate from that standing rule in any instance. GIVE INTELLIGIBLE DIREcTIoNsWe often receive let- ters with money enclosed, requesting the paper sent for the amount ofihe enclosure but no name of Slate given, and often with the name of the post office also omitted. Persons should be careful to write their nanses plainly when they address publishers, and to name the post of- fice at which they scish to receive their paper, and the State in which the post office is located. Taints of Advertising, Twenty-five cents a line each insertion. We respect- fully request that our patrons will make their adver- tisements as short as possible. Engravings cannot be ad- mitted into the advertising columns, ~I:7 All advertisements must be paid for before insert- ing. IMPORTANT TO INVENT- ORS. ]~ ilE IJNDER.SIGNEI) having had TEN years practical experience in soliciting PATENTS in this foreign countries, beg to give notice that they con- tinue to offer their services to all who may desire to se- cure Patents at home or abroad. Over three lhausassnl Letters Patent have been issued, whose papers were prepared at this Office, and on an averageJifteen, or one-third of alithe Patents issuedeach week, are on cases which are prepared at our Agency. An able corps of Engineers, Examiners, Braughismen, and Specification writers are in constant employment, which renders us able to prepare ap~Bcations on the shortest notice, while the experience 01 a long practice, and facilities which few others possess, we are able to give the most correct counsels to inventors in regard to the patentabliity of inventions placed before us for ax- amissation. Private consultations respecting the patentability of in- ventions are held free of charge, with inventors, at our office, from 9 A. M., until 4 P. M. Parties residing at a distance are informed that it is generally unnecessary for them to incur the expense of attending in person, as all the steps necessary to secure a patent can be arranged by letter. A rough sketch and description of the improve- ment should be first forwarded, which we will examine and give an opinion as to patentability, without charge. Models and fees can be sent with safety from any part of the country by express. In this respect New York is more accessible than any other city in our country. Circulars of information wili be sent free of postage to any one wishing to learn the preliminary steps towards makie an application. In a~diiion to the advantages which the long experience end great success of our firm in obtaining patents present to inventors, they are informed that all inventions pat- ented through our establishment, are noticed, ot the prep. er time, in the SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN. This paper is read by not less than 100,0110 persons every week, and en- joys a very wide spread and substantish influence. Most of the patents obtained by Americans in foreign countries are secured through us; while it is well known that a very large proportion of ahi the patents applied for in the U. S., go through our agency. MUNN & CO. American and Foreign Patent Attornies, Principah Office 128 Fulton street, New York. E~ROOKLYV WATER WORKSNOTICE TO .U.J MACHINISTS Seahed Proposals will be receiv- ed at the office of the undersigned, No. 4 Wahl street, New York, until October 1st, 1853, at noon, for she con- struction of two pumping EnginesCoreish or equal to Cornish, for the Brooklyn Water Works, of capacity to raise ten millions (N. V.) gallons daily each ; 170 feet high, with three boilers each; to be built and erected complete on the stone foundation prepared for them, and to be of first class workmanship. Drawings in detail, accurately defining the style and character of Engines and appurtenances to be submitted by the proposers, with description. Specifications and further information may be had at the office of the Chief Engineer, James P. Kirkwood, Esq., No.4 Halseys Build- ings, Brooklyn, or of the undersigned. The right is re- served to reject any of the proposals made. H. S. WELLES & CO., 2 2~ No. 4 Wall street, New York. M eDO lOG ~ L LS PATENT DISINFECTING POWDEII .The chea)sest and most efficient disin- fectant yet proi ricedcontains no corrosive ingredients, and may be safel r used in dwelling-houses and nurseries; also stables, & c. as this disinfector greatly improves the quality of all ma isures for agricultural purposes. Sold in packages by all Druggists. It. HAY N ES, 103 Beekman street, N. V , Ag et for the United States. 2* 3 F ORSALE- -A large Double Geared Lathe, swings 9 feet by 2; feet; to be sold cheap. Apply at the Phienix Found y, corner of West and Vestry streets, New York. 155 XV. ROB[NSON~ PATENT HEAD TURN- ING AE B PLANING MACHINE, for Heads of all kinds and de criptions; it will make from 200 to 350 heads per hour, if the most perfect description. There will be one on e chibition at the Crystal Palace, N. V., at the Fair of the American Institute, in October, where those wishing fo - itachines or State rights can see it in operation and js dge of its merits sor themselves. All communications in relation to machines and r his should be addressed I, ROBINSON, SCRIBNEIc & CO., Keeseville, Esse e Co., N. V. 1 4 B LOWiNG MACHINEI{Y FOIl ~ LF A pair of double a tieg Blowing Cylinders, 42x30 inris.s, in perfect oruer. Ilso a herizontai Steam ugine, 26x30 incIses, at the A; las Foundry, foot of Wayne street, Jer- sey City. 3 2 A GENTS11 ANTEDWESTCOTT, COGS WELL & CO., ma sufacturers of Wesicolts Railway Door Springs, are nov prepared to offer the most perfect arti- ne yet invented Agents svanted in every county of un- sold territory in the United States and Canada. For acencies or riglrts, address It. H. BABCOCK, General Agent, No.3 Co Iland si., N.Y. 12 T HE PATI NT DECI AONTo the Editors of the SCsarNTs IC Ass RICAN ,The statement in your paper of ibis mc reing in regard to the verdict of the jury in the case of t eorge Page eo. Georgia, is a perverted one. It is true I at the verdict was in favor of the defend ant, but not upos. the ground stated in the Elmira Adver- tiser, which you copied. On the first ballot of she jury there ~vere 7 for the plaintiffand 5 for the defendant. The jury then proceeded to take up each question separ- aislys First, th. y passed upon the question oforiority of invention, and ecided in favor of plaintiff, George Page. The next questi .n was. Did the defendant infringe the patent? Upon his question the jury stood 0 for plaintiff and 4 for defer dant, and so stood until 5 oclocic irs the morning, and ul imately brought in a verdict for defend- ant, upon the Ia- lilnony ofone of the witnesses for defend- ant, who swore that he had tended the mill from the tune it slsred, asad I sat it never Isad end-play. And as this formed the ess. ece of the infriegnoent, and it was riot proven by the ss itnesses of complainant that the mill had been worked w th end-play, though the tact is siotorious that it Isad beer so worked, the jury found for she de- fendant, though they unanimously decided that the pri- ority of inventi n belonged to George Page, thereby sus- taining the vail; ily of his patent. GEORGE PAGE & CO. Baltimore, As gust 2d. 511 4* A jE V A VI) .~ClENTiFlC INVENTIONDr Cheever. Galvano-Electric Regenerator. Patent issued Jaus. 15th lOst, A circular relating to the use of she instrument, esosi mactug a geecral treatise of stony of the spersuatic organ;, the result of which ter;ds to soflersing the medullacy s ibstance of which the brain is composed esay be had gr; sic, and will be sent to any address by mail by their in ticating a desir . to receive it. All letters should be direc. ed to DR. 2. CHEEVER, No. 1 Tremont Temple. Boslon .14* A LEXAXI) iRS CO IPOUNI) Parallel Sawing Machisoe, for malcisig lath from the slab or board cross-cutting, ri~ ping, and sawing miter, all combined in - cheap, siesple and compact maimer, is illuetrated is; No. 10, Sciersl Sc American. Sushi factories, cabinet shops, canpesise shops. etc., should have these machines. Price - 50. Cot; aIry and Slate rights ihr sale. Address TWOS, I. ALE NANIsER, Westerville, Franklin Co. Chic. 505~ ~ - iliN BELTING, Steam Packing, Engine itoseTI.. a superiority of these articles usanufec- tuned of vulcan ;zed rubber is established. Every bell will be warran ad superior to leather, at one-third less price. The Star m Packing is made in every variety, asid warranted to a and 300 degs. of heat. The hose smever needs oiling. an. I is warranted to stand any required pres- sure; together with all varieties of rubber adapted to esechanical purposes. Directions, prices. & c., can be ob- tained by mail or olherwise, at our warehouse. New York Balling a id Packing Co., JOHN H. CHEEVER, Treasurer, No. OBey street, N.Y. 40 10* 0. 1.~S )O,OOO VALUABLE TO EVERY- I~body. AfevweeksagoCHARLES BRADFIELD, of Philadelphir - opened a new Agricultural Implement Store at Fifth med Chestnut streets. One spacious room he appropriate, entirely to new inventions. See below. N 0. 2.INs ENTORS, PATENTEES, & c., were all cordiall: invited to plane their models here, free of charge, and tie Philadelphia papers say there is al- ready six to eight hundred Ihousseddollars worth of patents in this oem, and visiturs from aB parts of the world visit tSar s to see them. 51 4* YOUNG MEN for big wages. Honest, 5 sty, and sure. Send stamp to Box 533, Detroit, Mich. 51 4* a~OUNG MEN can make 100 per cent. 1 i,t,u or over at home or abroad. But small means required Business new, easy, neat, respectable. For full partics lars address (enclosing a stamp) WILLIAM HART, 51 3* Mayvilie, Dodge Co., Wis. 57) B. FIlTh & CO., Commission Agents for the Manage; cent an Sale of American and Forsige Patent Rights, I uffice, No. 23 Congress at., Boston, Mass. 51 4 SWISS Dl tAWING INSTRUMENTSA full stock of I aese celebrated instrumesats always on hand. Catalog mes grahis. AMSLER & WIRZ, 51 4* 211 Chestnut sI., Philadelphia. ~ REAT W ESTERN MAChINERY AND PAT- o his .E - It - ELLSWORTH having disposed firm, the business hereafter well be conducted under the firm and style of DAVID RICH- ARDS & CO. We are prepared to sell all kinds of val- uable improven sets and machinery throughout the Uni- ted States, Pot further information address DAVID RIChARD & CO.. 51 6* No. 64 Randolph st., Chicago, Ill. 1WU~ACHINE1YS.C. HILLS, No.12 PlaIt street, N IY.U. Y..dealer l a Steam Engines, Boilers, Planers, Lathes Chucks, Drills, Pumps; Mortising, Tenoning, and Sash Machines, Won uiworths and Daniels Planers; Dicks Punches, Pressm s, and Shears; Cob and Core Mills; Har- risons Grist Mu ta; Johesons Shingle Mills; Belting, Oil, & c. 2 e3w W EISSEN JORNS PATENT INCRUSTATION Preven erAmong the testimonials to the great success of this in ceetion, read the following from William Burden, 102 Fcc ul si., Brooklyn in I am perfectly satis fled with its op. ration, I believe it is the only machine yet invented thin I will entirely separate lime and other impurities from the water, when using hard waler In addition to this, it is the best water-heater, and a supe- rior condenser. All parties are warned against infringe- ments on the pa ant. STEWART KERR, Agent, 47 Seow* . 17 Broadway, New York, fl WELL:, & CO., Florence, Hampshire Co., Massi re at all times prepared to fill orders for any size (single or doublet of Wells Patent (Improved) premium Circo ar Saw Mills, which take the lead of all other snills in n arket for manufacturing lumber. Also Morrisons Shi gle Machines, which rive, shave, and joint perfectly, 60 shingles per minule.Self.Setting, Shingle, andL sth Sawing machines, capable of sawing 1000 shingles pa; hour. or 401.10 lath per day. Cuts, and List of Pricea s nt by mail when deisred. 45 6tewu ~U HE NINTH ANNUAL EXHIBITION OF TIlE .57 Maryland Institute for the Promotion of the Me- chanic Arts wiB be opened at the Institutes spacious hail, Baltimore, on Wednesday, Oct. 1st, and continue to Oct. 29th, 1816. Goods for exhibition and compelilion svBl be received at any time prior to Friday night, Sept. 26th, after which for exhibition only, except such as the Committee shall be satisfied were dispatched in time to have reached the Hall by that day, but faBed to do so from unavoidable detention, The co-operation of the manufacturers, mechanics, artists, and the community generally is respectfully solicited, Circulans embodying the regulations and blank applications for space, with all other information. will be promptly furnished by ap- plication to John S - Selby, Actuar of the lestitute. JOSH U~A VANS ANT, 514 Chairman of the Exhibition Committee. IRCULAR SAWSWe respectfully call the allen lion of manufacturers of lumber to the great improve- ments recently introduced in the manufacture of our Circular Saws. Being sole proprietors of Southwells patent for grinding saws, we are enabled to grind circular saws from six isiches to six feet with the greatest accuracy and premisiofi. The impossibility of grinding a saw with- out leaving it uneven in thickness has always been ac- knowledged by practical saw makers. This causes the saw to expand as soon as it heroines slightly heated in work- leg. When this takes p lace the saw loses its stiffness, and will not cut in a direct line. We will warrani our saws to be free from these defects; they are made perfectly even in thickness, or graduatly increase in thickimess from the edge to the center, as may he desired. As there are no thick or thin places. the friction on the surface of the saw is unsform, consequently it will remain stiff and true, and will re qnine less set and less power, Will saw smooth, save lumbar, and will not be liable Irs become un- true. This is the oldest etablishmeet now in existence for the manufacture of circular saws is; the United Slates, laaving been eslablished irs the year 1010. Orders re- ceived at our Warehouse, No. 48 Congress sI., Fission. 44 13 * WELCH & GRiFFITBO, MTTING MACHINES-Circular asid stratghl K knittissg machues of all sizes and gouges oss hand and made to order. WALTER AIKEN, Pranlmlis;, N.H. AG 2S ATENT PERPETUAL LIME KILN, will burrs 100 barrels of lime with three cords of wood every 24 hours; likewise my coal kiln will bssni; 150 bushel wile 1 tish bituminous coat isa the sanse lime; coal is hot mixed with limestone. Rtghis for sale. 45 23 C. B. PAGE Rochesler N.Y. STEAM ENGIN SFrom 3 to 40-horse power Iso peniable engines and boilers; ihey are firs5 class engines, and will be sold clseap tSr macIs. WM BURDON, 102 Fronl sI., Itroeklyn. 41 If ~1 OLD QUARTZ MILLS of lIsa most improved con- struction; still mush mssre quartz asid do it finer than assy machine now in use, and costs much less. WM BURDON, 102 Front si., Is 41 If UTAILS CELEBRATP:l.1 POiTAIILIO STEA5 I V Engines and Saw Mills, Bogardus htorseposvers, Smut Macisines, Saw and Grist Mlii irons and Searing, Saw Gumnoers, Ratchet Drills, & n. Orders tSr light and heavy forging asid castings exemuled with dispatch. LOGAN & LiDGEHWOOD, 13 1y5 I Gold at., N. V. F IL IER & (20., Elemirotypers, and Manufacturers of Electrotype Materials, 120 Fullon SI., N. 1. Mold- ing Presses, Batteries, Cases, Backing Pans, Shaving Ma- chines, Metal Kettles, Planes, Blocks, Building Irons, etc., etc., on hand, or furnished at short nelime, and at esoder- ale charges. Adams Improved balteries and black-lead machines also for sale, 2.3 If - AGES PATENT CIRCULAR SAW MILLS with Sleam Engine and Boiler, on hand and for sale Ibm .1500, at Schsem;mk Machisse Depot, 103 Creesiwich ot. New York. A. L. ACKERMAN, 45 10 tlli CULAR SAW MILLSThe subscriber has on hand, and is constantly manufacturing Ihose cal- elnaled mills with saws frossa 10 to 80 inches diameter, adapted to manufactunisag meal kinds of lumber, and scanranled to give satisfaction. For prices, & c., address W. HERRICK, Northampton, Mass. 49 80 B AlIILEL MACHINERYCROZIERS PATENT is unrivalled in poitit of qualily and quantity of uvork performed, and easy be seen in constant operation al tlsa Barrel Manufaclory of the undersigned, For rights and machines address WELCH & CROZiER, 41 18* Oswego, N. V. ~ 0 CAR IiUILDERS...,For Sale, one new Upri8ht 3. Boring Mill br boring car wheels. Makers p rsce $600, will be sold for $300 cash. Address GEO. S. L IN- COLN & CO.. Hartford, CI. 431f OR SALEOne second-hand 7 ft. power Planing F Machine, made by the New Haven Manufacturing Co. will he sold for cash. Has been used only aboul four months. Also an upright drill by the same Emakers. Cost $90, will be sold or $40 cash. Ad- dress GEORGE S. LINCOLN & CO., 47 If Hartford, Cone. B OiLER FLUESAll sizes and any length prompt- lyfurnished by JAMES 0. MORSE & CO.. No.79 John sI., N. V. 51 3mos ROUGHT-IRON PIPE-Plain, also galvanized inside and outside, sold at wholesale by JAMES 0. MORSE & CO., No.79 John sI., N. V. 51 3mus F ORBES & BOND,Artisis, 89 Nassau si, N.Y., Me- chanical and general Braughtsmenon wood.stone.& c. t~IL! OIL! OIL !Por railroads, steamers, and for machinery and burningPeases Improved Machine. ry and Burning Oil will save fifty per cent., and wiB not gum. This oB possesses qualities vilaily essential for lubri- cating and burning, and found in no other oil. II is of fared to the public upon the most reliable, thorough, and praclimal test. Our most skBlful engineers and machinists pronounce it superior and cheaper than any other, and the only oil that is in all cases reliable and will not gum. The Scientific American, after several tests, pronounced it superior lo any other they have ever used for machin- ery. For sale only by the inventor and manufacturer. F. S. PEAS It, 61 Main sI., Buffalo, N. V. And W. S. ROWLAND & CO., Ageels for Chicago, IlL .5 BReliable orders filled for any part of the United States and Europe. 1 if 01RCROSS ROTARY PLANING MACHINE, N The Supreme Courl of the U. S., at the Term ofiSSI and 1854, having decided that the patent granted to Rich. olas U. Norcross, of date Feb, 12, 1850, for a Rolary Pla- Mac Boards and Planks not an infringement of the Wood worth Patent. Rights to use the N. U. Norcrosss p steeled machine can be purchased on application hi N. U.N ORCROSS, Office tSr sale of righls at 27 Stale street, Boston, and Lowell. Mass, . hf NEW HAVEN MEG. CO.Machinists Tools, Iron Planers, Engine and Hand Lathes, Drills, Bolt Cut- ters, Gear Cutters, Chucks, & c., on hand and finishing. These Tools are of superior quality, and are for sale hosv for cash or approved paper. For cuts giving full descrip. lion and prices, address, New Haven Manufacturing Co -. New Haven, Cone. l~f flARBISONS 30 INCH GRAIN MILLSLa- test Patent. A supply constasitly on hand. Price $200. Address New Haven Manufacturing Co., New Haven, Cone. 311f J~ OILER INCRUSTATIONS PREVENTED A simphe. and cheap condenser manufaclured Is in. Burdon, 102 Front st.,Brooklyn, will take every par- ticles of lime or salt out of the waler, rendering ml as pure as Croton, before entering the boiler, Persons in want of such machines will please stale what the here and stroke of the engines are, and what kind of water is lo a used. 41 If ~cicntific ~n~ctic am. ~$t~Ience nn~ ~rt+ Zincing Iron. Alex. Watt, editor of the electro-metallur gical department of the London Chemist has taken out a patent for the following method of covering steel and iron with a coating of zinc. He dissolves 12 1-2 lbs of the commercial cy- anide of potassium in twenty gallons of rain water in a suitable vessel, and to this adds S lbs. of strong liquid ammonia. These are stirred together, and several large porous cells, like those employed in a Daniells battery, are placed in it, and a strong solution6 lbs. to the gallonof the cyanide ofpotassium poured into each, until the hight of this solution is on a level with the ammonia cyanide liquor outside. Several pieces of copper are now attached to a copper wire connected to the negative pole of a galvanic batterysome of these pieces of copper are placed in each porous cell. Several pieces of zinc are now immersed in the solution outside of the cells, and they are connected by the copper wire to the positive pole of the battery, which is set into action and allowed to continue until three ounces of zinc to every gallon of the solution, has been dissolved from the pieces of zinc immersed in it. This amount can be found out by meas- uring the liquid and weighing the zinc before the latter is immersed. The porous cells are now removed, and a solution of carbonate of potassa (5 lbs.) is added to the zinc cyanide ammonia solutionin the vessel. The bath is then stirred, and a white precipitate falls to its bottom. When this has subsided, the clear is poured off into another vessel, and is fit for use. The iron articles to be coated, are first plunged in a pickle composed of one lb. of sulphuric acid, and half a pound of muriatic (hydrochloric) acid in two gallons of water. This pickle removes the scale or oxyd; they are then rinsed in rain water, brushed with a hard brush and sand, and finally rinsed in soft waterall the oxyds must be removed, and no grease or sweat from the hands allowed on them. They are now placed in the zinc so- lution described, and connected in the well- known way, to the negative pole of a battery, when a zinc deposition on them begins at once. As soon as they are sufficiently coated, they are removed, rinsed in warm rain water and placed in dry saw dust to dry them. They are afterwards rendered bright by a scratch brush, or gently scouring with fine sand and a soft brush. This is a more expensive and troublesome method of zincing iron than that commonly practiced, of dipping the cleaned iron into a solution of salammoniac, and from thence into a bath of molten zinc covered with ground glass, but it may be superior to it. The zinc is liable to go on unevenly by the molten bath process, whereas it will be very evenly depos- ited by the electrotype process described. Iron plates and other articles can be tinned by the electrotype process, by using a solution of the chloride of tin, such articles will take on a coat of molten zinc, (if dipped into it,) on the top of the tin. Silvering Metal. A patent has lately been taken out in France by B. Adville, of Paris, for a new method of silvering iron or copper. The process con- sists in dissolving about three ounces and a quarter of pure silver in double the quantity of nitric acid, and adding to it two pounds of cyanuret of potassium dissolved in ten quarts of water. When well stirred, seven ounces of fine whiting in powder are added, well stirred, then allowed to settle. The metal articles to be silvered are pladed in a bath of the clear of this liquor diluted with twice the quantity of soft water. When they have remained a suf- ficient time in it to be impregnated (which can be known by examining them,) they are taken out rubbed with dry whiting, washed and then rubbed with a dry cloth, when they assume a brilliant white appearance. The ar- ticles to he silverized in this manner, must be well cleaned before they are placed in the bath; no oxyd or grease must be allowed to remain on a single spot. When a new batch of articles are be silvered, the bath has to be strengthened by adding a fresh quantity of potassium in ioft water, and apply it with a the cyanuret silver solution. The process is pen or camel hair pencil to the surface of the very simple, and is stated to be as effective as suspected bill If genuine, the solution will silvering by the use of a battery; if so it is have no effect upon it, but if a photograph, a valuable improvement, all the dark Lpparently printed part touched by the cyanat ~, is immediately decomposed, To Detect PhotographIc Bank Notee. and the paper returns to its original white- Make a saturated solution of the cyanate of ness. NEW WATER ELEVATOR. Our engraving shows an improvement, the obj ect of which is to afford an easy means of raising water, besides causing the buckets to fill and empty themselves, permit the use of one or two buckets, at pleasure, etc. A A are too pulley wheels with grooved peripheries, on which the bucket ropes, C wind. Pulleys, A A, are both placed on shaft, B, but they are loose upon it, and are also separate from each other. They are re- volved by means of pinion, E, which is firmly attached to shaft B. This pinion, E, gears with another pinion, F, which meshes with a series of teeth located on the inside of pulley A. When the crank is turned, shaft B acts through the pinions, E F, on the cogged teeth of A, and causes it to revolve. When it is desired to use both buckets si- multaneously, one to rise, full of water, and the other, empty, to descend, the two pulleys are connected together by thumb screw, D, so that when A revolves A will also turn. But when it is desired to use only one bucket, the thumb screw, D, is withdrawn, and then A, being loose on shaft, B, and separate from A, will not turn. This is a very quick and con- venient mode of disconnecting the action of the pulleys. G G are pawls, which alternately catch in the cogged teeth of A, and prevent the latter from revolving, except in the proper direction, hold it in any given position, etc. One of the pawls is always engaged with the teeth of A. The pawls, G, are connected with pins, H, which are so located that the bails of the buckets, when they come up, will strike their respective pins, H, and shift the pawli, throw- ing out the one that had been locked with A during the rise of the bucket, and causing the other pawi to lock. This permits the shaft B, to be revolv ~d in a contrary direction, so as to return the bucket just raised to the well, and at the sam time to lift the other bucket. The buckets s re emptied by means of a pro- jecting pin, J, on the buckets, which catches under the cross rod, I, as the buckets rise, and cause them to t p over and pour their contents into trough L. Jor further nformation address the inven- tor, H. B. Barker, Scott, Courtlandt Co., N Y. Patented J ely 8th, 1856. Malachite. This is a cop: )er ore much prized in the or- namental arts. It is a peculiar variety of the green carbonatt of copper, and is found in a number of loca ities, but perfect crystals are very rare. It usually accompanies other cop- per ores, and fc rms incrustations which, when thick, have the colors banded, and extremely delicate in theiv shades and blending. The copper mine of Jheshire, Conn., has produced handsome speci~ nens, so have some of the cop- per mines of Th w Jersey, but the mines of Siberia are the most distinguished for large and fine specim ens, and at the ~ Fair, in London, the I lussian Department was the admiration of ill visitors, because of the nu- merous articles f ornamental malachite dis- played. A pali of malachite doors, 14 feet high and 7 fe( t broad were much extolled. The mineral for: ned the veneering, one-fourth of an inch thicli, built upon a frame of metal. The pieces were most tastefully arranged, and produced a fine effect. Thirty men were em- ployed a whole year in cutting, fitting, and polishing the pieces, and the work went on, day and night, fom May, 1850, to May, 1851. A fine chimney piece and numerous vases o the same material were grouped together, the whole being valued at $90,000. In St Petersburg there is a large manufac- tory of malachite ornaments. The pieces generally of only a few pounds weightare first sawn into thin plates, with revolving metal disks, sand and water being fed into the slit, in the same manner that fine marble is cut. The curved pieces of this mineral are cut by bent saws, the management of which is very difficult. The workman cuts his veneers according to the shades und veins of the mineral, so as to produce the best effect when all the pieces are fitted into the finished article. The edges of the pieces are ground quite smooth by revolv- ing copper wheels, like those which our jewel- ers employ. The pieces are united with a ce- ment colored with malachite powder, and when all fitted into a frame, the entire surface is ground and polished. The price of the fin- est specimens of malachite is about three dol- lars per pound. It receives a high polish, and is used for ear-rings, snuff-boxes, and other or- namental articles; but although it is so beau- tiful, owing to its delicate shadings of color, it is not much esteemed by jewelers, because it is so brittle, and difficult to work; it is sometimes passed off in jewelry for tor- quois, but it i s inferior in hardness to this precious stone. In the Palace of Versailles, Paris, there is one room furnished with tables, vases, and other articles of malachite. The specimens found in our own copper mines have only been employed to grace cabinets, in a miner- ological sense; but the time will yet arrive when it will be used in American ornamental art, rivalling the finest productions of the Russian Empire. TWELFTH YEAR Read! Road!! Read!!! The most extensively circulated, the most interest ing. reliable, attractive, and cheapest publication of its kind, is the SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN. It has, by far, the largest circulation, and stands, by common con- sent. at the head of all other scientific papers in the world. Its contributors and Editors are PRACTICAL, ENEROETIO, and EXPERIENCED MEN, whose con- tant endeavor is to extend the area of knowledge, by presenting it to the mind, in a simple, attractive, and practical form. The SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN is printed once a week, in convenient quarto form for binding, and pre- sents an elegant typographical appearance. Every num ber contains Eight Large Pages, of reading, abundantly illustrated with ORIGINAL ENGRAVINGS All the mostvaluable patented discoveries are delinsa ted and described in its issues, so that, as respects inven- tions, it may be justly regarded as an ILLUSTRATED REPERTORY, where the inventor may learn what ha. been done before him, and where he may bring to the world a KNOWLEDGE of his own achievements. REPORTS OF U. 5, PATENTS granted are also pub- lished every week, including Official Cspiea of all the PATENT CLAIMS, These Claims are published in the SCIENTSuIc AMERICAN in alssance of all ether pa- psis. Mechanics, Inventors, Engineers, Chemists, Manufac- turers, Agriculturist.,, and People ef every Profession in Lsfe, will find the SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN to be of great value in their respective railings. Its sounsels and suggestions will save them Ifssrsdreds ef Dollars an nually. besides affording them continual soure.e of knowledge, the experience of which is be yond pecuniary estimate. A NESS- VOLUME commenced September 13, his Now is the time to subscribe! Specimen Copies sent gratis. TERMS OF SUBSCRIPTION$2 a year, or $1 for six months. CLIJB RATES. Five Copies for Six Months, Five Copies for Twelve Months, Ten Copies for Six Months, Ten Copies forTwelve Months, ~i 5 Fifteen Copies for Twelve Months, ~~22 Twenty Copiesfor Twelve Months, 828 For all Clubs of 20 and over, the yearly subscription only $140. Post-pay all letters, and direct to MLJNN & co, 128 Fulton street, New York. New Water Elevator. OF THE ~SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN.

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Scientific American. / Volume 12, Issue 3 17-24

~iitutifii THE ADVOCATE OF INDUSTRY, AND 3OU~NAL OF SCIENTIFIC, MECHANICAL, AND OTHER IMPROVEMENTS VOLUME XLI. THE Sciontific American, PUBLISHED WEEKLY At 128 Fulton street, N. Y. (Sun Buildings.) ISV MUNX & CO. 0. D. MTJNH, 5. H. WALES~ A. E. BEACH. Responsible Agents may also be found in all the prin- cip al cities and towns In the United States. Single copies of the paper are on sale at the office of publication and at all the periodical stores in this city, Brooklyn, and Jersey City. T{MS~2 a.year,~j In advance and the re- mainder in six months. [V~ See Prospectus on last page. No Traveling Agents employed. Progrc~s In Ireland. Ould Ireland seems to be in a very prosper- ous Condition at present. An entire Change has come over that Country since 1848. hun- dreds of mortgaged estates have been sold, and usany English and Scotch Iarmers have purchased largely, introduced great improve- ments in agriculture and education, and have implanted a new spirit of enterprise itt the Emerald Isle. Manuhtc,.ut-es have also re- ceive(l a isew impulse, and peace rej ens from the Giants Causeway to GaIwoy Bay. Lord Carlisle, fonnerly Lord Murpeth, who is well known personally in the Unite) St:Ltes. is Viceroy, and in on address which he lately made at a banquet, he stated tlsat since 1848 176,000 acres had been drained by a Board of Works, and double that amount by private en- terprise, making altogether .528,000 acres. There have been an increase of 83,000 acres of wheat in one year, 114,774 acres of grass anti potatoes, and 9,000 acres of flax. Since 18.5.5 there have been an increase of 73.- 000 Ilorses, 2.5.000 cattle, and 90,000 sheep These statistics speak well for the improve- ments made in this once unhappy country. Saving Bacon. As the season will soon be at hand, for our farmers to lay up their usual stock of bacon the following from a correspondent of the New England Farmer may serve a good pur- pose He was once entertained at the house of a friend, and at dinner he had reason to compli- ment him on the excellent quality of his bacon, and inquired to know his method of preparing and preserving. He stated that it was his practice to slice and fry his bacon immediate- ly on its being cured, and then pack it down in its own fat. When occasion came for using it, the slices, slightly refried, had all the freshness and flavor of new bacon just pre- pared. In this way our friend had always succeeded in saving his bacon fresh and sweet, through the hottest weather. strike properly into gear when they meet. The driver rides on a platform at the rear of the machine. and guides the machine by means of whael, P, operated by tiller P. The method of raising and lowering tIle cutters so as to cat closer or hi~her from the ground, is shown in fig. 3. The rear tongue, Q, and frame, R, are connected by means of a sliding stop, 5, the upper portion of which, T, forms a nut, through which screw rod V pass- es. The top of nut T is provided with an eye or link, U, which passes through a slot in the ear piece, W, and a bolt, Y, through the eye completes the connection. When the length of the cutters is to be altered, the driver moves crank V, and turns screw rod V. This causes the stop, 5, to advance or recede, ac- cording to the direction in which the crank is 2 ~j 3 turned, and thus lifts or depresses the frame, R, the opposite end of the frame, on which the platform and cutters are located, being corres- Improved Harvester. poudently moved. Our engraving exhibits an improved bar- The machine cuts a swath ten feet wide, is vester, Containing several novel features of comparatively easy for horses, and operates which the most notable is the method of rak- with entire success, doing its work in a su- ing the grain from the platform and depositino- perior manner. It is spoken of in the highest it in regular bundles upon the ground, ready terms. The arrangement of the parts is sim- for the binder. pie, and the machine, as a whole, durable, easi- The sickle bar and its cutters are operated ly managed, and highly effective. For further ______________________________________ information address the inventors, Messrs. by means of the cam wheel, A, which is at- _______________________________________________ Haggard and Bull, tached to the axle shaft, B, and with it re- Bloomington Ill. Patent- volves. The edges of the cam wheel are ________________________________________ ed Dec. 11, 1833. grasped by a forked lever, C, the prongs where- of are furnished with friction rollers, D, that McDougal5 Dlslnfecting Powder. bear against the cam surfaces of A. Lever We received some packages of the above- C extends from the cam wheel to the sickle bar, named powder (advertised in our columns) E, with which it is connected. Lever C is from E. B. Haynes, Beekman st., this city, pivoted at a suitable point on the under side erect again. I here are no shoulders at this with a request that we would make experi- of the platform, so that when cam wheel A end of the platf rm to knock them down, but ments with it. We have done so, and found it revolves, it causes lever C to vibrate with simply an easy urve, N, which guides them effectual in removing obnoxious odors arising great rapidity, which motion is transmitted from the under art of the groove to the ram- from drains, & c. It has an unpleasant odor direct to the sickle bar, E. This method of mer. A reel of the ordinary kind is attached itself resembling gas-house lime; but this operating the sickles is simple, avoids cogged to the machine, but it is purposely omitted in is not unhealthy, and it passes off in a day or gearing, and is said to operate extremely our cut, in ordo r to show other parts more two. well. clearly. 0 are thin guide plates located be- ~ ~ tween the racks L, and revolving with them. The steamboat Sovereign exploded her boil- The raking is done by the rake teeth, F, The extremity o roller shaft K is slotted, and en on the 16th inst., at Chester, on the Ohio which alternately rise at one end of the plat- the office of the guide plates is to enter the river. Two persons were killed, and the form, and project up through the slots, ~ have arrived at the other side of the slot and hold ti e shaft, K, still and in ~ steamboat ..2zedselson, lying alongside of her they then sweep across the platform in the di- platform, where the grooves are under, they rise tion, so that the pinion, K, and rack teeth will was sunk. NEW-YORK, SEPTEMBEL 27, 1856. NUMBER 3. rection of the arrow, carrying along all the grain that has fallen in front of them, and throwing it off upon the ground; the teeth then disappear to rise at the opposite end of the platform and repeat the operation. The teeth, F, are attached to a spring bar, I, (see figs. 3 and 4.) and the latter is fas- tened to the surface of an endless chain, J, which is stretched on rollers J, beneath the plat- form. The belt is put in motion by the shaft K, one end thereof being furnished with a pinion, K, which gears with the segment racks, L figi. The latter are attached by means of spokes to the main axle shaft, B, with which they revolve. The racks, L, it will b it will be seen, are wider at their ends than elsewhere. The bar, I, has a constant tenden- cy, caused by its spring, I, to move sidewise in the direction of the arrow, and also to keep the teeth, F, erect, (fig. 2.) When the teeth, F, arrive at the end of the platform, X, where the slots are widest, they spring side- wise, and the return or reverse movement of the belt, carries them against the square shoul- observed, are r sversed, the teeth of one being turned outwai d, and of the other inward. Consequently, ts the racks revolve, they turn the roller, K, irst in ane directien and then the reverse. 1 he belt, J, is thus made to car- ry the rake tee h, F, across the platform, so as to sweep off tI e grain; the motion of the belt is then reverse 1, and the teeth again brought back. We have StI ted that the teeth projected up through the sb ts in the platform when they swept across its surface and removed the grain, but disa peared out of the way, during the return mov sment, and again rose for a new g, sweep. This i~ done as follows: the slots, G, IMPROVED SELF-RAKING HARVESTER. / U /// / / / 1 5, / 2? 4 .1 iLL N - . . - . t~ ~n~ciican+ [Reported Officially for the Scientific American.] LIST OF PATENT CLAIMS Issued from the United State. Patent Office FOR THE WEEK ENDING SEPTEMBER 16, 1856. CHIMNEY CAP--Win. Browiselie, of Newport, It. I. I claim the described construction and arrangement of the ventilator, for the purposes specified. DREOOINo FEI.i.tEsWm. M. Bulloch, of Marcy, md. I claim the rotating ring or baud, fo, placed within the stationary ring or band, F, the ring or band, Ii-, havisg tho cotter head shaft, B, fitted to it, the shaft, Ft, being ro- tated by the gearing. C 1), as slsowsu assd described, for the purpose specified. F FO MOTION FOR StItNoi. MAcnINesJohn Broughton, of Chicago, Ill. I do not claim the disk wheei, D, with knives attached, for that device has been previously used. html 1 claim time disk wheel, D, with knives, F, fare goide, fo, amid face cam, K, attocited and used in conner- tio~t with the vibrating bed, II, time witole being arranged and oprrating as shown, for the purpose set torth. ileAnIrto BoLvoEbenezer and Philemon toteman, of Philadelphia. Pa. We claim the levers, B it, with rolerm, h h, attached to them, and the ratchet roller, attached to the pemtdant plate, fa, the above pacts being arranged and operated as shown, for the purpose speci- lied. We ftmrllmer claim the heading die, It, and jaws, F F, provided with dies, e e, when arranged as shown, so as to operate rotijointly with the rollers, Is h and i, for the pur- po~e set forth. DEN sors FoncresJohn G. Coates, ofttig Lick, Va. I claiso constructing forceps with rotating beaks, to adapt themselves to the exterior forosation of the tooth, sub- stantially as and for the purposes specified. SAW SmepAbralsam Casey, of New York City, I claim tIme combination and arrangement of the stork, A, Isaving a transverse kert, B, bevel bolster, B, and punch, B substantially as and hhr the purpose set forth. Second, I claim arrangitsg the bolster on a turning screw pin, which moves in a slot, and has a clansping nut, substantiatly as atsd for tine purpose described. ttrErlao Snips SAILS UPON EXTRA YARnsJoseph S. Foster, sufiluffalo, N. Y. , I claim the double yard, H it H, or extra yard of two pieces, islaced about midivay between the tipper and lower yards, the sail passing be- twegn the tsvo lti~ces, operating its the manner and for the purpose set forth. FIR .-AmssisEdmund W. Graham, of Manchester, N. It. , I claim, first, arramiging use chambers in which time powder is placed and the chambers its which the ball is placed, at right angles to earh other, or nearly so, asid so as to commusicate with each other, as slescribed, and for the purpose specifiest. Second, I claim covering each powder chamber at the time of she discharge, with a proterthig rap or plate, as described, ILAnvmesTetnsWm. Gage, of Buffalo, N. V., I claim raisintt and lowering the flusger bar an~ cutters by means of sscioging time outside frame, to wisich time finger bar is attached, upoms Iwo pivots upon time imiside frame, and hiding time same where placed by means of the serrated plates, it B, aitd tightenieg rod, d d, when said frames are constructed attd arranged to operate in relation no earls other, and the driving wheel, finger bar, and cutters, in time maimner and for the purposes set f,srsh. 1 do not claim a board set edgewise and upon an angle inward, when the samne is not rommsbined wills the wheel, W, and used for mowing, whether fixed immovably to finger bar or hung upon a hinge. Neither do I claim a mold board or a dividing board, when combined with and fixed on a platform, and used lbr reaping. But 1 claim the peculiarly adjustable mold board, z y, in combination with the wiseel, W, and its supporting arm, x y, when used in mowing, for the purpose of pro- tecting the wheel and arm from loose grass, and pre- vent to lodgmnent thereon, when the above parts are con- structed amid arranged in the maimer described. Fe PARATiON OF lImEs FOR TANNINoGeorge W. Hatch of Princeton, Ill. I do not claim the use of py- rotigneous acid as mmmcii, but confine my claim to the use of smoke from wood or other eqmsivalemmtcombustibles, in the preparation of hides for rapid tanning, as set forth. ATTArnimNo ShAFTs ro t-tncsomssGeorge Kenney, of Milford, N. hi., t claim attaching the shafts, C C, to the runners of the sleigh by means of the eyes, F F, and rods, fa it, said eyes and ro.hs being attached to the cross pieces, B D, provided with springs, I I, the whole being arranged as shown, for time purpose set forth. GnAteunATiNo MeTALsJohn Feir, of San Francis- co, Cal. t claim the use of the outer and inner vessel, 1 and 2. when cotistructed and operated in the manner de- scribed, us connectiost with the pipe, it, and its elbows, as net forth, for keeping the water in circulation, and for granulating the socIal. CUTTINo PAPERHarvey Law, of New York City~ I claisn the romnbination of the rising and falling platform, C, and clamping framne, B, by means of toggles, F F, said toggles havimsg cranks, G hi, connected with them, the isittles of which work in curved grooves, or oherwise actuated, subotantially so, and for the purposes set forth. CARPENTE 5 ttFNrmm I W. Mahan, of Lexington, Ill., I claim the carpenters and cabinet-makers assist. ant bench, cossstructed us any manncr substantially Ihe same as set forth. PemeuTINo ParseA. & B. Newbury, of Wiodham Center, N. Y, We risimo, first, lIme rotating and re- ciprocating printing cyltoder, B, operated by means of time endless racks, C, pitusan, I, and bars, b, arranged as shown. nd described. Second, we clams the revolving fly, U, constructed, ar- ranged, and operating as set forth. CimuerssAlbert Pease, of Weston, Vt., I claim the combination of the two fixed boards on the dasher handle, and a sliding board, or its equivalent, moving betweems them, substantially as described, disclaiming the use of t-svo fixed boards, except in the combinatmon specified. Loconsorivum AND STEAM BOILER FURNAcEWin. P. Parrot, of Boslon, Mass., I am aware that porforaled plates tSr the admission of air have been used in connec- tion with hollow bridges, but in workittg with a rapid draft the smolce and gases in the fire box or furnace are not properly mixed with the air so as to complete the combustion. 1 do not, therefore, claim any such combi- notismn or arrangement of parts. But I claim the hollow box or cone, having tubes for time passage of the smoke and gas, and apertures for the adsosi,-ion of heated air, so arranged, in the manner sub- stantially as set forth, as intimately to mix the two, for the purpose described. CLEvisEdwin A. Palmer, of Cisyvihle, N. V., I do not claim any part of the common clevis. hint I claim the pin provided with a spring, and arms, E it, in combinali n with the projection in the head and openings through which the arms may pass, and ihe re- cesses, I I, arranged substantially as and for the purposes set forth. VARIASI.E CUT-OFFs FOR STEAM ENosNEsCharhes ii. Reynolds, of Lewistown, Me., I rhaim the arrange. ment of the suspended lilting rods, F F, with their studs, so us, secured to the valve rod or rods, and opera- ted on by the arms, I I, of a rock shaft, and the plate or phates, C, with bevehed edges, g g, sliding on the said valve rod or rods, said plate or plates being oper- ated on by the governor, and operating on the lifting rods, substantially as described. COTTON PmcEEsusB. G. Shields, of Marlin, Texas s I claim as an improvement on the patent of George A. Howe, of the 4th December, 1855, the application of a fan or fans to the gathering chain, as a means of removing the athered cotton from said chain, and this I claim whether said fans be used as set forth, or in any other way substantially the same. SemiNoLE MAcshINEP. 0. Sherwin, of Jamestown, N. V., I claim the stops, K K, in combination with the notches or teeth, I I, on the set wheels, arranged and used br the pnrpooes and substantially as set forth. hARvEsTmEn MAcIIINEsGeorge W. Toihurst, of Cleveland, Ohio, I am aware that continuous zig-zag slots or ledges have been used, of various kinds, but when these become damaged by wear they are irreparable, I do not claim any of these. But I claim the combined use of the single row of re- movable pins with the adjustable angular slot, j, for the purpose of procuring a vibratory motion, to be applied to the cutters as set forth. Rmniteo SADDLESPascal Plant, of Chicago, Ill., Dii- claiming entirely lhe primary principie of applying spiral sprismgs to saddles, and also disdaining the use of enclosed compressed air spring saddles, both principles of which have bug since been well known and used. I claim the distinguihing features of improvement, the sockets, A B, and vertical shanks, F F, provided with immovable springs, g g, arranged in the manner and for the purposes specified. SemINoLE MAcshINEDavid D. Tupper, of Boston, Mass. I claim the described method of arranging and operating the cutter head, whereby the pressure rolls are inclined, to correspond to the inclination ot the face of the bolt, for the purpsses set forth. IRoN FENCE POSTS AND TIEsJohn B. Wickersham, of New York City s I claim the doubie ripped post or tie, cornered and mortised upon opposite and correspond. ing sides, as specified, in combinatioss with the inclined corner key, B, for holding and crimping the rail, as de- scribed. Second, I chain so constructing the fence lie and key above named that it may be attached to a wood in order to take up the lax tension of wire and flat hoop iron, and thus art as a compensator for the expansion of the metal when used for fences, as set forth. SELF-ArTmNo RAKES FOR HARYESTERSJ. White. Imead, of Manchester, Va., I claim the combination of the swinging arm, 1, and travehing carriage, J, moving to- gether and independent ofeach other, by means substan- tially such as described and for the purpose set forth. I also claim the hocking arm, I, at each end of its trans- verse movement, so that the rake cannot swing around wisile the carriage, J. and rake, L, reciprocate together ammd discharge the gravel, substantially as described. RE-iSSUE. FoLosNo LIFE-BOATSC, Locker, of New York City. Patented Jan. 7, i85ii, I do not claim hinging or pivoting the ribs ho a keel or to a central frame. But I claim the chain or chains, or their equivalents, as connected and arranged in relation to the stern and stern posts, ribs, and central frame, and operated as set forth. DESIONS. STovEsGarretson Smith, Henry Brown, and James A. Read, (assignors to Cox, Hager & Cox,) ot Philadei. phia, Pa. FLOoR CLOTHSAntoine Giowioski, (assignor to D., AR. & N.H. Powers,) of Lansingburg, N.Y. FLOOR CLOTHSAntoine Glowinski, (assignor to D., A. B, & N. B. Powers,) of Lansingborg, N. V. ADDITIONAL IMPRDvESIENT. FIRE-ARMFrederick B. Newbury, (assignor to Richard Varirk Dc Wilt,) of Albany, N - V. Patented Aug. 12th. i856, I chains the placing the hammer and trigger with their springs within the arm, B. I claim the rocking of the hammer by the movement of the arm, D, and the aid of stud, 5, or its equivalent. I claim the placing of the tape priming under the bar- rel and in front of the cone, the same to be brought pro- perly on to the cone by the movement of the arm B. I also chain the placing of the tape priming, and opera- ting the same as described, in combination with the arm, D. Assierican Association for the Advancement of Sciesice. (Concluded from page Il.) Storms and VentilationDr. Reid, of Edin- burgh, exhibited the operation of an Argand gas-burner, with a glass chimney, an appara- tus being attached under the burner, by which he could regulate at pleasure the amount of air going inside, or that going outside of the flame, producing thus the most singular and comp icated rotatory motions of the burning gas and floating specks of lamphlack. He then gave a brief account of the numerous experiments which he had tried concerning the rotary motion of the air under a great variety of circumstances, and showed how the results might aid us in forming a theory of storms, but more particularly how it would aid in general theories of physics, and in special ar- rangements for ventilation. The difficulty in architecture is that the same mind that plans the warming and ventilating apparatus does not plan the general form and adaptations. Another place where the rotary currents are of great importance is in the ventilation of mines, where they may be studied to advan- tage, and used to promote the health of the miners. Nothing is more interesting to man than the atmosphere in which we livean ocean without geographical limitsin which, and by which we all live, ceaseless in motion, from a great variety of causes, and each movement directly affecting the comfort and health of man. Every house should be so constructed and arranged as to have a sufficient supply of pure air, as its inmates require an adequate supply of oxygen to support respiration, and if this is not obtained, the health must be injured. How few houses are built with reference to this great principle of health. .~neroid BarometersProf. Guyot read a paper on this subject, in which he expressed views of great importance in reference to the character of such instruments. He acknow- ledged its great conveniences, but against de- pendence on it for nice measurements of moun- tain altitudes he entered his formal protest. He had made r tany experiments and compar- isons with go )d mercurial barometers, and found them wc rthy of reliance as a scientific instrument, on y under the condition that it is kept stations try, and individually tested to learn the cortectness for temperature, & c. Had he trusted to his aneroid barometer in his recent visit to the Black Mountains, he would have been led to errors of 400 to 500 feet, as was proved by the two good mercurial barom- eters that he ct irried. A traveler who carries an aneroid picue with him, must not expect accuracy withi n two or three hundred feet. Simply from notion or from having been sub- jected to grea changes of pressure, it will change its zer without giving any external indication. N. B. Webst ~r exhibited a chart on which were three cur Tes, representing the mortality at Portsmouth Va., during the months of July, August, Septel aber, and October, 1855; the variations of t ~e thermometer and of the ba- rometer. On he charts were also indications of the atmos Ihere, the lightning, and the winds, so that the inquirer could study all these points a. once. The day of greatest mortality was Sept. 1,one-tenth of the white population tnet I in the town died in one week. Not sixty whit persons who remained in town escaped the fea er, and but 37 per cent. of the patients survir md. Among the blacks only 3 per cent. died. Tue Gyrosco, teProf. Rogers read a paper on this philosiphical toy. He said these in- struments hav lately attracted a good deal of attention. Tb ty consist essentially of a wheel which may be made to rotate very rapidly at the end of an axis, which is balanced on a swivel joint at the top of a vertical post. ii; while the wheel is rotating, the axis is thrown out of balance by means of a sliding weight, the axis begins to rotate in a horizontal direc- tion round tb~ post. This is the simplest form, but othel s more complicated are to be found. They were first made by Prof. R. W. Johnson, of P liladelphia, and had recently been revived it France. The French mathe- maticians ack lowledge Prof. Johnson as the inventor. He published an article in Silli- man5 Journal, about twenty-five years ago, describing his apparatus. Professor Rogers then explained the cause of the secondary ro- tation by the nethod of the combination of rotations, and by the doctrine of couples of forces. He wi thedto divest the theory, if pos- sible, of the fo -ins of the calculus, and present it in the beauti- ul geometrical manner in which the theory of 8 be parallelogram of rotations enables it to bu, stated. Upon the co oclusion of this paper a debate sprang up, which consumed a very dispropor- tionate time of the meeting. Prof. Bartlett gave an explar ation of the toy, starting from a different foui dation; and some of the mem- bers supposing as Prof. Rogers himself ap- peared to do that Prof. Bartlett doubted the theory advanct d in the paper, many needless words were uttered upon the subject. At length Prof. Rogers acknowledged the truth of several of ti e views which he had at first supposed were contradictory to his own, and Prof. Peirce, W 10 had not yet spoken, closed the discussion by a simple statement of the real points of the case. He observed that Prof. Lovering had recently presented a com- plete discussio: 1 of the question to the Amer- ican Academy that the whole theory of it was in fact cot tamed in that of the common top; and as fo- the antiquity, the same theory was long ago i resented by one Isaac Newton. [Laughter.] ~rof. Rogers said that he was aware of this timilarity of the theory of the Gyroscope to hat of the top, and of the pre- cession of the equinoxes, and had prepared diagrams to ill lstrate these subjects, and also the experiment of Foucault on the pendulum, which he woul I have shown to the Associa- tion as illusti ations of his paper, had he thought that there would be time. Prof. Henry remarke d that the same problem was found in gunn try, when a rotary motionas n the rifleis (-iven to the ball. We publishel on page 200, Vol. 11, ScIEN- TIFIC AMERICA N, an engraving of the above- named philost phical toy, gave a brief de- scription of it and made a few remarks con- cerning the na ure of its peculiar action, sta- ting that the st~me laws which governed its motions reigned among the stars. That ar- tide soon attracted universal attention; gy- roscopes were obtained by all the mechanical and scientific institutions in our country; by numerous clubs, and hundreds of private per- sons, and it formed a theme of wide-spread discussion; and on another column, our read- ers will perceive that it formed a question for discussion to the mathematicians of the Amer- ican Academy of Sciences, at Cambridge, Mass., as well as the savans at Albany. Prior to the illustration of Lanes Rotoscope on the page referred to, we published a short ac- count, on page 138, same volume, of ~ This beautiful instrument, under the name of the Gyroscope and Rotoscope, is quite old, but has been known to a very limited number of persons; it has, therefore, afforded us much pleasure to have been the means of making a knowledge of it so universal. Rev. B. Powell, F. R. S., in a lecture on Rotary Motion, delivered before the Royal Society, London, in January, 1854, explained the action of the Rotoscope with a model, and presented the same views respecting its motion and those of the heavenly bodies as Professor Rogers. The following is an extract from his lecture ~ It always affords a sort of intellectual surprise to perceive for the first time the ap- plication of some simple and familiar mechan- ical principle to the grand phenomena of as- tronomy; to see that it is but one and the same set of laws which govern the motions of matter on earth and in the most distant re- gions of the heavens; to perceive a celestial phenomenon, vast in its relations both to time and space, and complex in its conditions, iden- tified as to its mechanical cause, with the ro- tary movement of a little apparatus on the table before us, The improved gyroscopes manufactured by McAllister & Bro., Philadelphia, Pa., exhibit two other motions beside those shown by one illustrated in the article referred to above. It has a variable balance arm, which will make the wheel or globe revolve in one di- rection if underbalanced; when balanced it will not revolve, but merely rotate; when overbalanced it will revolve in a contrary di- rection. It shows the principle of rotary mo- tion discovered by Frisi in 1750, namely,that when a body is rotating about an axis and any cause tends to make it rotate about another axis, it will not rotate about either, but about a new axis intermediate to the two. These apparatuses are for sale by McAl- lister & Co.. and J. W. Queen Philadelphia. Pennsylvania Polytechnic College. The citizens of Philadelphia deserve great credit for the establishment of this new and useful institution in their city. It was in- corporated in 1853, and we understand that it has already been more successful than was anticipated. The building is in Penn Square, and has been undergoing extensive repairs. The chemical laboratory and apparatus room are on the ground floor. These communicate by dumb waiters with the principal lecture room on the second floor, the appointments of which are exceedingly neat and convenient. Communicating with the lecture room is the ~ preparing room; north of this is the Facultys office; and next to this, on the same floor, is the room appropriated to the geological and mineralogical cabinets. These are arranged under three heads 1. Geology and Palaeontology. 2. Minerals which are not ores. 3. Ores proper. This classification has proved to be well adapted to instruction in the department of minesone of the most important in the college. The rooms of the academical department, and those of the Professor of Mathematics and Civil En- gineering, are on the third floor; and the fourth is devoted to the class rooms of the Professors of Design and of Mechanics. It is a scientific institution in every sense of the term. Florida Railroads. A railroad is now in the course of construc- tion in Florida, for the purpose of uniting the Atlantic with the Gulf. The object of build- lag such a railroad through this Peninsula, is one of far-reaching sagacity, and will ulti- mately tell upon the interests and prosper- ity of Florida. - 18 [Forthe Scientific American.? The Hughes Telegraph. [Continued from page 11.] In continuing our review, it is necessary to present the claims of the inventor. From his patent, granted May 20, 1856, we copy them as follows I do not claim any feature of any exist- ing printing or marking telegraph, as any part of my invention; nor do I desire to interfere in the least with any heretofore invented. Conceiving that I have made important im- provements in telegraphs, I desire protection only for that which is novel and of my own invention. I claim, first, the holding in place of the attractive power of electro or natural magne- tism, as applied to the telegraphic purposes, whether the same be applied in the manner described, or in any similar manner, producing like results. Second, particularly I claim combining with the permanent magnet, an adjustable spring almost snificient to sever it from its contact with the soft iron of their electro-magnet, and a lever, or its equivalent, which, after the per- magnet has been separated from the iron by the action of a current, shall bring it back again into renewed contact by the action of the power which has been called into action by the retreat of the magnet. Third, I claim the employment of two cog wheels or circuit breakers at each sta- tion, so arranged that one shall be in connec- tion with the electro-magnet at the same sta- tion, and the other in connection with the transmitting cylinder at that station, the whole being arranged so that the connection alter- nates at each station for every letter between the electro-magnet and the transmitting cy- linder at that station in such a manner that the through connection is always simultaneous- ly through the transmitting cylinder of one station, and the electro-magnet of the other station, whereby the machine at each station can, at the same time, be transmitting a mes- sage and receiving a message; it being under- stood, however, that I do not claim, in gener- al, the use of a single wire for the simulta- neous transmission of different massages by means of rapid changes of connection which is not new, but only the peculiar manner as claimed, in which I have applied it in connec- tion with my machine. Fourth, so arranging a bolt and operating the same by a cam, or its equivaleat, that it shall act upon a wheel attached to the shaft of the type, so as to preclude the intelligence from one station being communicated to any other station or stations on the circuit from which it is desired to withhold the communi- cation. Fifth, I claim the employment of a vibra- ting spring properly weighted at its extremi- ty, if necessary, and so arranged by a series 01 mechanism as to govern and regulate the movement of the type wheel. This I claim also as a governor in other machinery, with- out limiting its use to its connection with elec- tro-magnetism. Sixth, I claim printing by electro-magnetism by a continuously moving type wheel, printing while in motion. Seventh, I claim the arrangement of a cyl- inder with pins spirally arranged thereon to operate by contact with metallic points to close and break the circuit, when this is com- bined, for the purposes set forth with the sys- tems of keys and catches, so arranged that any desired point may be thrown into a posi- tion, where it will be retained until it is struck by its corresponding pin. D. E. HUGHES. Louisville, Ky. The specification of the inventors patent is prefaced by the words The nature of my invention consists in the manner of using nat- ural and electro-magnetism in its application to machinery for telegraphic purposes, and in the employment of a vibrating spring for the regulation of this and other machinery. And again it says Thus the press and feed wheel are governed by the combined use of natural and electro-magnetism, and the revolutions of the type-wheel are governed by the vibrating spring.~ Considering that the application of the com- ~Aned action of electro and permanent mag- netism for telegraph machinery, was known long ago, and is now in use in the greatest variety of constructions, it seems, at the out- set, questionable whether the employment of it, by the above-mciltioned instrument, yields advantages hitherto unknown, or whether it is so constructed as to evade a conflict with Morses patent. Morse says: The essence of my invention being the use of the motive pow- er of the electric or galvanic current, which I call electr-omagnetism, however developed, for making or printing intelligible characters, signs, or letters, at any ~ & c. It will be observed that the required mag- I netic attractive power must be so strong as te~ counterbalance the power of the spring fax raising the magnet and working the detent which sets free the crank of the printing clock-work, plus a surplus of power for pre- venting the voluntary separation of the mag- nets. A piece of soft iron coming in contact with a magnet, will become magnetic during such process, both attracting each other by having dissimilar polarity, the magnetism of the iron being proportional to the attractive power of the magnet, etc., therefore their re- ciprocal attraction must be strong enough to prevent a separation from each other. Now, in order to set the permanent magnet at lib- erty to fly off, the polarity of the iron cores has to be changed so as to be similar with the permanent magnet by electricity, as the speci- fication says. But before this can be done this magneto-magnetism of the cores must be made inefficient by the generating of a suffi- cient electro-magnetic power with dissimilar polarity in the same iron cores. The electric power required for that purpose has to be of the same intensity as that which had to be used to generate this attractive power, which is to be made inefficient, and would have been already sufficient for the operation without squandering a surplus of it, in order to pro- duce the expected change of the polarity of the iron cores. The first claim reads thus: the holding in place of the attractive power ot electro or natural magnetism,~~ etc. What does that mean? I find no explanation of it in the specification. In the second claim are some little things of riot much consequence for those who are ac- quainted with Stoebrers Relay Telegraph. Referring to the fourth claim,I have to ask, how will it be if more than three instruments are in operation in one circuit, and how, if it is desired, that more than one station receive the communication, and the rest he precluded, as for instance, the New York station, A, Phil- adelphia, B, Baltimore, C, and Washington, D. Washington communicate with New York and Philadelphia, precluding Baltimore. The second closing and breaking of the cir- cuit, as mentioned in my last communication, will force the bolt through the slot at the in- strument of A, not suspending its motion, but pushing against the flange of the lustruments B and C, their motion will be suspended. Now, what means are employed to keep the instrument, B, at Philadelphia in motion? And if station A has spoken to B and C, and after this B and C wish to communicate with each other, how is it done? The fifth claim refers to the employment of the before-mentioned vibrating spring, proper- ly weighted at its extremity, if necessary, etc. Why of? Should it not read because neces- sary? Has the compeusating weight and ver- tical connecting rod no weight? Does not temperature change all the time? Is it not a well known fact, patent to every body, that if the oscillations of a pendulum require to be very rapid, it must be made in the form of a vibrating spring, so as to have elasticity around its point of equilibrium. The spring pendulum is a very old and well known device. Having shown the incongruity of the other claims, I cannot, of course, be surprised by the sixth, which reads : printing by electro- magnetism by a continuously moving type- wheel, printing while in motion. According to the specification, the press lever, operated by the crank, presses against the type-wheel like a brake of a ear wheel, and will remain in that position during the dead motion of the tilting crank and of the connecting rod, and will either break the wheel or cause other mischief. Press, for instance, a paper for printing purposes against the periphery of a revolving printing wheel with your hand without either getting injured or arresting its course, and you will understand how utterly impossible it is for any one to print from a type-wheel, while in motion. (Should not the claim read, Printing while stopped, as all the other printing telegraphs do?) The seventh claim covers a sytem of catches but the specification does not mention any thing of them. CHAS. KeacHnoF. [To be continned.] American Blister Flies. MEssas. EDiTORsI noticed in No. 51, Vol. 11, Sess~mric AMERicAN, an article entitled Blister Fliet in ~ which article refers to a former orrespondent on the same sub- ject. I woub I state, for the benefit of those whom it may concern, that they are the true Cantharis Vii tata, and are described in the United States Dispensatory, as follows: its length is abcut six lines. The head is of a light red cob -, with dark spots on the top; the feelers an black; the elytra or wing cases are black, with a yellow longitudinal stripe in the center, a~ id with a yellow margin; the thorax is alse black, with three yellow lines, and the abdo nen and legs, which have the same color, a e covered with a cinerous down. It inhabits eb iefly the potato plant, and makes its appearam e about the end of July or be- ginning of August, & c. They were in great abundance ir this region this season, com- mencing theb ravages somewhat earlier than usual, owing ;o the extreme heat and dryness of the season. They are quite equal to the Cantharis Ye ticatoria (or Spanish fly,) for all the purposes for which that insect is used. When we wb h to gather them here, we shake them from th plant into a pan of hot water, and afterwards dry them in the sun. When we wish men ly to exterminate them, we place straw or hay upon the ground, on one side of the patch, twi or three feet wide by one or two inches deep, I hen commencing on the opposite side, with bushes we drive them until they take shelter inder the fuelthe balance you may conjectv re. A. NEWELL. Paris, Illin As, September, 1856. 1 ectro-Climical Buothi Massas. E )CToii5M. Yergnes last answer to my article on page 395 ,Yol. 11, ScIENTIFIC AMLIIIcAN, D Electro-Chemical Baths, in place of scie, tifically refuting, by palpable de- monstration, parries off by saying the irra- diations of e ectricity are subject to the same laws as thos of light and heat. I understa ad he is acquainted with electro- plating; noi I will offer him another proof in his own ii ~e of business, corroborative of what f adva nce,to wit, that the electric cur- rent, when ree to move, passes at and near the surface o liquids, in preference to descend- ing into then.. Take, for nstance, the process of electro- plating with silver; in this process a silver plate is susp nded on the positive pole, in the solution, an( I the article to be plated on the negative pob . Let the plating go on for a few days, an I on examining the plate at the positive pole it will be found that the action of the electri current has entirely decomposed and conveye I to the negative pole the silver at and near he surface of the solution, while the silver pit te lower down, has not been de composed at all. SANL. B. SMITH. New York Advice to Manufacturers of Tin Plate MEssuM. F DITORsLarge quantities of tin plate are ut ed in Philadelphia for roofing, which doubt ess you are aware, is put on in a different m anner from the New York plan they cutting each sheet and putting it on sep- arately, and we putting it together on rolls with standin ~ ridges. The tin, as used by us, is taken from the box, edged withc ut any preparation, and put together in r Als at the shop, and then taken to the roofs; the two sides of the tin, as a general thin1 ~, are straight and parallel, but the ends are left apparently as they are rolled. Now if the r sanufacturers in England made their leaded An for roofing purposes with the sides and en is straight and parallel, and the angles right angles, or as we say, I~square,~~ they would , ~eet with a more ready sale. I should think that while performing the opera- tion, as at present, very simple machinery would effect the purpose; and if they could get up nothing 10 answer their purpose, if they would send word over to some of our inven- tive Yankeet they would soon get what they wanted. There is a duty of 15 per cent. on tin plates, and yet nont are manufactured in our country, and none ca e be, because, we have little or no tin, and have to import all our block and grain tin. his duty, by increasing its price, prevents, to a great degree, its use as a roof ing material. G. H., Ja. Philadelpi uia Sept., 1856. 19 5 A ~impie MIcroscope. When a sound eye of the average power neither long-sighted nor short-sighted, ex- amines any object in order to see it most dis- tinetly, the observer places the object at the distance of about six inches, and in this posi- tion it is seen of its natural size, and is not said to be magnified. If we hold up at this distance a finger three-fourths of an inch broad, it will appear to cover upon a wall ten feet distant a space of fifteen inches. If we hold it up at three inches from the eye, it will cover a space of thirty inches, and will ap- pear twice as large, and if we hold it up at the distance of an inch and a half, it will cover a space of sixty inches, and will appear four times as large. But though magnified inthese two last positions, it is not seen distinctly, and therefore we see it more imperfectly than at the distance of six inches. If we look at the finger, when seen indis- tinctly at the distance of three and one and a half, inches from the eye, through a small pin-hole in a piece of card, it will appear not only magnified, but tolerably distinct and the distinctness will increase with the small- ness of the aperture. The most s. tisfactory aperture is one made with a needle in a piece of sheet-lead or tin-foil, and when the eye is applied close to it, the vision will be such that discoveries, invisible to the eye, may be made by the observer. A single sphere of glass, from the twen- tieth to the fiftieth of an inch in diameter, forms a good microscope. with which many interesting phenomena may he observed, and even important discoveries made. Dr. Hooke seems to have been the first person who made microscopes of this kind. Having taken a clear piece of glass, he drew it out, by the heat of a lamp, into fine threads, and then holding the ends of these threads in the flame, he melted them till they run into a small round globule, which hung to the end of the thread. The globule is then stuck on the end of a piece of wood with the tread cut as short as possible, standing uppermost, and the ends are ground off first on a whetstone, and then polished on a metal plate with tripoli. When the glass sphere is thus finished, it is placed against a small hole made in a thin piece of nietal, and fixed with wax. Thus fitted up it will both magnify and make some objects more distinct than many of the great microscopes. When a microscope cannot be obtained for some special purpose, a tolerably good extem- pore one may be made by filling with water, or any other limpid fluid, two small bottles, or test tubes, crossing them at right angles, and looking at the object to be examined through the crossed parts.__ The Geography of Plants. In 1820 De Candolle, of Paris, in a cele- brated essay on the Geography of Plants, published in the Dictionary des Sciences Na turelles, made it the starting point for botani- cal inquiry, that each species was derived from an individual or pair of individuals, cre- ated in one particular locality. This was soon disputed by many botanists, because kindred species of plants, were found so widely sepa- rated,some in islands of the oceanfar dis- tant from the continents where the like spe- cies flourishedthat it was concluded there must have been numerous pairs of the same species createdeach for its own particular locality. In later years, however, the discov- eries of geology, tend to confirm De Con- dolles views. This science points out the great probability of the submergence of large tracks of once elevated lands, and the up- heaval of others, and these explain the oc- currence of the same plants in islands, and continents, now completely unconnected. Decimal Weights and Measures. The decimal system of weights has just been adopted throughout the whole of the Prussian monarchy, as it had before been in the Ger- man Association, and in several States of the south of Germany. When will a rational system of weights and measures be adopted in our own country? Our law-makers always have plenty of time to make long-winded speeches on party poli- tics, but no time to make a new law, and such a necessary and good one too, to reform our weights and measures. 7 ~ ~cicntitic ~mtrj~an+ 20 This improvement, by its extreme portabil- It cuts close to the ground, thus saving wood, ~~n~cnti~ns ity, simplicity, and strength is calculated to may be adjust d so as to cut at almost any + render important aid in cutting down trees. angle, leaves th butt ready for the mill, does inventions Wanted. Calls are made for a number of highly im- portant and useful improvements, which our inventors should lose no time in supplying. The first is for a new plow, an article of universal demand. We publish an interesting article on the subj oct, setting forth what is needed, on another column, which inventors will do well to read. Another much-wanted improvement is a Corn Husker. The husking of corn is now done by hand, at an average expense of five cents a bushel, or thirty millions qf dollars a year! Think of that, inventors. Thirty mil- lions of dollars annually lost for want of Corn Husking machines. Machines for cutting down trees are in great demand. Something that can be easily used and transported up hill and down dale, is needed. Contrivances for milking cows are much called for. It hes been satisfactorily settled, we believe, that, by means of a vacuum, the milk may be readily withdrawn. it remains for the ingenious to present the public with compact and convenient inventions for the purpose. There is a greater demand than ever for inventions of all sorts. Patents for good improvements are selling for large sums. the bottom rim of the wheel, to throw the buckets together when the water is shut off as at h. S the shaft. The wheel is horizontal with perpendicular shaft, and is direct acting. The great su- periority of this wheel over all others of its class, it is alleged, consists in making a double bucket with the back of such a curve that the space between tbe buckets will be of a regu- lar contraction from the entrance to the dis- charging apertures. It also combines to make the bucket stronger and more durable, and also to obviate the necessity of having the bolts, with which the wheel is fastened to- gether, from coming in contact with the wa- ter, thus leaving it entirely free from all ob- stacles or impediments, which tend to obstruct and break the fluid vein, and thereby divert it from its most efficient course. Another important feature consists in con- tracting the fluid vein from the time of its en- trance into the wheel until its discharge, there- by causing a uniform pressure throughout the wheel, and also divesting it of any chance whatever of becoming incommoded with dead or slack water between the buckets, as well as to deprive the wheel entirely of air from the first entrance of the water. The next arrangement consists in hanging the buckets between the rims in such a man- ner that the inside portion of them has an ad- vantage of leverage, so that the water, in seeking a discharge, will at once open them sufficiently to dispose of the water let in- to the scroll and according to the amount of power required of the wheel. Also, in the event of any solid substances entering the scroll, instead of the buckets coming rigidly in contact with it, and smashing them out, they will yield instantly to it, and pass by without damage. The springs, x, are arranged so that when the gate is shut, they instantly close together on the inner diameter, which causes the water to act immediately upon the wheel, as soon as it comes in contact there- with. The chief value of this invention con- sists in using a small quantity of water with the same per cent, of power as with a full gate, a desideratum never before obtained, it is alleged, by any other horizontal water wheel. Poisoning with Strychnine Cured The Rochester (N. Y.) Democrat of the 1th inst. gives an account of a case of poisoning with strychnine which was cured by emetics and chloroform. Josiah Montgomery, one of the Police of that city, took four grains of strychnine by mistake; as soon as he discover- ed this, he ran to Dr. Swinburne, who admin- istered an emetic, and shortly afterwards a second one. These failed to operate, when a Dr. Bly was sent for, and found the patient convulsed with epasms, and the jaws firmly locked. Chloroform was then administered by inhalation, which had the effect of relieving the spasms in three minutes, and stopping them entirely in twenty. Another powerful emetic was then given, and the chloroform administered at intervals, as it was found that when its effects wore off the spasms returned. In about ten minutes after the third emetic was given; it began to operate, and by the use of warm water drinks the stomach was soon cleansed. The patient, however, was kept under the influence of chloroform for eight hours. at which time the spasms ceased entirely and lie ultimately recovered. This is a remarkaWe case of recovery from the ef- fects of such a dose of this terrible poison one grain of which will produce death. Water-Proof Textile fabrics. We have lately examined some specimens of cloth rendered water-proof, but not air- tight, the invention of Benj. Weigart, of this city, who obtained a patent on the 19th of last month. The invention consists in saturating the cloth in a thin solution of sulphate and acetate of alumina, caustic soap, and glue, then drying it. This composition forms an insoluble material when dry, which envelopes the fibers of the cloth, and resists the passage of water through it, except under pressure. Alum and soap has been used in solution to effect the same object, but not combined with glue, which appears to be an improvement, its work with great rapidity. runs easy, cannot manufacture is p ite small. Invented by S. well get out of order. We are informed that Ingeisoll, of the F ~ and Mechanics Man- Tree Cutting Machine its total weight is only ThO lbs., so that it ufactufing Co., ireen Point, N. Y., opposite Referring to our engraving it will be seen may be transported and moved about, in all t New York City, v here further information can that the cutting is done by a horizontal saw, localities, with much facility. The expense of I he obtained. Pa ent applied for. which is connected, by means of a rod, or pitman, A, with the fly wheel, B, whose shaft IMPROVED CENTER VENT WATI~R WHEEL. is put in motion by means of gear wheels and cranks, as shown. ~P4,.1 The principal feature of novelty consists in the manner in which the saw is held, guided, and fed up against the tree. This is done as follows C is the saw holder, to the front end of which the saw is firmly bolted. Holder C 7 is connected by means of rods and levers, D E F G, with a movable bed plate, H, one end of which, at H, is pivoted to the frame of the machine, so that if the bed plate, H, is moved, the saw and all its appurtenances are also moved. The office of rods and levers, D B F G, is to do away with a gate, and yet to hold the saw firm, and cause it always to vibrate horizontally. For this purpose one end of rod, D, is furnished with a slide, which tra- verses a slot, I, in bed plate, H. The saw is fed up against the tree by mov- ing the bed plate, H, and this is done by means of a spiral spring, J, which connects with a pulley, K, and a strap, L, extending from bed plate, H, and winding on pulley, K. The ten- dency of the spring is to pull the bed plate, H, over towards pulley K, and the saw is thus constantly pressed or fed up against the tree. SPLENDID PRiZES.PASD [N CASH. M is a lever for The Proprietors of the SCIENTIFIC AMEascAN will increasing or releasing the tenacity of spring J. The lower end of the pay, in Costs, the following splendid Prizes for the largest Lists of Subscribers sent in between the present lever is connected with the spring; the upper time and the first of January. 1817. to wit end is provided with a rack, N, the teeth of For the largest List, p200 which catch in a pin on the improved Water Wheel of the wheel to tee end. c are backs either For the 2nd largest List, 175 frame, and hold For the 3rd largest List, 1 ~0 Our engraving illustrates an improvement cast wholly with t ie buckets, or put on with For the 4th largest List, 125 the lever in any desired position. 0 are mov- in Water Wheels invented by Mr. B. G. separate pieces of metal. d are bolts made For the 5th largest List, 100 able legs, which may be adjusted and secured Cushing, of Dryden, Tompkins Co., N. Y., of round iron upor which the buckets vibrate. For the 6th largest List, 75 in any position by the set screws, P, so as for which application has been made for a These bolts are tut ned with shoulders and se- For the 5th largest Ltst, 40 For the 7th largest List, 50 to readily accommodate the machine to any patent. cured by nuts on :he top and bottom of the For the 9th largest List, 30 unevenness of ground. The front end of the A A is the scroll with part of the top de- wheel. In fig. 2, ~, shows the position of the For the 11th largest List, 20 For the 10th largest List. 25 apparatus is secured to the tree by means of tached. B is the shell of the wheel partly remo- buckets when ther is but little water let into For the 12th largest List, 10 a dog and staple at Q. When the saw has vedto showthe buckets. aare the buckets hay- the scroll. g shop s the position of the buck- Names can be sent in at different times and from dif. far enough into the tree a wedge is driven ing the form of an epicycloidal curve to the ra- ets when working at the maximum power j~rent Post Offices. The cash will be paid to the order cut of the successful competitor. immediately after the 1st of into the cut, which prevents the tree fr leaning over and binding on the saw. om dial line, and continued from thence in the with a full gate, nd h their position when January. 1557. circle corresponding with the inner diameter emptied of water. x are springs secured to ~- See Prospectus on last page. MACHINE FO~ CUTTING DOWN TREES. / / rI ri I - -~ ~w ~cicntific ~n~cricaa+ ~cientifh~ ~vn~erican, NEW-YORK, SEPTEMBER 27,1856. The Inventor of Purifying Molten Crude Iron Without Fuel an AmerIcan. In the two preceding numbers of the Sci- ENTIFIC AMERICAN we have described and commented on the process claimed by H. Bessemer, of London, for rendering crude pig iron malleable without fuelusing only a blast of cold air in a close chamber to make the molten pig metal purify itself. We have good reasons for believing that this dis- covery is not ~ but J. G. ~ one of our own countrymen, formerly of New- ark, N. J., who is a practical metal-worker, and who has been residing for some two years in Europe, engaged in introducing new improvements in the manufacture of malleable iron direct from the ore. He informs us that he worked the invention in the pres- ence of a numbir of witnesses, long prior to the date of Bessemers provisional specification one of these witnessesJohn Christopher, of Newark, N. J.,now resides in Pittsburgh, Pa. He operated upon 2000 pounds of crude molten iron in a chamber constructed like the one described by us two weeks ago, and tapped it off in six minutes after it was let in. The result was a refined carburet of iron, some of which was very malleable. The process was exactly the same as that described and claimed by Mr. Bessemer. He told bis patent attor- ney in London of this, and requested him to include the discovery in his application for a patent. The principle he claimed was the application of air in a natural or heated state under pressure, to fluid iron, from e~ blast or melting furnace, and in such a manner as to penetrate and search every part thereof, not confining himself to the kind of receiver in which the operation may be performed. His attorney in London did not describe the invention in the manner desired by Mr. M., but the reason why he could not then divine. It now appears that this attorney is greatly in- terested in Mr. ~ success, and hence the reason for not strictly complying with Mr. ~ wishes becomes evident. Mr. Martien obtained his patent in England Sept. 5th, 1855, for improving the manufac- ture of iron and steel, consisting of the appli- oation of atmospheric air by mechanical pres- sure, or steam for the better purifica- tion of the liquid metal below the surface of the said metal as it comes from the smelting furnace, or refinery, the air and steam to be applied separately or together, as may be de- sired, and in such manner as to completely penetrate and search every part of the said metal as it comes, or after it has flowed from a blast or smelting furnace, and prior to the congelation of the melted metal. This is an extract from his provisional specification, and it embraces the same process as that claimed by Mr. Bessemer, whose patent in England bears date 7th December, 1855three months after Martiens was issued. This proves conclusively who is the original inventor. Some persons may attribute these remarks to prejudice in favor of an American citizen but we ask them to look at the dates of these patents; and if they go to the legal documents themselves, as we have done, they will become convinced that Mr. Martiens process is the same as that claimed by Mr. Bessemer, and that the former is the first inventor. We hope that all the attempts made to deprive him of the benefits of his invention in England and elsewhere will end in failure. Long articles have appeared in quite a num- ber of the English newspapers flattering Mr. Bessemer highly, and praising his discovery. From the tone of these, and the peculiar same- ness of ideas contained in them, it is evident to us that he far surpasses Mr. Martien, onrco~- tryman, in his knowledge of the properties of the hot and cold blast, in its application to the British Press. Mr. Martien is supported in his claims by some powerful English iron manufactur ~ en, and they will be pressed and secured in the United States at a proper time, the papers ~ having been lodged by us for that purpose some time since in the Patent Office. In the last number of the London Mechanics Magazine, August 30th, received by us, C. Sanderson, of Sheffield, Eng., an old and ex- perienced practical metallurgist, while he ad- mits that the decarbonizing of pig metal with- out fuel is an improvement, he positively as- serts that iron so manufactured will not ad- mit of being drawn under a hammer, or rolled into a bar. He also asserts that the steel so made is not cast-steel; that it cannot be made into a boring tool, or fashioned under the workmans hammer. In our next number we will illustrate the invention, and present some other interesting information concerning this alleged wonder- ful discovery. Resignation of the Commissioner of Patents. Hon. Chas. Mason, who has so long and faithfully presided over the Patent Office as Commissioner, has, we regret to state, sent to the President his resignation. The Execu- tive, we understand, is reluctant to accept it, and up to the time of our going to press had not done so, and we hope will persist in de. dining, until Mr. Mason shall be induced to withdraw his petition. It would be a calami- ty to our inventors to have Judge Mason with- draw from the post of Commissioner, and we trust the causes, whatever they may be, which have induced this step on his part, may be re- moved, and that he may continue in the Office at least through the present administration. The causes which have led to this sudden step, on the part of Mr. Mason, have not been made public, but if rumor is correct, it is at- tributable to the unjustifiable interference of the Secretary of the Interior with the duties of the Commissioner. The appointment of Mr. Mason was univer- sally regarded as an excellent one, and events have fully justified that opinion. Under his admirable guidance, the Patent Office has ris- en to a prosperity and efficiency never known before. The ~clentlflc American Prizes. We continue to receive from every quarter the most gratifying evidences of the popular- ity of the SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN. From the long lists of subscribers that we are daily re- ceiving, it would almost seem that the en- thusiasm, in some localities, for our paper, has thrown all forms of political excitement into the shade. Our liberal offer of $1000 in cash prizes, to those who would exert themselves to make up clubs of subscribers to the SCIEN- TIFIC AMERICAN, is having its dues effect. An honorable competition has sprung up, and the results thus far are highly satisfactory. Some towns which gave us last year large numbers of adherents, have already doubled their for- mer strength. It may be interesting to those who are en- gaged, or propose to engage, in the noble strife, to be posted up as to who were the suc- cessful competitors last year, and how large their rolls of subscribers were. We accord- ingly subjoin the list as given by us in Janu- ary, 1856. LIST OF COMPETITORS FOR THE SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN PRIzEs, JANUARY, 1856, SHOWING THE AMOUNT PAID TO EACH~ AND THE NUM- BER OF SUBSCRIB.ERS ON THEIR RESPECTIVE LISTS. No. I. II. III. IV. V. VI. VII. VIII. IX. X. XI. XII. XIII. XIV. Name. Residence. Prize. List J. CANT. Hamilton. C.W. $100 172 M. M. GREEN. Louisville. Ky. $75 132 J.F. LONECRAFT, Rochester, N.Y. $65 94 Detroit. Mich. $55 82 Jackson, Mich. $10 75 Dubuque, Iowa. $45 71 Adrian, Mich. $40 66 Waukegan. Ill. $35 61 Dayton. Ohio. $10 55 Newark. Ohio. $25 46 So Dedham, Mass. $20 45 Quincy, IlL $15 45 Louisville, Ky. $10 45 Princeton, md. $5 45 W. C. GRANT, .1. L. MITCHELL, J. L. DICKINSON, G. C. HYATT. J. S. BARBER, JNO. GARST, H. S. BABBITT, C. BIERSTADT. L. LYMAN, B. RANKIN, R. SKINNER, It will be observed that some of the com- petitors sent the same number of subscribers. In these cases the amounts of the prizes their due, were, by consent, equally divided. Our friends should bear in mind that the sum total of the prizes last year was only $450, while this year it is increased to $1000. To one and all we say, work hard! Let the list of honor, to be published in January~ 1857. show a great increase of effort over 1856. 21 0. Franklin. assemblage of 5000 persons. Her length The good pe plo of Boston have erected a is 240 feet on deck; breadth 46 feet statue to Fran] In, who is acknowledged to depth of hold 30 feet. She can carry 7,000 have been ont of the greatest philosophers bales of cotton. Her frame is of live and that ever lived; the inauguration took place white oak, and she is bound from stem to on the 17th ins~ Franklins birthday. There stern with angle-crossed iron straps four and was a very lan ;e procession on the occasion, a-half by 3-4 inches. She is not pnly the and a highly a1 propriato one in many respects. largest but the strongest merchant ship ever There were exi ibited a new and beautiful lo- built in N ow York. A great change has ta- comotive and 1 ender named Benjamin Frank- ken place in the form and character of our lin, mounted 01 trucks, and drawn by eighteen merchant ships during the past six years. In horses; the E ouse and Morse telegraph in- appearance, they are entirely different from struments; the electric fire-alarm; Franklins the old ships: they are larger, sharper, and old printing ~ ross, on which was struck more graceful in their proportions. off and scattert d to the crowd a Jac similie of his newspaper, lated 1723; immense structures Recent American Patents. on wheels, r presenting school-rooms, filled Novel Sewing MachineBy C. R. Gardner with scholars t the desks; and a vast num- Detroit, MichThis is the cheapest and most her of other n svel and interesting features, compact contrivance of the sort that we have made up one (f the grandest displays ever seen. It throws all of the cheap sewing ma- witnessed. Ti e Mecha~j~~~ Charitable Asso- chines that we hear of in these latter days, in- ciation, and no morons other charitable socie- to the shade. This new comer is not much ties of Boston. and mechanics and other so- larger t~an a pair of scissors, can be made for cietles from th adjoining cities and towns a dollar or so, and the inventor thinks, will were -out in f ill force. Also, the Franklin compete, in quality of work, with many of Medal Scholar~ , children of the public schools, the best machines now in use. Ere long we & c. hope to present an engraving of the bantling. Franklin too i a deep interest in the educa- Shaft Sh~fter jar Slcighs.By George Ken tion of the pec plo of his native city, and left ny, of Milfond, N. H.This is a contrivance one hundred p unds to be invested, and the connected with the forward pant of sleighs, for interest applie to purchasing silver medals the purpose of shifting the shafts or thills, so Franklin Meda] sas honorary annual rewards as to bring the horse directly in front of the for the encour~ gement of scholarship in the vehicle, or on one side, at pleasure It con- free schools. Who can estimate the amount sists of a couple of small spring catches and a of good these 1 ave accomplished in stimula- rod, the arrangement being such as to permit ting the geniu~ of Boston youth I a convenient change either way, as desired. Franklin wa; a noble representative of the Mr. Kenny is the inventor of a number of ox- American med anzic, inventor, and philosopher. cellent improvements relating to vehicles. He invented a aumber of improvements in the printing press ; he invented the stoves which Paper CutterBy Hervey Law, of New York City.This improvement is intended to assist still bear his n. ime; and made one of the most bookbinders and others in cutting the edges important disc venies in electricityhe proved of books and masses of paper. It consists of its identity wil h lightning. From his youth a novel combination of parts, whereby the to the closing years of his eventful life he no ~- power which operates the knife also clamps thirsted after I nowledge, and he lost and feeds the paper. Heretofore it has been portunity of a quining it. He was 40 years of age before le saw a single electrical exper- necessary to operate the clamping device sep- iment perform dtbis was while on a visit to arately. The invention is in use at Messrs. Harpers establishment in this city, and is said Boston in 174, by Dr. Spence, who had re- cently arrived ~rom Scotlandand soon after- to work well. wards he dista aced all others by new discov- Improved Portfolio.By James Shaw, of eries in this sc ence. He had a most happy Providence, R. 1.In this portfolio sheets of tact in plannii g experiments and conducting music, letter sheets, newspapers, engravings, them. He wi s distinguished for great corn- manuscnipts, and other papers may be suc- mon sensenot such a common commodity, cessively inserted, and as substantially Se- but we know well what it means, namely, cured as if bound in the usual manner. a sound judgm nt, great powers of observation and reflection. He was of a very cheerful ~ temper, and lo ~ed his business, in which he was diligent, and stood before kings, the greatest of the~ n all. His life presents a strong example to o in mechanics for imitation. Franklin left n male descendants to perpetu- ate his name but on his grandson, Prof. Bache, has fallm his scientific mantle. The statue is a beautiful bronze casting, above the life ize, designed by R. S. Green- ough, of Bosto i, and cast at Ames celebrated works at Chic ipee. It stands upon a pedes- A are the covers of the Portfolio, construct- tal of verde an ique marble, set upon a base ed in the usual manner; B is a roller of wood; of granite. I represents Franklin standing this roller is permanently attached to the back in an easy attitude, with a cane in his right of the portfolio. Roller B has a longitudinal hand, and his )ld-fashiOned cocked hat under groove, Is, cut in its entire length, also grooves, his left arm, ai d is stated to be an admirable c, cut in it circumferentially. In the grooves, likeness of the mechanic philosopher. c, metallic rings, d, are fitted; these rings are not fitted finn Great ~hlts. tightly in the groQvos, c, that is, the The Great ~?epseblic, the largest ship ever grooves on the exposed side of the roller are built in our co antry for the commercial mar- wider and deeper than the thickness of the me, by Donald McKay, of Boston, was burned rings, so that threads may be passed around to the watery edge during a great fire in the rings; at the back or unseen point of the this city in the winter of 1853, when load- roller the rings are fitted tightly in the grooves, ed and ready ~or sea on her first trip. Her c, and are attached to the roller so that they hull was saved however, and sold by auction~ cannot turn therein. she was nigge I anew, and sent to Europe The music sheets and other articles desig- where she was employed by the French Gov mated by D are secured within the portfolio eminent as a ~tore-ship during the Crimean by sewing them to the metal rings, d. A war, in which ervice she surpassed all others needle which is slightly curved, carrying the for her sailing qualities and great capacity thread, is passed under the rings, d, through having carried 3000 soldiers and 400 horses the longitudinal grcove, 6, then through the during one trip, besides heavy cannon and sheets, so as to secure the sheets to the sev- ammunition. Having completed her engage oral lings. Single sheets are inserted by ments with th French Government, she ar- folding a narrow strip on the inner edge, and rived at this p rt, last week, and was the oh- then securing them the same as double sheets. ject of much ttention. E is a pocket attached to the cover, in which On the 15th inst., a new and magnificent the needle and thread may conveniently be Liverpool pac cot-ship, the Ocean Monarch, kept. was successfu ly launched from the foot of An important feature of this portfolio is, Tenth street, F ast River, in the presence of an that in its action it is superior to the spring ~tiewti~c ~~nicrii an. back bound book when filled or partially filled with sheets, and placed in nearly an upright position (upon the rack of a piano for in- stance) there is no disposition in the leaves to turn over of themselves, as is the case with books bound in the usual manner, particular- ly when newly bound. Contrivances for keeping the book open may, therefore, be dis- pensed with. This portfolio is simple in construction, and the roller back with the rings complete, and in readiness to attach to the covers, is of small cost. The expense of the article com- plete will depend upon the style and finish of the cover. Address the inventor as above for further information. Patented June 11, 1856. New Printing PressBy A. Newbury and B. Newbury, of Windham Center, N. Y. Consists in the employment of a rotating and reciprocating printing cylinder, and also in a peculiar inking device, and fly, which catches the sheets as they issue from the press. The machine is extremely simple, and it is believed, will work rapidly and well. It may be con- structed at a small cost, and is not liable to get out of repair. Machine for Heading Bolts.By E. Cole- man andP. Coleman,of Philadelphia, Pa. Consists of a rotating device attached to the bolt machine, whereby the bolt is turned in- termittently within the jaws during the pro- cess of heading. The usual burr which is now formed on bolts below the heads is thui avoided. Shingle Machine.By John Broughton, of Chicago, 111.Consists of a disk wheel with knives, face guide, and cam attached, and used in connection with a vibrating bed. This machine is designed for cutting shingles from blocks that have been previously steamed. It is very simple, both in construction and oper- ation. The only parts requiring any adjust- ment are the face guide, to give the thickness of the shingle, and the face cam, to give the taper. Saw Set.By A. Casey, New York City. The main object of this invention is to save the saw blade from being strained or bent and rendered untrue, by the operation of setting the teeth to cut a broader kerf. The arrange- ment could not be easily explained without drawings. Improvement in Steam Engines.By Charles H. Reynolds, of Lewiston, Me.This invention is applicable directly to the induction valves of a steam engine, when separate induction and eduction valves are used for each end of the cylinder; or to a separate cut-off valve arranged in the induction pipe, to act indepen- dently of the valve or valves which regulate the induction and eduction of the steam. It consists in a novel arrangement of mechanimm connecting the valves with the governor, for the purpose of varying the closing movement of the valves, and thus to regulate the engine. The Piow.An improvement Wanted. In our volumes of last year, under the above heading, will be found an article in which we called attention to a defect in the action of plows, a remedy or preventive of which would certainly be a great improve- ment. The defect to which the attention of our readers was called in that article seems the necessary result of the present form and mode of action of the plow, which is, in real- ity, a wedge, forcibly dragged through the soil, lifting up that portion which is above it, at the expense of hardening or making more compact that portion which is below it. This mode of action has a tendency to harden and glaze over the subsoil, or that part of the soil on which the sole of the plow rests in its pas- sage, and is productive of several injurious ef- fects ; as, for example: 1. It makes a com- pact surface very hard to break through or get under in subsequent plowings. 2. It makes the lower surface so dense that the roots of plants must often find it impossible, or very difficult to penetrate it; and 3. It forms a groove in which surface-water must some- times be retained long enough to injure the growing crops. The above is the defect which it is desira ~ ble to get rid of The improvement wanted is some contrivance by which this defect could be prevented or remedied. Nothing of the kind has been as yet proposed, so far as we can remember, by any of our ingenious coun- trymen. The following proposal was lately made at an agricultural meeting in Great Britain. The object, let it be remembered, is to preserve the bottom of the furrow in a per~ vious condition, and to get rid of that com- pactness, which, in addition to the evils al- ready named, must be a great obstacle to the perfect drainage of a clay soil. The remedy proposed consisted in the adaptation of rollers to the sole shoe, or in adding a hind wheel, notched or teethed, so that when following in the track of the sole shoe the notches or teeth may break up the smooth track formed by its action. The proposer of these two modes of improving the plow seems to think most fa- vorably of the idea of rollerswhose mode of action, however, he does not specif~ras they would not only prevent the glazing and har- dening, but would, in his opinion, lessen the draft. We submit these suggestions to our inge- nious inventors and mechanics, and to our ag- ricultural brethren of a mechanical genius, in the hope that they may prove a germ of a much-needed discovery or invention. [We copy the above from the Albany Culti- vator, which is one of the most practical and reliable agricultural papers in the country. The subject is one of importance. We have no doubt that inventors will respond to the call made upon them in the proper manner. The invention of a plow that will meet the requisites above described, would be a lasting benefit to the agricultural world, and bring a large fortune to the patentee. Come forward inventors, and help the farmers to a new plow. Prevention of Smoke. In all our Atlantic cities and villages where wood and anthracite coal are used for fuel, no smoke fills the atmosphere, and the houses have that clean and fresh appearance which excites the surprise of persons arriving here from England, where bituminous coal is em- pioyed for fuel. In various parts of our coun- try, however, bituminous coal is now used for fuel, and it will yet become the great fuel for manufacturing and domestic purposes, owing to the maguitude of our bituminous coal fields, in comparison with which the anthracite beds are mere specks. Where bituminous coal is used (as in Pittsburg, and the cities and vil- lages on the Ohio river) the atmosphere is redolent with smoke, and the houses have a sooty, chimney-sweep appearance. If the smoke from such fuel could be prevented, it would be a very desirable thing to all those who use it. Two inquiries, therefore, arise in regard to it, namely: what is the cause of the smoke; and can it be prevented. Fairbairn, C. E. and M. E., of Manchester, Eng., in his lectures to engineers, presents some very useful information relating to these two questions. He says Perfect combustion is the prevention of smoke, and whenever smoke makes its ap- pearance we may reasonably infer that there is imperfect combustion, and probably the want of attention to a few simple rules is the cause. From well-known chemical facts, 1 atom of coal gas requires 8 atoms of at- mospheric air for its complete combustion; when that quantity is at its maximum, or in excess, there is no smoke; when this con- dition is not fulfilled, smoke is invariably present. In order to render the residue of the products of combustion transparent or smoke- less, a supply of air, amounting to fifteen times that of the gases evolved, must be admitted. Should it exceed that quantity, the effect will not be smoke,but an additional expenditure of fuel to supply the loss of heat which this ex- cess of air would require for absorption, rare- faction, & c. Hence the necessity which exists for power to regulate the admission, if not the exact, at least of an approximate quantity of air. On the other hand, should the supply be deficient in quantity (which is often the case) a dense volume of smoke is then visible, ac- companied with all the defects and annoyances of imperfect combustion. The variable changes which accompany perfect and imperfect combustion are not only visible, but may be proved by experiment. Let any person apply his hand to the tube of an Argand g: Ls-burner, and he will find that the instant tie aperture is partially closed, the flame immedi ~tely becomes elongated, and in- stead of a clear brilliant light, a dull red flame with a dark olume of smoke, is the result. This shows t ~e effect of a diminished supply of air; and he same may be applied to a steam engine furnace when imperfectly sup- plied with o~ ygen, when the gases pass off in opake volume s unconsuined, and where a con- siderable pori ion of heat is entirely lost from that cause. t has been stated that we can- not have fire without smoke, but this is not the case in st ~am boilers, as a well-construct- ed furnace, pi operly managed, furnishes many examples wht re bituminous coal is consumed in large quan ities, and with little, if any, ap- pearance of moke. In attempting the total suppression e f this nuisance two important consideratioL require to be attended to as es- sential, the first of which is, an abundance of boiler space, nd the second a sufficient supply of air. The reason vhy wood emits but little smoke is that it cont zins within itself a great amount of oxygen, to produce perfect combustion. The reason why anthracite coal emits no smoke is that it contains no hydrogen, like bituminous cc al; it is mostly composee of carbon, which is not volatile, and only becomes so when it un tes with its combining propor- tions (C. 0.2) of oxygen in perfect combus- tion, producir g carbonic acid gas. Bitumin- ous coal is a ] tydro-carbon, that is, it contains hydrogen, a very volatile gas, which at a comparativel~ moderate heat escapes, and lifts up some of th carbon with it, thus producing carbonic oxy I (smoke). The addition of more oxygen o it at a high heat will produce perfect comb istion, prevent smoke, and in- crease the qu~ ntity of heat. The prevention of smoke, the efore, not only involves the re- moval of a db agreeable evil, but the saving of fuel also. Great Exhibiri )n of the American Inatteute at the C y~tai Pala.e, 1~ew York. The Exhibi :ion opened agreeable to an- nouncement, tn the 22nd inst., but at the time of our going , o press had not assumed a very orderly appea~ ance. Indeed, the Palace was by no means i a readiness for the public. A few days, how ever, will suffice to work a mar- vellous chang in the face of things. The Ex- hibition will then become interesting, and spectators wil begin to flock in by thousands. The indicat ons are, that the Fair this year will surpass those of previous years. The display of wo king machinery promises to be very large. C he arrangements for motive power are on t he amplest scale. Among the nechanical novelties already on hand is a sple sdid steam fire engine from the Island Works, Seneca Falls, N. Y., and anair engine from tI e Neptune Works, of this city. We shall dese, ibe them at another time. Next week ye shall commence our more formal reports. and devote considerable space each week, dui ing the continuance of the E x- hibition, to des criptions of the principal nov- elties in each (epartment. Thra hing by Steam Power. E. S. Judd, of Stevens Point, Wisconsin, informs us, the t last spring he and his broth- er, H. A. J, dd, purchased a four-horse power steam engine, of Hoard & Son, of Watertown, N Y., which they have applied with much sue cess to thrashing grain. They first tried it with a common thrasher and sep- arator, usually Iriven by four horses,but finding it more poweri ul than they expeeted, they ap- plied it to an eight-horse thrasher, which it worked with e ise to the astonishment of those who first witnt ssed it, and who were so well pleased with its performance that they threw up their hats, nd gave three cheers for steam. He informs us that competent judges assert, that their four. horse steam engine drives the thrasher and s parator with greater ease than eight horses. The farmers all like it, as it is twelve per cen. cheaper than horse power for thrashing. It s mounted on wheels; the far- mers furnish tI em with wood and water, and they go from place to place thrashing by steam. This portable steam thrasher is a great ac- qulsition to ag:iculture, and he thinks that the farmers of Ill, ois should devote their atten tion to steam thrashing as well as steam plowing. With a four horse thrasher, they have thrashed 100 bushels of wheat per hour. A Marine Locomottve. Mr. William Lonsdell, a machinist of Mem- phis, Tenn., has invented what he terms a Marine Locomotive, and which is designed to be substituted for the present steam water craft, by making the base of the boat the propelling agent, instead of paddle wheels, as now used. The invention consists in using two huge parallel hollow screws in the place of the present keel, and revolving them by means of steam power, so that they will cut their way through the water as a common screw cuts into wood. The screws are con- structed of iron, and, as before stated, are hollow, but are divided into compartments, as precaution against sinking, in case of an ac- cident. [Washington Star. [The idea of this locomotive is obtained from that of H. A. Frost, illustrated on page 180, Vol. 9, ScIENTIFIc AMERIcAN. The dif- ference between the two is. that Frosts has only one revolving hollow screw, and contains the cabins in its interior. Geographtcai Ext, ditions. Exploring expeditions have become quite a mania at present. One is about to be fitted out by the Pacha of Egypt to explore the up- per sources of the Nile, and another projected by some Englishmen with the same object in view, but taking a different route. The Nile is still a mystic river, and we know but little more about the countries through which it flows than that left us by the traveler Bruce, nearly a century ago. Prof. Burmeisterthe celebrated botanist of Halle University, in Germany, is about to proceed on an exploring expedition up the La Platta region in South Amcrica. An expedition i~ talked of in this city, for the purpose of exploring the mountainous re- gions behind the Colony of Liberia, in Africa. There is much of this world respecting which we are yet completely ignorant. We hope these expeditions will remove the clouds and shadows which still hover oer those regions which they contemplate exploring. Uses of Cypress Bark. We have received from C. K. Marshall, Esq., of Yicksburg, Miss., a small package of the inner bark of the cypress tree, with a de- scription of its uses, and he directs our atten- tion to other purposes to which it may be ap- plied. This bark is very fibrous, of a dark tan color, and thousands of tuns of it can be fur- nished at the southern saw mills every year. He believes, and, we think,justly, that it would make excellent wrapping paper. It is employed in small quantities by some boatmen for caulk- ing boats, and it possesses the quality of repell- ing the attacks of all water worms. It makes very good rope, and some of the raftsmen twist its fibers, and use it for this purpose. If any paper manufacturer desires to make some experiments with it, or any of our ship caulk- ers for caulking the seams of vessels, he will willingly furnish them with specimens. We are convinced that the inner bark of the cypress treewhich is the common growth of the low lands in the Southmight be used as a cheap material for making mats, coarse ropes, and a hundred other things. The nat- ural resources of our country are not half de- veloped. We send abroad for cocoa fiber for making coarse mats and rugs, while we have a superior article, thousands of tuns of which is annually thrown away at all our southern saw mills. Death of a Celebrated Navigator. Sir John Ross, the celebrated Arctic navi- gator, recently died in Scotland at the ad- vanced age of 80 years. His expedition to the Arctic regions, ending in 1833, lasted four years, and he sailed over the exact northern pole of our globe: indicated by the compass whirling round on its pivot. The U. S. propeller Arctic, which was dis- patched by our Government to sound the ocean track for the telegraph cable between New- foundland and Ireland, has arrived at the lat- ter country, but no report of her ocean survey has yet been made public. ~cicntific ~mcritan. T. S., of MassThe heat of the steam, is also a test of its pressure, and thermometric instruments are now em- ployed on boilers to indirate its temperature. These are auxiliaries to pressure gauges. T. ID. J., of MichFlexible Life Preservers, having two and three apartments, have been used. We witnessed experiments with such eight years since. Their principle of construction is correct. M. J. II., of N. Y.A full published description of an invention would prevent it being granted in a foreign country, or null, in the eyes of the law, if obtained. Your plan of naval warfare appears feasible and terribly effec- tive, at short fighting distances. We would advise you to lay it before the Secretary of the Navy. S. C., of The phenomenon of the earth forming part of the telegraphic circuit, is stiil involved in obscuri- ty. We have little confidence in any of the theories ad- vanced on the subject. We want more light on the sub- ject, and for this purpose experiment, and not specula- lion, is what is wanted. A., of LaWe do not think your method of setting saw teeth is patentable. If you examine our reports of the American Institute Fair published in October and November, last year, you will find a description of a saw that planes as you propose. A method of filing and set. hog circular saws is described on page 259, Vol. 8, Sc;. AM. The saw must be set according to the kind of wood it has to cut. With a little practice you will find out the proper angle for filing. If you run it with a high veloci- ty, and keep the teeth sufficiently wide apart you will not be troubled with saw dust in the cut, A, J. B., of MassYou cannot prevent the formation of crust in culinary vessels, if you use hard water. The best way to remove the incrustations is to heat the ves- sels when dry, and then strike them with a stick on the outside; this will crack off the crust. You must not use acid, in tin.ware vessels, to eat the crust. A. B. II., of mdThe sulphate of lead is formed by double decomposition with any salt of lead. Pour strong sulphuric acid upon sugar of lead, then wash it with wa- ler to remove the free acid; the powder is the sulphate which you want and cannot obtain in your city, as you have stated. C. F. W., of Mass.The articles on metallic springs will be very useful information. ID. W., of mdHeeds work on clock and watch mak- ing is the only one we know of devoted to that subject. Thomas Place, Alfred Center, N. Y., wishes to corres- pond with some manufacturer of hand-boring machines. We cannot furnish all the numbers of Vol. 9. first half. H. ID. S., of Geo.You can purchase a good barometer of E. & E. W. Blunt, 179 Water street, N.Y. Write to Prof. Henry, of Washington, respecting the instruments you have mentioned. The anemometer is described in every good work on pneumatics. E. B. W., of N. Y.A candle gives as much light dur. ng day as at night. Its intensity of light depends entirely on the amount of oxygen it consumes in a given time. ~ OK P., of ObtoTeit P. H. to get Hodges work on the steam engine price $10; also Bournes Catechism, price $1, published by Appleton & Co., this city. These will give him the information he wants. J. S., of BaltimoreThere are ~-arious patents on tur. bine water wheels; Address Uriah A. Boyden. Lowell, Mass., for the information lou desire. L. 0., of N. Y.IDr. Muspralts work on Chemistry, now publishing, by C. B. Russet & Bros., Tremont street, Boston, will be the best for your purpose ever published it has not yet reached the article Gums ; you must consult Ures Dictionary on this subject. E. S. J., of Wis.Your marble saws are similar to the first models which passed through our office, and are therefore not patentable. B. B. N,, of OhioFrom the weed you have sent us, good paper, no doubt can be manufactured, but not so cheap as from rags. H.P. T., of MassThere is no work on welt sinking and boring published in our country; but there is one on Road MakingProf. Gillespies. You can obtain it at the book stores. H. B. K., of OhioWe are not acquainted with the book mentioned; inquire at the book stores t they keep catalogues. T. ~ P., of OhioThe engine sketched and described in your letter, is just a rude hot.air engine t it is of no practical utility. S. & B., ofConn.The pencil to which you refer would not be patentable, according to the description you have given of it. C. W. ID., of VIBournes Catechism of the Steam Engine, published by Appleton & Co., this city, contains the information you want relating to setting valves. 1g. F., of Conn.Your explanation of the motions of the rotoscope is the same as that ofrotarymotion, and5 is correct. Moneyreceived at the Scszrevirtc AMERICAN Office, on account of Patent Office business for the week ending Saturday, Sept. 20, till J. B. ID., ofTeon., $15; G. H. T., of Mass., $109 t P. M., ofIll.,$ilO; W.H.,ofWis., $21; W. Soflowa, $25;H. C.,ofPa..$25;J.B.,ofMich.,$25tJ.S.,ofO.,$25;A, R.,ofN.Y.,$25;G.ID.L.,ofN.Y.,$25;P,& C,.ofN. Y.,i35; S.& S.,ofN.J., $25; W.W.Jr..ofO,,$35;O. V. ID. H., of Ill., $30; W. M., of Mass., $30; W, & M., of N.Y.,$30; W.& J.C.,ofN.Y..$30;ID,A.S.,ofConn., $30; J.L. Hof N. Y., $30; ID. L.J.,ofMich.,$30; F. A.H.,ofS.C.,$t5; J.S.. ofL.I.;$25; W,H,S,,ofR. I.,$30; Cliii., nfN. H., $Iit ST., of 0.. $30; A. B. C.,ofN.Y..$30;E.A.C.,ofConn.,$25; C. Mof N. Y., 30 II. It. & J. L. P of Mass., $275~ AF. W., of Ky., $50; J.ID,S.,ofMass.,$53~ J.P,,of N. Y.,$25. Specifications and drawings belonginglo parties with the following initials have been forwarded to the Patent Office during the week ending Saturday, Sept. 20th G. H. T., ot Mass., (2 cases); I. S., of 0.; W. S., of I own; B. C.. ofPa. ; J. B., ofMich.; W. H., ofWis.; F. AH ofSC.;J.L.H..ofN.Y.;J.K,,ofL,I.tM,& F..ofN.Y.;S.& S.,ofN,J.;A,McL,& B,.ofN,Y. A. R.,ofN. Y.; S.& T., ofO.; C. H.H., of N.H.~ W TofO.; S.T.,ofO.; E.A.C.,ofConn.~ P.& C.,ofN. I. P., of N. Y. Important Itemi. MoDELs...Inventors, in constructing their models, should bear in mind that they must not exceed a foot in men; urement in either direction. They will also remember that the law requires that all models shall be neatly and substantially made of durable material. If made of soft wood they should be painted or stained. We shalt esteem it a great favor if inventors will always attach their names to such models as they send us. It will save us much trouble, and prevent the lia- bility of their being mislaid. PATENT LAWS AND Gusox TO INvENToRsThis pam- phlet contains not only the laws but all information touching the rules and regulations of the Patent Office Price 12 1.2 cents per copy. A Circular, giving in- structions to inventors in regard to the size and proper construction of their models with other useful informal tion to an applicant for a patent, is furnished gratis at this office upon application by mail. REcEIPTsWhen money is paid at the office for subscrip- tion, a receipt for it wilt always be given; but when sub- scribers remit their money by mail, they may consider the arrival of the first paper a bona fide acknowledg- ment of the receipt of their funds. FOREIGN SuescRneERsOur Canada and Nova Scotia patrons are solicited to compete with our citizents for the valuable prizes offered on the next volume. [It is important that alt who reside out of the States should remember to send 25 cents additional to the published rates for each yearly subscriberthat amount we are obliged to pre-pay on postage.] PATENT CLAIMsPersons desiring the claim of any in- vention which has been patented within fourteen years can obtain a copy by addressing a letter to this office stating the name of the patentee, and date of patent when known, and enclosing $1 as fees for copying. BINDsEGWe would suggest to those who desire to have their volumes bound, that they had better send their numbers to this office, and have them executed in a uni.~ form style with their previous volumes. Price of bind- ing 75 cents. INFALLIBLE RULEIt is an established rule cf this office to slop sending the paper when the time for which is was prepaid has expired, and the publishers will not deviate from that standing rule in any instance. Terms of Advertising. Twenty-five cents a line each insertion. We respect- fully request that our patrons will make their adver- tisements as short as possible. Engravings cannot be ad- mitted into the advertising columns. ~ All advertisements must be paid for before insert- ing. IMPORTANT TO INVENT- ORS. THE UNDERSIGNEI) having had Trre years practical experience in solicitingPATENTS in this and foreign countries, beg to give notice that they con- tinue to otlertheir services to all who may desire to se- cure Patents at home or abroad. Over three ;heusossd Letters Patent have been issued, whose papers were prepared at this Office, and on an averagegteeo, or ene-thi cr1 of allihe Patents issued each week, are on cases which are prepared at our Agency. An able corps of Engineers, Examiners, Draughtsmen, and Specification writers are in constant employment, which renders us able to prepare applications on the shortest notice, while th. experience of a long practice, and facilities which few others possess, we are able to give the most correct counsels to inventors in regard to the patentability of inventions placed before us for ex- amLsaation. Private consultations respecting the patentability of in- ventions are held free of charge, with inventors, at our office, from 9 A. M., until 4 P - M. Parties residing at a distance are informed that it is generally unnecessary for them to incur the expense of attending in person, as all the steps necessary to secure a patent can be arranged by letter. A rough sketch and description of the improve- ment should be first forwarded, which we will examine and give an opinion as to patentability, without charge. Models and fees can be sent with safety from any part of the country by express. In this respect New York is more accessible than any other city in our country. Circulars of information will be sent free of postage to any one wishing to learn the preliminary steps towards making an application. In addition to the advantages which the long experience snd great success of our firm in obtaining patents present to inventors, they are informed that all inventions pat- ented through our establishment, are noticed, at the prep- cc time, in the ScIENTIFIc AMERICAN. This paper is read by not less than 300,000 persons every week, and en- joys a very wide spread and substantial influence. Most of the patents obtained by Americans countries are secured through us ; while it is well known that a very large proportion of all the patents applied for in the U. S., go through our agency. MUNN & CO. American and Foreign Patent Attornies, Principal Office 128 Fulton street, New York. CLARKS PATENT WATER REGULATOR The only perfect security against steam boiler explo- sions, caused by want of water. Every steam boiler should have one. Regulators sold and a p plied and rights for most of the States and Territories, or sale by S. C HILLS, 12 PlaIt sI., N. Y. i 4eow* TO MANUFACTURERS. Proposals will be - $ ~ manufacturing Broughtons Patent Door and Gate Spring. Ills very simple and easy to make, and will require but little outlay for additional machinery. Apply to JOHN FRASER, 192 Fulton sI. 1* 1 YROSCOPESA large assortment of this interest- ~I~ing and wonderful scientific curiosity constantly man. ufactured and for sale b7 JAMES W. QUEEN, 26j Chesnut street, Philadelphsa. Illustrated catalogues by mail gratis. 3 3* THE RIGHT OF MY SELF-SUPPORTING Scaffold, for the United States can be purchased a great bargain if applied for soon. A. C. FUNSTON, Frankford road opposite Master, Philadelphia. 1* U~ OR SALEA variety of valuable patents in town U or State rights, very low for cash, by GEORGE WHEELER & CO., Patent Right and Real Estate Agents, No. 334 Broadway, N. Y. N. B. We buy, sell and procure patents on commission and exchange for all kinds of available property; charging nothing unless the business we take in hand is accompltshed. 3 2* J HERVA JONES CORN PLANTING MA- chines. Co-partnershipThe undersigned have entered into a co-partnershi under the style of J. Herva Jones & Co,, for the man~ctore and sale of his welt known planting machines, and are now ready to contract them at wholesale prices, with exclusive right of sale in specified sections, to responsible men. Anr person who wishes to interest himself and will communicate with us, shall receive by return mail a circular containing our wholesale prices, our terms, and our recommendations with reference to p tans for selling. J. RERVA JONES, SAMUEL TALCOTT, MILES S. PR LEB C. CHURCH. ENTICE, CA- Rocklon, Winnebago Co., Ill. 3 3* U OoO AGENTSFor unparallaled induce- ments. Send stamp toM. J. COOK. A. B., Detroit, Mich, 3 1* BROOKLYN WATER WORKSNOTICE TO MACHINISI SSealed Proposals will be receiv- ed at the office of the undersigne d.N o. 4 Wall street, NewYork, until C clober 1st, 1803, at noon, for Ihe con- struction of two Pu nping EnginesCornish or equal to Cornish, for the Br ooklyn Water Works, of capacity to raise ten millions (N. Y.) gallons daily each ; 170 feet high, with three hr ilers each; to be built and erected complete on the si ne foundation prepared for them, and to be of first class is orkmanship. Drawings in detr ii, accurately defining the style and character of Engli es and appurtenances to be submilled by the proposers, asith description. Specifications and further information may be had at the office of the Chief Engineer, James P Kirkwood, Esq., No.4 Halseys Build- ings, Brooklyn, or of the undersigned. The right is re- served to reject ar y of the proposals made. H. S. WELLES & CO., 2 2* No. 4 Wallstreet, New York. OIL PRESSI S FOR SALE.One set of Hori- zontal Oil P esses, complete consisting of two cyl- inders, lined with copper, and boxes containing 8 bags each, with plates. sydraulic pumps and connections,~and heating tables, lb ase presses are built in the most im- proved and substa hal manner, and can be delivered im- mediately; squee en and bags can also be furnished if required. Apply to WM. ARTHUR & CO., Atlantic Steam Engine W urks, Brooklyn. N.Y. 34* M ci) 0 U GA L LS PATENT DISINFECTING POWDER.- -The cheapest and most efficient disin- fectant yet produ tedcontains no corrosive ingredients, and may be safely used in dwelling-houses and nurseries; also stables, & c., r s this disinfector greatly improves the quality of all man ores for agriculturalpurposes. Sold in packages by all )ruggists. E. HAY N ES, 103 Beekman street, N. Y , Agel I for the United States. 2 2* NW, ROBIASONS PATENT HEAD T[JRN- lNG ANI PLANING MACHINE, for Heads of all kinds and desi riptions; it will make from 200 to 350 heads per hour, o~ the most perfect description. There will be one on exl ibition at the Crystal Palace. N. Y., at the Fair of the A merican Institute, in Oclober, where those wishing for tiachines or State rights can see it in operation and jud ~e of its merits for5themselves. All communications i u relation to machines and rights shouid be addressed to ROBiNSON. SCRIBNER & CO.. Keeseville, Essex Co.. N. V. 1 4* T HEPATE~T DECISIONTo the Editors of the ScrrwrlFlu AMERICAN The statement in your paper of this mon log in regard to the verdict of the jury in the case of Ge urge Page vs. Georgia. is a perverted one. It is true thu tthe verdict was in favor of the defend ant. but not upon I he ground stated in the Elmira Adver- tiser, which you 5 opted. On the first ballot of the jury there were 7 for I se plaintiff and 5 for the defendant. The jury then pru ceeded to take up each question selar- ataly u First, the3 passed upon the question ofpriorily of invention, and de ztded in favor of plaintiff. George Page. The next questiol was, Did the defendant infringe the Upontl is question the jury stood Sfor plaintiff 4 tor defend ml, and so stood until5 oclock in the morning, and ulti nately brought in a verdict for defend- ant, upon the test mony ofone of the witnesses for defend- ant, who swore that he had tended the mill from the time it stared, and th it it never had end-play. And as this formed the esser cc of the infriogment, and it was not proven by the wi nesses of complainant that the mill had been worked wits end-play. though the fact is notorious that it had been so worked, the jury found fbr the de- fendant, though t icy unanimously decided that the pri- ority of inventior belonged to George Page, thereby sus- ~ .~iyofhis patent. GEORGE PAGE & CO., Baltimore, Aug ast 3d. 50 4* ANEW Al~ I) SCIENTIFIC INVENTIONDr Cheevers u 1-alvano-Electric Regenerator. Patent issued Jan. 15th,: 856. A circular relating to the use ofihe instrument, embr icing a general treatise of atony of the spermatic organs, the result of which IsIuds to softening the medullary so stance of which the brain is composed ma~v be had grat s, and will be sent to any address by mast by their mdl eating a desire to receive it. All letters should be directe I to DR. 2. CHEEVER, No.1 Tremont Temple. Boston 51 4* A LEXANDE itS COMPOUND Parallel Sawing Machine, fur making lath from the slab or board cross-cutting, nipi ing, and sawing miter, all combined to a cheap. simple i nd compact manner, is illustrated in No. Sf1, Scientit c American. Sash factories, cabinet shops, carpenter hops, etc., should have these machines. Price $00. Coun ry and State rights for sale. Address THOS.J. ALE) ANDER. Westerville, Franklin Co. Ohio. 505* M ACIIINE : JELTING, Steam Packing, Engine HoseThe superiority of these articles manufac- tured of vulcani~:ed rubber is established. Every belt will be warranted superior to leather, at one-third lens price. The Stear ; Packing is made in every variety, and warranted to sir nd 0 degs. of heat. The hose never needs oiling, and is warranted to stand any required pres- sure; tofether is ith all varieties of rubber adapted to mechanucal purp aics. Directions, prices. & c., can be ob- tained by mail u r otherwise, at our warehouse. New York Belting an I Packing Co., JOHN H. CHEEVER, Treasurer. No. I Deystreet, N.Y. 48 10* NO. 1.SSOO,OOO VALUABLE TO EVERY- body. A feis weeks ago CHARLES BHADFIELD, of Philadelphia. opened a new Agricultural lmplement Store at Fifth a ; dChestnut streets. he appropriated entirely to new inventions. See below. NO. 2.INV 3INTORS, PATENTEES, & c., wars all cordially invited to place their models here, of charge, and th s Philadelphia papers say there is al- ready six to cig tat hundred thousanddollars worth of patents in this r sin, and visitors from all parts of the world visit there to see them. 51 4* YOUNG MEN for big wages. Honest, e sy, and sure. Send stamp to Box 533, Detroit.~ich. 51 4* R B. FIT) S & CO., Commission Agents for the Ma~uagev ml an Sale of American and Foreign intent Righ , 085cc, No. 23 Congress sI., Boston, Mass. 51 4* SWISS DR 4WING INSTRUMENTSA full stork of ti ese celebrated instruments always on hand. Catalogo us gratis. AMSLER & WIRZ, 51 4* 211 Chestnut st., Philadelphia. GREAT WISTERN MAChINERY AND PAT- ent Agency E. E. ELLS WORTH having disposcd of his interest in the firm, the business hereafter well be conducted undel the firm and style of DAVID RICH- ARDS & CO. Ye are prepared to sell all kinds of val- uable improvem unts and machinery throughout the Uni- ted States. For & rther information address DAVID RIChARDS & CO.. 51 6* No. 64 Randolph sI., Chicago, Ill. IRON FOUNt )ERS FACING MATERIALSViz. Sea Coal, H ;rdwood Charcoal, Lehigh Coal, Soap. stone, and Germ in Black Lend finely pulverized t also Core Flour, Fin Clay, Fire Sand, and Fire Bricks, for sale by OK 0. HO BERTSON, 135 Water st., New York. 44 4eow* H ARRISOI~ S GRIST MILLS20. 30,36 and 48 inches dint meter, at $100, $200. $300. and $400, with all the modern i roprovements. Also, Portable and Sta- tionary Steam Ii ngines of all sizes, suitable for said Mills. Also Bolter;, El uvators, Belting, & c. & c. Apply to 3 e3wtf S. C. HILLS, 12 Platt it., N. E NGINEERI G.The undersigned is prepared to furnish epes ifications, estimates, plans in general or detail of steamsi i s, steamboats, propellers. high and low pressure engines toilers and machinery of every descrip- tion, Broker it steam vessels, maplainery, boilers, & c. General Agent fcc Asherofts Steam and Vacuum Gauges, Allen & Noyes detallic Self-adjusting Conical Packing, Fabens Water C uRge, SewelUs Salinometers, Dudgeons Hydraulic Liftin; Press, Roeblings Patent Wire Rope for hoisting and stee ing purposes, Machinery Oil of the most approved kind, tc. CHARLES W. COPELAND, 1 eowtf Consulting Engineer, 64 Broadway, THE NINTH ANNUAL EXHIBITION OF THE Maryland Institute for the Promotion of the Me- chanic Arts will be opened at the Institute~s spacious hail, Baltimore, on Wednesday, Oct. let, and continue to Oct. 29th, 1856. Goods for exhibition and competition will be received at any time prior to Friday night. Sept. 26th. after which for exhibition only, except such as the Committee shall be satisfied were dispatched in time to have reached the Hall by that day, but failed to do so from unavoidable detention. The co-operation of the manufacturers, mechanics, anlists, and the community generally is respectfully solicited. Circulars embodying the regulations and blank applications for space, with all other information, will be promplly furnished by ap- plication to John S. Selby, Actuary of the institute. JOSH U A VANSANT, 514 Chairman of the Exhibition Committee. CIRCULAR SAWSWe respectfully call the atten lion of manufacturers of lumber to the great improve- ments recently introduced in the manufacture of our Circular Saws. Being sole proprietors of Southwells patent for grinding saws, we are enabled to grind circular saws from six inches to six feet with the greatest accuracy and precision. The impossibility of grinding a saw with- out leaving it uneven so thickness has always been ac- knowledged by practical saw makers. This causes the saw to expand as soon as it becomes slightly heated in work- ing. When this takes place the saw loses its stiffness, and will not cut in a direct line. We will warrant our saws to be free from these defects; they are made perfectly even in thickness, or gradually increase 10 thickness from the edge to the center, as may be desired. As there are no thick or thin places. the friction on the surface of the saw is uniform, consequently it will remain stiff and true, and will require less set and less power. Will saw smooth, save lumber, and will not be liable to become un- true. This is the oldest etablishment now in existence for the manufacture of circular saws in the United States, having been established in the year 1830. Orders re- ceived at our Warehouse, No. 48 Congress st., Boston. 44 13 * WELCH & GRiFFITIIS. KNITTING MACHINES Circular and straight knitting machires of all sizes and gauges on hand and made to order. WALTER AlKEN, Franklin, NIl. 40 13* PAGES PATENT PEPiI5ETUAL LIME KILN, will burn 110 barrels of lime witla three cords of wood every 24 hours; likewise my coal kitii will buns 1110 bushel wito 1 tuih bituminous coal in ulse same time; coal is not mixed with limestone. Itighus fur sale. 45 26 C. ID. PAGE, Rochester, N. V. ~O STEAM ENGINESFrom 310 40-horse power ~ also portable engines and boilers; they are first class engines, and is-ill be sold cheap for cash. WM BURDON, 102 Front si., Brooklyn. 41 tI G OLDQUARTZ MILLS of the most improved con- struuction; sill crush mere quartz and do it finer than any machine now in use, and costs much less. WM BUHID ON, 102 Front it., Brooklyn. 41 tf VAILS CELEBRATED PORTABL~~ STEAM Engines and Saw Mills, Bogardus Horsepowers, Smut Machines, Saw and Grist Mill irons and Gearing, Saw Gummers, Hatchet Drills, & c. Orders for light and heavy forging and castings executed with dispatch. LOG AN & LIDGER WOOD, 13 lys 9 Gold st.,N.Y, F ILMER & CO., Electrotypens, and Manufacturers of Electrotype Materials, 126 Fulton sI., N. Y. Mold- ing Presses, Batteries, Cases, Backing Pans, Shaving Ma- chines, Metal Kettles, Planes, Blocks, Building Irons, etc., etc., on hand, or furnished at short notice, and at moder- ate charges. Adam; Improved batteries and black-lead machines also for sale. 23 If PAGES PATENT CIRCULAR SAW MILLS with Steam Engine and Boiler, on hand and for sale for $1500. at Scheock Machine Depot, 163 Greenwich st. New York. A. L. ACKERMAN. 49 10 CIRCULAR SAW MILLSThe subscriber has on hand, and is constantly manufacturing Ihose cel- ebrated mills, with saws from 30 to 80 inches diameter, adapted to manufacturing most kinds of lumber, and warranted to give satisfaction. For prices, & c., address W. HERRICK, Northampton, Mass. 49 3* BARREL MACHINERYCROEIERS PATENT is unrivalled in point of quality and quantity of work performed, and may be seen 10 constant operation at the B anne lManufactory of the undersigned. For rights and machines address WELCH & CROZIER, 43 18* Oswego, N. Y. 0 CAR BUILDERSFor Sale, one new Upright Boring Mill Ion boring car wheels. Makers p rice $6410, will be sold for $300 cash. Address GE 0. 5. LIN- COLN & CO.. Hartford, CI. ltf BOiLER FLUESAll sizes and any length prompt- lyfurnished by JAMES 0. MORSE & CO.. No.79 John sI., N. V. 51 Imos WROUGHT-IRON PIPE-Plain, also galvanised inside and outside, sold at wholesale by JAMES 0. MORSE & CO.. No.79 John at., N. V. 51 Smos FORBES & BOND, ArtIste, 89 Nassau it, N.Y., Me- chanicaland general Draughtamen on wood.stone,& c. OIL! OIL! OIL !For railroads, steamers, and for machinery and burningPeases Improved Machine- ry and Burning Oil will save fifty per cent., and wiil not gum. This oil possesses quailties vitally essential for lubri- cating and burning, and found in no other oil. Ills of feresi to the public upon the most reliable, thorough, and practical test. Our most skillful engineene and machinists pronounce it superior and cheaper than any other, and the only oil that is in all cases reliable and will not gum. The Scientific American, after several tests, pronounced it superior to any other they have ever used for machin- ery. For sale only by the inventor and manufacturer. F. S. PEASE, 61 Main sI., Buffalo, N. V. And W. S. ROWLAND & CO.. Agents for Chicago, Ill. N. BReliable orders filled for any part of the United States and Europe. 1 tf ~T(1R~7ROSS ROTARY PLANING MACHINE. The Supreme Court of the U. S., at the Term of 1853 and 1854. having decided that the patent granted to Nich- olas G. Noncross, of date Feb. 32, 1 ,for a Rotary Pla- ning Machine for Planing Boards and Planks 18 not an infringement of the Woodworth Patent. Rights to use the N. G. Noncrosss patented machine can be purchased on application to N. G.NORCROSS, Office for sale of rights at 27 State street, Boston, and Lowell, Mass, 45 6m* NEW HAVEN MFG. CO.Machinisls Tools, Iron Planers, Engine and Hand Lathes, Drills, Bolt Cut- ters, Gear Cutters, Chucks, & c., on hand and finishing. These Tools are of superior quality, and are for sale low for cash or approved paper. For cuts giving full descnip- lion and prices, address,~~ New Haven Manufacturing Co NewHaven, Conn. lIf HARRISONS 30 INCH GRAIN MILLSLa. test Patent. A supply constantly on hand. Price $200. Address New Haven Manufacturing Co., New Haven, Conn. Sltf CLOCKS for Churches, Court Houses, & c. Regula- tors and lime pieces for jewelers, railroads, offices, & c. Also glass dials of any size for illuminating, and olher kinds manuflictured and warranted by the subscriber. JOHN SHERRY, Oakland Works, Sag Barbor, N. V. 37 l2eow J~ OILER INCRUSTATIONS PREVENTE q A simple~and cheap condenser manufactured by m. Burdon.102.Front st.,B rooklyn, will take every par~ tides of lime or salt out of the water, rendering it as pure as Croton, before entering the boiler. Persons in want 9 of such machines will please state what the bore and stroke of the engines are, and what kind of water is lobe used. 41 tf r~1 ~ ~ scientific ~nicti can4 Gum Copal. This is a valuable and singular kind of resin, which, according to some authorities, naturally exudes from different large trees found in the East Indies. Dr. Ruschenburger still asserts that it is a gum found ahout the roots, whence it is dug up in large quantities, and is often obtained from places where the tree had been grown many years before. The best copal is of a bright yellow color, trans- parent as amber, found in small rounded lumps or flat pieces, hard and brittle, but eas ilyre- duced to powder. When dissolved in linseed oil, it forms a heautiful varnish, which, when~ applied to pictures, snuff-boxes, tea-trays, & c., gives luster to the painting, and brings out the colors Copal is liable to be confounded with gum anime, which exudes from the roots of the locust tree (Hymenoxs Courbaril). According to M. Landerer there are three vuirieties of copal, differing from each other in their properties, viz., Brazilian, XV ~st Indian, and East Indian or Levantine, copal. The 1 tter variety is sold in the bazaars of Jerusa- lem, Mecca, and other places, as a species Of choice incense, and it plays a very leading part in all the fumigating drugs of the East. The people employed in the collection of the copal in Palestine ~nd Abyssinia dig deep trenches around the tree. and then collect and sort the pieces of gum which fall into them. They are afterwards freed as much as possible of the earth that adheres to them by washing and stirring. African copal is obtained from a species of Hymenna, and from fourteen to seventeen tuns are imported to Liverpool from Sierra Leone. New Zealand copal is the Kauri gum; Brazilian copal is the produce of Trachylobium Martianum. In commerce, copal is distinguished into the hard and soft kinds. The chief varieties of the former are: 1st, copal from Madagas- car (in large, flat, yellow pieces), which, when cold, is tasteless and odorless, but when heated diffuses an aromatic odor; this kind is rather rare. 2d. The East India copal, the m~t common commercial variety; it is rough on the surface, bearing the impression of sand. The best specimens are colorless, and in small pieces, constituting the copal from Calcutta. A third, hut very small variety, is brought from the Brazils and south of Africa. In the Calcutta variety, pieces of all the other kinds are to he found; nor is a distinction readily to be made between the white copal of Calcut- ta, and the yellow resin of Bombay; the dif- ference appears to depend only on the care bestowed on the sekction and purification of the pieces. The various resins, from anime to soft copal, Indian and Madagascar, seem to form a continued series, differing only in the increased quantity of oxygen they contain. A curious variety of copal is that in the pebble form, rounded by the action of the water. Copal is the Mexican generic name for all resins. In the collection of products from Mexico shown at Paris, there were several resinous gums, of which no particulars, how- ever, were obtainableone, an unnamed resin, very much like anime; another termed Axin resin, which burns with little flame, and black- ensa whiter kind, called Archipan resin, has much the same properties, and a bitter flavor. A nominal copal from the same quarter re- sembles very closely the resin of Tacamahaca, being of a white color, with a coniferous smell. Copal varnish for fine paintings is made by fusing white resin in a clean iron vessel, then pouring into it 2 gallons of clear hot linseed oil to every 8 lbs., boiling it for 1~ minutes, then pouring in 3 gallons of turpentine when cooled down. It is now stirred, is strained and if too thick, more turpentine is added. Coach varnish is made in the same manner, only the oil and the resin are boiled for four hours, until quite stringy, when it is thinned with turpentine. When this varnish is em- ployed without a drier it is very pliable, but it takes months to dry before it can be rubbed down and polished. To make it dry quick, some sulphate of zinc is mixed with it. The durability of varnishes, however, is injured by dryers. IMPROVED $EED SOWING MACHINE. Improved Seed Sower, a suitable gea wheel, E, put in motion by economy of manufacturing these seed planters Our engraving illustrates the invention of rod and piniol connected with shaft, F, of the will be obvious to every reader. Address the Mr. E. D. Curtis, of Mount Morris, N. Y., for driving whe is. Gear wheel D is con- inventor as above, for further information. which a patent was granted Nov. 13, 1833. nected with shaft on the inside of the The seed to be planted is contained in an ob- box, which sti ~s up the seed. The quantity of long box, A, within which is a seed roller, B, seed to be se wed per acre is regulated by (fig. 2) having pockets upon its periphery, changing the ize of the gear wheels, which which receive and discharge the grain into are so arrange I as to be readily removed. G the channels, C C. These channels pass down are levers, by which the discharge of seed in the center of the plow shanks, to the from any one of the channels, C C, may ground. The plow shares, it will be observed, instantly shut off. are placed respectively in the rear of each H (fig. 2) is a valve partition between the 0 F THE other, so that as fast as the front share opens channels, C C. H is a handle, by which the SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN. a furrow the seed is deposited therein, and partition, H, is changed so as to permit the covered by the share next behind, and so with seed to fall thr lugh both channels, or through all, only one, as d~sired. TWELFTH YEAR The seed roller, B, is operated by means of The simplic ty, strength, durability, and Developement of Races of Animals. Oken and the author of the Vestiges of Creation have endeavored to prove that the different races of animals now existing are developements, not separate creations, and that life on our earth commenced in a very imperfect condition, and through myriads of ages gradually improveddevelopedinto its present diversified expanded perfections. Hugh Miller completely exploded this theory, so far as it related to all life commencing at a point, and developing upwards, still he admits, in his Footsteps of the Creator,~~ that successive creations of races exhibit improvements, or rather developements, and so does Agassis, and thus they grant half the argument, at least to those who believe in the gradual de- velopement of life from a mite up to a man. In reference to such disputatious among natu- ralists Dr. Daubeny, of England, distinguished for his scientific attainments, says in his Pres- idential Address before the late meeting of the British Scientific Association: Among the principles recently regarded as axioms in geology none seemed so likely to be disputed as this: That the classes of ani- mals and vegetables which possessed the most complicated structure were preceded by others of a more simple one; and that when we traced back the succession of beings to the lowest and the earliest of the sedimentary for- mations, we arrived at length at a class of rocks, the deposition of which must be infer- red, from the almost entire absence of organic remains, to have followed soon after the first dawn of creation. But the recognition of the footsteps and remains of reptiles in beds of an earlier date than was before assigned to them, tended to corroborate the inferences which had been previously deduced from the discovery, in a few rare instances, in rocks of the second- ary age, of mammalian remains, and this has induced certai eminent geologists boldly to dispute whether from the earliest to the latest period of the earths history any gradation of beings can in eality be detected. he Life of Seeds. We suppose ~hat almost every person has heard or read the story of some grains of wheat having been found in an Egyptian mummy, whic were sown, vegetated and yielded grain fter its kind. This case and some others 01 a rather dubious character have been add iced in evidence of the great vitality and ion ;evity of seeds; but we have now very reli; ible and practical evidence throwing some liscredit on such stories. The British S zientiflc Association have, for the past fifteen years, been instituting inquir- ies and making experiments, through a com- mittee of its memberswith various kinds of seeds, of varion ages. Their labors tend to show that none cf the seeds which were test- ed, although pla ced in the most favorable cir- cumstances tha could be devised, vegetated after the age of 49 years; and only 20 out of 288 species did o after 20 years, while by far the largest nun ber lost their germinating power in ten yes rs. It has long hi en known to agriculturists and florists, thai fresh seedsthose of the pre- ceding seasoni ossess the greatest amount of vitality; and~ ery many seeds lose their ger- minating power iltogether, even when kept in dry situationsin the course of two yes rs. In the selectior of any kind of seed, care should be exerc sed, in selecting it according to its age, as veil as its appearance; the plumpness of a eed, is not always the best sign of its qualit~ for seeding purposes. In 1801, Loud n contained a population of 938,000; its popi lation is now 2,500,000. Read! Read!! Read!!! The most extensively circulated, the most interest log, reliable, attractive, and cheapest publication of its kind, is the SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN. It has, by far, the largest circulation, and stands, by common con- sent, at the head of all other scientific papers in the world. Its contributors and Editors are PRACTICAL, ENERGETIC, and EXPERIENCED MEN, whose con- tant endeavor is to extend the area of knowledge, by presenting it to the mind. in a simple, attractive, and practical form. The SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN is printed once a week, in convenient quarto form for binding, and pre- sents an elegant typographical appearance. Every num ber contains Eight Large Pages, of reading, abundantly illustrated with ORIGINAL ENGRAVINGS. All the mostvaluable patented discoveries are delinea ted and described in its issues, so that, as respects inven- tions, it may be justly regarded as an ILLUSTRArED REPERTORY, where the inventor may learn what has been done before him, and where he may bring to the world a KNOWLEDGE of his own achievements. REPORTS OF U. S. PATENTS granted are also pub. lished every week, including Officiat Copies of all the PATENT CLAIMS. These Claims are published in the SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN is, a4vassce e,f att ether pa- per.. Mechanics. Inventors, Engineers, Chemists, Manufac- turers, Agriculturists, and Peopte of eoerp Prsfessisse iso Ls)e, win find the SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN to be of great value in their respective callings. Its counsels and suggestions will save them Hundreds of Dsttar.s an nually. besides affording them continual source of knowledge, the experience of which is be yond pecuniary estimate. A NR~V VOLUME commenced September 13, 1856 Now is the time to subscribe! Specimen Copies sent gratis. TERMS OF SUBSCRIPTION$2 a year, or $1 for six months. CLUB RATES. Five Copies for Six Months, Five Copies for Twelve Months, Ten Copies for Six Months, Ten Copies forTwelve Months, 5 Fifteen Copies for Twelve Months, ~22 Twenty Copiesfor Twelve Months, ~ For all Clubs of 20 and over, the yearly subscription only $140. Post-pay all letters, and direct to MUNN & CO., 128 Fulton street, New York. fl~ For list of Prizes, see editorial page. 24 C A

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Scientific American. / Volume 12, Issue 4 25-32

~iitadifii THE ADVOCATE OF INDUSTRY, AND JOURNAL OF SCIENTIFIC, MECHANICAL, AND OTHER IMPROVEMENTS VOLUME XII. I 5, THE Scientific American, PUBLISHED WEEKLY At 128 Fulton street, N. Y. (Sun Building..) BY MUNN & Co. 0. D. MUNN, 5. H. WALES~ A. H. BEACH. Responsible Agents may also be found in all the prin- cip at cities and towns in the United States. Single copies of the paper are on eale at the office of publication and at all the periodical stores in this city, Brooklyn, and Jersey City. TERMS~2 a-year,~t In advance and the re- mainder in six months. L~Z~ See Prospectus on last page. No Traveling Agents employed. Indian Wood Oiis.Dammer. This class of resinous oils, known in the Indian bazaars as gurgun oils, is obtained by tapping certain trees of the order Dipterocar- pew, and applying heat to the incision. The tree is a native of Chittagong, Pegu, Assam the valley of Kubba, and the jungles of the Malayan peninsula, and grows to a great bight. It is described as having a straight stem of more than forty feet to the first branch. When not tapped too soon, thebase of the trunk is often of a circumference of thirteen feet and upwards. About the end of the dry season, that is, in March and April, several deep in- cisions are made with an axe into the heart of the wood, and a good sized piece scooped out; into these boles fire is placed, and kept burning until the oil begins to run, when it is received into a bamboo, and allowed to ooze slowly, drop by drop. The average produce is about 40 gallons in each season. The oil which flows from the wound is a mixture of balsam and volatile oil, and when applied as a varnish to wood or other substance, the oil evaporating deposits a hard and durable t~oat of resin. These wood oils are chiefly used as natural varnishes, either alone or in combination with colored pigments; also as a substitute for tar in paying the seams of shipping, and for pre- serving timber from the attacks of white ants. Dammer is the eastern name for a kind of indurated pitch or turpentine exuding spon- taneously from various trees indigenous to most of the Indian islands. The principal species are Dammara slustralis (Don,) the Kauri tree of New Zealand, and D. Orientalis, the pitch tree of Amboyna. The trees yield the dammer in amazing quantity, and gener- ally without the necessity of making incisions. It exudes through the bark, and is either found adhering to the trunk or branches in large lumps, or in masses on the ground under the trees. As these often grow near the sea side or on the banks of rivers, the dammer is fre- ,uently floated away, and colle cted in distant places as drift. It is exported in large quan- tities to Bengal and China, and is used for all the purposes to which we apply pitch but principally in paying the bottoms of ships. About 200,000 bundles of dammer are an- nually exported from Siam. The fruit of Diospyros Embryopteris, a native of the ast, is so glutinous as to be used in Bengal or paying boats. A cheap and ready substitute for tar for preserving cordage, & c., might easily be found in some of the numer- ous resins and gum elastics of India. The Horse Chesnut. The horse chesnut tree (Esculus Hippocas- tanum) is among the most beautiful that adorns our pleasure grounds. It yields an abundance of nuts, but they are suffered to fall and rot, being considered more useless that the acorns of the oak. It has been pro- ven that these nuts contain a great amount of starch, but the expense of manufacturing has been too great to compete with that made from grain or potatoes. It is stated that ex- periments which have been made in France, extending over a number of years, have re- sulted in entire success in making cheap starch frcwn them. NEW-YORK, OCTOBER 4,1856. NUMBER 4. 4 ment of wheel E from F, so as to permit the instantaneous fall of weight A, when it ar- rives at the top of the machine, a break is made in the teeth of wheel F, at H. The wheels continue to turn in the direction of the arrows, until the teeth of E arrive at H, where there are no cogs, and is thus disengaged; whereupon the weight falls, the direction of E being revet sed during the descent. The di- rection of F, I towever, is not changed; it con- tinues to mot e on until the teeth at the op- posite end of the break, ~I,engage with E, and the weigl it is wound up again. I is a spring secun d to the flat surface of H; o ~ end of I catches in the teeth of E, and brings them properly into gear, with F, after each dis- connection. By means of this spring all sudden jar, breakage, and missing of the teeth, in their sudden re-union, after having been disconnect- ed, is avoided. Although the wheel, F, has a break in its cogs which liberates E at the proper moment, no such break must exist, so far as the driving pinion, G, is concerned, else there could not so well be a continuous rotary mo- tion of F. This difficulty is overcome by set- ting a row of cogs on F at one side of H, and making the pinion, G, quite broad, so that F, although broken ~at H, us nevertheless con- tinuous in its periphery as relates to G. Fig. 2 is a side sectional view showing this peculiarity of construction. A noticeable feature of this machine is the facility with which it may be adjusted, so as to drive posts at an angle, or when standing on uneven ground. J is a rod extending from the top to the base frame. This rod passes through an eye, K, which is furnished with a set screw, L. The base, M, on which the up- right guide posts, weight, and gearing are sus- tained, has a rocking movement backwards and also sidewise. If it is desired to cant the machine backwards, the screw, L, is loos- ened and the rod, J, pushed down through the eye, K, and secured. N is a side guide rod, passing through an eye, 0, in which is a set screw, P. By means of this screw the machine may be set and se- cured at any side angle, with the utmost con- venience. In fence building these adjustments will be found of peculiar value. Machines of the above description are of great value in building fences, as they afford a ready method of driving down the posts firmly, without digging. Fences thus built will be much more durable and firm than where the post holes are dug out by spade in the common manner. The weight of the machine, independent of the driving weight, is small. It can be readi- ly shifted from place to place, quickly applied, etc. Fence posts can be set much more rap- idly by its aid, than in the common manner. For further information address the invenwr, as above, or apply to J. A. Knight & Co., 334 Broadway, New York City. Takinl Care of Farm Implements Every farmer should have a house for keep- ing his implements. It should be tight and dry; and adapted for repairing, altering, clean- ing and sharpening them. Every implement, when not required for use, should have its proper place, and before it is laid past for winter, all the bright metal belonging to it should be carefully dried and well greased to prevent rusting. Rust is a viper which poisons the ~ purse: many farmers al- low their plows, harrows, and cultivators to rust and rot in the corners of open damp sheds during six months of the year, and they seem surprised that their implements do not last longer. All farm implements, after having been used during spring, summer, and fall, should have their wood-work painted, also their coarse metal work; and every bolt and nut should be oiled. The loss of an ounce of iron by rust, is equal to the loss of an ounce of gold. Carefulness in all things is economy, and a little extra trouble saves extra expense. Liquid India Rubber. India rubber cut into thin strips and im- mersed in spirits of turpentine in a close ves- sel and kept warm, will dissolve, and in that state can be put on with a brush, forming a water-proof coating for anything to which it may be applied. It has the objection, how- ever, of keeping its tackstickinessand in this respect it is seldom used, except for coating wood or other work placed in water. A 0 IMPROVED PILE AND POST DRIVER. Improved Pile and Post Driver. The accompanying engraving exhibits an improved apparatus for driving posts and piles, the invention of Mr. Junius M. Sampson, of Waynesville, Ill. Patented March 2~, l8~6. The weight, A, by which the post is driven into the ground, is attached to a rope which passes over a pulley, B, at the top of the ma- chine, and winds on a drum, C, on the shaft, D. Shaft D is revolved by means of gear wheel, E, which meshes with another wheel, F, and the latter is operated by the pinion, G, to whose shaft the crank is applied. In order to allow of the sudden disengage- -~ U.-np~- 26 -5; [Reported Officially for the Scientific American.] LIST OF PATENT CLAIMS IsBued from the United State. Patent Office FOR THE WEEK ENDING SEPTEMBER 23, 1856. FLY-TRAPSamuel Arnold, of Green Hill, Tenn. I claim, first, the employment of the revotring perforated and grooved hollow cylinder C, applied in connection with the reticulated piston ID, and glass vessel ~, substan- tially as and for the purpose set forth. Seeon(l, the arrangement for retaining the piston eleva- ted while the flies are being entrapped, in connection with the device br releasing it when necessary, substan- tially as set forth. OveNsIlosea Ball, of New-York City I claim, the perforated interior chamber, in combination with the ro- tary reel, and the swinging platforms thereon, self.dis- charging, substantially as set forth. Ressa-sNo ToPsAsLsIsaac Boss, of Brooklyn, N. Y. I claim, first, the running of lines from the reef, between the head of the topsail and the fore part of the yard, thence direct to the top mast head. Second, 1 claim the arrangement of reef tackle beneath the yard, running from the end of the yard to the quarter on deck. Third, I also claim the peculiar mode of strengthening the sail by bands and double ropes, as described. CORN PLANTERsMalender Bates, of Carlion, N. T. I do not claim the application of a valve to Ibe bottom of a tube. Neither do I claim the construction of a tube for the purpose of costveying seed from the hopper to the ground, for these principles have been variously applied, for the same purisose, in various machsnes. Nor do I claim operating an axis by means of a hand- lever, and spring attached to the handle of seed planters, for these also have been used in other machines, to effect different purposessuch as drawing slides, reciprocating plates, and opening apertures. lint, I claim, the rotating ratchet-wheel. r, provided with feeding apertures, in combination with the wire- screen, w, or its equivalent; the spring pawl, m, guard- pin, i, and wire button, o, acting in the manner and for the purpose described. FEEDINO AND SAwmNo SthmwoLrlGeorge Craine, of Fairfield, Iowa I claim, so arranging the carriage, with regard to the saw, as that the saw shall enter the bolt at or near the center, in length of the shingle, and cut towards both its ends at the same time, in manner, and for the purpose set forth. I also claim a device for feeding the bolt to the saw, so as to take the shitsgles therefrom - lot and point, alter- miately; the svorm-wheel, o, working into the double- racks, q q. in the manner set forth. I also claim the combination of the hinged piece G with its pin, i, and feeding tooth, c. and the ledge, f, and trigger. g, on the fixed piece, M, for the purpose of con- necting and disconnecting, at proper times, the carriage with the feedisig shaft, H, so that it may traverse on ih ways, as set forth. STAVE JOsNTERA. H. Crozier, of Oswego, N. V. I do not claim the wheel, A, for that has been previously used. But I claim the wheel A, with cutters, D, attachedin combismatiors with the adjustable gauges or plates, (T, ar- ranged as shown and described, for the purpose set bocth. AnjossTmNo THE SLATs or Wm~new BLsronsBenajah C. English, of Bartford Coon - I claim, first, the manner of adjusting the slats oi window blinds, by the use of the gear-wheel and rack. Second. I claim the method of fastening the slats at any required angle, by the use of the clutch. Third. I claim, the whole in combination, as set forth. MAcH5NE FOR PASNTmNo CARRIAGE WHEELSS. B, Tssller, ef Worthington, Mass., I claim, the vibrating and rotating shafi, C, passing into the tub, B, and arranged and operated as shown, or in an equivalent way, for pur- pose specified. ExpLosmvss ShELLA. M. George, of Nashua, N. H. I claim, the described arrangement and combination of the chanshers, ID E, amid b b, c, to constitute a new projectile, for the scattering of melted metal or other incendiary substances. FEED IIOLLS FOR STRAW CUTTEESAlex. Gordon, of Rochester, N. Y. I claim, the construction and arrange- ment of the feed roller, B, and shafi, s, in the manner substantially as described, whereby the advantages set forth, are secured. METALLIC BRACES FOR hEELS OF BOOTS Awn SsbOEs. George W. Griswold, of Carbondale, Pa., I am aware, a metallic plate has been inserted in the heel and counter of an overshoe, for the purpose of forming a bearing, or nut, for a screw to pass through to hold the overshoe to the inner shoethis I do not claim, as it will not effect the object I have in view. But I claim the application to boots, or shoes, of a brace or support, for uniting the heel and counter, and to pre- vent one from twisting, or running over on the other, substantially as described. IDssvmcc SN MACHmNES row MANUFAcTUEmNO BED PmNohlenry Gross, of Tiffin, Ohio; I disclaim the throwing out of the finished pin, by a spring, and the employment of a movable cutter for forming the head, when a distinct and separate operation is requmred to bring it into action, as in W. McBrides patent of Feb, 28th, 1354. But I claim, fixing the head forming V cutter to a lever operated by the longitudinal movement of the pin, as de- scribed, whereby but one hand of the operator is required for forming the emitire pin. IIANo STAsis-Chat. W. Hackett, of Elmira, N, Y., I claim, the arrangemement of a rotating printing press with two sets of type alternating with each other, in such manner that at the same time one set of types is heaving its impression, the opposite or corresponding set is being siipptieeh with ink the whole constructed and arranged, substantially as set forth. CORN SitEo.m.cRsJames J. Johnston, of Allegheny, Pa.; I claim, the drum, ID, with the two sets of teeth, ar- ran~ed as described, and its combination with the vertical guide boards, E F, and spring phates, G H, substantially as set forth, and for the purpose described. BRSCE MACHissEsWin. A. Jordan, of Thibodaux, La.; I do not claim the use of double tables or the employ- ment of a rotary scraper, as such devices have been used before. But I claim, the tables A and B, and shoving heads, e and f, when arranged to operate in relation to each other in the peculiar manner described, in combination with the rotary scrapers, K K, and curved guards, 0 0. the whole being constructed and operating in the manner and for the purposes set forth. MANUFACTUEmNO INGRA5N CARpETINGDavid B. Kerr, of New-York City; I do not claim the invention of a party-colored carpet; nor the manufacture of a carpet composed in part of solid colored yarn, and in p art of party-colored yarn, when the two are combined in a manner different from that described as my invention. Nor do I claim any particular method of party-coloring yarn for carpets nor the weaving of carpets in a power- loom. Nor do Ihimit myself to a carpet in which all the warp threads are party-colored. But I claim, a party-colored Ingrain carpet in which the warp threads of one or more plies are party-colored, whole or in part, and are combined with solid colored weft threads to form the design, substantially as set forth. MACHINE FOR NOTCHING HoopsDaniel Lamson, of East iveymouth, Mass. I claim the knife, E, attached to the reciprocating frame, B, in combination with the in- clined plate, D, attached to the frame, A, substantially as described, for the purpose specified. OMwsssusD, 0. Macomber, of New-York City; I claim the arrangement, substantially as specified, of two series of independent seah, on each side of the carriage- body t but this I claim only when the backs of the seats are curved, and the front edge set obliquely, as set forth, and for the purpose specified. I also claim, connecting the body with the frame of the running gear, so that it will rock thereon, substantially as described, in combination with the screw-bolts and ad- justing nuts at the ends, or equivalent therefor, for the pusspose of setting the body at any desired inclination with the frame of the running gear. And finally, I claim, connecting the brake levers with the shah of the stop and foot-wheel, substantially as spe- cified, in combination with the strap which passes into the inside of the carriage-body, to be operated by the passengers if required, substan;ially as described. SECsramreG SPOKES ~N THE HUBS OF WHEELsRobert Moor, of Westport, 2nd., I do not claim as my invention, the device of two screw-nuts working on one bush, for the respective purpose of securing the spokes in the hub, and the hub on the axle, Neither do I claim the dove-tailing of the spoke within the hub; knowing these devices to be old. But I claim, first, the described oblique form of spoke- mortise, enabhng all the necessary beveling and taper of the spoke to be on that side which is in advance, when the wheel is rotating forward, leaving the rear side straight for its entire lengththus adding to the strength, and reducing the labor of constructing the spoke, as fuhly explained. AIR ENGINEsThomas McDonough, of Middletown, Conn , I am aware that the alternate expansion and contraction of atmospheric air, and other permanent gases, have been employed as a motive ageist, in engines of various constructions. And I am also aware that the gases so employed, have been made to pass alternately in opposite directions, through a vessel presenting a large amount of metallic surficeso that in passing in one direction, such metallic surfaces should take up caloric from the heated gas when passing in one direction, and transfer it back to the said gas when passing in the opposite direction, And I am also aware that such metallic surfaces have been composed of a series of metallic disks or sheets of wire-gauze, but so arranged that the air or gas had to pass through the meshes of the wire-gauze, which had the effect of impeding the passage. I do not, therefore, wish to be understood as making claim to any of these things. I claim, combining the hot and cold cylinder or cylin- ders) by an intesposed cylinder, substantially as described, to prevent the one from being afiected by the tempera- ture of the other, as set forth. I also claim, the working piston (or pistons) working in the cold cylinder, in combination with the dumby piston, (or pistons,) which extends from the cold to the hot cylin- der, substantielly as and for the purpose specified. 1 also claim, the vertical position of the pairs of cylin- ders, snbstantially as described, that Ike heated part of the engine may be above the cold parts, for the purpose set forth, in combination with the means described, for keeping the lower part of the engine cold, substantially as described. And I also claim, the arrangement of the metallic sur- faces through which the air or other gas, passesby making such metallic surfaces of sheets of wire-gauze, rolled up and placed in a surrounding vessel, so that the air or other gas shall pass in films, between the several coils, substantially as and for the purpose specified, in contra-distinction to passing through the meshes of wire- gauze, as met forth, MAKING BRAss KETTLESO. W. Minard, of Waterbu- ry, Conn.; I claim, the use of rotary shears or cutters, having a hinged or sliding piece, construicted and ope- rating as described, to carry one of the shafts and one of the cutters from a cutting position, and to q curately replace it when desired. uickly and ac- MACHINE row GRINDING SAwsAlbert S. Nippes, of Lower Merrion, Pa., I claim, in combination with the face-plate of a machine for grinding saws, a guide, pat- tern, or former, which can be used for giving shape to the saw-plate, by causing the face-plate or stone to ap- proach or recede from each other, to vary the bevel or thickness of the saw-plate, or to compensate for the wear- ing away of the stone, whilst acting on said plate, or both, substantially as described. BLOW-PIPES Stewart B. Palmer, of Tully, N. Y., I do not claim, separately, the pump nor the mode of ope- rating the same. Nor do I claim the arrangement of the nozzle, for these have been used in similar or analogous devices. But I claim, the two wind-chests, E F, connected by the pipe, G, provided with the faucet, H, when said chests, thus connected, are arranged and used in connec- ~on with the pump, I, reservoir M, wick-tubes, N N, and Eozzle, P. connected with the pipe, 0, substantially as described, for the purpose specified. LuswsrATowNorman W. Pomeroy, of Meriden, Conn., I claim, so constructing and connecting the disk which forms the bottom of the oil vessel, that by reason of its curved or waving shape, the central part may be readily pressed inward by the thumb or finger, while its shape will cause it to return to its original position, im- mediately on removing the pressure, when constructed, connected and made to operate, substantially as described HAY RAKESIsaac J. Robbins, of Penns Manor, Pa., I do not claim, exclusively, the use of independent teeth for horse-rakes; the same having been described in the patent granted to Calvin Delano, Feb. 7th, 1849. Neither do I claim the exclusive use of revolving teeth for horse-rakes. But I claim, the hinged arms, D D, with their revolving teeth, H H, in combination with the sliding-blocks, a a, the whole being constructed substantially in the manner and for the purpose specified. HYDRAULIC BRICK PitEssEthan Rogers, of Cleve~ land, Ohio I claim, the employment or use of two pumps with the mechanism for working the same under different pressures, when arranged to operate in relation to each other and mold C, for the purpose of pressing and remov- ing the brick, in the manner described. SELF-REGULATING DRAUGHT FOR CHIMNEY-TOPS Josiah A. Royce, of Lee, Mass.; I claim, the application to the top of a chimney, or draft flue of a frame having one or more turning slats or dampers, hung in itsaid frame being provided with a rudder, so as to be always turned to the proper position, by the action of the wind~ and the dampers being combined with a spring-mast, with sail on top, so as to be closed more or less by the ac- tion of the wind, and automatically opened during a calm, substantially as and for the purpose set forth. Hoop MAcHINEJos, Sawyer, and Sylvester Sawyer, of Fitchburgh, Mass.; We claim, the methods described of hanging the knife and connecting it with the feeding- rolls, for the purpose of retaining it midway between the rolls, and parallel with the direction of the hoop-pole. CARDING ENGINESA, D. Shattuck, of Grafton, Mass.: I claim, the application to the main cylinder of carding engines, of two or more variable cylinders, in combina- tion with a doffer, operating in the manner and for the purpose, substantially as set forth. GRAIN SEPARATORSHamilton H. Smith, of Phila~ deiphia, Pa., I claim, the arrangement of the vertically vibrating shakers, and horizontally vibrating screens, for the purpose of separating grain or other materialthe whole being operated by a combination of mechanism, substantially such as described. THRASHING MACHINEIsaaC S. Spencer, of Guilford, Conn. I do not confine myself to any precise angle of the ribs or fianches, c, nor to the precise form, as they may be either s~urved or straight. I rlaim,~the cylinders F G H, provided with ribs or fianches, c, placed obliquely or angularly with their axes, substantially as described, for the purpose specified. CHURNSFranklin Thorpe, of Shelbyville, Ill., I claim, the described arrangement and combination of the fast and loose bucketsthe latter being slackened from the former, in the act of opening, and tightened to it in the act of closing, by the screw upon the spindle, or equivalent devices, for the purposes explained. TooL FOR FORKING GROOVES AROUND THE ORmrmcE or BOTTLESAmaSa Stone, of Philadelphia, Pa., I claim, in the described tool for forming the orifices of bot- tles or other vessels, made from plastic substances, with a groove around the orifice, the revolving flange, F, constructed and arranged to form a groove in the end of the bottle-nose, or other vessel, substantially as described. FEATHER-EDGE GAUGEsG, G. Townsend, of Roches- ter, N. Y., I claim, the combination of the knife, K, and feather-guard, F. for the purpose set forththey being constructed and arranged, substantially as described. LANTERNSSir dale Shannon, of Buffalo, N. V. I claim, connecting the lamp-pot to the main body of the lantern, by the ha I, substantially as set forth. LOCK FOR FaR: OuT CARSThomas Slaight, of New- ark, N. J.; I clam;, the hasp G, fitted over the socket F, of the lock, and si cured thereon by the ptug, or bolt, H, which passes thin ogh the hasp and socket into the lock, substantially as de cribed. CARDING ENGs; ESA, D. Shattuck, of Grafion, Mass., I claim, the stripp r B, in combination with the doffer C, in the manner, sot cylinder of a card and with the main stantially as set ing-engine, operating forth. DEVICES iN SA- OmNo MACHiNESWin. P. Wood & 5. IDe Vaughn, ol P ashington, ID. C.; We claim, first, the arrangement of th driving-beam, H, in combination with the rocking-beams. E, in the manner substantially as and for the purposes st forth. Second We eta m the arrangement of the fluted feed- rolls, 0 and P. in combination with a reciprocating wedge shaped saw-blade substantially as and for the purposes described. Third. We cia m, the wedge-shaped saw-blade, M, when constructed and operated in the manner, and for the purposes set fo th. WARM Am Fuss RACESWin. M. Wrigth, of Pittsburgh, Pa. I dci not cl sum radiating or projecting surfaces, which are cast wi~ to the fire-pot or upper section of the furnace, as used in James Millers patent of Oct. 16, 1838. But 1 claimn, first the manner of increasing the radiating surface by the use of the movable plates, all in the man- ner and for the pu -pose set forth. Second. The ma oner of constructing the ash-box, with its rim, m, to recel on the fire-pot, and projecting arms or supports, o o o o, is bstantially in the manner and for the purpose specified. MACHINES FOR iovisro MARSLEA1ODzO Webster & D. K. Bennett, oh Montpelier, Vt., We do not claim, giving to the saws; lateral motion, by means of horizontal shafis, having righ and heft-hand screws thereon, But, we claim, tI e combination and arrangement of the movable stirrupo. Ft. cross-bars, H, and the arbors, I, in the reciprocating I -ame B, as set forth. BOAT OARSEL hut Rode, ofManchester Township, Pa. (assignor to John Itenig, of York, Pa.); I claim, the com- bination of the ose hating plate and double-jointed arms, forming a double.j inted boat oar, opes-ating on an oar or rower-box, as dese ibed, or in any manner ciubstantially the same, for the urpose of enabling the oarsman to row forward with his I. ce fronting the bow of the boat. BELT PUNCHI ugustus Simpson, of Worcester, Mass., (assignor to Samus 1 H. F. Bingham, of Weston, Bass.), I am aware that Pt nches and dies for Various purposes have been used, ci -herein the one enters the other, but hut mine differs fr; in all those heretofore ased, in causing the cut to open as he cutter p asses through, as shown in fig. 2, making an s nttrely different principle of cutting, from those which s the principle of action that I claim, or, in other words- - I claim, the coin ;ination and arrangement of the tit, ID, and the cutter, A, rhen constructed and operating as de- scribed, whereby toe conical form is given to the article punched, the cutti sg facilitated, and performed with the edge of the cutter Ic-ce, as set forth and described, REAPING AND BOWING MACHINESWin. P. Wood. of Wahington, ID. C. (assignor to Samuel IDeVaughn & W. P. Wood, of same i-lace); I do not claim a balance frame supported and turr ing upon an axis of motion, indepen- dent of the axis of motion of the driving-wheel, of ihelf. But I claim a hal once-frame, A. supported and turning upon an axis of in stion back of the axis of the driving- wheel, when used in connection with angular or oval. shaped gearing. o - its eqciivalenl, and the bifurcated stanchion-brace, Q in combination with a main frame, H, rigidly supported ; .t its forward end upon a truck car- riage. I, or wheels the whole being constructed, arrane- ed and operated, in the manner substantially as described. CAST-IRON PAx EMENTSGeG, M. Rainsay, of New. York City; I am aware that cast-iron voussoirs have been made into an arch for bridges and other purposes, and that the bond; f connection between has been effect- ed by means of lu -s on the voussoirs, and wrought-iron clips or bands, pa sing over the lugs of the adjoining voussoiro. I, there ore, wish to he distinctly understood, as not claiming hi sadly this mode of connection of cast- iron blocks by means of lugs and clips. But I claim, th; iron hexagonal paving-blocks, with legs or lugs below, 5 described, when unated and secured by the iron clips or bands, so as to form the flexible pave ment, as described DESIGNS. PARLOR STOVE Samuel F. Pratt, of Bosson, Mass., (assignor to W. & . - Treadwell, and Perry & Norton, of Albany. N. Y.( OVEN SToVEIl amuel F. Pratt, of Boston, Mass., (as- signor to W. & J. rreadwell, and Perry & Norton, of Albany, N. Y.( mining Water. It is said tha t when this discovery WR5 first made by Sir Humphrey Davy, the large la- boratory of the Royal Institute could not con- tain the concoi rse of people who came daily to witness its tifect. It caused more aston- ishment than any other substance which sci- ence has reveal td, excepting, perhaps, phos- phorus, which - vas exhibited in every court in Europe. It is only necessary to drop a piece of potassium into a basin of water, which, though (uite cold, instantly bursts into a beautiful and brilliant flame wherever the metal is in cont Ict with it, and continues to burn until the l otassium is quite dissolved. Shola. This is a singular substance manufactured in India from tI e cellar pith-like stems of the plant hedysarun. lagenarium. It resembles in appearance the Chinese rice-paper, and is well adapted for some purposes in the arts. It is made, in India, into life-buoys, boxes, bottle- cases, hats, and other articles. It has a loose celular texture, which makes it an excellent non-conductor sf heat, and this with its great lightness admir:tbly fits it for making hats, for which purpose it is much employed in that warm climate. It can be so manufactured as to present the a pearance of ivory, and is thus also well adaptm d for making ornaments. F enty of Wheat. The Cincinna I Price Current estimates the quantity of whe it raised in the United States this year to be 142,836,000 bushels. Penn- sylvania is our greatest wheat State, raising 18,250,000 bush tls; Ohio is the next, raising 16,800,000; New York next, raising 16,200.- 000; Illinois r ext, raising 14,600,000; and Virginia raises 2,500,000. Economy of Fuel in Manufacturing Iron. No less than two tuns of coal and about half a tun of limestone are used in making a tun of pig iron. The manufacture of 500,000 tuns of pig iron requires no less than the enor- mous quantity of a million tuns of coal and a quarter of a million tuns of lime. If the amount of coal thus required at present could be reduced to one half by some new improvement, a clean saving of at least three million of dollars would be the result to the country. It is believed by many metalurgists that -such a-saving will yet be effected. Who is the lucky man that will make the improve- ment l Silver of California. An editorial article in the Sacramento Uui - expresses the opinion that as fast ns the mountains of that State are explored, silver ore will be found in large quantities, as rich as the mines of Guanajuato, in Mexico, or of Cerro Passo, in Peru, and that in a few years we may see this interest, under the guidance and direction of enterprising capitalists and practical miners, grow to be one of the most valuable mineral interests in the United States. To Destroy Cockroaches, Rats and Mice. The following is stated to be a sure method of destroying the above-named varmints. Take a stale loaf of bread, reduce it to crumbs, and throw them into a vessel of water con- taining two tea-spoonfuls of cayenne pepper and pulverized annis seed, half a drachm of saltpeter, the same of white lead, and a wine- glass full of the extract of hops. All these ingredients are well stirred and steeped to- gether at a moderate heat for six hours, when they are strained through a cloth, and 30 drops of the tincture of quassia added to the clear liquor, which is bottled up foruse. Some lumps of loaf sugar saturated in this liquor will destroy cockroaches when laid down for them, and some bread saturated in it will de- stroy rats and mice. We have found that loaf sugar steeped in a solution of sugar of lead, and laid in the haunts of cockroaches, soon destroys them the lead is poison. It is our opinion that an old rat is too knowing to be taken in by the above bait. Another Steamboat Burned. The steamboat Niagara was consumed by fire on Lake Michigan, near Port Washington, on the evening of the 24th ult., and no less than 60 lives are reported as lost. The fire is stated to have originated in the boiler-room, and in a very few minutes the boat was in a sheet of flame. The burning of a steamboat is a terrible accident. We insist upon it that all steamers should be constructed with fire-proof boiler-rooms. It seems to us, owing to the great number of steamboat explosions and burnings which have occurred this year, that the Inspectors have become more careless and inefficient. Coal Smoke on Raliways. Common bituminous coal has been used for some time on the North British Railway, but the engines make such a smoke that the com- pany has been threatened with a suit unless they use coke or burn their smoke. If they do not burn their smoke they deserve to be sued. Picture-frames, and other like articles of art, are now manufactured in England from a cement composed of brick dust and coal tar. The articles are compressed in molds and dried. We see paragraphs every week, in some of our cotemporaries, describing the successful manufacture of gas from wood. Why, this is nothing new nor wonderful; it is half a Cen- tury old; but can such gas be manufactured as cheap as that from coal l It cannot; nor as cheap as that from resin or resin oil, and why continually harp upon a comparatively worthless invention. An iron bridge is nearly completed, con- necting Goat Island with the main land at Niagara Falls. It has five spans supported pn stone piers. ~titntif~c ~nu~ri cam. 0 ~cientifhz ~n~eri can+ [Forthe Scientific American.? The Hughes Telegraph. [Concluded from page 19.] We will now examine the virtues of said in- strument in order to ascertain if they meet the expectations, which have been caused by the many stories and puffs of the newspapers. The instrument is described as a printing press and a telegraph combined, able to print 20,000 to 25,000 Roman letters per hour. In order to print a message from a re- volving type-wheel, a great number of letters on the wheel have to be overleaped as useless. On an average only four or five letters by each rotation, can be used for the composition of words. For instance, to print the word ~~police,~~ requires five rotations of the type- wheel and the rest of the letters, 129 in num- ber, are useless. Suppose that each instrument will print the above number of letters (333 to 416 per min- ute) the type-wheel of each instrument has to make 5000 to 6000 revolutions per hour, and each spring oscillates 135,000 to 162,000 times up and down (37 to 45 times per second) and the time allowed the crank for one revolution in order to print one letter (including the whole operation) will be reduced to 1-74 or 1-90 of a second. This proves that a very great power must be applied to the clock- work in order to revolve said crank with the required velocity. Besides, the crank is hin- dered, at first, by the inertia, though it may sometimes operate and stop in regular intervals of 1-74 to 1-90 of a second for a series of times, as for instance, in spelling the word ~ where the letters stu v, succeed each other in regular alphabeti- cal order. It is apparent that there may be great diffi- culty in regulating the movements of Hughes~ telegraph. To make two clocks of the same kind, in one and the same locality under equal temperature and surveillance, move stroke for stroke in perfect unison for any length of time is a matter of great difficulty. And the ob- stacles will of course, increase in proportion to the quickness of the oscillating pendulum, still more if located at a distance apart, by the variations of the temperature and gravity con- sequent upon their different places of situa- tion. If the number of clocks are increased, these difficulties will be intensified. Now the Hughes telegraph instruments are also clock- works, and undergo the same vicissitudes. It will require a skillful person to keep them in unison. The vibrating spring of one instru- ment if it oscillates 0 005 of a second in dis- cord with springs of other instruments will create a disturbance, and a difference of 0011 of a second will render every operation total- ly useless, because the contact spring of the transmitting as well as the receiving instru- ment will meet a similar cog wheel and a cur- rent will circulate without the will of the op- erator. Both instruments will thus operate at the same instant of time, and after that the springs of both will rest upon the cylinder cog wheel again, which will suspend the oper- ation entirely. It the reader compares the foregoing data with the statement issued by the friends of Hughes telegraph, that messages may be sent at the same instant of time over the same wire in opposite direction with perfect ease, regularity and certainty,~~ he will see how groundless and foolish in point of fact, such a statement is. I venture to assert that the most favorable result that can be attained by the Hughes telegraph, provided the several clock- works are in unison, would amount to the printing of 5000 to 6000 alphabets, in their regular turn, per hour, without the aid of any operator. Should their harmony of the Hughes instrument be disturbed, one type- wheel will move in ladvance of the other, and cause the print of B instead of A, a ndso on. Among other advantages paraded to the public relative to Hughes machine, it was stated: An operator will be surprised by returning to his office, to find a printed message upon his desk manufactured by his instrument during his ~ I would ask if the operator would not be just as likely to find a strip of paper full of letters all mixed up and jumbled together, and perfectly unin- telligible. Certainly he would. Perhaps it is in this manner, without an operator, that the glorious feat of printing of 25,000 letters per hour is to be performed. But if we con- sider that the operator must always press down a key for each desired letter, the ab- surdity of expecting to work the instrument any faster than Mors~s or Houses, is clear. The conditions for speed are nearly the same in each. Hughes~ may have a slight advantage derived from exchanging messages alternately upon the same wire in opposite directions, but this will hardly balance the disadvantages heretofore described. It is further stated that Hughes instrument will work perfectly in very long circuits in all states of the atmosphere,neither mist, rain, nor snow having any perceptible ~ This improvement is not alluded to in the specification; why is it not claimed? Is it kept secret? What is the reason that the operation differs from all other telegraphs? Is no conducting wire required, which would be exposed to atmospheric influences? It has been already mentioned that the me- chanism of telegraphs is just as much influ- enced by the change of the atmosphere of the locality, as other mechanism, but in particular they are disturbed in their operation by the indirect influence of the external atmosphere through which the telegraph line on posts is extended. This either prevents the accumula- tion of electric power,or prevents it from reach- ing the place of destination, also sometimes causing electric currents that are not wanted. Whenever an electric current has a chance to escape from a wire, it will do so, and as the electro-magnet, by which the instrument is called into action, is connected with the wire which conducts all currents, the instrument will be subject to all influences that affect the wire. Therefore it follows that Hughes ma- chine is just as much subject to interrnption from the state of the atmosphere, as any other. It involves, indeed, a great deal of ig- norance and arrogance to expect, that an en- lightened reader possessed of sufficient know- ledge on the subject, will believe such nonsense. Atmospheric influences cannot be frightened away by a mechanical monster, like the birds by a scarecrow. It is further stated : Therefore, at sea- sons when the Morse and House instruments are utterly powerless, even in circuits of 50 miles, there is every reason to believe that Hughes instrument will work reliably in cir- cuits of 1000 or 2000 miles. The less elec- tric force an instrument requires for its opera- tion, the more the conducting wire can in- crease in length by application of the same power. The electro-magnetic power required by ~ receiving magnet needs not to be stronger than to attract the armature together with its vertical lever (scarcely a distance of the thickness of paper,) and to overcome the power of a very feeble withdrawing spring. The whole power required to operate Houses combined axial magnet, amounts to what is necessary to force thel spring of the mag- net a small distance out of its equilibrium, and to overcome the friction of the air cham- ber valve. The power required to operate Hughes~ com- bined electro permanent magnet would be such, at least, as to annihilate the magnetism of the iron cores heretofore alluded to, in withdrawing by ordinary mechanism, the de- tent which obstructs the motion of the crank. The resistance and friction opposed to the re- moval of this detent from the crank is in pro- portion to the power required for the quick motion of the crank. Which of these instruments alluded to,if placed in one circuit, and the electric power decreasing gradually, will be exhausted first, and become entirely powerless, I leave for the intelligent reader to judge. To me it is clear that Hughes~ would give out much the soon- est. It is further stated, The simplicity and du- rability of Hughes machine will compare fa- vorably with the Morse, and is vastly superior in these respects to the House instrument. Compared with ~ instrument, which consists only of a simple clock-work with about six wheels, two rollers, two electro- magnets with their armature, lever, and a finger key, the Hughes~ machine shows a very great disadvantage in point of simplicity, du rability and r racticability. While, by a com- parison with EIou5e5 instrument, after taking from it the cc utrivances for applying the man- ual power, th~ air-pump and the contrivance for applying he air, all the rest will be found in the Hughe,,~ machine, viz.: finger-key board with the key~ and springs, cylinder and break wheel, magne;, escapement action, type-wheel, detent, crank connecting rod, printing press, feed-wheel, & c. The new instrument has an average of two clock-works like Morses, a horse-shoe m. ignet, a break-wheel, 54 levers, 27 connectin[ rods, the bolt, mechanism, & c. These are a fi w of the proofs of its astonish- ing simplicit~ and durability! In conclusi )n I would state that in thus re- viewing the Hughes Telegraph, I have been influenced by no desire to ridicule the inven- tion, but sims ly to correct some of the false statements ti at have been palmed upon the public respe ting its capabilities and opera- tion. Neither Jo I wish to injure the reputation of the invent r, because every inventor, even if he should I all in his attempt, deserves ac- knowledgmer t for sacrificing his health, time, labor, and m ney, for the benefit of the pub- lic, without k oowing whether any reward will be given him. Some of thze parts of Hughes machine dis- play great in: ~enuity in their construction, and are highly cr ditable to the inventor. But as a telegraphic instrument, it is, in my opinion, without that practical merit which has been claimed for i;. CRAs. KiacnnoF. New York, September, 1856. Silvering Metnl. Mzaaas. F tuToRsI noticed in No. 2, an account of a 3upposed new method of silvering metal whicl has lately been patented in France by B. Adville. In 1842 I silvered cop- per and brass for daguerreotype plates by ni- trate of shy ~r dissolved in soft water; the solution was applied by a brush or cloth and while wet I r ibbed the surface with fine pow- der whitening on a cloth. At times I put the whitening it the solution of the nitrate of silver, but fo md the first method the best. The operatioi is repeated to get a thicker coat on the surface. The surface of the metal to be silvered m ast be very clean, polished bright, and free from the perspiration of the hand. By this method silvered my own daguerreotype plates while operating in the city of Newark in 1842. ALFRED SPEER. Passaic, N J., Sept. 1856. Cheap Ice Houje. Any perso; i, in the country, where timber is cheap, can e ect an ice house at but little ex- pense. All that is required is to put up a strong frame for the size of house required, and board it zip close, inside and outside, with a space bete een, all around. This space is stuffed close with straw, or dry saw dust. The roof is made in the same manner, and the house is then complete. Straw and saw dust are chee p and good non-conductors. The house should be situated on a dry spot, and should have a drain under the floor. It should also be convenient, to be filled easily. The walls of stone and brick ice houses shoul I be double, as well as those of wood. Grei t care should be exercised in packing ice; all the blocks should be clear and solid, aid about the same thickness, so that they may be packed close together, and frozen into solid mass. In favorable situa- tions good h e houses may be excavated, like caves, in the face of a hill. Case of Green Color of the Hair. M. Stanis as Martin has published in the Bulletin de Therapeutique, Paris, the curious case of a wc rker in metals who has wrought in copper c oly for five months, and whose hair, which was lately white, is now of so de- cided a gree: e, that the poor man cannot ap- pear in the street without immediately becom- ing the objet of general curiosity. He is per- fectly well, his hair alone is affected by the copper, not ~vithstanding the precaution he takes to pr ztect it from the action of the metal. Chemical analysis has proved that his hair contains a n )table quantity of acetate of cop- per, and tha it is to this circumstance that it owes its bee utiful green color, which is most singular and remarkable. Beauties of the Deep. If mere beauty of appearance, says the British Quarterly Review, is in the question, the waters need not yield the palm of loveliness to the land. The deep has its butterflies as well as the air. Fire-flies flit through its billows, as their terrestrial representatives dance and gleam amidst the foliage of a tropical forest. Little living lamps are hung in the waves, and pour out their silvery radiance from vital urns which are replenished as fast as exhausted. The transparency of some of the inhabitants of the waters gives them an appearance of fairy workmanship which is perfectly enchant- ing. The Globe Beroe (Cydlippe julius) resem- bles a little sphere of the purest ice, about the size of a nutmeg. It is furnished with two long, slender, curving tentacles each of which bears a number of filaments, twisted in a spi- ral form along one of its sides. Eight bands are seen to traverse the surface of this anima- ted orb, running from pole to pole, like lines of longitude on a terrestrial globe. To these bands are attached a number of little plates, which~ serve the purpose of paddles, for the creature can work them so as to propel itself through thewaters,and either proceed in a straight line, or, like a steamboat, turn in any direction, or, unlike that vessel, whirl round on its axis and shoot downwards with infinite grace and facility. But, not to dwell upon the mechanism, is there not something fascin- ating in the idea of crystalline creatures Suppose we had transparent horses, or dia- phanous dogs, or cats with a glass exterior which would permit the circulation of the blood and the working of organs to be dis- tinctly seen. [A glass steam engine in full operation, if exhibited at some of our mechanical fairs would be an interesting curiosity. Curious Dwarf Deer. The Baltimore .dmerican says : We yes- terday saw two of these animals, mother and young, that were brought from the island of Java, on board the United States frigate Mace- doniass, and are probably the only ones ever seen in the United States. When full-grown they are about the size of the ordinary rabbit of our forests, and shaped like the American deer. The limbs are very delicate, and the hoof; which is cloven, is almost transparent. In color they are reddish brown, with white breast and stomach. From the nose, and ex- tending back to the ears, is a tan-colored stripe on each side, and under the lower jaw a white stripe, forming a trident. They feed like cattle, and chew the cud, like that species of the animal creation. They are easily do- mesticated. The eye is large and projecting, but the ears are short and oblong. They are said to be very swift, and their appearance would indicate it, as they are formed precise- ly like the red deer of this country. Jute, or Indian Hemp. A new factory has been started in Brook- lyn, N. Y., for manufacturing cord and small ropes from Jute. This fibrous material con- slits of the fibers of two plants of the genus Corchorus, which is extensively cultivated in Bengal. It is not so strong as hemp, and never can take its place for the rigging of vessels, & c., but being very cheap it can be employed economically for many purposes, and will, no doubt, come into extensive use. The machinery in this factory is of a peculiar character, specially adapted to the nature of the material. It was imported from Dundee, Scotland, the principal seat of Jute manufac- tures in the world; but new machines re- quired after this, will, no doubt, be construc- ted at home. Jute is now employed in the manufacture of many fabrics in Dundee. It is mixed with cotton warps of cheap broad- cloths; it is also mixed with silk, and from its luster can scarcely be detected, and it is also woven into cheap carpets. It has been employed on our rope walks for a number of years, spinning it on the hand jennies, and it makes a very beautiful cord, but hitherto it has been difficult to spin it with steam power machines. The machines in the new factory are driven with a steam-engine. Four and a half millions of raw silk are exported annually from China. As much silk, we think, could be raised in our own conntry. 72 I Can a Patent be Attached? A correspondent from Richmond, Va., in- quires of us if a patent can be attached by the Sheriff, and sold to satisfy a judgment against the patentee. He says it is contended by some persons that as a patent is granted to a certain person specified in the instrument, and for his exclusive use and benefit, no court nor power of government can deprive him of it, unless he assigns it, and without his assignment the mere possession of the patent is only as so much waste paper, and no ma- chine could be made or sold by the party holdingit. He states that a brother mechanic has asked the advice of two lawyers on this point: one said a patent could be attached and sold, the other said it could not, and in this dilem- ma our correspondent has written to us for exact information. By a proper process of law a patent can be attached and sold like other property. Curtis, in Section 189, says : The interest in a patent may also be assigned by operation of law in case of the bankruptcy of the patentee, as well as by his voluntary assignment. There is no question that a patent already obtained passes to assignees in bankruptcy.~~ The Telegraph on Railroads. We have seen an account in the daily pa- pers of this and other cities, that Sir Robert Lowe, of the English Board of Trade, and Capt. Galton, now in this country, have been deputed officially to examine the working of our railroad system, have examined the New York and Erie Railroad, and expressed admi- ration at the perfection of its working ; these papers say: The feature in the operating system of the Erie which struck them as of the greatest value and excellence was the working of all trains by telegraph. Sir Robt. Lowe expressed an intention to procure the passage, by Parliament of an act compelling British roads to work their lines by telegraph. He has taken full notes of the system of op- erating the Erie, with copies of blanks, & c. Every State in the Union should pass a simi- lar act. This is something which we really do not understand. We have been led to believe that the English system was far superior to that of our hest managed railroads, and this is a common opinion. We also thought that all the English railroads employed the telegraph, and that the idea of its use was borrowed from them. It is at least true, that before we had a line of telegraph in operation, there was one on the Great Western Railroad in Eng laad. Dr. Larduer. while delivering a course of lectures in Niblos Saloon, in this city, in December, 1841, described the said telegraph, and said he had witnessed its operations. Is Sir Robert Lowe ignorant of this fact? Tin Folding Machine. Our engraving illustrated an invention for the above purpose, for whigh a patent was granted to Mr. 0. W. Stowe, of Plantsville, Coun., June 12th, 1855. In the ordinary ma- chines, the two jaws which bend the edge of the tin are operated separately; but in this improvement both jaws are moved by one pressure of a lever. B is the first folding bar, having bearings at each end, one of which terminates in a boss, A, to which the lever, A, is attached. The second folding bar, C, is hinged at F to K, which slides on the base of the machine. L. D is a gauge attached to C, and adjusted by the set screw, H. J is a folding plate attached to the stationary holder, E. The edge of the tin sheet is folded by being bent around the edge of J. For this purpose the ends of C are furnished with friction rollers, C, which ride upon the cam surfaces, B. When B is turned up by the application of pressure upon A, the cams, B, will cause C also to rise, and the sheet of tin being placed beneath the edge of J will be thus bent or folded. The width of the fold is regulated by the position of gauge D, against which the edge of the tin is placed. The size of the fold may be instantly changed by turning screw H. The closeness of the ~fold is readily adjusted by the screws, G, which bear against K, and push the front edge of C towards J, or allow it to recede from J. The prime object sought and gained by this invention is the simultaneous action of the two folding bars, by which the fold or lock is formed. By accomplishing this object the following important advantages are secured: First, the folding plate is relieved of a varying and unequal stiain on its opposite sides, and will, therefore, last longer, and keep perfectly true and straig it. Second, sin e both folding bars rise to- gether they hol I the sheet metal on which the lock is formed rom being drawn in at either end, so that if, ny number of locks are formed with the gauge in the same place they will be of an exactly uniform width. The gauge also MACHINE FOR FOLDING TIN. is put on in a superior manner, and is less the old style of machines. It does more work, likely to be moved while using the machine does it better, and costs only a fraction more. than formerly. Two sizes of these machines for tinsmiths Third, the working of both folding bars by use are made, ~ o. 1, for 20-inch tin, $20; No. means of one lever saves time, so that the 2, for 17-inch tin, $15. The machine is on amount of work that can be done by this ma- exhibition at tie Great Fair of the American chine in a day is nearly twice that which can Institute, Cryst tI Palace, N. Y. For further be turned off by the machine commonly used. information adt ress the Stowe Manufacturing Fourth, this machine is more durable than Co., Plantivilk, Conn. SELF-ACTING CAR COUPLING. Self-Acting Car Coupling, naturally hang down, and keep the cars Our engraving illustrates a simple and in- coupled togeth r. The weight also serves to genious method of coupling cars together, for maintain hook X. in a horizontal position, so which lettess patent were granted to John Ry- that it will readily couple with any other buf- an, of Wilmington, Del., July~17, 1855. The con- fer. When it h desired to uncouple them the nection is formed by means of a hook bar, A, I chain, C, is puP ed, and the hook turned up on placed in one of the buffer heads in the man- its side; the bu fers will then disconnect. ner shown in fig. 1. The hook is shown I In figure 1, t se two buffers are supposed to in fig. 2. The back end of the hook bar, be approaching each other the act of being at B,is weighted, so that the hook part will coupled. The front extremity of hook A is Figure 2. beveled off so as to form a screw-shaped sur upon its side, p; ~sses through the aperture in face; the mouth of the buffer, D, is made fiar- the buffer, and ihen revolves back to its first ing, so that when the beveled end of the hook, position, leavin the two buffers connected. A, strikes upon it, the hook immediately turns This coupling is extremely simple, always self-acting, and not liable to get out of order. Its first cost is about the same as the common link and pin coupling, but it is much more economical in use than that kind, as there are none of the parts that can be lost, mislaid, or readily stolen. As a preventive of accident this improvement is highly desirable, since it requires no person to enter between the cars to render assistance. The coupling is done by merely pushing the cars together, so that their buffers will touch or nearly touch. This coupling will act successfully on any curve where a locomotive can run, and on cars whose hightis variable. Should an axle heat, the end of the car will be held up. Mounting and other dangerous results are also pre- vented. The invention has been in use on the Phil- adelphia, Wilmington and Baltimore Railroad for more than a year past, and is highly spo- ken of by the officers of that corporalon. It has also been used with great satisfaction on the Philadelphia and West Chester road. It is now on exhibition at the Crystal Palace, New York. For further information address John Ryan and John A. Griffin, Wilmington, Del. Preventing Incrustation. 5 e Boilers and Iron Pipes. A few years since we published the receipt named Sibbalds Metaline Compound,i~ for preventing scale in boilers, and inquiries hav- ing recently been made of us respecting it. by new correspondents, we publish it again. We have evidence that it has been found use- ful in some cases. It is composed of 1 lb. of melted tallow, 1 lb. of fine black lead, one-eighth of a pound of pulverized charcoal, and one gill of oil, for water pipes, or the same amount of coal-tar for boilers. These ingredients are thoroughly incorporated together, aud applied while in a heated state with a brush, like paint. It forms a good protection for timber placed un- derground, for coating water pipes; and also for coating the interior of steam boilers in which hard water is employed. It must be frequently renewed in such boilers to effect the object stated. This compound might be applied to the interior of iron water pipes with a brush on the end of a long rod. Maintain- ing the proportions of the materials described, any quantity of it may be manufactured. - --~-s~- - important Litigation. For some time past the tax-payers of the towns of Genoa and Venice, N. Y., have ta- ken measures, under the advice of eminent lawyers, to resist the payment of the interest upon the bonds issued by these towns for the benefit of the Lake Ontario, Auburn a ad New York Railroad. Last week the question was brought before the Supreme Court of this Dis- trict, at Rochester, upon an application for a mandamus to compel the payment of the in- terest due upon eight bonds of one thousand dollars each, issued by the town of Genoa. The questions involved are important, and may cause a protracted litigation, the decision of which is important to the tax payers of all towns interested. A Great Pianoiore Factory Burned. The great pianoforte factory of Messrs Braidwood, in London, has been consumed by fire. No less than 420 workmen were employed in it. 1000 pianos in various stages were burned, and the total loss of property was 100,000about half a million of dollars. We believe this was the largest manufactory of the kind in the world. SPLENDID PRIZES.PAID IN CASH. The Proprietors of the ScsE,eTsssc AMERICAN will pay, in Cash, the following spiendd Prizes for the iargest Lists of Subscribers sent in between the present time and the first of January. 1857. to wit For the largest List, 8200 For the 2nd largest List, 175 For the 3rd largest List, 150 For the 4th largest List, 125 For the 5th largest List, 100 For the 6th largest List, 75 For the 7th largest List, 50 For the 8th largest List, 40 For the 9th largest List, 30 For She lOSh largest List, 25 For the 11th largest List, 20 For the 12th largest List, 10 Names can be sent in at different times and from dif- ferent Post Offices. The rash lviii be paid to the order of the successfui competitor, immediately after the 1st of January. 1857. U~ See Prospectus on last page. 28 ~cicwWic ~mcrica~+ as those mechanics who combine their owu is beautifully flu iished, and reflects much cred- irons, but prevents them from being burned or labors, with machinery, in the business in it on the inveni or of the improvements, and melted, or pasted up with dirt, saves the ne cV1~LAIAU~ ~ an4! which they are particularly engaged. The on the manuf icturers, Messrs. Hinkley & cessity of filing, & c. The saving of time by manufacturer who makes the cheauest and Equery, Bango:, Me. Price of engine $1000. the removal of these objections is estimated at I ________ best article, by having the most improved ma- Improved H rizontal Steam Engine .By 12 per cent. for each working, while the cost NEW YORK, OCTOBER, 4, 18~6. chines to economize labor~ soon obtains a su- Wi1liam Burdou i, Brooklyn, N. Y.The power for fuel is said to be six times less than that of perior custom for his products, and thus while I of this engine i thirty horses. Its construc- charcoal used in the ordinary manner. The I Mechanics, the Agents of Power. he benefits his country by adding to its pro- tion embraces r o special peculiarity. it runs apparatus at the Palace heats 8 irons, and is I Nations are powerful in pi oportion to their ductive powers, he also benefits himself. At beautifully, is ~legantly finished, and looks intended for 4 workmen. Price $3~, with productive capacity of things useful and ne- every Exhibition of Jndustry,such as the I strong and sut stantial. Mr. Burdon is well cover for carrying off heat. Can be made of cessary; but so far as the mere physical pow- Fair of the American Institute now open in known as an e2 tensive manufacturer of sueam any desired size, with corresponding variation er of men are concerned, there is but little the Crystal Palace, this city, inventors and engines, and en joys a high reputation for the in cost. Patented by John Wilsen, May 12th, difference between those of different countries, mechanics should scrutinize every machine and excellent and urable character of the work 1856. Exhibited by the manufacturers, Wil- The barbarian can endure as much toil and article exhibited, search out their defects, and which he prodr ces. Besides the motor above son, Green & Wilson, Brandywine, Del. fatigue as the civilized man, and yet the pro- study how to improve them. This is one ex- j noticed, he exhibits several other engines in the ~ ductive powers of our country, in comparison cellent way to benefit themselves and their present Exhibil ion. Beceet American Pateut~. with those of China, for example, with her fellow men by improving and increasing the ~eiegrapii Cables. Hydraulic Brick PressBy Ethan Rodgers, 226,000,000 of inhabitants, is beyond calcu- Agents of Power, and probably would result A case coni aining specimens of various Cleveland, Ohio .The followers which press in profit in a pecuniary point of view to many. lation. How can we account for this The Chinese are an industrious and patient people, and they have every variety of soil and cli- mate, and yet they are weak and powerless in comparison with a nation having nine times less inhabitants. There is one rhing very evident to us as the ruling element of national power in modern times,we mean mechanical genius, in the production of useful machinery. As a nation multiplies its machines, so does it multiply its power. The great and powerful nations of the present day, are those which have the greatest number of machines. For example, in China, the work which we do with machi- nery they perform with manual labor. With one steam engine of 100 horse power, we are able to do as niuch work as can be done there by a thousand men, and a thousand steam en- gines of an hundred horse power each, are equal to the labor of a million men. With all other kinds of machines, the same compar- isons are equally applicable. This is the way we increase productive labor; this is the way we economise labor. In China there are few. machines, and these are but rude; there are no steam engines, steamboats, railroads, pow- er looms, wood planing machines, thrashing machines, rapersnone of those machines, countless in n.smber, by which we economize labor, and render our country great in power and comfortable in its varied abundance. Every new machine invented to economize labor, therefore, is a public benefit, and every inventor a public benefactor. Oh, howmuch we owe to inventors: without them we have no reason for supposing we would be more comfortable, greater, or more civilized than the Chinese, or even ruder nations. But with all our machines, countless in number though they be, much is yet before our inventors to accomplish; their task will not be done until they have relieved man from an incalculable amount of drudgery, which he yet performs; not until they have placed him in a still more favorable position for~ his intellectual and moral developement. Improvements in machinery, by increasing productive labor, give man more leisure, and thus increase his pleasures. A friend recently from France, who had visited a great number of flour mills in that country, spoke in sor- row of the continual drudgery caused by rude and inefficient machineryenlightened and refined though that country is, and full of ingenious artisans. Day and night, from years end to year~s end, Sabbath days and all, the clatter of the hopper never ceased the operatives were perfect slaves to the ma- chines. With our improved machinery they could accomplish four times as much work, and thus find leisure to improve their minds, and rest their toil-worn frames. In our last number a correspondent gave us pleasing information regarding his success in thrashing by a portable steam engine; this application of steam power, more universally adopted, will save a vast amount of labor. Plowing by steam is another application which, when fully successful, as it no doubt will be, will also effect an immense saving. It is not possible for us to point out all the objects to which inventors can yet devote their energies and talents in making new con- quests of mind over matter, hut they are still as numerous as the sands on the sea shore. An inventor should have this thought ever pres- ent with him, how can I best economize la- bor of any kind. Every person gains by im- provements in machinery, and none so much submarine tel graph cables, is exhibited by the clay into the molds are operated by by. the American, New York, Newfoundland, and: draulic pressure. A large and small pump Great Exhibition of the American Institute at London Telegr iph Co. are employed, and the parts are so arranged the Crystal Palace, New York. England anC Belgium.The cable which that the necessary pressure is obtained, and SECOND wzzK. ex~ends from I over, England, to Ostend, Bel- the machine worked with rapidity. The day announced for the commencement glum, is 70 mil es in length. It consists of 6 j Chimney Register and Weathercoclc.By J of the Exhibition was September 22nd. On small cooper wires separately covered with I A. Royce, Lee, MassOn top of the chimney the 25th the Hon. Henry Meigs, Secretary, de- gutta percha, nd these again imbedded to- is placed a device similar to an ordinary slat- livered his usual Annual Address. We no- gether in the s ame substance. The mass is ted hot air register. This register has a vane ticed, however, a slight variation in its word- covered by twelve large iron wires, which and rudder, and is turned to the proper po- ing. Last year he expressed a belief that form a flexible shield of great strength. The sition by the action of the wind against the steam power was perhaps about to be super- cable complete is an inch and a half in diam seded by a new motor then on erhibition. He eter It was I aid down in 1853. alluded to Dr. Drakes exploding gas engine. This year, although he sticks to the annihila- England as d France.The cable which connects Engi md and France extends from tion of steam, he leaves out the gas machine, Dover to Cala s, in France. Length 25 miles. and substitutes electro-magnetism. His mind Laid in 1851. Construction similar to the doubtless rests on the new electric engine, of above. Mr. E. C. She~ hard, now first exhibited, and Scotland an 1 IrelandExtends from Port of which we shall hereafter apeak. Patrick, Scott Lnd, to Carrickfergus, Ireland. At the conclusion of his Address Mr. Meigs Length 29 mib s. Laid in 1853. Same con- announced that the exhibition was formally struction. opened. But there was nothing of any ac- England an ~ IrelandExtends from Dub- count to see, and therefore nothing to open un across St. ~eorge~s Channel to Holyhead, upon. The managers had made known in Eng. Lengtl, 69 miles. their circulars, that articles could be sent in Newfrundlas d and Nova Scotia.Crosses the for competition until Oct. 4. The result is Gulf of St. Z~awrence. Length, 85 miles. that the largest proportion of the exhibitors I Laid in 1856. This cable was laid by the New have delayed until the present week, to send York, N. F., nd London Telegraph Co. It in their contributions, and it is only now that is composed o 3 small copper wires, laid in the Exhibition has reached an organized or gutta percha, and bound with strong iron complete state. Better late, however,than never, wires. The exhibition will be a splendid one, and Europe and .i~trica.Crosses the Mediter- promises to surpass all others, of a purely ranean Sea, and extends from Cagliari, the American character, that has ever been held chief seaport (If Sardinia, to Bonn, the sea- in this country. At the time this report was port of Algh rs, Africa. Length 185 miles. written the contributions for exhibition were Laid in 1856. Three copper wires, arranged still pouring in ~apidly. as above. Motive Power. Denmark a ed Sweden.Extends from Elsi- The display of working machinery, at this nore to Helsingborg. Length, 12 miles. Laid Exhibition, is unusually large, and the man- in 1854. agers have made ample arrangements for England as d Holland.Extends from Ox- the supply of motive power. The main line forduess to thl, Hague. Four separate cables. of shafting is driven by two horizontal steam Length, 108 a iles. Laid 185455. engines, each of thirty horse power, as fol- Varna to . 3alaklava, Black Sea.Laid in lows: 1854, and fail sd in 10 months. Composed of Improved Steam Horizontal Engine.By G. a single wire encased simply in gntta percha, H. Reynolds, of Milford, Mass.The improve- the whole nol larger than a quill. ments relate to a new cut-off arrangement, The above comprise the principal submarine whereby the steam is used expansively, and telegraph cab es now existing. results in a saving of fuel, the inventor in- Grate Damper. forms us, of 25 per cent. It is alleged that This is a c ntrivance for use in connection the fact of this great economy has been fully with the ordlitary parlor grates. It consists demonstrated, in a number of instances, by of a balance damper, which swings in the the application of the invention to old en- throat or opeu lug from the grate to the chim - gines. It may he applied at small expertie. ney. Holes re made in the damper through Another improvement consists in a peculiar which the g es and smoke escape, but the construction of the pillar boxes of the main heat is really all thrown into the apartment. or crank shaft. The boxes are so arranged If an increase 1 draft is wanted, as in lighting that they may be taken out and repaired with- a fire, the di mper is opened. It is alleged out removing the shaft. In the ordinary en- that the use of this invention in any grate gines. whenever the pillar boxes need exami- I will double t me quantity of heat thrown into nation or replacement, the shaft, fly-wheel, the apartmeni. If so, it is a great economizer etc., must be removed. This necessitates the I of fuel. Price $3 and upwards, according to use of tackles, and the aid of a number of size. Can h, readily applied to common men, requires time, etc., the larger the machine i grates. Exhibited by Jacob Cohen & Co., the greater the trouble. The improvement 45 Greene it. N. Y. above-mentioned obviates all this, and enables one man to do the whole. The boxes in which the shaft rotates, are divided vertically, in- stead of horizontally, and a strong strap cov- ers the boxes and keeps them in place. By removing the strap, the fly-wheel having been first blocked up, the boxes can be taken out. A set screw in the side of the strap permits the horizontal tightening of the boxes lateral- ly when desirable, which is the direction in which they wear the fastest. The common boxes can only be tightened vertically. The engine on exhibition operates extremely well, older-Iron Furnace. This invent ion is intended to permit the use of anthracite coal for heating the solder-irons of tin-smiths. Charcoal is used at present, which is expensive. The apparatus exhibited at the Palace consists of a sort of stove,which is intended o be placed in the center of a large bench, I or the convenience of the work- men. The si les of the stoves are perforated. and provided with tubes or sleeves, which ex- tend into the center of the fire. The solder- irons are heat ed by being placed in the sleeves. This device insures the rapid heating of the rudder, and its slats, after it is thus moved, are closed more or less by the action of the wind against a sail, which is on a mast projecting up from the slats. When the wind blows hard, the slats are operated so as to almost entirely close up the flue of the chimney and thus diminish the draft, and when it is calm they open the flue and thus increase the draft. The design of the improvement is to avoid a greater consumption of fuel during windy weather than there is when the weather is calm. Fly Trap.By Dr. Samuel Arnold, Green Hill, Tenn.A hemispherical glass vessel filled with soap suds is provided, over which a hollow cylinder is placed. The cylinder communicates with the glass vessel, and is provided with grooves on its inner side to re- ceive some condiment attractive to flies; it is also perforated, to allow the flies to enter, and pass to the condiment. The cylinder also has a piston. When a number of flies have entered the cylinder some one around the ta- ble revolves it, and thereby frightens the flies, which in a moment thereafter are precipitated into the soap suds by the automatic descent of the piston. New Bomb ShellBy A. M. George, of Nashua, N. HConsists in constructing a shell with a separate chamber or cavity in front of the chamber which contains the pow- der or compound by which the shell is ex- ploded. The said chamber is filled with melted iron or other metal, which will be scattered by the explosion of the shell, inflict- ing great injury. It further consists in certain means of protecting the charge of powder or explosive compound from the heat of the melted metal in the front part of the shell dur- ing the placing of the shell in the piece of ordinance for discharge. The fuse is ignited in the same way as tflat of the common bomb- shell, and when the charge in the chamber be- comes ignited, the said chamber and the whole of the shell explode at once, and the melted metal is scattered about, to the destruction of everything surrounding the spot where the ex- plosion takes place. Contrivance Jbr Notching Barrel Hoops.By Daniel Lamson, of East Weymouth, Mass. Consists in the use of a ieciprocating knife and inclined plate, whereby the ends of hoops I may be properly notched, and with the great- est facility. The above invention is simple, performs the work in a rapid manner, and the cost of construction is trifling. Machine for Painting Wheels for Vehicles. By S. B. Fuller, of Worthington, MassCon- sists in having a vibrating and rotating spin- dle pass through the bottom of a tub or reser- volr in which the paint is placed. The wheels being placed one at a time upon the spindle, are immersed in the paint by depressing the spindle. They are then raised above the sur- face of the paint, and the spindle rotated so that the superfluous paint will be thrown from the wheel by centrifugal force. It is said that two men can perform as much work with a 29 ~cicntific ~mcriEan. machine of this kind in a given time as ten men can by painting in the usual way. Stave MachineBy A. H. Crozier, of Oswe- go, N. Y.Consists of a wheel having cutters attached and used in connection with adjust- able gauges, plates, and screws. The staves will be jointed with more or less bend or ta- per, according as the plates are adjusted high- er or lower, which adjustment is obtained by operating the set screws. The above inven- tion is exceedingly simple, and is said to operate well. It may be cheaply constructed, and there are no parts liable to get out of re- pair. Blow PipeBy S. B. Palmer, of Tully, N. Y.Two wind chests are employed, connected together by a small pipe, which is provided with a faucet. These parts are so arranged in connection with the pump and blow pipe that a jet of air of equal volume is forced in a regular manner from the nozzle of the blow pipe. The above improvement has been prac- tically tested, and operates well. The whole affair is portable, economical to manufacture, and there are no parts liable to get out of re- pair. Door Lock for Railroad Cars, ~c.By Thomas Slaight, of Newark, N. J.Consists in having a hasp fitted over a socket of a lock, and se- curing said hasp on the socket by means of a plug, which passes through the hasp and sock- et into the lock. The plug is secured therein by means of elastic or yielding jaws, arranged relatively and combined with a turn plate and slotted tumblers. The above improvement is far preferable to the ordinary padlocks. It is, in reality, a tumbler lock, and may be made equally as secure against burglars or lock- pickers as bank safe locks. Sufficient play is allowed the hasp on the socket, so that the door may yield to a certain extent, in case heavy weights press against it. BIeachtn~ Cotton and Linen Fabrics. The common process of bleaching the above named fabrics, is by boiling them first in lime water, or a caustic alkali, then steeping them in successive clear liquors of chloride of lime, treating them with dilute sulphuric acid, called sours, and then thoroughly washing them. Although these fabrics can be bleached per- fectly white by strong liquors, in a few hours~ the common practice is to use weak liquors, requiring several days to complete and much labor to execute. Two patents have recently been taken out in foreign countries, for different methods of bleaching. The one by Pierre J. Davis, of Paris, is quite an original process he employs for this purpose chloroform in a state of gas. The cotton fabrics are placed in a close wood- en box to which steam is admitted from a boiler, at a pressure of 60 lbs. to the square inch; this box contains a liquor made of car- bonate ofsoda (crystallized soda,) of a strength about 4~ in the hydrometer, and the goods are steamed in this for about two hours, then al- lowed to cool. The box must have a safety valve on it, and an emission steam pipe. Af- ter this the goods are taken out, dripped, and placed in another close wooden box lined with lead, but communicating by a pipe with a chloroform generator. This consists of an earthenware vessel into which 3 lbs. of bleach- ing powder (chloride of lime,) 3 lbs. of slacked lime, a quarter of a pound of alcohol, and 9 lbs. of water, are placed together and stirred. About one pound of hydrochloric acid is then poured upon these materials, when the chlo- roform gas begins to generate, the cover is then put on the generator, and the gas con- ducted by a pipe into the leaden chamber which contains the fabrics. This gas half bleaches the goods in the course of an hour or so; when hydrogen gas is introduced into the box, to expel the chloroform. The goods are then submitted a second time for a few hours, to the action of chloroform gas, made of a lik.e quantity of materials, but distilled from a zinc retort heated to I 45~ Fab. After this operation oxygen gas is admitted to the goods, which imparts to them a bluish shade. They are then taken out, washed, dried, and finished. This process may be very effectual, but it appears to be too complicated for com- mon practice. Thc other patent is that of H. Hodgkinson, of Belfast, Ireland, and consists of a steam- tight box half filled with bleaching liquor (chloride of lime) heated by steam, and hav- ing within this box a revolving wheel made with apartments containing the fabrics to be operated upon. Each apartment has a door to put in and take out the goods, also open- ings in the bottom, to allow the entrance of the liquor. As this wheel revolves, the goods are dashed, as it were, through the hot liquor in the box, and are thus bleached rapidly and evenly. By the common method of bleaching, the liquors used are all cold, because the chlorine gas is expelled by a very moderate heat, but as the gas operates far more rapidly when hot than cold, it certainly can be saved, and the process accelerated, by bleaching in tight box- es heated by steam. The Moons Rotation Again. This question has been violently discussed for the past six months in the London Times and London Mechanics Magazine. It is the revival of an old controversy caused by a let- ter of Mr. J. Symons, Inspector of Schools, in the Times of April 9th. Mr. Symonds took the position that as the moon always presents the same face to the earth it cannot have a rotation on its axis, and that the prevailing opinion taught in astronomical works that it rotates on its axis once in 28 days exactly, to a second, is wrong. He has been supported in his controversy by Evan Hopkins, who, like himself, was educated at Cambridge, also David Muset, and lately a German mathema- tician, John Von Gumpach, has published a pamphlet supporting the same views, in which he asserts that ~ proposition relative to the ~ rotation has been entirely mis- understood by his followers. Dr. Lardner has just come out in defence of the moons ro- tation, and Dr. Whewell read a paper on the same side before the late meeting of the Brit- ish Scientific Association. These names will show the interest which the question has ex- cited among men eminent in science. We have received an immense number of letters on this subject, but decline to publish them, being content to state the question, to let our readers know that such a controversy is still going on among eminent mathema- ticians in England. After reading almost all that has been said on both sides, we must say that the contro- versy seems to be as near an end as when it began, and as satisfactory as if it were decided that both sides had gained the victory. Mathematics, instead of making some men correct thinkers, leads them to be speculative and vague reasoners. If the moon does rotate on its axis in 28 days exactlyduring the period of her revo- lution around the eartha working model can be constructed to show these two motions, conjointly with the earths motion; this is the test we have demanded of those who advocate this side of the question. There is no use of them spending so much ink and words in the controversy, let them demonstrate. This is the best advice we can give them, and until they comply with it we must hold them re- sponsible for propagating opinions which they cannot support by actual demonstration. Death of George Steers. This eminent naval architect met with a sudden death on the 26th nit., and our coun- try has been deprived of one, in the very vigor of manhood, being only thiry-seven years of age, who has rendered his name fa- mous throughout the world. While proceed- ing in a wagon to Long Neck, L. I., to bring home his wife, his herse ran away, and hav- ing jumped out of the wagon with a view of stopping the animal, he was struck by the wagon and prostrated senseless on the middle of the road. In this situation he was dis- covered by some persons who knew him, and who were riding in a carriage; he was then instantly taken up and driven to his house in Cannon st., this city, where medical aid was quickly obtained, but was of no avail; the spirit departed at 10 oclock in the evening. In 1853 the name of George Steers became a national theme of praise, on account of the splendid triumph of the yacht .Americaof which he was the builderin England. It then won the prize as the fastest yacht of all nations in a contest with the yachts of the Royal Club. Since then he has built the yacht Julia, which has carried off the prize in every regatta which she has entered. He was selected. from his known ability, to build the great ste~.m frigate Niagarathe only one of the six new frigates constructed by private parties ; he was also the naval architect of the .ddriatic -the new Collins steamer. Both of these grea- steamers are splendid specimens of his skill, I ut he has not been permitted to witness thei full completion; death has closed his ey 5 before they have been able to make their t: lal trips, which are expected to come off this month. Although :ut off so suddenly he has lived long enough to leave his mark on the pages of historys nobler one than that of many distinguishec statesmenhe was the builder of the yacht fmerica. A Millers Patent Case. From our worthy cotemporary, ~ Lon- don Journal, we learn that a very importan~ patent case, relating to grinding flour, was tried at Quee ns Bench, before Lord Chief Jus- tice Camphe 1, and a special Jury, on the 4th and 5th of July last. The plaintiff was G. H. Bovill, the defendants, Keyworth & Seeley, millers, at lincoln, Eng. The suit was for damages for infringing the patent of plaintiff granted 184t, for combining an exhaust with a blast in gri tiding flour, to prevent the disper- sion of stive r fine flour through the mill, and thus, as was facetiously observed, enable the miller to we er a black coat. The defence set up was, t cat the plaintiff was not the first inventor; th ~t the improvement was suggest- ed by a won man under his employ; also that it had been ised by Mr. Muir, of Glasgow, prior to the late of the plaintiffs patent. In 1846, tIe plaintiff obtained a patent for introducing s current of air between the mill stones, whici cooled the grinding surfaces, and prevente I clogging of the flour. It was a good impr vement, as it enabled a run of stones which were only able to grind four bushels per h mr, to grind double that amount, but owing to the flour and blast being carried together thrcugh the spout, a prodigious dust was created in the mill chamber below. A cloud of stive prevented the millers from doing as much wor r as formerly, and it was also in- jurious to t ceir health. This was an evil which the ph intiff saw when he first put up his apparatuE, in a mill at Battersea, and he at once instituted experiments to remove it. This he at list successfully accomplished, by enclosing the stones completely, and combin- ing an exhau ;ting apparatus with the cooling blast: the fo mer to withdraw the stive from the upper part of the mill stone, and lead it away into a r cceiving chamber, while the flour passed down into the spout in a contrary di- rection. Th stive was thus all saved; the moisture was extracted from the flour, which went below cry and cool; the dust in the mill was avoided and the miller could wear a black coat lire a parson.~~ The patent, as has been stat ed, was obtained in 1849, and came into us e immediately, for the flour so manufacture. was found to be a superior ar- ticle. The d rfendants in this case took out a license from he plaintiff, in 1851, agreeing to pay 1700 about $8,500) annually. This sum was pai( for two years, when it was re- fused, in l8~ 3, the grounds br such refusal being those xe have stated, as their defence. The evidence of the workman, whose in- vention it was stated to be, was introduced; but it was proven that he was employed and paid to mak the experiments instituted by the patentee,. that he merely did the work suggested ar d planned for him. The evidence of Mr. Muir ~as also taken; and he indeed stated that he had combinedprior to 1849 an exhaust vith a blast,and that he had drawn sketc ties of his apparatus, and had sent them to England, and these were also produced in ~vidence. It was from being in- formed of these things, that the defendants refused to pry Mr. Bovill his license any long- er; hence ci me this law suit. All the teAimony given in defence failed to convince th~ jury, or the Judge, that the plaintiff was not the first inventor, for it was also proved that Mr. Muir had discontinued the use of his apparatus, and consulted at one time with Mr. Bovill, for a licen e, hence it was concludedand reasonably we think that Muir had never perfected his plan and that Mr. Bovill was the first who had ren- dered the invention usefula success. The amount of damages claimed, was 1239 lls. 6d., for the use of the patent for nine months less one week, this being the term since the plaintiff had entered a disclaimer, in May, 1855, to the day the action was brought in January last. The Jury found the verdict for the plaintiff to this amount, thus estab- lishing his entire claims. The Lost and New Arts. In the opening annual address delivered last week before the American Institute by Hon. H. Meigs, allusions were made to arts supposed to be lost, and to a great discovery about to be made; these deserve some notice at our hands. He said In truth it is justly be- lieved that many inventions greater in value than any we have now, have been lost for want of such an opportunity for fame and profit. (The opportunity referred to is Indus- trial Exhibitions.) It is believed we have lost malleable glass; we can no longer make cutting instruments out of copper, as was done 3000 years ago; nor have we the art of making the steel of Damascus, nor the sword blades of old Seville. We do not believe that a single useful ancient art is unknown at the present day. It by malleable glass it is meant that the ancients made glass which could be forged and welded like iron, we must say that there is not a shadow of good evidence that such glass was ever known. There is no manufacture whatever in which the moderns so much excel the ancients as in that of glass of every kind. The old cutting instruments were made of bronze, and such can be manufactured at the present day; but neither the old nor new bronze cutting tools are equal to those made of steel. The sword blades of old Seville were no better than those now manufactured in our country; :n Damascus, sword blades are still forged, and with all their ancient excel- lence, but the steel for them is imported from India. The reputation of Damascus swords is deserved, but the French cutlers sword blades of the present day rival them in ap- pearance and quality. Industrial Fairs are very ancient institu- tions. Such fairs were annually held in Greece, and merchants from all parts of the known world went there to exhibit their wares; and it was an established law of the land that even during a state of war between the differ- ent States the merchants were protected, and allowed to travel to and from theta without annoyance. These fairs passed from Greece to Europe, and have come down to us from generation to generation. They have been the means of extending a knowledge of the arts, and exciting inventors to improvements, and their influence is extending broader and deeper every year. Mr. Meigs did not magni- fy their importance too highly in his address; what he said respecting their utility was per- fectly correct, but if any old art has been lost it has not been owing to the want of them, even in the middle ages. In this address the idea was presented that we were on the eve of some great discovery which is to supersede steam everywhere; this discovery was stated to be electro-magnetism. and Dr. Lardner and Newtons London Journal were quoted as authority in favor of such views. We would like to know the basis for announcing such opinions, for the laws of electro-magnetism are now very well known, and they do not afford any grounds for leading us to adopt the opinion that elec- tro-magnetism can ever take the place of steam as a general motive agent. Electro-magne tism can operate machinery like steam, or water, or wind, but it is a far more expensive agent. About twenty years ago there was considerable excitement respecting electro- magnetism superseding steam power, and a number ot such engines were then construc- ted, therefore it is not by any means a new power. We therefore cannot conceive how we can be on the ~ of such a new dis- covery as an electro-magnetic motor, to su- persede pteam power, according to the opin- ,ions expressed in Mr. Meigs address. 30 2IiEI~ ~t-~Z. NOTEIn reply to invitations lately received from so- cieties in various parts of the country to lecture before them the coming winter, on the subject of mechan- ical science, we would state that home duties prevent our undertaking such engagements. We expect to remain at our office, 128 Fulton street, the entire winter and our lectures shall go to all subscribers to the SciareTisic AMeRicAN in weekly installments. Subscribers and correspondents who expect to receive answers to their letters, must furnish us with their proper address, otherwise they will receive no attention. We have a right to know who our correspondents are. J. F. T., of S. CThere can be no doubt but the rats- big of the water to flow the rice fields by the propeller wheel is new, and can be patented, if you establish its usefulness; but we think that two large pumps can be worked more economically, and will throw more water. J. M. W., of Md-A cast-iron shaft is one that is made of molten iron, being molded and cast into form, no mat- ter whether it is heated and hammered afterwards or not. A wrought-icon shaft is one that is forged into form. The metal of the former is crystalline, that of the latter is fibrous. L. W. A., of MassThe same kind of oil as that obtain- ed from the distillation of coal was employed quite a num- ber of years ago for lubricating purposes. India rubber, as you seem to be aware, dissolved in various kinds of oil, has been employed as a lubricator, and its office in coal or any other oil is the same. We do not consider that it makes any difference what the kind of oil is in which it is employed. The oil is not new, and the india rubber in oil is not new for lubrication. What then is new? India rubber lubricating oils were used to our knowledge seven years ago. N. R. M., of N. YWe would advise you to get earth- enware in place of iron pipe, because the wood acid will not act upon it. Copper pipe would be more durable, and ultimately more profitable for your purpose than iron pipe. J.L. G., of C. W.A turbine wheel is the cheapest and seventy-five per cent. of the water power is as much as can be expected from ,.n overshot or breast-wheel Any of those who have advertised their wheels in the Sri. AM.. will guarantee you this amount of power. J. B., of C. W.There is no work published containing an account of the statistics of cotton and woolen factories in tIe United States. The United States statistics will not give you full and correct information. C. F. A., of Boston.We would advise you to get a copy of Septimus Piesses work on perfumery and scented soaps; it is published by Lindsay & Blakiston, Philadel- phia. You will find something useful in it to make for your purpose. Alt inks corrode steel pens. We did not get the match mentioned in your letter. W. S., of MdThe principle ofgenerating steam enough ~or each stroke of the engine by bringing the proper quantity of water into contact with a heated surface is a very old one, and created much interest some years ago, particularly in England. From experiments made it was found not to work well There is, we believe, some nov- elty in your arrangement, and this might make it suc cessful. The difficulty in generating steam in this way is that it assumes the globular or spheroidal form. A. H. W., of C. W.We send but two copies of our pa- per to your pace. Before we can alter their address we shall require an order to that effect from the subscribers. A Ilcitish subject can purchase a patent right from an American citizen, and freely enjoy the same under pro- tection of U. S. law the same as a citizen would. W. W. L., of MissYour application was filed in the Patent Office on the 18th of August, and as soon as the case is acted on we will advise you by mail A rule of our office precludes our entering the names you sent up- on nor subscription books usitil the amount of subscrip- tion is paid. We thank you, nevertheless, for your kind- ness in trying to get us names. A. M. H.. & N. VBy the term stationary steam chest we supposed you to mean a steam chest attached firmly to the cylinder, like that of a stationary cylinder. There are many oscillating engines with such steam chests con- taining common slide valves; among them two patented by Win. Stephens, Pittston, Pa. All of these engines have an arrangement of pipe substantially like yours. We see nothing in your arrangements that would infringe on any pat~nt known to us. NI. II., of Brooklyn.1f we understand your invention properly, and we believe we do, the engine cannot work at all, for almost as soon as the piston upon which the steam has first acted begins to be returned, by the action of the steam on the second, the further escape of steam from the first to the second cylinder is prevented by the piston of the first cylinder passing the escape port. P. H., of N. Y.You write well considering the disad- vantages under svhich you have labored. One of our rules have not been complied with by you. You cer- tainly are liable to the charges we made. It is wrong to make positive assertions upon simple suppositions. An explosion with hydrogen and oxygen can only take place with the combining proportions that form water ; there- fore there can be no such gas as auzune. Ozone is a term derived from the Greek, expressive of its characteristics. F L Zemp, Camden, S. CWishes to purchase the best hulling machine for removing bran from wheat be fore grindisig. lie also wishes to correspond with the owner of Robbins patent for distilling resin, etc. We hope some of our numerous readers can furnish the in- formation wanted by Mr. Zemp. .1. M., of Mass We often receive models without the names of their inventors attached to them. This is a very great annoyance to us. Models sent in this careless manner are liable to be lost sight of after a few weeks. If you will send us a sketch and description of yours we will endeavor to look it up. T. B. J., of MassThere are, as you say, several pa- pers that appropriate our articles without any credit. This is wrong. You can procure the pamphlet you speak of, on iron buildings, by addressing James Bogardus, New ,~ YorkCity. J. N., of N. BThe circular valve has long been med in oscillating engines. We do not discover any novelty in your arrangement or mode of operating it. We can not advise an application for a paten(, A. B. C., of BostonWe do not know of any osiho can supply you with a buckwheat hulling machine. We should think that such a machine could be most readily procured at some of the agricultural warehouses in your city. J. N. P., of N. Y.On page 241, of Morfitte work on soap and candles, published by Parry & MeMillan, Philadel- phia, the Belgian soap for scouring fine woolen textures is described, also in Kurtens work, publlshed by Lindsay & Blakiston, Philadelpht.a, but you cannot get the coiza or palm oil If you use common brown soap and add a little ammonia you will obtain a good scouring soap. Com- mon soft soap is the cheapest you can use forfuiling pur- poses. If we were in your place we would make expert- iments with the cheapest materials in the neighborhood. Use a caustic lye of 2 lbs. ot soda to 1 of quick-lime (or use potash in place of soda) and try some of the cheapest oils and tallow you can obtain. N. H. H., of N. Y.It is impossible for any person to tell you how many cubic feet of hay in a mew are requir- ed to make a ton. Every part of the mow, from top to bottom differ in weightthe heaviest per cubic foot at the bottom. The best wheel you can use is a good tur- bine. H. S. S., of OhioA cylinder planer to run true should be perfectly balanced when suspended at the center. If liii not, it is very difficult to make it run true. We are not acquainted with any other method than that descri- bed by you for setting the journals of cylinders perfectly horizontal J. L. of LaThere is no work which treats of the Mis sissippi high pressure engine published. Hodge on the Steam Engine is a good work; it is sold by Appleton & Co., this city. J. C. B., of LaThe sparkling beer to which you refer must be old bottled lager beer. J. W. R., of PaWe are not in possession of any more inform ation on anastatie printing than has been pub- lished in our columns. A small work was publlshed a few years since on the subject by Dr. Cowell, of Ips- wich, Eng.. but we have not a copy of it. The art has not yet become practical. H. Z., of PaThe most economical method of prepar- log chips and shavings for manure is to place them in a heap, pack them very close, and moisten them, to induce rapid decomposition. Spent tan bark must be mixed with quick-lime, in heaps, to fit it for manure. Leather and offal mixed with the sulphate of iron (copperas) will make manure. T. R., of N. J.Ralph Reeders instrument has a chro- nometer on it, which has a revolving index. Some of its parts are like yours, but he received a patent some years since, and invented it more than 20 years ago. We have examined his instrument. C. A. C., of MdWater will flow from a syphon when its outer end is lower than the surface of the water in- side. The velocity of discharge is just in proportion to the difference between the surface of the water and the dlscharge end. A half inch pipe, with Its discharge end 2 feet below the water level, will discharge 26 cubic inch- es per second, less the resistance of friction, which de- pends on the length and character of the pipe. Very little, if any, would pass through your pipe of 1,200 ft. bug. L. B., of VaWe do not engage in the sale of Patent Righls. Our other engagements will not allow us to at- tempt this branch of business. J. E. S., of Pa.G. W. Beardelee, of Albany, N. Y., commenced the manufacture of paper from wood. It is certainly the cheapest material we know of for the pur- pose. What the result of this enterprise may be, time must determine. This or any other diversion from the ordinary method of making paper, will tend to lessen the price of rags, we should think. F. D. W., of CalRound matches are cut by a ma- chine; they are dipped in stearine and, therefore, do not require sulphur. The igniting materials are four pars of phosphorus, 10 of sulphur, a little glue and a little smalt. These are made into a paste, and the ends of the matches dipped into it. B. M., of BostonScores of paddle-wheels have been brought before the public, but none have superseded the old-fashioned one. If any person offers a reward for the invention of a new one, we should be happy to give the notice a wide circulation. E. M., of PaThe motions of the gyroscope do not depend on the resistance of the atmosphere; it is not a new motive power. Centrifugal force is inertia; but the term is applied so as to explain the direction of the acting force. J. S., of MassYour explanation of the gyroscope ls no doubt correct; the philosophy of it is explained in all works on mechanical philosophy, describing rotary mo- tion. J. W. C., of IndThere are clocks which run while being wound up; they are very old. Moneyreceived at the Srisos~sric AMeascAre Office, on account of Patent Office business foe the week ending Saturday, Sept. 27, 1856 E.P.& J.A.C.,ofN.Y,,$25; P. F, E.,ofIll,, $30; T.& C.,ofVl,$30;C.H.,ofN.Y..$20;R.T..ofN.Y., $30; C. Van V., of Ill., $10; T. S.. of Coon., $25; H. L. E., of It. I., $26; 1). & R.,ofN. Y., $30 G.C.2d,of Conn., $30; J. C. F. Sof Md.,$100; A. B. Cof L. I., $25;T.H.,ofN.Y.,$35; GOof N,Y.,$30~ C.S.,of Ky..$25; W.B.,ofL.I.,$57; F.& C.,ofN.Y.,$25;W. D.W.,ofO.,$13; G.D.L.,ofN.Y.,$27;J.S,S.,ofN. J..$20; S.S.,oflnd.,$l0; A.W.& Son,ofN.Y., $75; A.O. W. & Co., ofN. Y.,$25; W. H. S.,of R. I.,$25; C. Mof N. Y., $25; P. B.,ofN. Y.,$65; C.M.,otN.Y., $10;W.& J.C.,ofN.J.,$20;J.P.,ofN,Y.,$25, Specifications and drawings belonging to parties with the following initials have been forwarded to the Patent Office during the week ending Saturday, Sept. 27th W.& J.C.C.,ofN.J.;T.S.,ofConn.;A.B.C.,ofL. I.; J.P.,ofN.Y.; W.G.B.,ofAla.; W.H.B.,ofN.Y.; 3. B. S., of Mass.; C. S., ofKy.; B. C., ofN, Y.; C. M., ofN,Y.; A.W.,ofN.Y.; A. & A.S.W.,ofN.Y.;A. O.N.& Co.,ofN.Y.; W.H.S.,ofR.t; C.M.,of N.Y.; H. P.& J.A.C,,ofN.Y.; P.B.,ofN.Y., (leases). Terms of AdvertIsing. Twenty-five cents a line each insertion. We respect- fully request that our patrons will make their adver- tisements as short as possible. Engravings cannot be ad- mitted into the advertising columns. 3~ All advertisements must be paid foe befose insert- ing. AIIEQIJEST-. LIBERAL OFFERWe propose to .t~, send to ever: person in the United States, who is interested in the s ianufacture of lumber, or improved machinery, a full I lustrated description of two valuable inventions. First, THE COMBINAtION PORTABLE STEAM SAW- MILLThis is a n sw upright mill, so simple in its con- struction that any cue can put it up and run itis easily moved from place is placemay be easily shipped to any part of the country. is capable of cutting from six to ten thousand feet in ev scy twenty-four hours; while, at the same time it is fus olshed at so low a rate as to bring it within the reach ol almost every farmer and planter. Second, RICES PATENT SPRING GU IDEThe only effectual plan ever invented for guiding, steadying, and strengthening; circular saw, while in motion. We wish,therefos sb obtain a list of all the machinists, lumbermen and saw-mill men in the United States, and to any person who sill send us a list of such parties in hls vicinity, and the at dress of each, we will send in return. a copy of the Un ted States Journal,~ the largest illus- trate d news a er to the United States, for one year. In case we receive mi re than one list from the same locali- ty, we shall send tI e JournaP to the party from whom we receive the firs; list, only. The New England States are not included is this offer, as we have there already completed a list, as desired. 3. M. EMERSON & CO., 1 Spruce street, Net -York. 4 4 WANTEDA Partner and $1,000, in the manufac- ture of Wiuidow Blinds, & c. One that can take charge of business preferred. A good water-power, and machinery in opec lion. Business for 4 to 6 hands the year around. Pins lumber at half New-York prices. A rare chance is off ured, if taken soon. For particulars, address or apply to C. P. LINES, (on the premises,) Le- Roys Ville, B radfc rd County, Pennsylvania. l~ T oAXE MAKERSWanted, a practical working- man, who cai be well-recommended, as foreman of an axe-factory. He will be required to take charge ofthe shop, temper, and oaks himself generally usefulappli- cation to state salsa y- required and in what establishment parties have acqo red their experience. Apply to It. HOLT & CO., Dun das, C. W. 4 2* I MPROVEME7T INBORING MACHINESThis improvement ci noists of an arrangement by which the auger can be drive; in any direction the operator chooses, rendering the mac. toe far superior to any other now in use. RICE & DR DEN, Worcester, Mass. 4 4* 1W cALLISTEII S PRICED CATALOGUE, (84 pa- lYE ges, 150 lImit ations,) of Optical, Mathematical and Philosophical Insir iments furnlshed gratis on application and sent by mail, ft ee of charge, to alt parts of the U. S., and Canada. Con entsMathematical Drawing Instru- ments, Microscopes, Spy Glasses, Thermometers, Magic Lanterns, Polyorar sas, Stereoscopes, Gyrsacopes, Barom- eters, Tape Measus as, Surveying Chains, Rain Gauges, Camera Obseuras, Claude Lorraine Ilirrors, Lenses, Levels, P~ntagrapl s. & c. McALLISTER & BROTHER, Opticians, (Establithed in 1796,) 194 Chesnut it., Phila. 1 esass engine. JO RECIPES Ofgreat value to Mechanics, besides other usef il matter, for four letter stamps. Ad- dress, Box 22, belt ester, N. Y. 1* A GENT S X~ ANTED.Address (with stamp for .Lk sample,) Box 453, Rochester, New-York. 1* ~iT ANTEDA gents to sell Steel Plate Engravings WV includtng I ;e beautifully illustrated Engraving o the Lords Prayer and Ten Commandments. An active person with a sin; 11 capital can make $50 to $75 per month. For partit uhars. address D. H. MULFORD, No. 167 Broadway, New-York. 4 2* R IGHTSFOB SALEKNIGHTS SAFETY EN- VELOPES, atented April, 1856. Specimens can be seen at the Ex teibition in Boston, New-York, Phila- del p hia, and Pitt burg. For terms apply to It. T. K NI GIlT, 251M ar cet street, Philadelphia. 1* R EADYFOR AGENTSTHIMBLES FOR THE MILLIONS THAT HUSK CORNThe unr5es-~ signed is prepared o fill orders for GOULDS tU. H USKING TRIM] LES. (Illustrate don page 301, vol. xi., Sri. Aix.) Hardwa e Dealers and Country Merchants are requested to send c n their orders at once. Satisfaction warranted, or no ale. Circulars sent on application. Address J. H. G(ULD, (Sole Proprietor,) Ahits.s.-a Stark County, Ohi;. 4 3* OIL PRESSES FOR SALEOne set of Hon. zontal Oil Pr sues, complete consisting of two cyl- inders. lined with so p per, and boxes containing 8 bags each, with p hates, I ydrauhie pumps and connections, and heating tables, ths se presses are built in the most im- proved and substantial manner, and can be delivered im- mediately; squeez ses and bags can also be furnished if required. Apply to WIt. ARTHUR & CO.. Atlantic Steam Engine Wo ske, Brooklyn, N. V. 34* NW. ROBINSONS PATENT HEAD TURN- ING AND PLANING MACHINE, for Beads of all kinds and desca iptions; it will make from 200 to 130 heads per hour, of the most perfect description. There will be one on exh bition at the Crystal Palace, N. Y., at the Fair of the As serican Institute, in October, where those wishing for Is achines or State rights can see it in operation and judg s of its merits for themselves, All communications in relation to machines and rights should be addressed to tOBINSON, SCRIBNEIt & Co., Keeseville, Essex to., N.Y. 1 6* ANEW ANI SCIENTIFIC INVENTIONDr Cheevers G;.lvano-Electric Regenerator, Patent issued Jan. 15th, 18. , A circular relating to the use ofthe instrument, embra tog a general treatise of atony of the spermatic organs, t is result of which tends to softening the medullary subs ance of which the brain is composed may be had gratis, and will be sent to any address by mail by their indirsting a desire to receive it. All letters should be directed to isle s (ooPO.sraD Temple, Boston - 5j4 CLARKS PATENT WATER REGULATOR The only perfe. t security against steam boiler explo- sions, caused by ~ant of water. Every steam boiler should have one. tegulators sold and applied and rights for most of the States and Territories, for sale by S. C HILLS, 12 PlaIt it. N. Y. 1 4eow* G YROSCOPEA large assortment of this interest- ing and wonder ul scientific curiosity constantly man- ufactured and for sale by JAMES W. QUEEN, 264 Chesnut street, Phi adelphia. lllustrated catalogues by mail gratis. 3 3* OR variety of valuable patents in town F State righ or s, very low br cash, by GEORGE WHEELER & C )., Patent Right and Real Estate Agents, No. 554 Br sadway, N. V. N. B. We buy, sell and procure patent on commission and exchange for all kinds of available~ roperty; charging nothing unless the business we take in teand is accompllshed. 3 2* 1 HERVA ONES CORN PLANTING MA- chines. Co-I artoershipThe undersigned have entered into a co-p; rtnershtp under the style of 3. Herva Jones & Co., for lbs manufacture and sale of his well known planting m; chines, and are now ready to contract them at wholesale prices, with exclusive right of sale in specified sections, to responsible men. Any person who wishes to interest hi oiself and will communicate with us, shall receive by re urn mail a circular containing our wholesale prices, ot .r terms, and our recommendations with reference to p lane for selling. J. RERVA JONES, SAMUEL TALCOTT, MILES S. PRENTICE, CA- LEB C. CHURCH Rocklon, Winneb ago Co., Ill. 3 3* AGENTSFor unparallaled induce- insole. Send stamp toM. J. COOK, A. B., Detroit, Mich. 3 2* pORTABLE STEAM ENGINES.S. C. HILLS No. 12 PlaIt it. - N. Y., offers for sale these Engines, with Boilers, Pum si, Heaters, etc., all complete, and very compact, from 2 to 10 horse power, suitable for print- ers, carpenters, fain sri, planters, & c. A 2 1-2 horse can be seen in store, it occupies a space 5 by 3 feet, weigh.s 500 lbs., price $260 other sizes in proportion. 1 e3w IWUACHINE BELTING, Steam Packing, Engine Ilk HoseThe superiority of these articles manufac- tured of vulcanized rubber is established, Every belt will be warranted superior to leather, at one-third less price. The Steam Packing is made in every variety, and warranted to stand 500 degs. of heat. The hose never needs oiling, and ls warranted to stand any required pres- sure; together with all varieties ofrubber adapted to mechanical purposes. Directions, prices, & c., can be ob- tained by mail or otherwise, at our warehouse, New York Belting and Packing Co., JOHN H. CHEEVER, Treasurer, No. 6 Deystreet, N.Y. 48 14* ~ REAT WESTERN MACHINERY AND PAT- ent AgencyH. E. ELLS WORTH having disposed ot his interest in the firm, the business hereafter well be conducted under the firm and style of DAVID RICH- ARDS & CO. We are prepared to sell all kinds of val- uable improvements and machinery throughout the Uni- ted States. For further inbormation address DAVID RICIIARDS & CO., 51 6* , No. 64 Randolph it,, Chicago, Ill. d~1 IRCULAR SAWSWe respectfully callthe allen lion of manufacturers of lumber to the grea improve- ments recently introduced in the manufacture of our Circular Saws. Being sole proprietors of Southwells patent for grinding saws, we are enabled to grind circular saws from six inches to six feet with the greatest accuracy and precision. The impossibility of grinding a saw with- out leaving it uneven an thickness has always been ac- knowledged by practical saw makers. This causes the saw to expand as soon as it becomes slightly heated in work- ing. When this takes p lace the saw loses its stiffness, and will not cut in a direct line. We will warrant our saws to be free from these defects; they are made perfectly even in thickness, or gradually increase in thickness from the edge to the center, as may be desired. As there are no thick or thin places. the friction on the surface of the saw is siniform, consequently it will remain stiff and true, and will require less set and less power. Will saw smooth, save lumber, and will not be liable to become un- true. This is the oldest etablishment now in existence for the manufacture of circular saws in the United States, having been established in the year 1830. Orders re- ceived at our Warehouse, No. 48 Congress it., Boston. 44 13* WELCH & GRiFFITHS, NITTING MACHINESCircular and straight K knitting machines of all sizes and gauges on hand and made to order. WALTER AIKEN, Franklin, N.H. 46 13* ~AGES PATENT PERPETUAL LIME KILN, .37 will burn 100 barrels of lime with three cords of wood every 24 hours; likewise my coal kiln will burn 180 bushel watn 1 tuh bituminous coal in the same time; coal is not mixed with limestone. Rights for sale, 45 30 C. D. PAGE Rochester, N.Y. STEAM ENGINESFrom SIn 40-horse power also portable engines and boilers; they are first and will be sold cheap for cash. WM BURDON, 102 Front it., Brooklyn. 41 If f1 OLD QUARTZ MILLS of the most improved con- struction; will crush more quartz and do it finer than any machine now in use, and costs much less. WM BURDON, 102 Front sI., Brooklyn, 41 If VAILS CELEBRATED PORTABLE STEAM Engines and Saw Mills, Bogardus Horsepowers, Smut Machines, Saw and Grist Mill irons and Gearing, Saw Gummers, Ratchet Drills, & c. Orders for light and heavy forging and castings executed with dispatch. LOGAN & LIDGERWOOD, 13 lye 9 Gold st.,N.Y. F ILMER & CO., Electrolypers, and Manufacturers of Electrotype Materials, 128 Fulton it., N. Y. Mold- ing Presses, Batteries, Cases, Backing Pans, Shaving Ma- chines, Metal Kettles, Planes, Blocks, Building Irons, etc., etc., on hand, or furnished at short notice, and at moder- ate charges. Adams Improved batteries and black-lead machines also for sale. 23 If AGES PATENT CIRCULAR SAW MILLS El with Steam Engine and Boiler, on hand and for sale for $1500, at Scheock Machine Depot, 161 Greenwich sI. New York. A. L. ACKERMAN. 49 10 CIRCULAR SAW MILLSThe subscriber has on hand, and is constantly manufacturing those cel- ebrated mills with saws from 30 to 80 inches diameter, adapted to manufacturing most kinds of lumber, and warranted to give satisfaction, For prices, & c,, address W. HERRICK, Northampton, Mass. 49 8* BARREL MACIIINERYCROZIER-S PATENT is unrivalled in point of quality and quantity of-work performed, and may be seen an constant operation at the Barrel Manufactory of the undersigned, For rights and machines address WELCH & CROZiER, 43 18* Oswego. N. V. CAR BUILDERSFor Sale, one new Upright Boring Mill br boring car wheels. Maker, price $600. will be sold for $300 cash. Address GEO. S. L IN. COLN & CO., Hartford, Cl. lIf OILER FLUESAll sizes and any length prompt- .3.3 lyfurnished by JAMES 0. MORSE & CO., No.79 John sIN. V. St 3mos ~UTROUGHT-IRON PIPE-Plain, also galvanized WV inside and outside, sold at wholesale by JAMES 0. MORSE & CO., No. 79 John it., N. V. 51 Imos F ORBES & BOND,Arilsts, 89 Nassau it, N.Y., Me- chanical and general Draughtemen on wood,stone,& c. dkIL! OIL! OlL !For railroads, steamers, and for 7 machinery and burningPeases Improved Machine. ry and Burning Oil will save fifty per cent., and wiB not gum. This oil possesses qualities vitally essential for lubri- cating and burning, and found in no other oil. lt is of fered to the public upon the most reliable, thorough, and practical test. Our most skillful engineers and machinists pronounce ilsuperior and cheaper than any other, and the only oil that is in all cassi reliable and will not gum. The Scientific American, after several tests, pronounced it -- superior to any other they have ever used for macbin- ery. For sale only by the inventor and manufacturer, F. S. PEASE, 61 Main sI., Buffalo, N. V. And W. S. ROWLAND & CO., Agents for Chicago, Ill N. BReliable orders filled for any part of the United States and Europe. 1 If (P.RCROSS ROTARY PLANING MACHINE. N The Supreme Court of the U. S., at the Termofl853 and 1854, having decided that the patent granted to Nich- olas G. Norcross, of date Feb, 12, 1850, for a Rotary Pla- ning Machine for Planing Boards and Planks is not an infringement of the Wood-worth Patent. Rights to use the N. G. Norceossi patented machine can be purchased on application to ~. G. NORC ROSS, Office for sale of rights at 27 StIle street, Boston, and Lowell, Mass, 45 fini EW HAVEN MFG. CO.Machinists Tools, Iron N Planers, Engine and Hand Lathes, Drills, Bolt Cut- ters, Gear Cutters, Chucks, & c., on hand and finishing. These Tools are of superior quality, and are for sale low for cash or approved paper. For cuts giving full descrip- tion and prices, address, New Haven Manufacturing Co ., New Haven, Cono. 1 If HARRISONS 30 INCH GRAIN MILLSLa- test Patent. A supply constantly on hand. Price $200. Address New Maven Manufacturing Co., New Haven, Coon. 1 If ~ OILER INCRUSTATIONS PREVENTED A simplesand cheap condenser manufactured by m. Burdon,.102.Front sI.,Brooklyn, will take every par~ Itches of lime or salt out of the water, rendering it as pure as Crolon, before entering the boiler. Persons in want of such machines will please state what the bore and stroke of the engines are, and what kind of water is lobe used. 41 If 32 ~cicntific ~n~erLan+ The New Process of Manufacturing iron. In the three preceding numbers of this vol- ume, we have described the new process for producing a very improved character of iron from common crude pig iron, by submitting the latter, while in a molten state, to the action of air or steam under pressure. This inven- tion has been claimed by and for Henry Bes- semer, of London; he read a paper on the subject before the late meeting of the British Association in England; has secured a pat- ent for it, and the British Press generally has accorded him the entire praise and credit o the discovery. In our last number we stated that Bessemer was not the inventor of the pro- cess, but J. G. Martien, of Newark, N. J., who secured a patent for it in England three months prior to the date of Bessemers, and we will now proceed to present more important infor- mation relating to it. Figures 1 and 2 of the accompanying en- gravings are vertical sections, in elevation, of Bessemers Furnace, copied from the Lo on Illust; cad News of the 6th inst.; a is the plate metal casing of the apparatus or cylin- drical vessel in which the blast is made to op- erate on the molten pig iron, to purify and convert it into malleable iron or steel; 6 is the internal lining of fire h1ick; c is the lower chamber containing the fluid iron. d is an upper chamber for remelting scrap iron; f is an annular air passage communicating with the tuyere pipes, g. h is the main blast pipe leading to the blowing engine; i is an open- ing for the escape of flame, gaseous products and slag, when the metal is boiling; ~ is the tapping hole for the discharge of the metal when it is refined or purified. Ic is a man- hole for cleaning out and iepairing the iQterior of the chamber; m (fig. 1) is the opening through which the molten crude iron is run in from the smelting furnace to the refining chamber, c. n is a fire-clay tuyere. Several tuyeres s ie fitted in, at separate distances apart, around the bottom of the chamber, and the arrows represent the blast of air passing through the hot molten metal, and up through one of the escape openings, i. The two suc- ceeding figures, 3 and 4, represent the appara- tus for refining the metal taken from his pat- ent sealed on the 7th June last. These figures represent a molders large ladle,one of an egg shape. a (fig. 3) is an outer casing of plate iron: 6 is an internal lining of fire-clay. c is a supporting iron frame; J is a perforated fire-tile cover laid loosely over the mouth of the vessel, to allow the impurities and flame to pass out; and also to form a support to the air or blast pipe, g. This figure being a vertical section does not show the axis, nor the usual handles or levers on each side for carrying and pouring out the metal. Fig. 4 is another form of a kindred ladle; its case is plate metal, h,lined with fire-clay; ~ is its supporting frame, and Ic is the handle for carrying it and tipping it to pour oub the metal when refined; it has a I conducting spout opening to receive the molt- en metal passing from the smelting furnace down the conducting tube, r. 1 is the opening to allow the slag and gases to flow out. When a charge of molten iron was run into the ves- sel (fig. 3,) the cover was put on, the pipe, g, inserted, and the air blast applied as shown. Respecting fig. 4, the specification says This vessel should be placed near the dis- charge hole of the blast furnace, and at such a level that the fluid iron may be run direct into it. The vessel should be of such dimen- sions as to be nearly filled with a single charge from the furnace. As soon as the iron is let in, I pass a pipe through the spout, into the vessel, and allow the end to dip into the metal. A current of atmospheric air, or both air and steam mixed together, is then to be forced into the metal and allowed to bubble up through it. I prefer to use hot blast, and that the air should be heated as high as prac- ticable; or cold air may be used, it desired; in either case it will be found that the oxygen will thus be introduced into the metal and will rapidly combine with and carry off a large portion of the carbon and the impurities. When the workman judges the process has been carried far enough (which the lessened fluidity of the iron will indicate,) he will turn the vessel on its axis and discharge the con- tents of it into a suitable mold, having com- partments of such dimensions as will form ingots suitable for the puddling process. FIG. 1. The process, no doubt, embraces a great im- provement in the manufacture of iron, and the nature of that process is, distinctly, the forc- ing of jets of air or steam and air combined, through molten pig metal, after it is run from the smelting furnace; the air or steam per- forming the office of refining the metal by carrying off its impuritiesthis is the inven- tion. Who is the inventor of this process We say, J. G. Martien, of Newark, N. J. He obtained a patent for it in England before Bes- semer obtained his,the one from which we quote, and from whose sheet of drawings figs. 3 and 4 are taken. To prevent any mistake respecting who was the first inventor, let it be remembered, that the above is taken from his full and perfect specification of the 7th of June last; he cannot go beyond that, and at that time he describes it as a preparatory pro- cess for refining iron for puddling. Let us now tnrn to J. G. Martiens process, patented 11th Sept., 1%5, specified and sealed in Lon- don March 11th, 18~6three months before ~ The specification says, I pre- FIG. 2. fer, in carrying out my invention, that the or dinary process of refining iron by the use of a refinery furnace, should be dispensed with, and that the purifying of the iron should be accomplished, by subjecting the melted iron from a blast furnace, before it is allowed to congeal, to the action of streams of air, or of steam, passed up through and amongst the melted metal, This proves conclusively that Mr. Martien is a prior inventor to Mr. Besse mer; and hs claimed the process, not a spe- i semer made his later expriments, which have cific appar:~tus, although he describes how been so highly praised; and that some of Mr. the process ~an be conducted by an apparatus M~~ refined metal was rendered malleable (as is requli ed by law,) but does not claim the decarbonized. This could not happen unless specific app iratus. In short, it appears to us the air which he employed in his blast, com- that Mr. Be ssemers patent is nothing more bined with some of the carbon of the crude than an ext ended description of J. G. Mar- molten metal, and carried it off. It was there- ~ to wl~ ose invention he never alluded in fore a practica demonstration, that his pro- his paper reid before the British Association, cess accomplished the very thing which Mr. although he must have been well aware of its Bessemer claims for his, aud being a prior in- existence. vention, reduces his (Besseme~~s invention) We claim this invention as that of an Amer- into that of Joseph Gilbert Martien, of New- ican citizen, and we have proven it to be such ark, N. J., now residing in London. from copies )f the patents in our possession. A correspondent of the Lo on Mechanics James Na~ myth, inventor of the steam ham- Magazine, September 6th, questions Mr. Bes- mer, in a let er to the London Times, respect- ~ title to the invention. He asserts that ing this invention, alludes to one of his own, Mr. Martiens patent has, for its object pre- which he ste tes, Mr. Bessemer spoke favora- cisely that which Bessemer does, and he is at bly of; as be ng the means which led him to a loss how the invention can be ~ this inventio a. This was the use of a jet or He also asserts that he does not see how any jets of steaix forord through the molten metal one can deprive him (Martien) of the sole while still in the smelting or puddling fur- right to the use of a blast of air or steam ris- nace. Mr. Mi rtien alludes to this in his patent, ing up through and penetrating every part of and disclaims it; it is not the same process ; the molten metal as it comes from the fur- it is simply s~ method of agitating the molten nace. When the public comes to understand metal in the furnace in which it is smelted or fully who is the real inventor of this process. puddled, and is no doubt an improvement also. Mr. Bessemer, will find his plumes, considera- The same efi ~ct was accomplished previously bly ruffled. by H. W. W )odrufl of Watertown, N. Y., and a patent wat granted to him on the 9th Octo- ber, l8~3. Our Patent Office, in its zealnot for assistini, but throwing obstacles in the path of som inventorshelped him to curtail his claim. he principle of his invention is the agitatior of the molten metal, by gener- ating jets of steam at the bottom of the molt- en metal in he cupola furnace, which jets passed up th ~ough the metal. FIG. 3. In the ret ining furnace of Mr. Bessemer, represented I y figs. 1 and 2, we recognize a very good a~ paratus for carrying out the pro- cess of refini ig iron, invented by Mr. Martien hut nothing aorethe process is not the in- vention of Bt ssemer, and even in this furnace there is but little that is new; nothing but what would readily suggest itself to an iron smelter, beet .uso it is so similar in its con- struction to t Lie common blast furnace. FIG. 4. It may be aid that Mr. Bessemer first per- ceived that she air of the blast united with the carbon ol the molten metal, and thus it decarbonized itself. This amounts to saying, that he only saw more of the advantages of Martiens mv sntion, that its author. This of- ten happens with inventors. Blanchard, when he patented I is gun-stock machine, did not see all the varied and useful purposes to which it might be a )plied, but that did not render it one whit lest his invention. But we have been assured by Mr. Martien that he made a successful ex )eriment in refining 2000 lbs. of crude iron by his process long before Mr. B.5- Literary Notices. THE NORTH BRITISH Ravsrw.The present number of this Quarterlyesteemed by many to be the ablest of all the Reviewscontains ei~hi excellent essays, one on christian Missions, is totally different from the one in the Westminster Reviewis more thorough and trust- worthy, and deserves to be widely read; another on Holland and its Martyrs and Heroes, pays a high and deserved rumpliment to osir countryman, Motley. for his History of Holland. No man can be intelligent resjsect- lug foreign affairs at least, who does not read the Quar- terlies published by Leonard Scott & Co., No. 14 Gold street, this csty. REIOARTs LIFE OF ROBERT FULTORThis work. briefly reviewed by us two weeks since, is a handsome volume neatly printed on fine paper, and finely illustra- ted. It is published by c - G. Henderson & Co., Philadel phia. and can be obtained, we suppose, of all the bookeel- TWELFTH YEAH Read! Read!! Read!!! The most extensively circulated, the molt interest ing, reliable, attractive, and cheapest publication of its kind, is the SCIENTIFIC AMER WAN. It has, by far, the largest circulation, and stands, by common con- sent, at the head of all other scientific papers in the world. Its contributors and Editors are PRAcTIcAL, ESIEROtET. c, and ExPERIENCED M~N, whose con- taut endeavor is to extend the area of knowledge, by presenting it to the mind, in a simple, attractive, and practical form. The SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN is printed once a week, in convenient quarto form for binding, and pre- sents an elegant typographical appearance. Every num ber contains Eight Lcsge Pcsgea, of reading, abundantly illustrated with OR TGINAL ENGPAJ1NGS. 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THE ADVOCATE OF INDUSTRY, AND JOURNAL OF SCIENTIFIC, MECHANICAL, AND OTHER IMPROVEMENTS VOLUME XII. NEW-YORK, OCTOBER 11, 1856. NUMBER 5. THE Scientific American, PUBLISHED WEEKLY At 123 Fulton street, N. Y. (Sun Buildings.) BY MIJNN & CO. 0. D. MUNN5 S. H. WALES, A. H. BEACH. Responsible Agents may also be found in all the prin- cipal cities and towns irs the United States. Single copies of the paper are on sale at the office of publication and at all the periodical stores in this city, Brooklyn, and Jersey City. TliR~i~~2 a.year,~1 in advance and the re- mainder in six months. U7 See Prospectus on last page. No Traveling Agents employed. American Cotton Gins in India. In July, 1851, the Eagle Cotton Gin Manu- facturing Company, of Louisiana, Sent to Cal- cutta one of their gin stands for making fine cotton, and intending it to enter into compe- tition for the prize of 5000 rupees, offered in 1849 by the government of India, through the Agricultural and Horticultural Society of In- dia. The Society awarded the American gin stand a prize of $1250 and a handsome gold medal. New Marine Governor. Our engraving illustrates a new invention, which has for its object the regulation of the movements of marine steam engines, such as are used on board of our ocean steamers. When the vessel sails on an even keel, so that both paddle wheels dip simultaneously in the water, no difficulty is experienced in the work- ing of the machinery. But when the ship rolls or rises and falls on the sea, one paddle is apt to be lifted out of water, and some- times both are raised so that they cannot dip. Either of these circumstances is sufficient to cause a jerking and wrenching of the engine, by a sudden increase or diminution of speed consequent upon the irregularity f the resist- ance. It is proposed to overcome these difficulties by the employment of a series of small pad- dles, A, placed within the ordinary wheel, B B, said small paddles being attached to a drum, C, revolving loosely upon the main ,D. A spiral slot, E, is cut in the per- iphery of drum C, and in this slot the end oi a connecting rod, F, fits, so that when the drum, C, is partially turned forward or back, the rod, F, will receive a corresponding hori- zontal movement. Rod F connects with a sliding collar, G, on shaft D, and collar G is connected by means of rod H, with the throt- tle valve of the engine. Rod H passes through a swinging bar, I. By this series of connec- tions the throttle valve is opened or closed according to the position of the small pad- dles, A. The paddles, A, are held in place mid-way between the large paddles, by the springs, J, the inner ends of which are attached to the main shaft, D. When the wheel dips properly, the water will press the small paddles, A, up against the faces of B, and the movement of A will turn C, operate rod F, and open the throt- tle valve, thus letting on a full supply of steam. When the wheel rises from the water, and no longer dips, the force which pressed back the paddles, A, will be removed, and the springs, J, will cause them to resume their position mid way between the large paddles by this act the drum, C, will receive partial rotation in a contrary direction from thatjust mentioned, and rod H will be operated so as to close the throttle valve. In this manner the regulation of the engine is effected in- stantaneously, according to the power re- quired. If the wheels dip, the full force of the steam is applied to the engine, but if the wheel rises out of the water, the steam is in- stantly shut off. The speed of the engine is thus regulated according to the work required of it at the moment. This invention is applicable, at no great ex NEW MARINE GOVERNOR. COMBINED COTTON PRESS AND POWER. Combination Cotton and Hay press and hay press, ivhich is so arranged that the Our engraving shows an ingenious cotton mechanism by which the pressure is obtained, may be separated, at pleasure, from the press, and used, fdr other purposes, such as moving buildings, raising burdens, extracting stumps, etc. The press itself is of the usual simple con- struction, A, being the follower, and B the top board, C the hinged side board. The ma- terial to be pressed is placed between A and B. The ends of the follower, A, are raised, and the intervening substance compressed. D is a strong lever, one end of which is piv- oted, and the other end is connected by strap, F, with a shaft, G, whose office is to wind up strap F, and pull down the end of lever D. (See fig. 2.) It is by the pulling downofleverDthatthefollower,A,is raised, for it will be observed that chains extend from the end of D to the top of strut frame II, and thence over friction wheels, I, to the ends of followers A. The lower ends of strut H rest on shaft E. The necessary power for pulling down the end of D is obtained by a train of gear wheels connected with shaft G, in the usual manner, power being first applied at crank J, when the resistance is small and a quick motion ad- missible. But during the last stag~s of the operation, when an augmented pressure is wanted, power is appl ed to lever K, which, by means of its pawl, L, acts on a ratchet wheel on one of the gears. Suitable pawls hold the purchase as fast as obtained. After a bale has been compressed it way be removed and the follower, A, lowered, by reversing the crank, with great rapidity. All the parts of this press are strong and simple. It possesses the advantages of quick- ness of operation, unlimited power, cheapness, and portability The fact that the power mech nism can be detached from the press and applied to other purposes, as above indicated, will render the machine doubly valuable. This improvement is the invention of Mr. S. W. Ruggles. Patent applied for. Address Mr. G. D. Harris, assignee ofthe invention, Fitch- burg, Mass., for further information. Decease of D5slingusshe~ Inventors and Mechanic,. We have recently recorded the decease of Paul Stillman and George Steers, of this city and N. J. Wyeth, of Cambridge, Mass., men distinguished for their inventive genius and mechanical skill, and now we have another name to add to the sad list. James Renton, of Newark, N. J., the inventor of a new fur- nace for manufacturing wrought-iron direct from the ore, named Rent~~~~ process,~~ died suddenly at Brighton, Pa., on the 26th ult. His furnace was illustrated and described on pages 169 and 172 Vol. IX, SCIENTIFIc AHER- ICA2t. Action of Su;ar on the Teeth. The Charleston, S. C. Medical Journal states that M. Larez, in the course of his investiga- tions on the teeth, arrived at the following conclusions: 1st. Refined sugar, from either cane or beets, is injurious to healthy teeth, either by immediate contact with these organs or by the gas developed, owing to its stoppage in stomach. 2ad. If a tooth is macerated in a saturated solution of sugar, it is so much altered in the chemical composition that it becomes gelati- nous, and its enamel opaque, spongy and easi- ly broken. 3rd. This modification is due, not to free acid, but to a tendency of sugar to combine with the calcareous basis of the tooth. The foregoing conclusions are correct, and candies and condiments should be avoided. They should be kept from children espe- cially. It is well known that maple sugar renders the teeth tender and sensitive. pense, to the paddle wheels of steamers now should be carefully examined by engineers~ in use. The parts are simple and can be made For further inframation addrcss the inventor~ as strong as circumstances require. The re- Win. B. Godfr y, Auburn, Mahaska Co., Iowa, gulation of marine engines is an important or J. A. Knigl t & Co., 334 Broadway, N. Y. subject, and any improvement relating thereto Patented May 27, 1856. wk-. ~34 -s [Reported Officially for the Scientific American.] LIST OF PATENT CLAIMS Issued from the United States Patent Office FOR THE WEEK ENDING SEPTEMBER 30, 18~6. FIRE-ARMJoseph Adsms, of Cleveland, Ohio I am aware that gun and pistol barrels of three or more bores have befo~e been used, but havint either a mass of use- less retal or an unnocessary spare in the conIcal portion between the bores; therolbse I distinctly saiscain ouch an arrangement. But I claim the employment of a revolving barrel, formed from a single piece of metal, with three bores of equal d ameters, or four bores in opposite pairs of unequal diamet rs, when so arr.~nged that the bores are located as near together as practicable, to secure the proper strength of dividing metal while the relative positions of said bores are such that their outermost tangents shall revolve in a common circle around the central poLl be- tween them, and be equidistant apart, the outer peri- phery of the barrel also so conforming to the bores, as to dispense with unnecessary metal, for the purpose of se- curing the utmost compactness, lightness, symmetry, atid strength, with a given capacity, and at the same time of retaining peribct convenience itt respect to revolving and dischargissg, substantially as specified. I also claim the employment (instead of separate breech pins) of a single breech piece, provided with branches or pins fitting the several bores, and secured therein by a right and left nut, for the purpose specified. I also claim the socket, B. in combination with the breech piece, C, and collar, E, substantially in the man- ner and for the purpose set forth, 1 also claim the peculiar construction, arrangement, and combinasion of the hammer, main spring and trigger, as adapted to the rest of the gun, asid operating boIls to hold lie hammer cocked and down upon the nipple un- til set free by moving the trigger, substantially as set forth. Biticac MAcHINEsHenry Brad, of Greencastle, md. I clann the self-adjusting frame, a, for the purpose of re- moving the brick Irons the molds on to the apron, b b, af- ter they are pressed, operated by means of spring, I, and projertaons,Oo, on the revolving journal, It, when the above parts are constructed, arranged, axad operated as set forth, GssansaetssWm. Bennett of New York Cityn I do not claim either the gridiron or cover. But I claim the pins or elevators attached to the bars or seats of the gridiron, as set forth, used in connection with the ventilating cover, constructed and arranged sub- stantially as described. LocacsG. W. Coppernoll, of Ohio, N. Y. I claim, first, the swinging guards in front of the bolt chamber ac- tuated by the fixed portion of the key, in combination with the sliding guards, actuated by the secondary key, arranged and operating as and for the purposes specified. Second, the eccentrics, I and J, arranged relative to earls other, and the bolt, as set forth, and actuated by the secondary key after the removal of the guards, sub- stantially as and for the purposes specified. Third, the combination of the swinging guardotumblers, and spring catches, o erating substantially as specified. SEi.v-ItEAvsrro SMoovntscso IRONsWilliam D. Cum- mings, of Washington, Ky. I claim the trough, g, ex- tending rearward 1mm the bottom of the fire space in the described combinatiors, with the ash receiver, h, open at the side nexc the said space, and provided with a register- ed lop, i j k, for the purposes of cleanly separation and removal of the ashes, & c., as explained. IIessMrvRscALLv SEALING BOTTLF.5M. II. Espy, of Philadelphia. Pa.; 1 claim the employment of the two- part screw collar, C, for the purpose of drawing down and holding the cover over the mouth of a bottle, so that the said bottle shall be hecmetcallv closed by the cork, d, or its equivalent, being compressea upon the upper edge of the Isp of the same, as described, the said collar being constructed, applied, and operating substantially in the manaser set forth and described. STEAM BoinrasDavid H. Fowler, of New Orleans, La.; I claim the arrangensent of the central and ex- terior flues, with the opec space, e e, and apertures, g g, substaistially as and for the purposes set forth. JosYRNAC. Box ALLoTsJohn Fidler, of New Albany, md. I claim the composition of the ingredients named, its the specified mode and proportions. WINO MILLMarcus Frisbee, of iRensselaerville, N. Y. I claim the combination of the spring on the sails with the adjustable or shifting straps operated by the le- ver, in the manner and for the purposes set forth. Mixarec WhEAT FLOUR WITH PArrsTaIsaac GaIt- man, of Philadelphia, Pa. s I do not claim exclusively the use of watery solutions for mixing paints. Butt claim the manufacture of paints by grinding crude colors in a composition of water, flour, or its equivalent, rissin. or its equivalent, fish oil, or any drying or undryitsg oil, in the pro ortions and manner sutistantially as set forth, in order t~ at the pain ttb us manufactured may be produced at a cheap rate, and afterwards thinned with water to the required cotssistency. SoEvENirso LEATIrxRJohn Greenleaf, of Lowell, Mass I claim the combination of the blade, I, with the cylinder, B and M. and apron carriage, Al and Dl, for softening and graining leather, when arranged and oper- ated essentially in the manner and for the purposes set forth. Betox MAcasscrxsJoseph A. Bill, of Greencastle, md. I claim the drum L, provided with the pinion, a, when constructed as shown, and arranged to operate rela- tively with the rack bar, K, and pinion, j, as described, for the purpose of reciprocating the carriage, J, in the manner and for the purpose set forth. PHOTOGRAPHiC INSTRUOSENTDafliel J. Kellogg, of Rochester, N. Y. I claim my method of convening the canvas itself into a basin by means of the metal ring, figs. 1 aisd 2, as described, Snaco PlANTERSB. Kuhns, of Dayton, Ohio, and M. J. flames, of Delaware City, Del. We disclaim of itself the pocketed roller, and also the cells surrounding the discharge openings But see claim the combination of the cell and pocketed roller with the pocket clearer, actuated by the rotation of the roller, operating as and for the purposes set forth. CUITivAToatsLuther Robinson, of West Cambridge Mass. I claim the arrangement consisting of the verti- cal cutters, II G J~K K, horicontal cutter, H, mold boards, L L, asid seed dropper, D, said p arts being placed in the relation to each other shown, substantially as and for the purpose set forth. LocoMoTIvEs FOR RoAns, & c.John Itobingson, of New Itrighton, Pa. I claim, first, conibining the sliding bolt, q. by wlsich the sector on the fore truck is locked, with the rotating shaft, H, which carries the gear which operates upon the sector 10 lurn the fore truck, by means of a loose collrc, I, and groove, u, or in a equivalent man- ner, whereby the bolt may be operated by a longitudinal movensent of the said shaft, as folly described. Second fitting the sprocket wheel, F, to the shaft K which drives the fore wheels with a universal joint, to ensable it to adapt itself to the direction of the driving chain when the said shaft, K, is not parallel with the en- gine shaft, and thus to prevent the chain slipping off the wheel, or beinig twisted or broken, substantially as de- cribed. MAsov-WIcKE.o CAsenLassBenjamin D. Sanders, of Hollidays Cove. Va. I claim a candle constructed as described, with three or more wicks, a, when said wicks are arranged angularly to each other or in the path of a circle struck from the center of the candle at equal dis- lances apart or thereabouts, ossentially as shown and for the purposes specified. SAW GustMacasSamuel J. Lewis and Win. AlsIon, of ilordentown, N. it,; We do not claim separately either of the respective devices constituting the saw gum- mer, as described. But we claim the punch, A, constructed as described, in combination with the die, B, constructed and seated as described, the same being arranged in the carriage, C. so as to rotate and operate together, us the manner and for the purpose set forth and described. PORTABLE FENCEG, ft. Mcllroy, of Oakdale, md. I claim the supporting the panels on the top of the bases or braces in the manner described, so as to allow of their being moved side-wise at the bottom sufficient to bring them into a perpendicular position on uneven ground, and securing the same by means of pins or wedges passing between Ihe end batten of each panel immediately above the bottom rail or board through one of a number of holes in base or cross board at the bottom of the base, which holes are placed in a circle corresponding to that which the bottom of the panel describes, by moving it sidewise. MxcAvAvORs,.S. G. L. Morrow, of Lion, Mo., Dis- claiming the several parts separately, I claim the ar- rangement as described of the cutter, elevator, and dis- charge chute, with the levers, 11, regulating the same. ARTIFICiAL LrosO. D. Wilcox, of Easton, Pa,, I claim the employment of the pulley, P. at the knee slot as a common center of motion of the elastic cords, M M, and N N, as described for the purpose of producing a natural movement of the artificial limb, in the manner set forth. I also claim Ihe employment of the sack, 0. whether used in this limb or any other. STEAM WAGONJohn Percy of Albany, N, V., I claim, first, the two trucks, C t5, attached to the under- side of the frame, A, connected by the perch, G, and turned by means of the rods, ii, which are fitted in the inner ends of the frames, b. of said trucks, and connected to the rack, H, or an equivalent device, Second, I claim contiecting the axles. d, of the wheels, D, with the connecting rods. e, of the steam cylinders by means of the gearing, e g, and cranks, h, substantially as described, Third, I claim the arrangements of the trucks, C, C, frame, A, steam cylinders, H, boilers, F, and the device for turning and guiding the trucks, as shown and descibed for the purpose set forth. FINISHING LEATHERJoseph Pyle, of Wilmington, Del., I do not claim the form of pin block, or the pin block at all. But I claim the combination of the pin block, h, with Its corresponding block, or same as upper block, com- posed of wood or any malleable metal, the feed rollers, m m. composed of like materials, or of wood c vered by India rubber cloth, as shown, with the corresponding brush rollers, 11. geared and arranged, set and driver as set foith, for the purpose of softening leather or skins ready for finishing or any other materials substantially the same, upon which it will perform the same opera- tion. LUBRICATING THE SHEAVE PIN Oi Sam-s BLOCKS John M. Riley, of Newark, N. J., I claim the bands, H F, one or more, interposed between the axis, B, and the eye or band, D, of the pulley, C, the bands, H F, being perforated as shown, and the axis, b, provided with pas- sages or apertures, fg, for the pur ose of lubricating the bands and axle, substantially as rl~escribed, for the pur- pose specified. ATTACHING Huns TO AXLESJohn M. Riley. of Newark, N. J., I do not claim separately she collar, F H, irrespective of their arrangement, as shown. Nor do I claim springs interposed between the collar, G, and the inner Slid of the box, for they have been pre- viously used, although arranged in a different way Irom that shown. But I claim the collar, F H, placed upon the arm, B, in combination with the tube, H, nut, C, key, D, and elas- tic ring, K, when the above parts are constructed and ar- ranged as shown, for the purpose specified. Bstsnoacslsaiah Rogers, of Cincinnati, Ohio I claim first, the formation substantially as described, of an arch whose voussoirs consist of one or more ranges of tubes in vertical planes, held in position by the described radial plates, with confining flangest the tubes of each compo- nent are being gradually displayed and enlarged from the crown of the arch, each way; the enlargement in one direction, and the contraction in the other direction, be- ing such as to preserve a circular section throughout, or gradually ovalsog from the haunches by a vertical en- largement towards the ends, and a corresponding con- traction toward the center of the arch, according to civ- cumolances. Second. I claim in combination therewith, the de- scribed mode of staying and bracing together, the several ran,,s of such tubular voussoirs. TAILORS MEASURESAmOs Stocker, of Rome, N. Y. I do not claim such an instrument as the one patented to B. J. Lewis, Nov. 19, 1e33 s nor do I claim the instrument as described by Samuel T. Taylor, rejecied Nov. 48, 1840. Nor do I claim the inslrument referred to as patented to W. J. Wells, April 20, 1811 s nor do I claim as new, the use of a tape measure, as seen in fig, 12. Nor do I claim the use of the hooks, as new. But I claim the instrument as seen in fig. 1, with the arrangement of its eyelet-holes, eyelets, and letters, sub- slantiahly as described and for the purpose setforth. STEAM BOILER GRATEsAsbury M. Searles, of Cin- cinnati, Ohio s I claim, first, the described conical grate, k n o, formed by diverging radial bars, and having the described re-curved margin, or otherwise, or equiva- lent devices, for the purposes explained. Second. I clasm in the described connection with a conical grate, the radial series of pokers, n, or its equiva- lent, having the explained shearing action between the grate bars. TRuNKsStephen F. Summers, of St. Louis, Mo. s I claim the inside melalhic strips, D, arranged in combina- tion with the casters, substantially in the manner and for the purpose set forth. ORE-WASHERSamuel Thomas, of Allentown, Pa.: I would state, I am aware that an inclined revolving vessel has been used in washing ores, and that a single shaft provided with shovels, and spirai flanges has been used. - I do not claim either of these things separate or combsned. But I claim, in combination with a stationary inclined box, the double shafts with spiral flanges thereon, and turning in opposite directions, for lifting up and carrying forward the ores to the delivery, in the manner set forth. PUTTINO PILlOws AND BOLSTERS INTO THEIR CA- SESDavid B. Tiffany. of Henia, Ohio I claim the in- strument having the peculiar construction, substantially as described, for the purpose of inserting the pillows and bolsters into their cases. UTIORO-CARBON VAPOR LAMPSThOS. Varney, of San Francisco, Cal. I do not confine myself particularly to the convolute arrangement of the passage, h h, in the vaporizer, as there are other forms in which a passage or passages may be arranged to cause the air to take a cir- cuitous route through the liquid. But I claim the combination of the reservoir B, by means of a seal pipe C, with the stationary vaporizer C, containing a circuitous passage, under any arrangement, substantially as described. DIsCoNNECTING RAILROAD CARS AND APPLTINO BRAscacsJoab Buck, of Fitchburgh Mass (assignor to Joab Buck, B. S. Buck, J. W. Kimball, andb H. thomp- son).i do not claim the application of all the brakes by the engineer; nor do I claim the mere combination of a brake and coupling apparatus, as that is well-known, But I claim the within described combination and ar- rangement of the shaft H, dogs H, hooks Y, and levers H and V. operating in the manner substantially as set forth, for the purpose of uncoupling whichever car may be last in the train, simultaneously with the application of Its brakes, as set forth. REGULATING VALVES FOR STEAM ENGINESHenry F. tihaw, of Woburn, Mass., (assignor to H. F. Shaw and Geo. F. Shaw, of same place). I claim the regulating- gates m, as connected with the valve D, and the gover- nor, for the purpose set forth. FURNACES FOR ZINC WHITESamuel Wetherill, of Bethlehem, Pa.. I claim making the whole or a portion of the bed of the furnace to vibrate for the purpose and in the manner, substantially as described; but this I only claim when the bed is perforated with numerous small holes, and when used in combination with a forced blast of atmospheric air, which passes to the charge of mixed ore and fuel, in numerous small forced jets, sub- stantially as and for the purpose specified. FURNACESRid ard Wells, of Baltimore, Md.. I claim in the construction of furnaces, the introduction of springs between the suppot ling plates and the fastenings of the lie-rods, substantial y as and for the purposes set forth. SEED PLANTERS John F. Seaman, of Walcott, N.Y.. I claim the shares I , arranged substantially as shown, so that they may rot ste intermittentiy, in order to lies hemoelves of weer s, grass, and other incumbrances. SAWING MARBL, M. H. Manly, of South Dorset, VI.s I claim a machine i or sawing noarbie in angular or ta- pering fornas by me ins of Iwo horizontal saw frames or gates with adjustabl o guides, run in connectionone above the other, with the saws running and working in one plane, for the purp sea set forth. MACHINES FOR S EPARATING GREEN Conrs FROM THE CosHenry Walsh, of Philadelphia, Pa., (assignor to H. Walsh and M. N. Espy, of same place) I claim, in ma- chines for removin green corn from the cob, first, the screw-shaft, B, and spring lever H, arranged and opera- ting together as de cribed, when the same are used in combination with II .e stationary block, (I, and the selt~ adjusting spring-bli ck Ii, and its cutter, F; the said blocks holding the i oh between them, as ills rotated, and at the same time go dually and regularly moved forward by the progressive I otacy action of Ihe screw, and so that the said cutter, F, hail also at the same hose operate against the lower en do of the grains of corn in succession, and remove them rum the cob in a whole or perfect state, or without c ushing or otherwise injuring them, substantially as set t ortb. Second, I claim the combination of the ferrule, b, with the pointed oct ew-end of the shaft, B, the same be- ing constructed, combined and operating, substantially and for the purpose set forth and described. DAIH-WHEEL, Ft n WASHING AND BLEACHINGJaS Wallace, Jr., of GI isgow, North Britain. Patented in Hlsgiand, June 26, 1 515 1 disclaim having invented the principle of bleaching or washing by the combination of mechanical agit ilion simultaneously with chensical action. But I claim the usa of the dash-wheel, substantially as described, in conne, tion with the use of the chemical in- gredients, and steani for the purpose of bleaching, wash- ing or cleansing te due fabrics, and other materials, as described, RE-ISSUES, MACHINERY FOB MAKING HAT BODIESChas. St. John, Henry A. But r, Albert H. Wright, and James M. Riblet, of New-Yore City, (assignees of Henry A. Welis, decd.) Patented A smil 21,1846. What is claimed as the invention of the sail Henry A. Wells, is, forming bats of fur fibres, by throwing Ihe fur in properly regulated quantities, oubstanti illy as described, against a section of the circumference f a perforated cone, or other form, as the same is rotated 10 present in succession every part of the circumference toereof to the current of impelled fur, to obtain the requli ed thickness of bat, substantially as described, in combi,sation with the method of holding the fibres on to the cone, or other form, during the operation, substantially as described, and for the purpose specified. ROTARY Pustes- -John Broughton, of Chicago, Ill. Patented originally June 1st, 185th. I claim the rotary eccentric piston, working within an oscillating barrel, within any arrange nent of inlet and outlet passages, substantially as set forth, and this I claim whether my invention be applier to a pump or a rotary steam engine. ADDIT ORAL IMPROVEMENT. FIRE-PLACES AND FENDERSJohn W. Truslow, of Lewisburg, Va.. I claim the construction of a fire-phace wherein recesses D Dl, are formed in the jambs thereof; with hinged folding and expanding wings or flaps, A A, asid P2 attached thereto, forming a fender, and a screen, with the springs, H H, together with the double sliding panels F F fig 1 nd G Id, fig. 2, substantially as de scribes1. - Opinions on lh o new P. ocess of Manufac- turing iron. M. Truran, at thor of The Iron Manufac- ture of Great BI ~ in a letter to the Lon- don Mechanics Magazine, severely criticises Mr. Bessemers aaper, Which he read before the British Sciel ttific Association, describing his process for I nanufacturing malleable iron and steel from ~rude iron. He asserts that Bessemer is neit ier correct in his theory nor his conclusions; also that iron produced by this process neit her possesses the qualities of wrought-iron uc r steel. He says : ike mere removal of a portion of the impuritiei in the iron by fusion does not, of itself; col vert cast into malleable iron~ castings with a slight degree of malleability at low temperature, are common in England and in other countries; at high temperatures they lose this qullity, are equally brittle with other cast-irons, and are utterly devoid of the welding principl s. . . . The cast steel of ex- cellent quality ~ hich it is to producecheap as ~ metal -has yet to be made and ex- hibited in artich s of cutlery. A few pieces of refined iron were exhibited at the meeting, but these were no mi sre like bars of iron or steel than chilled cast -iron is like tempered steel. These are the ame views as those expressed by Mr. Sanderso n, which we presented two weeks ago. Tht editor of the Birmingham Jos.srnal entertal us the same opinions, but thinks the procets will prove to be a great improvement. We believe th~ t Mr. Bessemer exaggerated not only the imp rtance of the process, but also misstated the results he obtained. In all blast furnaces th refining of the metal in a degree is now p rformed by streams of air~ the new process only carries out this feature a little farther. J. G. Martien loes not advance the idea in his patent that h t can make wrought-iron by his process; he only specifies it to be an im- provement in refining the iron preparatory to puddling. We I ave previously informed our readers that the descriptions of this process, by Bessemer and the London daily papers, ap- peared to us mor like Oriental fable than so- ber facts. In our last nut ther we stated that when the facts of the case in relation to Mr. Martiens claims were kno vn by the public, Mr. Besse- mer would find his plumes considerably ruf fled. It affords us much gratification to pay a marked tribute of respect to the acknow- ledged honesty of the British Press, in rela- tion to this case. Since we penned that arti- cle we have received several British papers, which defend Mr. Martiens claims. The Lon- don Land and Building News says ~ Of Mr. Bessemer we know nothing indi- vidually. He stands prominently forward as an illustration and instrument of that injustice we have before alluded to, (unscrupulous Englishmen who appropriate foreign inven- tions) otherwise his name would not be found under our pen. The British Association has robbed the true inventor of his fair fame, and given credit to one to whom it is not due. If Mr. Martien be proved to be the first inventor, to him be all the honor, glory, and profit thereof. If not to him~to some other who may have preceded him, but not Mr. Bessemer, who has succeeded him, The Birmingham Journal, whose editors un- derstand the subject completely, asserts that the intelligent application ofjets of steam to the manufacture of iron has yet to he made, but speaks favorably of air. It gives the credit to Reuben Plant, of Dudly, for using a pres- sure blast, blowing through molten iron in the puddling furnace, in 1849, but says: The blowing of air in small jets through molten iron after it has left the blast furnace, is clear- ly the property sf Mr. Martien. David Mushet, the well-known scientific metallurgist and author, also defends Mr. ~ claims in a searching article in the London Mining Journal. Feats with Wood on Railroads. The N. Y. T..tibune of the 2nd inst., describes the feats of some locomotives in running great distances with a small quantity of wood. It states that a locomotive on the Pacific Rail- road (Mo.) lately hauled three passenger trains with 106 passengers, and one baggage car, l2~ miles in 7 hours with one cord of oak wood. On the Ohio and Mississippi Railroad, a loco- motive recently hauled the night express train 149 miles with one and a quarter cords of wood; the time not given. On the Norwich and Worcester Railroad a locomotive regular- ly hauls the accommodation train, back and forth12 milesmaking 32 stops, and stand- ing one hour at Worcester, with only seven feet and a half of woodor 8 cubic feet less than one cord. It also states that the average performance of locomotives is only from 2~ to ~iO miles per cord of wood. We have noticed the performance of the lo- comotive, on the Pacific road in a former num- ber, and allude to it again in connection with the other two, to say that the feat was not a great one, as the speed was not quite eighteen miles per hour. The consumption of fuel by locomotives, is in proportion to their spied, the load hauled, and the resistance overcome. A locomotive may be run l~0 miles with one cord of wood, while another equally economi- cal will require one cord for 20 miles. It is the work done, and not the distance run, which is the true test of the economy of fuel on rail- roads. The account of the running on the Pacific Railroad is somewhat satisfactory, be- cause the speed and size of the train are giv- en, but the statements respecting the other two locomotivesneither speed nor load be- ing givenamounts to an absurdity so far as it relates to their economy. Reapers in California. The California Farmer states that various harvesters are employed in that great State, and each has its ~ Hus- seys, Manny~s~yet it says :~t We want stronger machines. The machines sent to this country were made for grain that yielded six- teen or twenty bushels per acre, with short light straw; here we have tall heavy straw~ and grain yielding twenty-five, forty, or even sixty bushels per acre, and often straw six or eight feet isight, and sometimes higher, conse- quently we need stronger machines, We hope our manufacturers of reapers will take this as a sufficiently strong hint how to make their machines intended for California. The children of the Church Education Schools in Ireland90,000 in numberhave been instructed by their teachers to destroy every weed they see. Good instruction. ~1 Electro-Plating with Aluminum. As this metal is a most efficient protection against oxyd or rust, any improvement by which it can be economically applied to coat iron, or any of the oxydizable metals is in- valuable. A patent has recently been secured in England for this purpose by F. S. Thomas and W. E. Tilley, and their specification has been published in Newtons London Journal. As it is a very plain, important, and interest- ing document, we publish the following literal abstract of it This invention consists in depositing alum- inum, by electric currents, from a solution of alumina, prepared as hereinafter explained, with or without other metals, and in plating or coating metals with aluminum and alloys composed of aluminum and other metals No. 1. Solution of .Alumina.In order to prepare about four gallons of a proper solu- tion of alumina for the purpose of our inven- tion, we place about 4 lbs. of the alum of com- merce in an iron pot or crucible, and heat or roast the alum therein until it ceases to boil, and has been reduced to a dry powder by be- ing deprived of its water of crystalization. We then boil about two gallons of distilled water, into which we put the calcined alum, and boil the mixture well; we then add about 2 lbs. of cyanide of potassium, and boil again for about half an hour ; then add two gallons of distilled water, with 2 lbs. more of cyanide of potassium, and boil again for a short time, and then filter the solution, which will then be ready to form a bath. No. 2. Solution of .Alumina.Or, in place of the above, we dissolve about 4 lbs. of alum in water, and add thereto salts of tartar, until it ceases to precipitate. We then put the oxyd so produced into a filter and filter it, then wash the oxyd with water; then take the washed oxyd from the filter and place it in an iron vessel, and add thereto about two gallons of distilled water, and about 2 lbs. of cyanide of potassium. The solution is then to be boiled for about half an hour; two gallons more wa- ter is then to be added, and 2 lbs. more cyan- ide of potassium; the solution is then to be boiled again and filtered, when it will be ready to form the bath. No. 3. Solution qf ~lumi~.Or, in place of the foregoing, we dissolve about 4 lbs. of alum in water, and add thereto ammonia until it ceases to precipitate; after which we follow the same mode and quantities as stated in No. 2, the only difference being that ammonia is used to precipitate the alumina in place of salts of tartar. No.4. Solution of AluminaOr, in place of the foregoing, we dissolve alum in water, and precipitate with carbonate of potassium, then filter the alumina, then take the alumina and roast it upon an iron plate until completely dry; we then place in an iron pot or crucible about 4 lbs. of cyanide of potassium, which we completely melt; we then add about 1 lb. of the dried alumina, and melt this with the cyanide; we then add (by degrees, to prevent a violent ebullition) about 1 lb. of carbonate of soda, and we fuse these three ingredients to- gether about one minute at a red heat. We then place the mixed ingredients in about four gallons of water, then boil and filter, and the solution is ready. In a bath of the alumina, the articles to be plated are to be suspended by means of copper or brass, or other suitable rods, attached to the zinc or negative pole of a galvanic battery, and to the positive pole is to be attached a piece of platinum or a pole of aluminum. In the case of a platinum pole the metallic property of the bath is to be sus- tained by suspending therein a bag of the oxyd of alumina, and replacing such from time to time with fresh alumina, or by adding the solution of alumina from time to time. In working aluminum baths of various dimen- sions, we have used the battery of Bunsen of six cells, and also the battery of Smee of ten cells. No. 5. To plate with an alloy composed of .Al- uminum and Silver, or with Aluminum, Silver, and CopperWe use for this purpose a bath composed of alumina made according to the processes described in Nos. 1, 2, or 3, but we prefer No. 3, and having set the bath to work with a platinum pole, to ascertain that the al- uminum will deposit, we insert, in lieu of the platinum pole, a pole of silver, usually lessen- ing the battery power, and the deposit should become whiter and thicker. When we wish to incorporate copper we use a pole composed of silver and copper melted and rolled togeth- er in such proportions as we think proper. We have found equal proportions of silver and copper deposit a very white metal, similar in appearance to standard silver; beyond that proportion of copper we have found the de- posit of a reddish tint In thebath of alumina, No. 3, the oxyds of silver, or of silver and cop- per may be introduced, but we consider it pre- ferable to work the silver, or the silver and copper, from the poles, as described, in the bath of alumina. The battery power in this bath should be moderate. No. 6. To plate with an alloy composed of.Al- uminum and Tin.We make a bath of alum- ina according to any of the foregoing meth- odspreferably No. 4and instead of using a platinum pole we use a pole of tin. The baths of the alloy of tin will work with various bat- tery powers, the deposit will be thicker for the presence of tin, and the presence of aluminum will be known by the deposit taking a good burnish, which tin alone will not sustain. We sustain the bath by adding alumina in solution from time to time, the tin heing~supplied from the pole. Or, in lieu of this mode, we pre- pare the alumina according to the mode spe- cified in No. 4, until all the ingredients for the alumina are fused together. We then take 4 oz. of metallic tin, dissolve it with nitro- muriatic acid, precipitate with salts of tartar, dry the oxyd, then add it to, and fuse it with the fused alumina for about half a minute pour the fused mass upon a slab, then put the whole into about four gallons of distilled wa- ter, boil and filter it, and the solution is ready. This bath may be worked with a platinum pole, in which case both alumina and the oxyd of tin are to be supplied from time to time, or it may he worked with a tin pole, in which cese the alumina alone is to be supplied in so- lution. Or, in place of the above, we take alum, which, when dissolved, we preci~Atate with potass, soda, salts of tarter, or any suit- able alkali. We then dry the alumina on an iron plate. We then take the dried alumina and fuse it with cyanide of potassium and carbonate of soda, and also fuse with oxyd of tin. This is thenturned out upon a slab, dis- solved in water, then boiled and filtered, and the solution is ready. This solution may be worked and sustained in the same modes as the former. IConcluded next week.J Cameos Enclosed in Glass. When has relief figures and medals enclosed within a coating of pure white glass were first brought before the public, they excited great surprise. This invention was first in- troduced by the Bohemain glass makers about a century ago, but from the inquiries some- times made of us about it, it appears that a majority of persons are not yet aware how such works of art are manufactured. The figure (or figures) intended for incrusta- tion is made of materials requiring a higher degree of heat for their fusion than the glass within which it is to be incrusted. A mixture of China clay and silicate of potash is found to possess this quality. The has relief is made of this material in a plaster mold, and after being slightly baked is gradually cooled. A mass of transparent white glass is blown hollow, with one end open, and the clay cameo, heated to redness, is placed within it. The mass is pressed or welded to make the two substances adhere, and the remote end be- ing closed, the glass-blower draws out the air from within (instead of forcing in air, as in the ordinary manufacture) ,thus causing the glass to collapse, and to form one continuous substance with the cameo. When the glass is cut and poliehed to any desired form, the effect produced is striking and beautiful, for the clay cameo or bust has the appearance of unburnished silver, isolated in the midst of the solid transparent glass. Small articles are in- crusted in a more expeditious manner, espe- cially upon glass goblets or similar hollow vessels. The hot cameo is placed upon the hot manufactured vessel, a small piece of semi-liquid glass is dropped upon it, and this both fixes the cameo in its place and forms a ,glassy layer to enclose it. The V )lcanic Eruption at Hawal. In the number for July 24th, of the Com- mercial .Adv rtiser, published at Honolulu, we find a graphic account of the great volcanic eruption of dauna Loa mountain, which broke out on the 11th August, 1855. The seat of this eruption is an old tradi- tional crater, 12,000 feet above the level of the sea, in a region rarely visited by man. Con- nected with this eruption there is one fact which ignores the theory of Prof. Winslow, namely, tha the lava is an eruption of the matter of the interior of the earth, which is supposed to be a mass of molten fire. The fact is this On the opposite side of the mountain there is an old open crater Killaweai bout 7,500 feet lower than the seat of the iew eruption. Well, this old cra- ter has remained without overflowing during the whole e:uption. On this head the above- named pape remarks Does nc t this show that the mountain, instead of being one huge boiling cauldron of molten mat er, is divided into vast chambers or ducts, in o some of which the water from the sea fin Is access, causes steam, whose powerful agency forces out the molten lava, while to otl ter chambers the water finds no The lava has been issuing from this great crater since it first broke out. With its wind- ings it is at out 65 miles long, and varies from three to ten miles in width, and varies from 20 to 300 ft et deep. It has already overflowed 200,000 acres, and is now within six miles of Rib, on th sea-coast. What a terrible sight, to see a river of burning lava three miles wide and ~ 0 feet deep slowly and resistlessly moving for yard, eating up every green thing. Huge foresi are soon devoured by the fiery monster, v~ hays filled up, and nothing left but a smok ng scene of desolation. At pres- ent the flow of lava is not so great as it was in Novemb r last year, but it is still immense, and there h no signs of its ceasing. Japan Varnish. Accordir g to Thunberg, the very best Japan varnish is prepared from Rltus Vern~fcra, which grows in gi eat abundance in many parts of that count y, and is likewise cultivated in many plact s on account of the great advanta- ges derive I from it. This varnish, which oozes out o the tree on being wounded, is procured fr m stems that are three years old and is rec dyed in some proper vessel. At first it is ol a lightish color, and of the con- sistence of rream, but grows thicker and black on being ec posed to the air. It is so trans- parent, when laid pure and unmixed upon boxes or fu: niture, that every vein of the wood may be se en. For the most part a dark ground is s pread underneath it, which causes it to reflect like a mirror, and for this purpose recourse is frequently had to the fine sludge, which is ot in the trough under the grind- stone, or t ground charcoal; occasionally a red substar ce is mixed with the varnish, and sometimes bid leaf, grcund very fine. This varnish has dens very much, hut will not en- dure any b~ ows, cracking and flying almost like glass, hough it can stand boiling water without an ~ damage. With these the Japan- ese varnish the post of their doors, and most articles of furniture which are made of wood. It far exce ds the Chinese and Siamese var- nish, and tI te best is collected about the town of Jesino. It is cleared from impurities by wringing it through very fine paper; then about a hu idredth part of an oil called toi, which is e~ pressed from the fruit of Bignonia tomentosa, ii added to it, and being put into wooden ve~sels, either alone or mixed with native cinnabar, it is sold all over Japan. The expressed il of the seeds serves for candles. The tree is said to be equally poisonous with the rhus ye, nix, or American poison tree, com- monly callsd swamp sumach. American Book Craft. Forty years ago, three men, by hand-work, could scar ely manufacture 4,000 small sheets of paper a day, while now they can produce 60,000 in tee same time. It has been calcu- lated that if the paper produced yearly by six machires could be put together, the sheet would enc rcle the world. Nowhere is paper so much used as in the United Sti tes. In France, with 35,000,000 of inhabitants, only 20,000 tuns are produced yearly, of which one.seventh is for exporta- tion. In England, with 28,000,000 of inhab- itants, 66,000 tuns are produced; while in this country the amount is nearly as great as in France and England together. A large psoportion of this consumption of paper is directed to the 2,000 newspapers which are incessantly springing up in all sec- tions of this countrysome to flourish, but more born but to die, and make room for the succession. The first book ever printed in the New World was in the city of Mexico. It was printed in the Spanish language, in the year 1544, and was entitled Doctrina Christiana per eo los Indos. The first publications made in English, in America, were the ~ Oath, an Almanac for 1639, nearly a hundred years after the work published in Mexico. In 1640 was published the first book, entitled the Bay Psalm Book. It was reprinted in England, where it passed through no less than eighteen editions; the last being issued in 1754. It was no less popular in Scotland, twenty-two editions of it having been published there. Altogether, it is estimated it reached to sev- enty editions abroad. The first printing press set up in America was worked~ at Cambridge, Massachusetts, in 1839. The Rev. Jesse Gbover procured this press by contributions of friends of learning and religion,~ in Amsterdam and in England, but died on his passage to tiXe New World. It is believed that the amount invested in the hook business in Boston alone, at the pres- ent day, cannot be less than three millions of dollars. Now there are nearly one hundred booksellers, and over fifty distinct publishers in the American ~ In New York there are four hundred and forty-four booksellers and one hundred and thirty-three publishers, and in Peansjlvania, four hundred and two of the first and seventy- two of the last. Most of the publishing, and the largest number of the booksellers center in the three great cities of Boston, New York, and Philadelphia, which are the leading pub- lishing cities of the country. New York has the most capital invested in the ~ [The above are extracts from that ably written and interesting book, Salad for the Social, published by Dewitt & Davenport, this city. inventors of Cut Nail Machines. A correspondent of the Boston Tray eler writing from Hanover, N. H., gives a short biography of a remarkable individual who died in that place on the 16th ult. This was Increase Kimball,who departed this life at the age of 80 years, and labored under an aberration of mind for the past fifty. This correspondent says, In 1804 he invented the first machine for making cut nails, and took out a patent for it. For this he was offered a large sum, but he refused to sell. Improve- ments were made by others on this machine and patented, which threw him out of the whole benefit, and the disappointment, is thought to have been the proximate cause of his derangement.~~ This letter has been copied by one of the dai- ly papers in this city, and the statement there- by has been circulated far and wide. We re- gret this, because it contains great errors. It conveys the idea that Increase Kimball in- vented a machine, and that some other per- sons, by making slight improvements on it deprived him of the benefits of his invention. This cannot be done: no inventor of a subse- quent improvement can use parts of a machine, covered by a previous patent, without the patentees consent, therefore Mr. Kimball was not deprived of the benefits of his invenfion upon any such grounds. The fact is he was not the first inventor of a cut-nail machine. His machine was patent- ed in 1805, and no less than twenty-seven pat- ents for such machines had been issued before his. Josiah 0. Pearson, of New York, se- cured the first patent for a cut-nail machine in 1794, and the well-known Jacob Perkins, then residing in Boston, obtained one in the succeeding year. Whatever was the cause of unhinging the mental faculties of Increase Kimball, the correspondent of the Boston Trav- tIer is not correct in his premises. ~2i~Y~1 36 ~3;tb~ j~nbcnti~n5+ $aies of American Inventions in Europe. We have reports recently of the sale of some American inventions in England, at almost fabulous prices. It appears to us that our in- ventors do not fully appreciate the wide field open to them for the introduction of their im- provements in England, France, and other Eu- ropean countries. It has been a part of our business for several years past to procure pat- ents in foreign countries. Inventors desiring advice upon this subject can correspond with as freely in regard to it. Sawing Laihs and Clapboards. The accompanying engravings illustrate an improvement for sawing laths and clapboards. Fig. 1 is a longitudinal vertical section. Fig. 2 is a plan viewtbe carriage or bed to which the stuff is attached being removed; x x of this figure shows the plane of section fig. 1. The nature of the invention consists in the peculiar means for feeding the stuff to the saw, reversing the motion, and obtaining a perfect automatic feed movement. A represents the framing of the machine, constructed in any proper manner to support the working parts. B represents an arbor or shaft to which the saw, C, is attached, the ar- bor being placed transversely on the framing, A. D represents a shaft which is placed in the framing, A, parallel with the saw shaft. On this shaft there are placed two cams, E E, (fig. 2) at a suitable distance apart; and F is a friction roller, which is fitted be ween them, said roller being on the inner end of a lever, G, which is attached by a pivot, a, to an arm, b, on the framing. The outer end of the lever, G, is forked and is fitted over a clutch, H, on a shaft, I, which connects either of two pulleys, J J, with the shaft, I, the pulleys be- ing placed loosely on this shaft. K is a belt which passes around the pulley, J, and also around a pulley, L. N is a cross belt, which passes around pulley, J, and a pulley, 0, on the shaft, M. To one end of the shaft, M, a pulley, P, is attached, having a belt, Q, pass- ing around it, which belt also passes around a pulley, H, on one end of the saw shaft, B. On the shaft, I, there is a pinion, S, which gears into a toothed wheel, T, on a shaft, U, said shaft having a pulley V, upon it, around whh h pullcy a cord, c, passes, said cord also passing oround a pulley, d, and having both ends attached to a carriage, W, which works between suitable guides, e, on the framing. A. The ends of the cord, c, are attached to oppo- site ends of the carriage, as shown in fig- ure 1. On the upper part of the framing, A, and directly underneath the carriage, W, there are placed longitudinally two rods,f I, the ends of which are fitted in bearings, g, the rods be- ing allowed to slide in said bearings. To one of the rods, I, there is attached a cord, h, which passes around a pulley, X, on the shaft, D. The rod,J, has an ear or projection, i, at- tached to it, through which ear or projection the rod,f, passes ; this rod has two pins,ji, passing through it, one at each side of the ear or projection. Y is a spiral spring, which is attached to a crank pulley, k, at one end of the shaft, D. Z is a friction roller, which is made to bear against the belt, Q, by means of a spiral spring, A, which is connected with a lever, B, at one end of a shaf~, C, on which the friction reller, Z, is placed, said friction roller being on a crank on said shaft. OpEnArsoNThe stuff to be sawed is se- cured upon the carriage, W, in any proper manner, and motion is given the saw arbor, B, and if the clutch, H, is in gear with the pulley, J, on the shaft, I, the pulley, V, on the shaft, U, will rotate in the direction indicated by the arrow, 1, and the carriage will be moved by the cord, c, in the direction indica- ted by the a,rrow, 2, and the stuff will he fed to the saw. When the carriage, W, arrives at a certain point, a projection, a, underneath the carriage, W, will strike a pin, 6, on the rod,.f, and said rod will cause the rod, I, t be moved, and the cord, 6, will turn the pul- ~ ley, X; the cams, E E, will also be turned, and in turning will operate the lever, G, and ~ throw the clutch, H, in gear with the pulley, ~ci~ntific ~mcr can. J, and by the cross belt, N, the shaft, I, will of its backwr rd movement, will be again be rotated in an opposite direction, and a re- moved forward in consequence of the projec- verse movement will be given the carriage, tion, a, strikis g against the ear or projection, W, which, when it reaches the extreme point i, which caus s the lever, G, to throw the MACHINE FO!~ SAWING LATHS AND CLAPBOARDS. clutch, H, in gear with the pulley, J. small cost, and it is not liable to get out of This very efficient automatic feed motion is repair. The pa cent for it was granted on the obtained by very simple means. The improve- 2~th of March ast. For further information ment may be applied to sawing machines at a address Jesse C ilman, Nashua, N. H. TUBULAR TWIRL FOR BOILING SCAP, RENDERING The above drawing represents the twirl, recently invented by Campbell Morfit, of Bal- timore, Md., for the simultaneous mixing and heating of compounds. It consists of an up- right shaft with tubular arms or branches, and derives motion by means of cog-gearing from a steam engine. A stuffing box, near the top of the shaft and connecting the steam boiler, serves as the medium for a constant current of steam through the branches, so that as the twirl is driven through the contents of a boiling vessel, mixing and heating take place co-inciden ;ly. This arrangem ant not only economises time labor, and fuel, I ut produces a more perfect result than can I e accomplished by any other means now in use. The twirl maybe adapted to the ordinary f rms of iron kettles or wood- en tubs, and allows the use of steam of any temperature frort low~~ to iihigh,~S accord- ing to the pre;sure app ied to the boiler. There is an outlet provided for the escape of excessive or condensedsteam, and a vent, also, for spent lye, as shown in the engraving. Al- though specially designed for the manufacture of soap and rendering of tallow, the twirl will be found equally serviceable for all boiling operations; and more particularly those in which it is desirable to effect a combined me- chanical and chemical action at one and the same moment. New Bullet Machine. William H. Ward, of Auburn, N. Y., has invented a most ingenious and original ma- chine for snanufacturing bullets, from lead wire. The wire is coiled upon rests at the top of the machine, and suspended by means of arches, from which the lead is fed down- ward into the machine, where it is measured and cut off as required for each bullet, after which it is forced forward into dies, and formed into the desired shape by compression. The dies attached to the machine are of the most modern and improved style in the U. S. Army. It makes muskets, rifle, and pistol, elongated, hollow, and conical expansion bul- lets; also round or shell balls,all at the same time. At one corner it makes round balls, at another musket, at another rifle, at the other rifle and pistol elongated bulletseach cor- ner being double, with two sets of dies and punches, which gives eight bullets to one re- volution of the machine. The machine is capable of being worked up to twenty-five turns in a minute, which is equal to 200 bul- lets per minute, 12,000 per hour, or 120,000 per day. The machine was driven, in Auburn, by a steam engine, and is complete within itself requiring no attention while working, other than taking away the bullets and supplying the reels with lead. Another beautiful fea- ture is, its perfection in doing work, using a sufficient quantity of lead and no moreit wastes nothing. Mr. Ward was in this city last week with his machine, which has been forwarded to Washington, and he left us a set of bullets that were formed by it, which may be seen at this office. Gold Products mere sing. The following is from the California Mining Journal. The gold fields of Australia are yielding more largely than ever, at the rate of nearly 20,000,000 per annumabout $100,- 000,000. The produce of the first three months of 18~6 is nearly double that of the corres- ponding three months of 18~, being close up- on 700,000 ounces. California, also, is now beginning to in- crease her contributions to the circulating medium. The greatly improved method of mining, and the rapid development of new diggings added to the increasing produce of the quarts mines, is beginning to be sensibly appreciated. Total shipments for 18~34, $47,- 333,M7. Total shipments for 185~, $44,060,- 374. Total shipments to Aug. 20th, l8~6, $31,636,246. Unfortunate Steam Frigate. By recent news from China we learn that the steam frigate San Jacinto broke down, on her passage from Whampon to Simoda, and had to put back to the former place for repairs. Since this frigate was built she has cost, we believe, more for repairs of her machinery than its entire original cost, and she cannot be trusted to make a single voyage without fears of some break down. SPLENDID PRIZES.PAID iN CASH. The Proprietors of the ScIanTirIc AMERICAN will pay, in Cash, the following splendid Prizes for the large,t Li,ts of Subscribers sent in between the present time and the first of January. 1817. to wit For the largest List, ~2OO For the 2nd largest LIst, 175 For ihe 3rd largest LIst, 150 For the 4th largest List, 125 For the Sib largest List, 100 For the 6th largest List, 75 For the 7th largest List, For the 8th largest List, 40 For ihe 9ih largest List, 30 For the 10th largest List. 25 For the 11th largest List, 20 For the 12th largest List, 10 Names can be sent in at different times and from dif- ferent Post Offices. The cash will be paid to the order ot the successful competitor, immediately after the 1st of January. 1857. l~ See Prospectus on last page. I Fiy.i r TALLOW, etc. NEW YORK, OCTOBER, 11, 1856. The New Theory of Heat. Under the above caption our esteemed co- temporary, the London Engineer, of 12th Sep- tember, quotes our article on page 405, Vol 11, entitled Errors in Engineering,~~ and makes a few comments thereon. It says We are of opinion that our trans-Atlantic cotemporary has not rightly understood the principles which have guided Mr. Siemens in the construction of his engine. So far from disparaging the dynamic theory of heat, which Mr. Siemens advocates as a mere term, out of which to raise a dust, we look upon the same as one of the most important discoveries in physical science, and destined to lead in- ventive minds to great and practical results. The great difference between the old and new theory of heat is in this, that according to the old, heat and water are looked upon as the dynamic agents in producing motive force; whereas, according to the new theory, the water alone can be looked upon as the agent, whereas the heat is the material which is con- verted into power, and therefore gives up its very existence. We did not disparage the dynamic theory of heat, but we stated that what was called the dynamic theory~~ of heat, put forth as new by Mr. Siemens, was no discovery at all; that it was a mere term out of which to raise a dust, and we are right, too, as we shall prove. Our cotemporary and Mr. Siemens entertain the idea that a new theory is a new discovery. This is a mistake; a new theory is simply a new way of explaining certain phenomena, but it is not a new discovery; it does not add a single new fact to the domain of science. Our cobmporary~s explanation of the differ- ence between the old and new theory of steam makes both dynamic, and the new one only a wrong explanation of the old theory; our co- temporary is our witness. The old theory is stated to be heat and water are dynamical agents,~~ that is, heat is an agent, and water an agent, and these two combined produce motive power in the form of steam in the en- gine. The new theory is water is an agent and heat the material which is converted into power, and gives up its very ~ Here it is asserted that heat is a material; but matter has the properties of indestructa- bility, and yet we are told that this material gives up its very existence. Matter has aso the properties of inertia and gravity, but heat has not; it is, therefore, an imponderable agent. Bacon says: Heat is an expansive un- dulatory motion in the minute particles of a body. Descartes says: Heat consists in certain motion or agitation of the parts of a body.~) Robert Boyle says Heat consists in that mechanical property of matter called motion. These philosophers held the dy- tamical theory of heatfor mechanical motion is dynamicshence the new theory of Mr. Siemens is at least 200 years old. The absurdity in his case appears to us to be that he simply calls an old theory new, and builds a steam engine upon this basis, to save fuel. Such conduct appears to be as sensible as would be that of a man who asserted that combustion was a new theory in illumination, and upon this idea molded a tallow candle to last longer, or give more light than the candle of any other person. If he effects the saving 50 per cent.in fuel in his new steam en- gine, as asserted by the Engineer, it must be by some arrangement based upon old and well known principles, not the pretended new dy- namic theory of heat. Well, how does Mr. Siemens effect this great saving? Our cotemporary says: In Sie- mens engine the Respirator occupies the p0- sition of the heaters of the feed water of com- mon high pressure engines, wit~i this differ- ence only, that it returns the whole waste heat to the engine, whereas the ordinary heater re- ceives only 12 per cent. What has the new pretended dynamic theory to do with such claims. The Regenerators of Stirling and Ericsson were set up as effecting the very same objects, nothing more. Our cotemporary states that there is one of Siemens engines in Paris which consumes only about one half the fuel of the best ex- pansive engines, and has no more back pres- sure on the pistons than common high pressure engines. If it consumes less fuel, we venture to assert it does less work. More extravagant claims were set up for the hot air engine, and as little back pressure, it was asserted, was exerted on its pistons. But it is impossible for steam to be exhausted into a close hot heater from the cylinder without exerting great back pressure on the pistons, it cannot be otherwise. Cold is as necessary as heat to produce reciprocating motion in a steam en- gine. Without a condenser of some kind there would be no steam engine. The atmos- phere is the condenser of the high pressure engine, the vacuum condenser that of the low pressure engine. Many engines waste a great deal of heat, but that is owing to their bad construction, or not working the steam ex- pansively, not for want of correct ideas re- specting the old dynamic theory of heat. American Machines Saving Money to England. The Birmingham (Eng.) Journal of Sept. 6th, contains a description of the government new manufactory of small arms at Enfield. It originated from the inability of obtaining a sufficient supply of arms during the late war from private makers. In 1854 more than half a million of dollars were appropriated by the House of Commons to establish the new factory, and competent officers were sent to the United States to ex- amine our government armories, purchase American superior labor-saving machines, and engage competent mechanics to superintend their operation. A great number of valuable machines were, therefore, purchased, and sent to England last year, and they are now in successful operation, under the general charge of Mr. Burton, first engineerformerly master armorer at Harper~s Ferry, Va. About 430 men and boys are now employed at Enfield, but when the works are complete double this number will be employed, and 50,000 rifles per annum will be turned out. All the machines for making the gun stocks were fabricated entire at the manufactory of the Ames Co., at Chicopee, Mass. They are the wellknown invention of Thomas Blan- chard, of Boston. This department at En- field has twenty-seven machines, and is under the charge of Oramel Clark, of Massachusetts, another ingenious and intelligent country- man. About 200 gun stocks are manufactured per diem, at a cost of about one shilling ster- ling each, for laborabout eleven-twelfths less than it cost the British government to make them previously by hand labor. The Bir- mingham Journal says In estimating the cost of making a gun stock at Enfield at ~ne shilling, no allowance is made for the original cost of plant and tools, or their subsequent wear and tear; but at the same time there can be no doubt that the saving effected by machinery such as this, will, in a short time, repay its whole cost, if indeed, it has not done so ere this. This is what American machines are doing for England. Uncle John is not so blind to his interests as some have supposed. The factory at Enfield is a success; American machines and skill have made it so, and full credit is given to our country for this; Mr. Burton has got a first rate permanent engage- ment, and the American mechanics engaged there have received high praise and good pay. It is stated that France, Austria, Portugal, Sweden, and Russia are about to follow in the wake of England, and have sent Commission- ers to visit Enfield. The New World is now forging machines and ideas for the Old, and when we have fully brought the old nations up to the proper standard they maybe allowed to annex themselves to the Confederacy. Resignation of Commissioner Mason. We announced two weeks ago that Judge Mason had sent in his resignation to the Pres- ident, but that it had not been accepted, and we trusted he might be induced to withdraw his petition. Since that time we learn that the friends of Mr. Mason, and the inventors generally, have so importuned him to remain at his post, that he will yield to their wishes for the present. His withdrawal from the Office may therefore be considered as indef- finitely postponed; probably until the Secre- tary of the Inte: ior shall attempt some new in- terference, whe all of us who have dealings with the Office will realize the loss of an ef- ficient and just Commissioner. Inventors, in prove your time, and get your applications fi ed while you have a tried and capable officer ;o look after your interests and see that justice is done you. Great Exhihitio ii of the American Institute at the Cr~ ~tal Palace, New York. THiRD WEEK. A marked c aange has taken place in the aspect of thin1 s at the Crystal Palace since our last report. The final day for the recep- tion of goods fir competition has passed, and the exhibition sas fairly begun. It is a great exhibition. N ver has there been witnessed so large and s splendid a display, so purely American in it; character as that which is now inaugurated. It is a magnificent sight to stand at some elevated positi in within the Palace, and gaze down upon ti ie scene below. The broad floors of the eC ifice are filled with the noblest specimens of Industry, Science, and Art. The hum and (latter of a great array of novel moving machi; iery attracts and arrests the attention, in 0 ie direction, while, in another, the ear is entre need by sweet sounds of mu- sic, pouring fo th from multitudes of instru- ments, of eleg nt forms and surpassing excel- lence. A cont taut throng of spectators cir- culating around and filling every nook and corner of unoc ;upied space, imparts a wonder- ful animation o the whole. The general arrangement of the Exhibition is good. Eveiything seems to be in its right place, and bea ~s a neat, cheerful, and attract- ive look. The arrangement of specimens and the allotment )f space is under the charge of Win. B. Leonard, Esq.; in him the Institute have a most v: unable and efficient officer. Too much praise C; itinot be awarded him for the satisfactory n anner in which he has placed the Exhibition before the public. Indeed, all the Managers if the Institute appear to have exerted themselves to render the Fair,this year, one of unwonted superiority. We rej oice to say that they have been highly successful. Si eam Fire Engines. The only steam fire engine at present on exhibition is a large and splendid machine made by Silsbr, Mynderse & Co., of the Island Works, Senece Falls, N. Y. This engine was built for the city government of Chicago, Ill., but will not b( delivered until the close of the Fair. Th( pumps, and the engine which drive them are of the rotary kind, made under Hollys patent The boiler is of tubular in- ternal constrr ction. Weight of the whole, 9,100 lbs.; c st, $5,000. Patented in Eng- land and America 1855. We have in pre- paration a lan e and splendid engraving ex- hibiting the er gine as it appears in the Fair, which we shall shortly publish, with further particulars. ~he engne is one of the most prominent and interesting objects in the Ma- chine Arcade. Its powers are exhibited at frequent intere als during each day. At the sonnd of the steam whistle everybody rushes to its vicinity o witness the mighty outpour- ing of water which it occasions. Its capaci- ties are so gre~ut that it is found difficult to obtain a full s ipply of water, and it cannot, therefore, be a aown to the fullest advantage. It drinks up tie supply of two hydrants with such rapidity s to collapse the hose The same pe rties exhibit a large variety of rotary steam engines and pumps made under the same pater t. They are chiefly remarka- ble for simplic ty of construction, compact- ness, durability, and effectiveness. The pumps vary in size ar d price,from those costing $10, so small as aIr iost to go in ones pocket, to larger ones cos sing $500, and capable of throw- ing 1200 gallo is, 30 feet high per minute. The engraving to which we have alluded will exhibit the mt ~rior construction. Power Looms. There are o aly four power looms on exhi- bition; these ire for plain weaving, and were made at the Empire Works, Stockport, Co- lumbia, N. Y. -Messrs Benjamin & Reynolds. They are mad~ with all the latest improve- ments, and can be driven at the high velocity of 240 picks per minute60 to the inch. The picker staffs have curved rockers at the foot, and a parallel motion. The shuttle is arrested at the end of each shot by a keeper spring, so set that its pressure is graduated, increasing towards the end of the stroke, and releasing the shuttle more easily as it leaves the box a good arrangement. Connected with the stop-motion there is a compensating device, which preventsjell being formed in the cloth. A self-acting friction brake stoys the loom at once if the shuttle should be arrested in its race, and thus breaka~,e of the warp is pre- vented. The driving pulley is boxed and coupled by a very ingenious arrangement of three sector arms set on knuckle joints at the center, and actuated by centrifugal action they are forced out to couple by friction with the interior rim of the pulley. The web or cloth is kept stretched to its proper width by two small fixed roller templesone at each selvedge. What an immense amount of labor is saved by the fixed temples alone; they re- quire no attention from the weaver; whereas the old temples had to be shifted by hand every two minutes. One girl can attend four looms (if the weft is good) as easily as she can two with the old temples attached. The price of such looms is $70 each. Printing Preeses. A Poly-chromatic, or press for simulta- neous pruting with several dfferent- colored inks, is exhibited by Messrs. A. M. & G. H. Babcock, of Westerly, R. I. The machine shown consists of a central block having four level surfaces or beds, each of which receives a sheet of paper for printing. The block re- volves, bringing each of its surfaces opposite to a platten. to which a portion of the types or engraving are secured. There are as many plattens as beds. As the sheets come in front of the plattens the latter advance and leave an impression of their types upon the paper. Each platten is inked by a different set of roll- ers, and thus a variety of colors are stamped upon each sheet of paper. Colored engravings, having almost the richness and elegance of oil paintings can be readily produced by machines of this kind. They may be made to print as many colors as are desired. Price $800 and up, accordng to size. The operations of this press are regarded with much interest by spectators at the Fair. IViodmills. Mr. A. P. Brown, of Brattleboro, Vt., ex- hibits one of his self-regulating windmills, which appears to be of a very substantial and serviceable character. This invention was il- lustrated and described on page 361, Vol X, SCIENTIFIc AHEnIcAN. Fowlers & Wells, agents, Broadway, N. Y. Patented July, 1855. Dr. F. G. Johnson, of Brooklyn, N. Y., is on hand, as usual, and exhibits a fine specimen of his self-regulating windmill. For engraving and description see SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN, Vol. XI, page 236. Patented Jan. 1856. Messrs. Chambers & Hargraves exhibit a new windmill, patented Aug. 1856. One fea- ture of novelty is an upright tail-board, which controls the angle of the wings. When the wind exceeds a certain force, the tail-board gives before the pressure, and causes the wings to move and present their edges to the cur- rent. Thrashing Machine. One of Holmes Patent Thrashers is exhib ited by Bonnell & Co., 211 Center street, New York. It is of small size, to be used by hand or power, as desired. It consists of a a few wooden, bars pivoted at one end, and caused to fall upon a platform. The bars are lifted by cams arranged on a rotating shaft. The straw is carried along under the bars by an endless apron. It is alleged that this r~a- chine thrashes out the grain, but does not in- jure the straw, like the common machine. It is claimed that two men, with one machine will do the work of six men with common flails. Water Heater for Locomotives. Magoon & Co., of St. Johnsbury, Vt., ex- hibit one of their patent smoke stacks for lo- comotives, by which the heat of the exhau~ steam, and all the escape caloric is made to heat the water in the tender, and an important economy in fuel is thus obtained. We have I I 3~rnjf I ~ij W~d 38 seen a number of recommendations of the in- vention, from practical railroad engineers, who are using it. They speak of it in the highest terms, and say that it heats the water in the tender to 110~, and higher, with a sav- ing of 23 per cent. in mel. It adds but little to the weight of the locomotive, and the ex- pense of construction is quite small. Gear Cutter. U. W. Bigelow, of New Haven, Conn., ex- hibits one of his machines for cutting gear wheels. All machinists should give it a care- ful examination. The blank wheel is placed on a spindle, the parts adjusted, and the ma- chine started. It then goes on and performs the whole work without being touched by the attendant. In all other machines we believe it is necessary for the attendant to stop the machine for each tooth that is cut, and adjust it by hand for a new one. Mr. Bigelows in- vention is wholly self-acting, works with mathematical accuracy, & c. Price $400, and up, according to size. Patented 1835. Works of Art. The Palace is adorned with many of the noble pieces of statuary which beautified the Worlds Exhibition of 1833. But the present exhibition is enriched by a novelty, now for the first time shown, which is worth more than the price of admission to see. We allude to the Descent of Christ from the ~ by Carew, a celebrated artist of London. It is executed in alto-relievo, and its proportions are quite imposing. Nicodemus is supporting the body as it is being taken down from the cross, and near him are figures of persons sent by Pontius Pilate to superintend its delivery to Joseph of Arimathea. Joseph is repre- sented holding the feet of the Savior. Near him, with head reclining upon the cross is John the Evangelist, and Mary the mother of Jesus. The two other MarysMary Magda- lene and Mary the Mother of James,sorrow- ful and weeping, complete the group. The drapery, postures, effect and execution are mag- nificent. The circumstances under which this re- markable work is now presented to the pub- lic, are peculiar. The composition was origi- nally executed, by Carew, under a contract with the late Bishop Murray, of Ireland, who ordered it for a cathedral, in Dublin. The price agreed upon was $70,000. But the de- cease of the Bishop, and the inability of his successor to pay the money, left the work upon the artists hands. It was then exhibited at the great Worlds Exhibition, in London, 1831, where it rivalled the best of the multitudinous collection there shown. Subse uently it was taken down and for- warded for display at the great Exhibition here, in 1833, but when the boxes arrived, many of the pieces were found to be sadly broken, and the directors refused to receive it. So sadly was it marred that no artist could be found here who could restore it, although many essayed. At length Mr. Charles Innis, of this city, an American sculptor of consid- erable note, happened to come across the wreck, and immediately recognized it, to his unbounded surprise, as the work of his for- mer master. Mr. Innis had been a pupil of Carew, and had, in fact, assisted in the con- struction of the work in London. He at once set about its restoration. Success has crowned its efforts, and the great sculpture now stands before us in all its original perfection. No copy has ever been made. Apple Parer and Slicer. We refer the reader to the advertisement of ~ patent Parer, which appears in another column. It is on exhibition at the Palace and attracts a crowd by its rapid and curious movements. Tobacco Pulp Segars. A patent has been taken out in England by W. V. Wallace and B. L. Lowell, of London for reducing those parts of tobacco leaves left after the finest portions are stripped off for segarsinto pulp, by cutting them up in a machine, then submitting them to the action of steam in a close vessel. After this the pulp is made into sheets, by passing it through rollers from the pulp engine, or else through fine hair sieves, in the same manner that paper is made. The sheets of tobacco thus made from pulp are formed into segars and cheroots. Our segar makers can take the hint. Recent AmerIcan Patents. Brie/c PressBy Joseph A. Hill, of Green- castle, Ind.Cos~p~ts in a peculiar means of pressing the clay into the molds. Also in a new manner of feeding the molds underneath the pug mill, and discharging them therefrom, and in a peculiar shut-off board, whereby the descent of the clay into the molds is prevent- ed until the clay is properly tempered and ground. Drawings would be required to ex- plain the construction. Benzole Ligkt.By Thomas Varney, San Francisco, Cal.Refers to the burning of benzole for illuminating purposes, and con- sists in a vaporizing apparatus of a novel construction, by which all moving parts are dispensed with and simplicity attained. A very large evaporating surface is also obtained by which the hydro-carbon and air become evenly mixed. Pulley BlocksBy J. M. Riley, of Newark, N. J.Relates to a method of reducing the friction, by interposing metallic rings between the eye of the pulley wheel, and the bolt on which it turns. The rings revolve indepen- dent of each other, and greatly diminish the friction. The invention is applicable to all kinds of blocks. Seed Planter.By John F. Seaman, Wal- cott, Wayne Co., N. Y.Consists of certain novel arrangements of shares, which open the furrow, the seed being dropped by the attend- ant, who touches a lever for that purpose, as the machine advances. The hills may be planted at any desired distance apart. The seed is covered by rotating shares, which are so operated and arranged as to clear them- selves from weeds, etc. The seed is planted in a very uniform mauner, is not scattered, & c. Seed Planting Prairie Plow.By Luther Robinson, of Cambridge, Massachusetts.~ The sod is cut into strips by two knives, which project down from an oblong frame. Another knife, placed horizontally, cuts the strip underneath and loosens it from the ground. A corn planting contrivance now deposits seed upon the strip of sod, in its center. Two other knives now divide the sod again, and it is cut into three strips, the corn lying upon the central strip. Two mold boards invert the two side strips and throw them over upon the central strip, thus covering the seed between the grass surfaces of the sod. The grass soon decays and serves as manure for the seed. For breaking up the tough prairie soil this improvement appears to be well adapted. Farm LocomotiveBy John Percy, Albany, N. Y.This is a steam wagon or locomotive, for drawing plows, and doing all sorts of drud- gery on farms. The improvement consists in certain novel means of turning the vehicle around, so that it may be guided and handled easily by one man. Also in a peculiar method of balancing the weight of the machine on the supporting wheels. It is intended to trav- el about on common roads and over uneven surfaces of ground like any other vehicle. Hubs and .Rxles.By John M. Riley, New- ark, N. J.This is an improvement in vehi- cles, relating to the attachment of the wheels to the axles. It consists of an anti-friction arrangement, composed of movable sleeves placed on the axle and interposed between it and the hub. There is a spring combined with these parts, which gives a certain degree of lateral elasticity to the hub, and thus prevents all injury from side jars and concussions. The improvement is simple, and not liable to get out of order. Tn-wick CandlesBy B. D. Sanders, of Hollidays Cove, Va.This improvement con- sists in forming a candle with three small wicks, placed at equal distances apart, form- Ing a triangle, by which arrangement their flames form a hollow cone on the argand prin- ciple. A current of oxygen, is thus supplied to the center of the flame, perfect combustion insured, and a more brilliant light is ob- tained, as no smoke escapes, all the carbon being consumed. The flame of a common candle has a dark center, because the air which supports combustion, is only supplied at the outside, therefore there is considerable loss of combustible matter which passes off as smoke, or carbonic oxyd. This improve- ment in ca adles is designed to remedy this evil and effstyt the benefits described. New Loc,: Joint for Railroad Rails.By J. R. Hilliard, of Paterson, N. J.One of the principal causes of damage to rails, is the un- evenness with which their ends come together. It is usual t employ a metallic seat, in which the ends of ;he rails rest, but this only in part overcomes t ae difficulty. The object of the improvement herewith illustrated I to form the ends of the rails in such a maniter that they will lock together, and presen a continuous rail for the car wheels to r 11 upon. With this view they are made with tongue and groove, as shown in our cut. Two ends thus formed being put together endwise, the tongue, A, of each will slide into the recess or groove, B, of the other, in such a manner that neither can be disconnected from the oth r by any downward pressure or by lateral pr ~ssure, and therefore when a num- ber of rails are laid together in this way, they will form a ~ erfectly continuous track for the support of v hich chairs, or other fastenings except spikes, are altogether unnecessary. Though this oint does not admit of the down- ward or later ~l movement of either part with- out the other. it admits of a length of rail be- ing taken up from or put in the track with as much facility as is afforded in any other track This is done by simply removing the spikes from both skes of the joint, and prying it up. This joint ac mits of the expansion and con- traction of Vie rails lengthwise without its security being in any degree impaired, and without making a complete break in the track at every join. Among otter advantages are the following: First, No riovement of any rail in a down- ward or late:al direction can possibly take place. Second, evil disposed persons cannot take it apart or remove a rail unless previous- ly shown the manner of its construction and of laying th~ rail. Third, The weight and lateral pressure of the engine and train con- fine both the ends of the rails which form the joint at the same time. Fourth, The dis- agreeable noise of clicking at the joints is en- tirely obviatd. 5th, There is no battering down of the ails at the end, as each rail must remain in its own lock. Sixth, a great saving in labor for r ~pairs will be effected, ladepen- dently of the cost of broken chairs, or the wear and tea, and breakage of engines and cars, caused by passing over sunken joints. Seventh, the vorking or settling of the sleep- ers under the joints will be effectually prevent- ed, as there is no more tendency of the rail to a,ttle or spreLd at the joint than at the center or other portions of the rail. Eighth, it ren- ders the running of trains far more safe, by furnishing a )ermanent and well secured track which is equi ily as strong, substantial, and durable at th~ joints, as in other portions of the rail, and ivill not be improved by expan- sion and contraction. Ninth, when a rail is worn on one iide, it can be changed end for end, as all th s ends are formed alike. Address the inventor, as above, for further information. Patented in the United States May 13, 1836. Also patented in England through th& Scientific American Agency. Now on exhibition at the Crystal Palace. Steam Horse, or Farm Locomotive.By John Robingson, of New Brighton, PaThis is a steam wagon or locomotive of peculiar con- struction, so arranged that it will travel about on common roads, over fields and meadows, at the will of the farmer, dragging his plows harrows, seeding machines, etc. In short, do- ing all the hardest labor of the farm, besides sawing wood, driving the thrashers, straw cut- ters, churns, & c. The genius of the inventor of this improvement is very prolific. Several patents for other inventions have been granted to him within a few weeks past, and within a year we have prosecuted for him nine dis- tinct applications. Colonization of Mexico. This Republic appears now to be under an able and patriotic government, from President Commonfort down to the humblest officer. The old tyrannic laws against all religions but that of the State church, have been abol- ished, and every man is allowed the freedom to worship according to his own faith. A law was also passed on the 10th of May last, to encourage colonists to settle in the most fertile and pleasant parts of that country, and agents have been appointed by the govern- ment in this city, to give immigrants all the necessary information and free passports. A territory has been established between Vera Cruz and Jalappa, where the soil is fertile, and the climate healthy, for four colonies. Each colony is to have 11,000 acres of land,1000 for a village, and 10000 for cultivation. Each colonist is to receive 100 acres and a build- ing lot. For the first three years, the colonist pays no duty, nor contributions of any kind and he can introduce, free of duty, all kinds of grain and agricultural implements. From Vera Cruz, all colonists will also be trans- ported, free of expense, to the colony, and each family will receive a much cow, on ar- riving at their destination. These are very liberal provisions for inviting colonists to settle in that country, and afford evidence of very enlightened views on the part of the present powers in authority. The great mineral wealth and natural resources of Mexico, under a wise, liberal and enter- prising government, and a free, intelligent, and industrious population, would soon elevate that Republic to a high position. It has hith- erto been the sad fate of Mexico to be torn by intestine factious, and the contests of contend- ing chieftains for power and spoils. We hope these contests are gone forever, and that the people will labor in union and harmony to de- velope the exhaustless resources of this an- cient center of inexhaustible wealth. The provisions made for colonization, are liberal and politic. A colony of industrious emi- grants, always proves a benefit to any coun- try, and those from the United States would introduce improvements of the very kind most required,such as public schools, an improved agriculture, new inventions, & c. Three crops of Indian corn are raised around Jalapa in one season; all kinds of grain and fruit are raised. Cattle are abundant and cheap ; the forests are filled with valuable timber,the copal, the india rubber, the rose- wood and mahogany trees grow there, as well as the pine and the hickory. The cochineal insect which yields the crimson dye for fine woolen shawls, is found there. Silver, gold, copper, iron, mercury, lead, zinc, sulphur, and coal are abundant, but for want of skillful la- bor, are mostly lying dormant. We hope Mexico is destined to see better days than it has done heretofore. Boiler Explosions On the 1st. inst. a locomotive exploded at the Bolton depot on the Northern Central R. R. Md. The fireman was killed and the en- gine thrown 30 feet from the track. The boiler of a portable engine exploded on the 2nd inst. at the Ohio State Fair, killing fourteen persons and wounding several others. No less than 83,792,030 pounds of tea were exported from China in 1833. scientific ~n~c~ri can. ~yJ1 Orlando Jennuings, of Patterson, Nevada Co., Califor- nia, is desirous of procuring machinery for drilling rorka in tunnels, lie says several tunnels are in course of con- struction in the Golden State, and a rock-drilling ma- chine will be of great service in the business. I. N. V., of CalWe do not find the record of any paleni on Smut Machine granted to It. B. togham in 1351. Lewis P. Ingraham obtained a patent in 1853 for a Winnower. R. K., of PaYou must consult some lawyer about the Naturalization Law as it bears upon your case. We do not advise upon such subjects, it is not in our line. Can- not anscrer about the yarn. A M., of IllWe do not think any of Wilmots ma- chines for sawing down trees have been manufactured. See engraving of Ingersolls machine, two weeks ago. P. B., of AlaPick the shellac you intend to use, se- lecting oniy the purest specimens, and dissolve it in alco- hol. This will make a beautiful varnish, which soon dries. It can also be dissolved in turpentine and an alka- ii; but the alcohol varnish dries soonest, and is not so sticky. J. 31. A., of It. 1.Yours on lice Rotosrope is very good; the theory is laid down in all mathematical works whiclo treat of mechanics under the head of rotary mo- lions. J. C. B., of LaMarine glue is composed of india rub- ber and shellac dissolved in naphtha. About a pound of india robber is used to the gallon of naphiha, and shellac added to make it of a creamy consistency. It requires about ten (lays for the complete maceration of these sub- stances in the naphiha. It is slated to be insoluble in waler. We have no drawings or descriptions of a corn- husking machine that we can send you, without a breach of faith. Send us your sketch, and we will examine it and give you our opinion. J. S., of Mass.It is scarcely possible for you or any person to explain the theory of the roloscope to those who have not seen it operate, but the instrument explains it- self. It exhibits various interesting movements produced by centrifugal force. It. M. S., of N. J.Scott Itussels work on steam and lice steam engine is excellent on the nature of steam and its uses, but contains little on explosions. It is the most thorough work on steam published; sold by all our book- sellers. J. D., of N. Y.If you read the remarks again relating to the fossil elephant, you will discover that they refer to a period when our part of the continent was colder than ills at present. The cold period is attributed to a great. or elevation of our continent north. There is no evidence that the earth was ever nearer the sun than ii is at pres- ent. II. C., of Ohio The case to which you refer is familiar to us, and only adds another practical warning to the many already on record against procrastination on the inventors part, in making application for a patent. If your friend had been prompt in getting his case into the Office, instead of allowing six sosooths time to elapse, he would have secured his invention, and thus avoided a contest in regard to priority of invention, which has evi- dently been a serious business fur him, even though suc- cessful in the end. If you will send us your model we will prepare your case without delay. We will send your friend a circular of information. C. C.. of MassWe think youwould do well with your invention in England. You must, however, judge for yourself as to the propriety of securing European patents. We should be very glad to do your business, and will aid you all we can in carrying out your views. One ofour clients has just returc;ed from England in the steamer At- hanlic, after an absence of less than three months, having sold his patent for $50,000 cash, besides retaining an in- teres in the invention, out of which he has a prospect of sealizing handsome addition, lie took the risk of ap- plying for an English patent, and has made his fortune by it. Models are not necessary in applying for English patents. M. S - of CoonPorcelain is gilded by reducing gold to a state of oxyd, ground up with oil of turpentine and some substance having the property of a flux. it is then put upon the ware with a brush. The oxygen of the gold is burned nfl, and the metal, by the action of the flux, is cemented to the porcelain U. H., of VtCast-iron is not pure iron. It contains carbon and other foreign substances. The difference be- tween ii and wrought.iron is that cast-iron not only con- tains these foreign substances, but is also fusible at a glowing heat, and can neither be forged nor welded, while wrought-iron is deprived of its carbon and other impuri- ties, and is not fusible at a white heat, and may be forged and svelded. By making this distincticn you will be able to determine the question you have in dispute. E. N. F., of S. C.As many drops of rain will fall into a rain gauge at an angle of 45 deg. as will fall in vertical- ly. Draw vertical and angular lines to intersect one another to represent the drops of rain, and you will per. ceive lids must be so when the box or gangs is a perfect cube. Moneyreceivedatthe Scssuevs7so AMERICAN Office, on accountof Patent Office business fon the week ending Saturday, Oct. 4, 18Sf, Ce. 11., of N. Y., $55; 0.11. Mof N.Y., $10; J. Lof 0.. 30; W.W. D., of Cal., $20; D. & M., of Cal., $39;D. & S.,ofLa.,$25; M.L., of N. Y.,$30; T.A.D.,ofCal., $lS.E.S.,of Coon., 210; C.H.,ofN.Y.,$ll;AG C.. ofVt., 8S5; J. it., ofN Y., $31; E. M., of N.Y., $15; II. Ce., of Canada, $100; J. J.C.,of Mo.,$15; D. & S., of La.,$25; L.G.,ofLa.,$25;WJDofNy$~ C.& G.M.W.,ofNY $30- W.II.MCN.OfLI$30;AB W., of Coon., $25; D.A. S., ofConn., $15; JR-of Ala., $25; J.E.S.,ofN.Y.,$30. C.& McD.,ofN.Y$3I.J F. Wof N Y., $39; T.& C.,ofVt.,$25; J. A. Dof N. Y,,$25; J. S.S., of N.Y.,$lii; It.T.,ofN. Y..$25; P. B. of N. Y., $65. Specifications and drawings behonginglo parties with the following initials have been forwarded to the Patent Office during the week ending Saturday, Oct. 4th J.A-D..ofN.Y.; T.l1,ofN.Y.; J. S. S.,ofN.J.;It, T., ofN. Y.; W. B., ofN. Y.; C. H., of N.Y.; J. It., of Ala.; L. Ce.. ofLa.; J. H., ofN. Y.; B. & S., of La.; J. J. C.. ofMo.; D. A, S., of Conn., T. & C.. of Vt.; P. B., of N. Y. (I cases.) Important Items MonELsInventors, in constructing their models, should bear in noind that they must not exceed a foot in meas urement in either direction. They will also remember that the law requires that all models shall be neatly and substantially made of durable material. If made of soft wood they should be painted or stained. We shall esteem it a great favor if inventors will always attach their names to such models as they send us. It will save us much trouble, and prevent the lia- bility of their being mislaid. PATENT LAws AND GennE TO INvENTORSThis pam- phlet contains not only the laws but all information touching the rules and regulations of the Patent Office Price 11 1-2 cents per copy. A Circular, giving in- otructions to inventors in regard to the size and proper construction of their models with other useful informal tion to an applicant for a patent, is furnished gratis a this office upon application by mall. RxcgcpvsWhen money is paid at the office for subscrip- tion, a receipi for it will always be given; but when sub- scribers remit their money by mail, they may consider the arrival of the first paper a bona fide acknowledg- ment of the receipt of their funds. FoRESoN SuescareEReOur Canada and Nova Scotia patrons are solicited to compete with our citizents for the valuable prizes offered on the next volume. [It is mportant that all who reside out of the States should remember to send 25 cents additional to the published rates for each yearly subscriberthat amount we are obliged to prepay on postage.] PATENT CLAIMsPersons desiring the claim of any in- vention which has been patented within fourteen years can obtain a copy by addressing a letter to this office stating the name of the patentee, and date of patent when known, and enclosing $1 as fees for copying. BINOINoWe would suggest to those who desire to have their volumes bound, that they had better send their numbers to this office, and have them executed in a oft. form style with their previous volumes. Price of bind- ing 75 cents. INs-ALLIHLE RULEIt is an established rule of this office to stop sending the paper when the time for which is was prepaid has expired, and the publishers will not deviate from that standing rule in any instance. GIvE INTELLIOIRLE DmnEcTIoNsWe often receive let- ters with money enclosed, requesting the paper sent for the amount ofthe enclosure but no name of State given, and ofien with the name of the post office also omitted. Persons should be careful to write their names plainly when they address publishers, and to name the post of fire at which they wish to receive their paper, and the State in which the post office is located. Literary Notices, BLAcawoons MAOAZtNE.The number for Septem her, of this veteran periodical, published by L. Scott & Co., No. 54 Gold-st., this city, articles on -, The Scot A.broad; The man of Diplomacy Sketches of the way to Stockholm ; -- The AthehingsPart 4 ;~ Sea- Side Studies The Poetry of Christian Art, and a slosrp review of Macaulays History of England, It is a good number. Tsse KNmcEsntssOcsrEn. Old Knick for this month, contains some capital articles and stories, with the usual rishhicking, funny and witty Editors Table. Some of the poetry is but indifferent; some exquisite. Carte of Cambride is a good story The Musins of a City Rail Road Conductor are humorous. This Xtagazioe is to- tally unlike any other in its literary characteristics. It is decidedly original in every respect. No wonder; it is a general favorite with literary connoisseurs. Terms of Adverneesag. Twenty-five cents a line each insertion. We respect. family request that our patrons will make their adver- ti.sements as short as possible. Engravings cannot be ad- mitted into the advertising columns. 117J5 All advertisements must be paid for before insert- tmg. IMPORTANT TO INVENT- ORS. T HE UNDERSIGNED having had TEN years practical experience in soliciting PATENTS in this and foreign countries, beg to give notice that they con- tinue to offer their services to all who may desire to se- cure Patents at home or abroad. Over three thesmosasid Letters Patent have been issued, whose papers were prepared at this Office, and on an average fifteen, or one-third of alithe Patents issued each week, are on cases which are prepared at our Agency. An able corps of Engineers, Examiners, Draughtemen, and Specification writers are in constant employment, which renders us able to prepare applications on the shortest notice, while the experience of a long practice, and facilities which few others possess, we are able to give the most correct counsels to inventors in regard to the patentability of inventions placed before us for ex- amination. Private consultations respecting the patentability of in- ventions are held free of charge, with inventors, at our office, from 9 A. M., until 4 P. M. Parties residing at a distance are informed that it is generally unnecessary for ihem to incur the expense of attending in person, as all the steps necessary to secure a patent can be arranged by letter. A rough sketch and description of the improve- ment should be first forwarded, which we will examine arid give an opinion as to patentability, without charge. Models and fees can be sent with safety from any part of the country by express. In this respect New York is more accessible than any other city in our country. Circulars of information will be sent free of postage to any one wishing to learn the preliminary steps towards makiog an application. In addition to the advantages which the long experience end great success of our firm in obtaining patents present to inventors, they are informed that all inventions pat- ented through our establishment, are noticed, sat the prep. es tsme, 10 the ScIs-Nvmmesc AMERICAN, This paper is read by not less than 100,000 persons every week, and en- joys a very wide spread and substantial influence. Most of the patents obtained by Americans in foreign countries are secured through us; while it is well known that a very large proportion of all the patents applied for in the U. S., go through our agency. MUNN & ~. American and Foreign Patent Attornies, Principal Office 128 Fuhton street, New York. ~iUT OODWORTIIS PATENT PLANING, VT Tonguing, and Grooving MachinesThe subscri- ber, from his twenty-four years experience both irs,the ume and manufacture ofthese unrivalled machines, is pre- pared to furnish them of a quality superior to any that can be procured elsewhere for the same money. Pricesfrom $81 to $1550. Also several good second-hand Planing, Tonguing, and Grooving Machines for sale. Rights for sale in all the unoccupied towns in New York and Nor- thern Pennsylvania. JOHN GIBSON, 5 12* Planing Mills, Albany, N. Y, TU~O INVENTORS AND PATENTEES,The kun dersigned has established an agency for the sale of patent rights in the city of Baltimore. at No. 34 Second street. PHILIP T. TYSON. 5 5* TIlE ADAMS EXPl1E~S COMPANY Left at our Wednesday old, con cerning which we have no advices. Who is it ~rom, and what is it for? EVERY DAY BRINGS SOMETHING NEW NEW ERA I 1 APPLE-PARING.SMITHS APPLE-PARER, (P atented Aug. 26. 1850,) is just the machine for the purp me intended. It not only pares the apple handsomely, bu slices, separating the slices from the parings and cores. One hand can pare and slice 40 bushels a day with ne machine. Ills the only real practical apple.parer and slicer ever invented, and per- forms its work to lb admiration of every one. State rights for sale on the 1 est of terms. Appi to 0. F. PAR- SONS, No. 140 Nassau-st., N. Y., or 59~Jnion.st., New- Haven, Coon. 5 1* ~I AGIC LANTERNS, with a large assortment of Scriptural, Te nperance and Astronomical Slides. cALLISTER & Bi OTHER, 194 Chesnut-ot., Philadel- phia. A priced and c escriptive Catalogue sent by mail, free of charge. 5 15 T HEGYRASCCPE, OR MECHANiCAL PAR- ADOXAn inst ument of very simple construction, beautifully ihlustratin various interesting movements of centrifugal force. A list of prices, with diagrams of the instrument, sent by mail, free of charge. McALLISTER & BROTHER, (Esta blished 1791,) No. 194 Chesnut-ot., Philadelphia. 1 1* ~~TANTEDA Machinist well-qualified to act as WV foreman of a F undry and Machine Shop; a mar- ried man preferred. Salary liberaL Address H. L. PARRY, Star Founcry, Galveston, Texas, 5 1* A RE~U~TL IBERAL OFFERWe propose to send to every Orson in the United States, who is interested in the mu nufacture of lumber, or improved machinery, a full ills strated description of two valuable inventions. First, THE COMBINAT ON PORTABLE STEAM SAW- MILLThis is a new upright miii, so simple in its con- struction that any on can put it up and run itis easily moved from place to placemaybe easily shipped to any part of the country s capable of cutting from six to ten thousand feel in evemy twenty-four hours; while, at the same time it is furn shed at so low a rate as to bring it within the reach of almost every farmer and planter. Second, RICES . 1ATENT SPRING Ce U IDEThe only effectual plan ever invented for guiding, steadying, and strengthening a u ircular saw, while in motion. We wish,therefore to obtain a list of all the machinists, lumbermen and saw-mill men in the Untied States, and to any person who w 11 send us a list of such parties in his vicinity, and the add eeoc of each, we will send in return, a copy of the Unit d States Journal, the largest illus- trated newspaper in the United States, for one year. In case we receive mor s than one list from the same locali- ty, we shalt send the Journal to the party from whom we receive the first 1st, only. The New England States are not included in his offer, as we have there already completed a list, as d aired. J. M. EMERSON & CO., 1 Spruce street, New- fork. 4 4 TO AXE MAKIiRSWanted, a practical working. man, who can te well-recommended, as foreman of an axe-factory. He null be required to take charge ofthe chop, temper, and m;;ke himself generally usefulappli- cation to state salary required and in what establishment parties have acquired their experience. Apply to H. HOLT & CO., Dund so, C. W. 4 2* I MPIIOVEMENT IN BORING MACfINESThis improvement con~ists of an arrangement by which the auger can be driven to any direction the operator chooses, rendering the machi se far superior to any other now in use. RICE & DRY )EN, Worcester, Mass. 4 4* WANTEDAgents to sell Steel Plate Engravings including the beautifully illustrated Engraving o the Lords Prayer sod Ten Commandments. 5 person with a sinai capital can make 50 to f75 per month. For partico ars. address B. H. MULFORD. No. 167 Broadway, New- fork. 4 2* UIJEADY FOR A GENThTRIMBLES FOR THE .Ei~ MILLIONS THAT HUSK CORNThe under- signed is prepared to fill orders for GOULDS PATENT HUSKIN Ce THIMBI ES, (Illustrated on page 302. vol. xi., Scm. AM.) Hardware Dealers and Country Merchants are requested to send on their orders at once. Satisfaction warranted, or no sm he. Cirrulars sent on application. Address J. H. GOILD, (Sole Proprietor,) Altiance, Stark County, Ohio. 4 15 OIL PRESSES FOR SALE.One set of Hori- zontal Oil Pro; ses, complete consisting of two cyl- mnders, lined with cupper, and boxes containing 8 bags each, with plates, h3 draulic pumps and connections, and heating tables, lhes~ presses are built in the most im- proved and substanti at manner, and can be delivered im- mediately; squeeze s and bags can also be furnished if required. Apply to WH. ARTHUR & CO.. Atlantic Steam Engine Wor Cs, Brooklyn, N.Y. 34* NW, ROBINSONS PATENT HEAD TURN- ING AND F LANING MACHINE, for Heads of all kinds and descri stions; ii will make from 200 to 350 heads per hour, of tie most perfect description. There will be one on exhit ition at the Crystal Palace N.Y., at the Fair of the Am rican Institute, in October, where those wishing for lst;chines or State rights can see it in operation and judge of its merits for themselves. All communications in relation to machines and rights should be addressed to ROBINSON, SCRIBNEIt & CO., Keeseville, Essex C)., N. Y. 1 65 fs LARKS PAT ~NT WATER REGULATOR... ~.yThe only perfect security against steam boiler expho- sions, caused by w tnt of water. Every steam boiler should have one. B eguhators sold and a p plied and rights fhr most of the States and Territories, or sale icy S. C HILLS, 12 PlatI sI., N. Y. 1 4eow5 t1 YROSCOPES-.-A large assortment of this interest- ~Ming and wonderf ml scientific curiosity constantly man- ufactured and for sale by JAMES W. QUEEN, 264 Chesnutstreet, Philudeiphia. Illustrated catalogues by mail gratis. 3 3* J IIERVA J~INES CORN PLANTING MA- chines. Co-p;urtnerchip.The undersigned have entered into a co-pa tnershi p under the style of J. Herva Jones & Co., for the manufacture and sale of his well known planting ma hines, and are now ready to contract them at wholesale irices. with exclusive right of sale in specmfied sections, Ir roe onsible men. tiny person who wishes to interest himuselF and will communicate with us, shall receive by ret urn mail a circular containing our wholesale prices, ou terms, and our recommendations with reference to phm ns for selling. J. RERVA JONES, SAMUEL TAL CO IT, MILES S. PRENTICE, CA- LEB C-CHURCH. Rockton, Winnebr go Co., Iii. 3 3* OOo AGENTSFor unparahialed induce- mests Sendstamp toM.J.COOK,A. B,Detroit, Rich 5 25 1~U ACHINERY--S.C. HILLS, No.12 PlaIt street, N LYE. Y..dealer in St-am Engines, Boilers, Planers, Lathes Chucks, Drills, Put mps; Mortising, Tenoning, and Sash Machines, Woodwo -ths and Daniels Planers; Dicks Punches, Presses, ar d Shears; Cob and Corn Mills t Har- risons Grist Mills; ohnsons Shingle Mills; Belting, Oil, & c. 2 elw UII~ NGINEERINU .The undersigned is prepared to .32d furnish specific ations, estimates, plans in general or detail of steamships, steamboats, propellers, high and low pressure engines, ho hero and machinery of every descrip- tion, Broker in st( am vessels, machinery, boilers, & c. General Agent for Ashcrofts Steam and Vacuum Gauges, Allen & Noyec~ Met chic Self-adjusting Conical Packing, Faber~s Water Gua~ e, Sewell~s Sahinometers, Dtidgeons Hydraulic Lifting Pess, Roeblings Patent Wire Rope for hoisting and steering purposes, Machinery Oil of the most approved kind, etc. CHARLES W. COPELAND 1 eowlf Consulting Engineer, 114 Broadway. fILOCKS for Chirches, Court Houses, & c. Regula- ~.i tors and time pieces for jewelers. railroads, offices, & c. Also glass dials sf any size for illuminating, and other kinds manuficclured and warranted by the subscriber. JOHN SHERRY, Jakland Works, Sag Harbor, N. Y. 37 32 eow MACHINE BELTING, Steam Packing, Engins hoseThe superiority of these articles manufac- tured of vulcanized rubber is established. Every belt will be warranted superior to leather, at one-thtrd less price. The Steam Packing is made in every variety, and warranted to stand 300 dogs. of heat. The hose never needs oiling, and is warranted to stand any required pres- sure; together with all varieties of rubber adapted to mechanical purposes. Directions, prices, & c., can be ob- tained by mail or otherwise, at our warehouse. New York Belting and Packing Co., JOHN H. CHEEVER, Treasurer, No. 6 Boy street. N.Y. 48 1c5 GREAT WESTERN MACIIINERY AND PAT- ent Agency.E. H. ELLSWORTH having disposed of his interest in the firm, the business hereafter well be conducted under the firm and style of DAViD RICH- AIIDS & CO. We are prepared to soil all kinds of val- uable improvements and machinery throughout the Uni- ted States. For further information address DAVID RICtIARDS & CO.. 51 6* No. 64 Randolph ot., Chicago, Ill. SAWSWe respectfully cahithe atten C ~ infacturers of lumber to the groa improve- ments recently introduced in the manufacture of our Circular Saws. Being sole proprietors of Southweils patent for grinding saws, we are enabled to grind circular saws from six imuches to six feet with the greatest accuracy and precision. The impossibility of grinding a saw with- out leaving it uneven in thickness has always been ac- knowledged by practical saw makers. This causes the saw to expand as soon as it becomes slightly heated in work- ing. When this takes place the saw loses its stiffness, and wtll not cut in a direct line. We will warrant our eaws to be free from these defects; they are made perfectly oven in thickness, or gradually increase in thickness from the edge to the center, as may he desired. As there are no thick or thin places. the friction on the surface of the saw is uniform, consequently it wilt remain stiff and true, and will require loss set and less power. Will saw smooth, save lumber, and will not be liable to become un- true. This is the oldest etablishment now in existence for the manufacture of circular saws in the United States, having been established in the year 1830. Orders re- ceived at our Warehouse, No. 48 Congress ot., Boston. 4413* WELCH & GRiFFiTHS. KNITTING MACHINESCircular and straight kritting machines of all sizes and gauges on hand and made to order. WALTER AlKEN, Franklimi, N.H. 13* PAGES PATENT PERPETUAL LIME KILN, will burn 100 barrels of lime with three cords of wood every 24 hours; likewise my coai kiln will burn 150 bushel wito 1 tuls bttuminous coal in the same time; coal is not mixed with limestone. Rights for sahe. 45 50 C. B. PAGE Rochester, N.Y. ~j9 STEAM ENGINESFrom 3 to 40-horse power also portable engines and boilers; they are first class engines, and will be sold cheap for cash. WM BURDON, 102 Front it., Brooklyn. 41 tf GOLD QUARTZ MILLS of the most improved con- struction; will crush more quartz and do it finer than any machine now in use, and costs much loss. WM BURDON, 102 Front st., Brooklyn. 41 tf AlLS CELEBRATED PORTABLE STEAM V Engines and Saw Mills, Bogardus Horsepowers, Smut Machines, Saw and Grist Mill icons and Gearing, Saw Gummers, Ratchet Drills, & c. Orders for light and heavy forging and castings executed with dispatch. LOGAN & LIDGER WOOD, 13 1y5 9 Gold sI., N. Y. F ILMER & CO., Hiecirotypers. and Manufacturers of Electrotype Materials, 128 Fulton 01., N. Y. Mold- tog Presses, Batteries, Cases, Backing Pans, Shaving Ma- chines, Metal Kettles, Planes, Blocks, Building Irons, etc., etc., on hand, or furnished at short notice, and at moder- ate charges. Adance Improved batteries and black-lead machines also for sale. 23 tf PAGES PATENT CIRCULAR SAW MILLS with Steam Engine and Boiler, on hand and for sale tor $1500. at Scheock Machine Depot, 113 Groemiwiclo sI. New York. A. L. ACKERMAN. 49 10 CiRCULAR SAW MILLSThe subscriber has on hand, and is constantly manufacturing those cel- ebrated mills with saws from 30 to 80 inches diameter, adapted to manufacturing most kinds of lumber, and searranted to give satisfaction. For prices, & c., address W. HERRICK, Northampton, Mass. 49 8* B AIFREL MACHINERYCROZIERto PATENT is unrivalled in point of quality and quantity of work performed, and may be soon in constant operation at the Barrel Manufactory of the undersigned. For rights and machines address WELCH & CROZIER, 43 18* Oswego, N. Y. CAR BUILDERSFor Sale, one new Upright Boring Mill br boring car wheels. $000. will be sold for 300 cash. Address GRO. E1N~ COLN & CO., Hartford, Ct. hf OILER FLUESAll sizes and any length prompt- lyfurnished by JAMES 0. MORSE & CO No.79 oho at., N.Y. 51 Smos W ROUGIIT-IRON PIPEPlain, also galvanized inside and outside, sold at wholesale by JAMES 0. MOIIBE & CO., No. 79 John sI., N. Y. 51 Imos FORBES & BOND,Artlsts, 89 Nassau st, N.Y., Me- chanical and general Draughtemen on wood,stone,& c, O IL!OIL! OIL 1For railroads, steamers, and for machtnery and burningPeaces Improved Machine- ry and Burotog Oil will save fifty per cent., and wilt not gum. This oil possesses qualities vitally essential for lubri- cating and burning, and found in no other oil. It is of fered to the public upon the most reliable, thorough, and practical test. Our most skillful engineers and machinists pronounce it superior and cheaper than any other, and the oniy oil that ts in all cases reliable and will not gum. The Scientific American, after several tests, prommounced it superior to any other they have over used for mcchiIc- ery.~ For sale oni by the inventor and manufacturer, F.S. PEASE, 61 Retool., Buffalo, N.Y. And W. S. ROWLAND & CO., Agents for Chicago, IlL N. BReliable orders filled for any part of the United States and Europe. 1 If N IPRCROSS ROTARY PLANING MACHINE. The Supreme Court of the U. S., at the Term of 1853 and 1854, having decided that the patent granted to Nich- olas Ce. Norcross, of dale Fob, 32, 1850. for a Rotary Pla- ning Machine for Planing Boards and Planks is not an infringement of the Woodwortb Patent. Rights to use the N. Ce. Norcrosss patented machine can be purchased on application to~.G. NORCROSS, Office for sale of riglcts at 27 St~to street, Boston, and Lowell. Mass, 45 6m* NEW HAVEN MFG. CO.Machinists Tools, Iron Planers, Engisco and Hand Lathes, Drills, Bolt Cut- ters, Gear Cutters, Chucks, & c., on hand and finishing. These Tools are of superior quality, and are for sale low for cash or approved paper. For cuts giving full descrip- tion and prices, address, New Haven Manufacturing Co.,NewHaven,Conn. lIf HARRISONS 30 INCH GRAIN MILLSLa- test Patent. A supply constantly on hand. Price $200. Address New Haven Manufacturing Co., New Haven, Conn. 1 If ~ OILER INCRUSTATIONS PREVENTED A simple and cheap condenser manufactured by m. Burdon, 102 Front st.,Brooklyn, will take every par- ticles of lime or salt out of the water, rendering it as pure as Croton, before entering the boiler. Persons in want of such machines will please state what the bore and stroke of the engines are, and what kind of water is to be used. 41 If 40 an~ ~rt. Rotation of Spheroids. M. Boutigny, of Paris, has published an ac- count of experiments on the rotation of a body in a spheroidal state. These are described as follows By means of a few drops of ether, he at- taches a small cone of gum guaiacum to a highly heated silver capsule. As soon as the cone reddens on the summit, one or two grammes of water are dropped into the cap- sule, and a remarkable effect takes place. The water becomes agitated from right to left, left to right, backward and forward, indeed in every direction; but presently, as it assumes the spheroidal shape it sets itself spontaneous- ly in motion around the cone from left to right, or from east to west. The motion, at first slow, goes on increasing, until its rapidity is such as scarcely to be followed by the eye. If the spheroid be stopped, by placing a small glass rod in its way, it pauses for a while, but only to resume its former movement. M. Boutigny considers this phenomenon to be well worthy the investigation of geometers, and strikingly analogous to the rotation of the earth.~ The above is taken from one of our cotem- poraries, and we have seen it in several. We cannot understand how a cone of the gum guaiacum could be prevented from burning in a highly heated platinum capsule, nor how the spheroid could rotate from west to east any more than from east to west. It all de- pends upon the point from which it starts. The spheroid could not rotate around a cone on a horizontal spindle; it must, therefore, have rotated in a horizontal curve, not exact- ly analagous to the rotation of our earth. Beautiful Paraffine Candles. Paraffine is a pure white solid substance, resembling wax, when melted in small quan- tities, but when cooled slowly it resembles spermaceti. It has no taste or smell, melts at 112~ Fab.; burns without producing smoke, and is thus admirably adapted for making candles. It resists the action of all the strong acids, alkalies, and chlorine; these are pecu- liar properties, hence its name from parum atlinis, denotes its want of affinity. It is made from peat tar, coal tar, and coal oil, but owing to the troublesome and expensive process of its manufacture, it is dear. Could it be man- factured cheap from coal tar and coal oil, it would be the best known substance for mak- ing candles. We hope improvements will yet be discovered for manufacturing it so cheap that it can be sold at a cost not exceeding that of tallow. The candles heretofore made from it, have been chiefly confined in their sale and use to the city of London. They resemble sperma- ceti, having the same crystalized appearance, but a patent has lately been obtained by J. K. Field, and C. Humphrey, of England, for a very simple method of making them to have an appearance superior to wax candles. The paraffine is melted at 140~, then run into can- dle molds, heated up to 150~, then after stand- ing in these for a few minutes, to allow all the bubbles Of? air to escape, the molds are plunged into cold water. This sudden cool- ing of the paraffine prevents it from forming into fine crystals, and the candles so made are nearly transparent, and draw easily from the molds. The manufacture of paraffine, we believe, is unknown in our country, hut we have no doubt of its being yet manufactured in great quantities, because we have the largest bitu- minous coal fields in the world, and these contain the means of supplying paraffine ma- terials for thousands of years. ~Mreet Electric Chronomete,.s The ingenious artist M. Breguet, of Paris, has devoted himself to the construction of chronometers in connection with the electric telegraph. lie has placed a chronometer of great simplicity in a gas lamp. It consists of a dial armed with two needles moved by elec- tricity, which mark the hours and minutes. The whole mechanism consists of three wheels, ~tienti~c ~nierizan4 a pinion, an escapement, and a double ratchet, a regulato,, which shall distribute time about to be built in Paris, in groups of fifty, with a means of reversing the current; two throughout :he district, both to public lamps each group forming a square, with an open wires pass from the lamp to a regulating and private houses, space in the center. Each house is to accoin clock situated in the apartment of M. Breguet. modate six families, at a rent of about $26 This inventor proposes to divide Paris into 12 11 orkmens Model Houses. to each. Each group is to have a public bake- electric districts, and place in each mayorality No less than 2500 workmens houses are house and bathing establishment. IMPROVEM]~NTs IN PIANOFORTES. improvement tn Musical instruments. The improvement herewith illustrated con- sists in the application of screws for tuning the strings of musical instruments instead of the ordinary tuning pins. Fig. 1 is a plan view of the iron frame of a pianoforte with the tuning screws attached, exhibiting particularly their relative position and arrangament upon the frame. Fig. 2 is a section of the iron frame in perspective, showing the construction, arrangement and operation of a separate tuning screw. B are the strings, and H their hitchpins. G is the tuning block bridge, over which all the strings pass to the front ends of the tuning screws, D. The latter have on their upper sides small pro- jections to which the strings are looped. The other ends of tuning screws, D, are provided with the screw threads, and pass loosely through holes in the fixed studs, E. The nuts, C, turn upon the tuning screws and abut against the studs, E. The front end of the tuning screw, D, has a projection, 0, on its under side, which rests upon the iron frame, A, and prevents the cy- lindrical part of it from being bent by the pressure of the strings. The lower extremity of this projection, 0, slides loosely in a slot, I, which prevents the tuning screw from turn- ing, while its nut, C, is tightened. F is a sus- Gold Extracting and Che .s. istry. There is an ore of arsenical pyrites at Reichenstein, in Silesia, which contains 200 grains of gold to the tun. For three centu- ries all attempts to work this ore, so as to ex- tract the gold, failedthe precious metal be- ing too minute in quantity to pay for the ex- pense of extracting it. Recently, however, this has been accomplished, it is stated, by Prof. Plattner, of Freiberg, a distinguished chemist. By new processes and new re-agents he extracts the 200 grains of gold out of 15,686,000 grains of ore, at a profit. This is certainly one of the greatest triumphs of mod- em chemistry. Restoring Burnt iron. The acting-manager~Mr. Win. Clayof the Mersey Steel and Iron Works, at Liver- pool, and the fabricator of the great wrought- iron 13 inch-gun, says that wrought-iron crys- talized by exposure to heat or carelessly burnt, may have its fibers restored by working it under the hammer or in rolls. This is a val- uable hint to workers in iron. New Alloy Resembling Silver. An alloy composed of nickel, 4 parts, cop- per, 5, tin, zinc, lead, iron, and antimony, each pension bridge passing over all the strings meats attached can be seen. Patented Sept. at such a hig at as to press them firmly down 5, 1854. upon the tuning block bridge, G, thereby pro- ~ ducing a mo:e firm, round, and clear sound than can otherwise be obtained. To tune an instrument with these tuning screws, it is inly necessary to turn the nuts C, with a pro wr wrench or key, and the screw, will be draw,i backward and stretch its string to the proper pitch and harmony. Pianofortes provided with this improvement OF THE can be tuned with as much accuracy and ease as a guitar; ad when once tuned they will keep their pet fect harmony a greater length of time than the~ can do by the ordinary con- trivance. Another ad rantage of this improvement is the facility it affords for decoration and orna- ment, at comparatively little expense. From the a sove, with reference to the en- gravings, it c an now be easily observed that these improv tments will supply a long-felt want, especir lly in pianofortes. This is a very cheap and simple device. The ease with which it opera Ltes makes its introduction par- ticularly desirable, as it will enable ladies to tune their own pianos at all times. For fur- ther information address the inventor, George L. Wild, No. 272 South Charles street, Balti- more, where p anofortes having these improve- one part, resembles silver in appearance, and possesses similar properties. These metals are placed in crucible, and melted in a fire into a button. which can be afterwards rolled into sheets. A patent has been obtained for this alloy by George Toncas, of Paris, who has termed it Toncas silver. The I ixpected Great Comet. Several of our cotemporaries state that J. R. Hind, the elebrated English astronomer, having ealiste I Prof. Littrow, of Vienna, to search for the astronomical charts of Fabricus and Joachim 1[eilerwho had devoted much attention to ti e course of the great comet of 1556, which hi.d a tail of 60 degreestheir efforts have b ~en crowned with success, and from an examination of these charts Mr. Hind has come to tL e conclusion that the reappear- ance of this co net is near at hand. Iron Tram ways for Commoa Roads. B. H. Babbege recently read a paper before the Philosophi ~al Society, in London, on the benefits that v~ould result from placing iron TWELFTH YEAR Read! Read!! Read!!! The most extensively circulated, the most interest tog, reliable, attractive, and cheapest publication of its kind, is the SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN. It has, by far, the largest circulation, and stands, by common con sent, at the head of all other scientific papers in the world. Its contributors and Editors are PRAcTICAL, Enaac~vsc. and EXPERIENCED MEN, whose coo- lant endeavor is to extend the area of knowledge, by presenting it to the mind, in a simple, attractive, and practical form. The SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN is printed once a week, in convenient quarto form for binding, and pre sents an elegant typographical appearance. Every num ber contains Eight Large Pages, of reading, abundantly illustrated with ORIGINAL ENGRAVINGS. All the mostvaluabls patented discoveries are delinea ted and described in its issues, so that, as respects inven- lions, it may be justly regarded as an ILLUSTRATED REPERTORY, where the inventor may learn what has been done before him, and where he may bring to the world a KNOWLEDGE of his own achievements. REPORTS OF U. S. PATENTS granted are also pub. lished every week, including Officiat Cepiea of all the PATENT CLAIMS. These Claims are published in the Scszrovsvic AMEascAle isa a~tvanee of alt ether pa- pers. Mechanics, Inventors, Engineers, Chemist,, Isfanufac. turers, Agricuilurists, and People of every Profes on in Lofe, will find the SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN to be of great value in their respective railings. Its counsels and suggestions will save them Hsssodreda sf Dollars an nuatly, besides affording them continual source of knowledge, the experience of which is be yond pecuniary estimate. A NE8V VOLUME commenced September 13, 1863 Now is the time to subscribe Specimen Copies sent gratis. TERMS OF SUESCRIP TION$2 a year, or $1 for six months. CLUB RATES, Five Cepies for Six Months, Five Copies for Twelve Months, Ten Copies for Six Months, Ten Copies forTwelve Months, ~1 5 Fifteen Copies for Twelve Months, ~22 Twenty Copiesfor Twelve Months, 828 For all Clubs of 20 and over, the yearly subscription tramways on common roads on which there only $140. was a great deal of travel. This is a feasible Post-pay all letters, and direct to MUNN & CO., project,.one that would render such roads 128 Fulton street, New York. adapted for 1i1 :ht steam carriages. [17 For list of Prizes, see editorial page. U - SCIENTIFIC A1YLERICANO

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Scientific American. / Volume 12, Issue 6 Scientific American, inc. etc. New York Oct 18, 1856 0012 006
Scientific American. / Volume 12, Issue 6 41-48

ntttiiat THE ADVOCATE OF INDUSTRY, AND JOURNAL OF SCIENTIFIC, MECHANICAL, AND OTHER IMPROVEMENTS VOLUME XLI. NEW-YORK, OCTOBER 18, 1856. NUMBER 6. THE Scientific American, WEEKLY At 123 Fulton street, N. Y. (Sun Buildings.) BY MIJNN & Co. 0. D. MCNN~ 5. H. WALES5 A. E. BEACH. Responsible Agents may also be found in all the prin- cipal cities and towns in the United States. Single copies of the paper are on sale at the office of publication aol at all the periodical stores in this city, Brooklyn, and Jersey City. TIS~2 a.year,~t in advance and the re- mainder in six months. LKI~ See Prospectus on last page. No Traveling Agents employed. Preserving Stone ~Vork. There are various kinds of stone which do not stand exposure to the weather, and thisis the case with some of the dark brown free- stones employed for building purposes. It ab- sorbs moisture, expands with frost, and then scales off with rains. Any cheap means to prevent the crumbling away of such stones should meet with attention. Linseed oil ap- plied to such stones will protect them, but it imparts to them a dark and somber appear- auce. A method of protecting stone with a solution of silicate of potash is now exten- sively carried out in Paris. It has been tested at the Louvre, Notre Dame, and other impor- tant works, and with success it is stated. This solution is mauufactured by fusing 2 1.4 parts of clean white sand with one part of potash by weight, then dissolving the product in about 8 times its weight of boiling water. The stone work of the buildings to which it is to be applied, are first cleaned, then troughs hugged with clay are placed against the part of the building intended to be silicated, so as to collect the solution, which is applied with a syringe at intervals of three or four hours for about four days, or till the stone (when dry) ceases to absorb. It is considered desirable that this process should be repeated, but to a less extent, the following year. The color of the stone is not materially changed, provided the absorption is tolerably equal and the silicalization effected by a sufficient number of applications of weak solutions, both of which conditions are neces- sary to success. The phenomena of induration is thus ex- plained :The c3rbonic acid of the atmos- phere separates the silica from the potash, leaving it deposited in the pores of the stone, when, should the carbonate of lime be present (as in limestone), it combines with it, and forms the silicate of lime, while the soluble saltviz., the potashis removed by the rain or other means. This solution, we understand, was tried on the new Houses of Parliament, in London, but without that success, it is stated, which has attended the French artists. Improved Wiring Machine. The accompanying engraving illustrates a new Wiring Machine, by Shepherd and Stowe, which is now on exhibition at the great American Institute Fair, Crystal Palace, N.Y. A is the frame of the machine, which car- ries the lower roller, and to which the frame that holds the upper roller, C, is hinged at D, allowing the frame, with its roller, C, to turn on the pin, D, in order to put in and take out the work. U is a crank screw, by which the roller, C, is depressed ; the spring on top of the machine raises said roller. H is a forming gauge, and is set to form any circle, by means of the screw and gear, seen at E. B is an adjustable gauge, fitted to the lower roller, J, and its shaft, and revolving with them. This gauge is set to take in wire of any required size, by means of the nut, F. In wiring any vessel the work is placed be- tween the rollers, C and J, fig. 2, and the gauge, B, moved up to press the work tightly between the surfaces of the rollers, C and J, and the gauge, B; the machine is then set in IMPROVED WIRING MACHINE FOR TINSMITHS. motion? when all these surfaces help feed the work through the machine. By this improvement the friction on the fixed gauge, found in the old machines, is en- tirely removed, and work is fed through the rollers by all the surfaces on which it rests. So perfectly is this done that the work needs no aid from the operator in forcing it through the rollers in wiring even coal hods or the heaviest brass kettles. By hinging the frame of the roller C at D, a most desira hle result is ol tamed for the durability of the machine, viz.,~ hat of keeping the boxes close ly fitted to the journals of the upper roller while it is raised to put in and take out the work. Different sizes of these machines are made at prices ranging from $14, worked by hand, to those fitted itp with pulley and clutch, cost ing $~O. For further information apply at the Palace, or tddress the Stowe Manufactur- ing Co., Plants ville, Conn. machine at the Palace, where it attracts much observation from the large percentage of pow- er which i~ affords, although the wheel is comparately small, being of two horse power. Fig. 1 is a perspective view of the improve- ment, the shell, A, being partly broken away. Fig. 2 is a horizontal section of the wheel and shell, the upper portions being removed. 1 he wheel is enclosed by a scroll-shaped water-way, F, and is constructed in the fol- lowing manner, to wit: draw a circle, 6, cor- responding with the periphery of the wheel to be constructed; then from the same center draw an inner circle, c, of only one-third the diameter of the said outer circle ; then place the stationary leg of the compasses upon said outer circle, and so adjust the markitlg leg of the instrument that its point will form a tan- gential curve to the inner circle, e, which curve, when extended to the outer circle, 6, will give the required shape of the convex surface of each of the buckets, C, andthe relative position that each bucket should hold to the periphery and center of the wheel. The upper edger edges of the buckets, C, are cast in one piece with the head, B, whose under surtace curves upwards and outwards, from the aperture in its center to its periphery, in lines whose radius corresponds with that of the periphery of said head. The lower edges of the buckets, C, are connected to each other by means of a rim, B, whose inner edge is of scollop-shape. The said rim, B, extends in- wards, in contact with the convex surface of each bucket, a distance equal to about three- sevenths of the length of said surface, and from that point, curves outwards and down- wards to a narrow connection between said rim, and the outer extremity of the concave surface of the next bucket in succession. The object of giving the aforesaid shape to the rim, B, is to conduct the water in a solid body from the water-way against the central portion of the convex surface of each bucket, and then as soon as it has performed its pro- pelling function, allowing it freely to fall out of the wheel and not re-act upon the con- cave surfaces of the buckets. The object of giving a curving or dish- shape, to the head, B, of the wheel, is to en- able the water, as it enters the wheel, to ex- ert an upwardly lifting action upon it, also cause the water to be kept in a compact mass, and to pass so rapidly and so cleanly through the wheel, that there can be no loss from the re-action of sluggish water between the buck- ets. The lifting action of the water as it enters the wheel, will cause it to run more lightly, and consequently with a much less amount of friction. In connection with this wheel there is an improvement in the water way, which con- sists in providing movable lips, D B, of such shape that their inner curved surface E, brings the scroll to a point at the periphery of the wheel when the lips are closed, and whose straight surface, D, forms one side of the mouth, F of the scroll watcr-way. The lips are both pivoted. It will be perceived that the pressure and friction of the water as it passes into the mouth of scroll water-way Th~~1 ~ .5 TfA r: Cr I!4q2!~ tI~kii ___ NEW WATER WHEEL. New Water Wheel. Crystal Palace. in this city, is the invention of The only water wheel shown at the present! Mr. John Tyler. of West Lebanon? N. H. Our great Exhibition of the American Institute illustrations a: e taken from the operating 42 will keep the lips closed. But should sticks or other obstructions be drawn into the wheel and be brought in contact with lip B, it will be thrown open and the obstruction will pass by, thus preventing injury to the curb or to the buckets of the wheel. This improvement also enables the extre- mity of lip, D, to be brought much closer to thc extremities of the buckots of the water wheel than it would be safe to (10 if it were a solid portion of the curb, which causes the water to act with greater efficiency upon the wheel. We have seen testimonials from a number of persous who now have these wheels in use, and they all speak of the invention in the highest terms of commendation. Its extreme simplicity, portability, and ease of manage- ment will insure for it a very general use. It runs with great steadiness, is easily regulated, is adapted to high or low heads, runs in back water, is not liable to freeze up, has but little friction, only a short time and but little ex- pense is requisite to put them in. Price $35 up, according to size. For further informa- tion apply at the Palace, or address the in- ventor as above. Patented July 8, 1856. IMPORTANT NOTICE. When an individual has m2de an invention, the first inquiry that naturally suggests itself is, Can I obtain a P tout ? A positive answer to such questions is only to be had by presenting a formal application for a patent to the government, embracing a petition, specification, model, duplicate drawings, arid the payment of the regu- lar otlicial fees. Aside from these steps, all that the in- ventor can do is, to submit his plans to persons expe rienced in the business of obtaining patents, and solicit thoir opinions, if ihey are honorable men, he may con- fide to thetis his ideas with perfect safety, and they will inform him whether or not they regard his invention as patentable. Those who wish to consult with ourselves on such matters, are at liberty so do so, either in peroon, at our office, or by correspondence through the mails. For such consultations we make no charge. We shall be happy, at all limes, to examine inventions, and will give conscien lions opinions as to their patentability. Pen and ink sketches of the improvement, and a writ- ten description of the same, should be sent. Writs plain; do not use pencil or pale ink be brief. Remember that all business committed to our care, and all consultations are kept by us secret and strictly confidential. Parties writing to apply for patents are informed that they can have the necessary drawings and documents promptly prepared at this office, on the most reasonable terms, It is not necessary for them to go to the expense of a journey in order to be personally present. All the required business can be just as well arranged by corres- pondence. Models should be sent by Express. We have been engaged in the business of procuring patents for years, and have probably had more experienc than any other firm in the country, owing to the fact that the amount of business done by us equals, if it does ot exceed, that of all other professional patent agents in the United States combined. A large proportion of all the patents annually granted by the American gov- ernment, are prepared and conducted by our firm. We have in constant employment an able corps of exam- iners and draughtsmen, whose duties are so systematical ly arranged, under our own personal supervision, that every case committed to our care, receives the most care- ful study and attention, and the most prompt dispatch. In every instance we endeavor so to draw up the claims and prepare the whole case, that the patent, if granted, avill stand the test of the courts, and be of value to the owner. Our patents are scattered all over the country. and in this respect they speak for themselves. In adilition to the advantages which the long expe- rience, great success, promptness and moderate charges of our firm, in obtaining patents, present to inventors, they are informed that all inventions patented through our establishment, are noticed editorially, at the proper titer, in the SessneTesse AMERICAN, without charge. Tiots we are enabled to do from the fact that, by prepa- ring ihe case, we become familiar with its peculiarities Our paper is read by not less than 75,001 persons every sveek, and has a wide-spread and substantial influence. Inventors, we believe, will generally promote their own interests by confiding their patent business to our care. Address MUNN & CO., 128 Fulton street, New York. A suspension bridge is to be built from Cm- u1 ati to Covington, sixty feet in bight. No less than 836850 pounds of quicksilver were exported from California during the last six months ending July 1st. (Reported Officially for the Scientific American,] LIST OF PATENT CLAIMS (esued from the United ~tsates Patent Office FOR THE WEEK ENDING OCTOBER 30, 1856. Riaa BOLT FOR Snips ANti BOATS TAcKLEHub- bard Itigetow and Mactimer M. Camp, of New Haven, Coon., We do not claim an eye or ring bolt made to parts, that can be secured to or released from each other. But we ciaim hoe tongue, C. the holdfast, D, and the levers, E E, as arranged to relation to the body, A, in the manner and for lice purposes set forth. Son a FOureTAo,esJ. F. Boynton, of Syracuse, N. Y.. I claim first, the described arrangement of the plunger, E, and vessel, I), or an,- other arrangement substantial- ly equivalent thereto, whereby the odd may be measured and delivered to the other ingredients in determinate quantities, a.s set frth. Second, the spring dr~p valve, b, or its equivalent, whereby the ves~et, I). is entirely emptied of acid after a charge is worked off, as set forth. UNrOtepLiNo ti R. CABsWin 0. George, of Rich- mond, Va. , I claim the arrangement of slidirg rods run- ning longioudinally beneath the platforms of railroad cars, so connected with the coupling pins of the different cars that the; may be simultaneously detached from each other i.y simple contact of the sliding rods at the same time that the engineer or conductor is enabled to disconnect one or more of the cars, if desired, substan- tially in the manner set forth. VroET ABLE CUTTeRsGeorge W. Childs, of Liberty, Pa., I claim the vibrating cross knives, h h, operalin~ in the manner set forth. SMUT Jthii.L~Joel W. Cormark, of Quincy, Ill. I do not claim creepers, or flanges, or cones, in themselves, as new. Bull claim the combination of the cones, H, and creep- ers, c c, arranged and Operatssg in connection witlo the flanged rims, J .1 J J, attached to the cones. 11 and M, in the manner and for the purpose set fnrth and described. FoLurree PAPERCyrus Chambers, ,Tr., of Kennelt Square, Pa., I claim, first, causing a foldiog machine to make the crease for ihe fold in p-opec, or niber substances. so that any number ofiheets fed successively to the said machine may be folded to correspond to the printing or other impressions made thereon b means of the points or register pins, It, or other eq sivafents, and the holes by which the she-at was registered upon the press, or the laole.s or marks made in the sheet for any other purpose, the said pisms being adopted to the said hoses or marks, and the sheet or suOstance to be fAded placed upan the said pins by using the said holes or marks f-c that purpose. Second, I claim the matmner of adjusmin., the register pins, t I, and their peculiar movement, as described, for the purposes specified. third, I claim supplying the straight edge or blade, or its equivalent (svhich forces the paper lots recesses or between roomvecging surfaces or their equivaicots) with fine points as and or the purpose sperifi .-d. Fourth, I claim the bars, Q Q, and tue slops. 5, inde- pendent of and in combinatioti with each other, as scott as the bars, QQ, or the slops, 5, separatel7nr combined as desm-ribed, in combination with the endless belt; T 0.,. Filth, I claim arranging the rollers, B It, which make the s cond fold below the rolters. A A, whch make the first fold and the rotors, C C, which make the third fold below it i-I, atid in like manner any number of rollers, so that the substance to be folded may be forced downus-ards between each pair, thereby enabling a shingle series of endless belts or their equivalents, to conduct it from one pair of rollers and present it for the action of the next. Sixth, I claim the fly, C. it combinaton witlo the end- less bells, 2 2, and the mode of making the support of the said fly adjustable also the manner of moving the said endless belt, substantially as described, Seventh. I am well aware that endless belts have long been used for conducting paper in folding and oth.-r ma- chines. therefore I do not claim theni as my inven- tion. But I claim arranging a single nones of endless belts, substantially as described, so that paper or other substan- ces may be cotadurted by them horizontally from a pair of rollers when passing downwards between them. Eighth, I claim gearing the rollers in such manner as to decrease the speed of the periphery of each successive pair, in the proportion and Par the purpose specified. Ninth, I claim controlling the first blade or plate of folding machimnes by a treddle or other means, for the purpose specified. HosE CeuPLiNoLewis M. Ferry, (assignor to J. T Ames,) of Chicopee, Mass., I do not claina any of the parts separately. But I claim the combination and the application of the various devices described, for the purpose of coupling firemens hose. Mixirco MORTAREenj. F. Field, of Beloit, Wis., I claim the em. of a revolting box of a cylindrical or other form mamv so ro upon the ground, for time purposes of mixiur. --:aorIatb the action of the cross rods, sub- clanta -- ,u .,oscrihed, wlmilst at the same time it serves no carry me material from place to place, in combina- tion with the method substantially as described, for dis- charging the mortar from the revolving box. FLY TRAPGeorge Gilbert, of Weolville, Comm , I disclaim the use of floats, ledges, or any other projections on the surface ot the cylinder. 1 also disclaim the use of a movable cleaner or wiper of any description whatever to remove the flies from the surface of the cylinder, or to force them into the box or any other receptacle, as neither projections nor cleaner.; are needed or used in my manner of constructing and using the fly trap I claim the combination of the revolving cylinder with the screens or wire work, when the whole is constructed, arranged, and combined substantially as described. ATTAcunso ScYTnEs To SrmnATnsDavid A, Good- now, of Baldwinvitle, Mass m I claim the screw, B, and dog, E, in combinalioti with the projection, C, the whole being arramiged in the manner and for the purpose de- scribed. HARvrsTarsssWilliam Dripps. of Coate,ville, Pa., I claim giving to the cutters of a harvesting machine a traveling and a rotating motion, at the same lime and by means substantially such as described. hoe FRAMES ire TAre VATsElia, A. Eliason, of Georgetown, B. C., I am welt aware that hides have been immersed in quantities attached to frames, or wheels, or cords, in a horizantal position, and kept out of contact with each other, but in no instance have those several devices been connected to each other, in such manner as to form a came or false vat by which the whole could he simultaneously immersed in or withdrawn fi-om the liquor vat. I claim, first, arranging a series of ranges of horizontal slats in a aloe vat or frame upon which the hi too are placed one upon every range, whereby the whole may be simultaneously raised out of the liquor vat without pumping off the liquor,) substantially as and for the pur- poses described. Second. I claim the axial cross ties, B D, when con- nected with the frame C in combination with the ho k- edrods, F F. and shaft, e, whereby the frame or maine vat may be revolved or reversed for the purposes de- scribed. BuoysWilliam M. Ellis, of Washington, B. C. m I claim, first, the method described of moving buoys, bea- cons, and floating bodi-s, by havimmg their cables attached to said bodies in the line of their calculated center of tidal pressure. Second. the method of connecting the forked or V link or shackle to the said buoy or fi mating body by means of a trunnion bolt passing through a me-allic tube or pipe properly set and secured within the said body. ELAOTmc PLATE PAnonEs FOR STEAM VEssELs Auguste Jotian, of ian Francisco, Cal., I claim the se- ries of vertically di- -ided elastic plate paddies, arranged as set forth. lieNPiNo Woos -Edwin, Artemas, and Cheney KU- barn, of Buchington Vt., We claim the bending of wood by forcing it etidwism of its fibers into a mold, whirh is ctcsed so alt its 1dm a, but has a. open enid, is curved ton- gitudinotly in the re qimired form, and has the dimensions slits internal transa- ecse neclion of the piece of wood, thus rousing the wood is be confined in a lateral direction duriimg the bending - rocess, for the purpose 01 preventing the separation of th fibers, as descrited. F -Enmeso PULP TO PAPER MAKiNO MAcniNEs Israel Kmn~ y olh, hokus, N. J. I claim regulating the mis-a of pulp for making paper upomi the web or ry inder of the pa sec machine by the pressure of the pulp in abox A mc eiving its supply of pulp from the stuff ches. L thromugh the aperture, f, in the trunk, R, and di charging it t. mrou5h an adjustable aperture, p be- low the suriace oi toe pulp in the box, A, the pressure being resutated and kept unifarm by the hight of the pulp h in the bare A, ash ch is adjusted and maintained by 000055 s a vats e e, fitting the aperture, i operated by a at B - -batan icily as described, the combination of ttoc several parts for ning a sel;~-acting regulator, for the purpose ol making p opec of equal thickness. MeAOURiNo FLU 55 wuiL - IlawwircoSanal. Krau- son, of Reading, Pa. I claim severing or separating a given quantity of liq aid from a mass or column by a trairel- ing tube and plunge -. operatimig together aubstantially as set for h. I also claim the gt uge plates, N N N, in combination with the valve sea , or packing of the plunger fitting them-eto for adjusting the measuring apparatus Is the exact quantity to be dross,;, substontialty as specified. PLOT -itaLnun coo PtsoTsooopnimc CAos~RAs Win. Lewis, and Wl ham H. Leovis, (assignors to Malonzo -P. Druinmotmd,~ of esv York City; We claim forming lice glass or nitnifisi corners, h, with a fianch or rim in no saud pie~e the aid fianch or run takiimg the edges of th- photographic g ass, or siher plate, substantially as and far thu purposed specified, and irsespertivss of the manner in schich lb s said vitrified corners are attached to the fcame. We als claim the t ereptacle, d. below the glass or other plate to catch any n nipjsings from said plate, substantial- ly as specified. HAnvrsvensIsncel S. Love, of Beloit, w~i5. m Iclaim the use of the mova he rolling guides placed betiveen tho cutting btade;,and ii o sill ofitie harvesters.whether they be used scitti a sill nade entirely of metal or partly of wood, scith more or iso metal attached to the same. CLEANING WOOL A. W. Putnam, of Brooklyn, N. V. I ciaimn the combination of the main picker cylinder, and the open and ci osed concave, in combimoation with the burring cylindem, arranged and operating substantial- ly as described. I also cloin the b Ocring cylinder in combination with the adjustable burn ig bar or bars,arrsnged and operating sutslanuia2la- am des; cited, for stripping the burrs and other foreign subsla:ices on the fibers as described. SAsam LocKOw n Redmond, of Rochester, N. V., I claim the swinging 1-ott, 10, in combination avith the slide, 5, amod case, 0, comm tinned, arranged, and operating as described, so that lb gravity of the slide, shall shoot the boll, and mainnin i in position. GLAss OR IgARTieN Tauss PAnsC. C. Reinhardt, of Baltimore .ild. t claim the attachment of metallic barks lottie glass laces of truss pads by a flange around ho emige oi lice barb stippling within the rim, constitttting the edge of the lass face piece, substantially as and for the purposes specifi sd. CUTTING ItiitEOLAR FonotsCharles Spofford, of Anoesbury, 51 ass., I do not claim the invention of a rota- ry cutter ry inder. Nor do t claim combining knives in any niannsr -with a otary cutler head or frame to hold said km yes so that s sid head or any part of it moy serve as a guide to the for ai or pattern carrying a material to he dressed. I ciaimoa the combi cation of one rotary cutter, two guide heads, B and C, atm-I two tables, G II, arranged as de- scribed. I also claim the cs mbination of a vibratory spring press- er, I, with a rotary r olter stock, A, and two tables, G It, the said presser hem made to operate with respoct to the cutter stock and tab.es, and either guide, B C, as speci- fied. I also claim the din -mbination of echanism for moving the vibratory spring presser and its spring towards either of the tabtes, and mm king the shaft to the spring, the same consistiting of tIme am,, M, iho taco turning bearers, R 5, and the treadle or li ver, N, connected to the bearers by pitmans, 0 P, as de -cuibed. And in combinati- inn with the mechanism for moving the vibratory presser, and its spring tow muds tither of the tables and lockinig he shall to the ocring. I claim the auxiliary Iceddle, T, applied to the main treddle, and sup- ported by a oscingin, bar, substantially as explained. Firsisummiso GAs Ii~u FITTINGsC. C. Walwnrth, of Boston, .btass., I claim the arrangement and combination of the maclimes ops natiming substantially as descrited, in a plane acourd a c smmon center, for the purpose em screwing or tapping different ends of gas pipe fittings at the same time whom cannected by means of a wrist plate anid slotted conmmecniamms, or their equivalents, for the pur- pose of bringing the taps to their acork, and yet perniit either of them to am vance or recede without interfering with the others. NUT MAcruNEs W. H. Ward, of Port Chester, V. V. I do not wish to be moderstood as limiting my claim of invenuionto the spi cial form, construction, or arrange. mont of the s -venal pach, as the same mode of operation may be obtained by the substitution of equivalents. I claim the tics pi urhes arranged side by side, and op- erated substantially mu described, for punching the central hole, cutting off the blanks from the bar, and discharging the same, substanliatly as described, in combination with the two holes or two dies, so that a hole is punched in the bar for another nul, during the continued motion of the punch to discharge the nut which acas cut off during previous part of the same motioum. 1 also clcim, iii c ombination with the punching and cutting operation or either, and with the mammdrei, or its equivalent for enter ming the central hole of the nut blank, he employment of he spring jaws or the equivalents thereof; for transfern ng the nut elank from the die to the mandrel. and there holding it untit the mandrel enters the hole, substantially as described. I also claim the hin -lding of the nut bianks on the man- drel, in combination with tile swages for owaging the faces of the nuts, substantially as described. I also claim in con ibination asith the mandrel for hold- ing and turning the rut blanks, substantially as described, the employment o( the hammers for hammering or savaging the edges of the nuts, subststitially as described. And, finally, I cia. m the combination of the swages for savaging the faces of he nuts, with the hammers for forg- ing the edges of the nuts, substantially as specified, by means of which the netal is thorouehly compacted in all directions, and a gou I finish given the entire blank. ViseC. C. Walas ortb, of Boston, Mass. I claim the arrangement of two rises so as to revolve about a com- mon center, and loch. ing the same in any desired position by moo -s of the lever, G. and notches, or any other suita- ble device, substanti illy in the manner and for the pur- pose set forth. BRICK MACOIiNEOG. J. Washburn and E. H. Bel- lows, of Worcester, - lassWe claim the combination of the balanced arm, ~, with the weighied rediprocatirg plunger. I, operating in the manner an for the purpose aubstantially as set h -rth. Second, we claim he means by which the plun,er is locked with, and dim connected from ihe cylinder, B, con sisting ssentially of the pins, f and g, and the arms, s, operating in the moi nor substantially as described. CUTTING Rourco PiLEsM. B. Whipple. of Charles- town, Mass., assigns - to A. B. Ely, of Neacton, Mass. m I claim operating ups-in the blank immediately beyond its point of support, in I be manner and for the purpose sub- stantially as do-crib d. Second. I claim em ding the blank foracard and rotating it u on its axis as lh - cutting proceeds, achen it is opera- ted upon by the vibc cling cutters, in the manner substan- tially as sot forth. Third. 1 claim the method described, of operating the cutters by means oft ice wipers, b, and the springs. Al and Z, whereby the ftsr so of the blow is diminished as the size of the blank d -t reases, as set forth. Fourth, I claim fom mine the cutters of circular disks or of portions theren in the manner and for the purpose substantially as sot P -nh. BRACKET FOR Doon Sa.stiteosA. J. Walker, of New York City m 1 do not claim the application of stool rods to doors to act as springs. I claim constru.tin - no oftuackets, used for attaching ouch rods, with an additional hole tsr receiving and hold- ing them whesm in operation, said addit onal hole bearing such a relation no the first that by changing the spring from one to he other, treater nicety can be observed when applying it, in regutaring the power with which it shall act, and of attaching to said bracket a lever to as- sist in twisting the spring when applying it I also claim securing said bracket in its place by means of a socket inserted in the door or casing, or any other means substantially rho same, that avill instmmot y secure it, after it has been applied to the spring, and the necet- sony power obtained, and will also allow of its being easily removed and re-attached when it is desicabie. Boor MACHINEW. B. Wood, of Filchburgh, Mass. I do not claim sphitming h op potes by fhrring them against the edge of in stationary knile. Nor do 1 claim shaving them by means 01 revolving cutters. Neither do t claim any of the individual devices employed, nor their com- binations. But I claim the peculiar arrangement of the several parts of the described niachine, operatiming in the manner specified, for th~ purpose of splitting he poies and shav- ing the hoops at one operation, as set lonlh. Pitoceos FOR LASTING BOOTS ABS SmaoEeBenj: F. Sturtevant of Skowbegan, Me., assignor to H. Townsend, of Boston, Mass. m I do nol claim a lasting loot in which the two s.ts of jaws are brought together by means om a screac, as this is a well kimown method of constructing such toots. I am also awane that the exterior jaavs of such tools have been caused Is close upon a central step or block, thus brining a species of compound pincers or lasti.g tool. But I claim the described instrument for lasting boots constructed and operating in the manner substantially as set forth. MILL STONE BamtsoW, P. Coleman, of New Or- leans, La., I do not claim a circle dress or cura-ed fur- rows, the radii of which are equal to the cadius of the stone or thereabouts, nor yen the straight tangential fur- roavo, of themselves or apaclfrom their relative ainraige- mont, combination, and oper..tion togeiher in the two stones. Neither do I claim of itself the curved furrows arch- ing in o~posite directions in the two stones, and gathering its lIce grain towards the eye. But 1 claim forming the master and subordinate fur- rows, C B, of the stones, substantially as described, viz., the straight portions of the furrows being tam geitial wimh the eye, and with circles concentric therewith, and the curved portion being segmemis of a circle of equal curva- ture, or thereaboun, so that of the outer petij herbs of the stones loin the purpose of rapidly throwing the grain outwards in the early action of the furrows, am.d retard- ing or gathering it in by the after or outer portions there- of,as set forth. ComLen SPRING FOR HR. CABOCarlos French, of Seymour, Conn., I claim consposing the coiled leaf of Iwo or more leaves placed the one beloac the other, said component leaves being welded together at one or both ends thereof, substantially as set foith, 51 E-tSnU ES. BURNING WET FUELMoses Thompson, of New Or- leans, La. Patented April le. 1315, I do not claim the described arrangement of a seiies of fire chambers to communicate acith one common flue irrespective of the purpose for which, and the manner in which I employ th said arrangement But I claim the combustion for the purposes of a high degree of heat of bagasse, refuse tan so-a dust, and other wet refuse substance or very wet and green asood. by the eniployment of a series of fice chamber., acrasinced in arin~ manner substantially as described, to communicate as-it one common filsie or osixiting chaniber, when any nimint en o said chambers ace nearly closed to the admissien in-fair ashen first charged, as described, achilsl tIme cemuiniring chausber or chasubecs, is in full communication sviinh the flue, and has a free supply of air admitted, and the ash pit of each chamber, in its turn, is nearly closed and then opened, and has air admilied, whecet y the heal required is rendered continuous and comparatively unilbcm, while the luel in some of the chambers is being heated and de- composed to a desirable degree. as set fontla. BUFF FOR POLISHING SPOONSLuther tlomrdman. of East Haddam, Cona. Patented Ben. 15, 1343, 1 claim a cylindrical huff compored of soft leather disks or rings, when the outer portions of said disks ace left perfectiy free from each other, so as to admit of the yielding no. cessary to their proper action,subslanlially as described, HAT BoosEeChas. St. John, H. A. Burr, Albert H Wright, and J. M. Riblet, of New York Cimy, assignees of H. A. Welts, deceased. Patented April15, 1846 m We do not wish to be understood as limiting the claim to such mode of application, as other modes may be devised, operating on tome same principle, or havit.g the same mode of operation, and only differing therefrom in ito substitution of equivalent means. We claim forming the bat of fur fibers on a perforated cone or oiher form, substantially as described, in rem i. nation with the hardening of such bat, white on such tone or other fbcm, to give it the required ronsiolency to ad. mit of taking it off in a unitable condition for sizing by the well known process of felting, substantially as de- scribed. Boon LoctcsJ. P. Sherwood, of Sandy Bill, N. V., assignor to Calvin Adams, and ce-issued to said Sher- wood. Patented December 17, 1341, and re-issued to said Adams May 13th, 1851, I claim making the cases of door locks and latches doubled faced, or so finished that either side may be used tier the outside, in order that the same lock or cased fastening may answer for a tight or heft baud door, substantially as descnited. I also claim the peculiar construction nod double nc- lion, upon an inclined and horizontal track or way, of the locking car, B, as described, and the comi motion of the lockiting car, B, and safety cars, G GI, asith one another, and with the connecting or vibratim g bar and bolt. A, us described, so as to fasten the bolt, c, securely, and pre- vent its being picked. I also claim so constructing the bolt, as described, that by simply turning it over in the lock case, it is adapted to a right or left hand door. GE5IGt,inB, Coomenco STOVESDaniel wilson, of Nashua, N.H. CYLiNDRiCAL COAL STovEeRussel wheeler and S. A. Bailey. of Utica, N. V. COOKING STOVESH. H. Bridge, of St. Louis, Mo. BUST ow J. C. FREMGNTJOhn Golt, of Albany, N. V, STOVESN. S. Vedder and W. L. Sanderson, of Troy N. V., assignors to North, Chase, and North, of Plcila delphia. Pa. STovEsSW. Gibbs, of Albany, N. V., assignor to North, Chase, and North, of Philadelphia. Pa. PARLOR STovEoJacob Beesley and H. J. Delaney, lassienors to Crelson, Stuart, arid Peterson,) of Phila- delphia, Pa. CooKING SToVesN. S. Vedder, of Troy, N. V., as- signor to Graff, Reisinger & Graff. CooKiNG STOVE PLATESN. S. Vedder (assignor to Mann, Torrance & Co.,) of Troy, N. V. STovsrsGarrettnon Smith, Ilenry Brown, and J. A. itead, of Philadelphia, Pa., assignors to llaywacd, Bart- lelt & Co. 0 Francis Metallic Boats In England. Renewed experimentswe learn by the Lon- don Mechanics Magazinehave been made re- cently with the above-named boats at the Woniwich Arsenal. These were very 0atis- actory, and the authorities, 5r G. Polloct Sir F. Abbott, Gen. Brooke, and Col. Tulloch, expressed their decision of urging the govern- (b~) 5,, ment to adopt them for every purpose to which they can be applied. ~cizntific ~metican4 t an+ let, Air Boiling of lron.Anolher Claimant. MESSRS. EDITORSIn November, 1851, I commenced a series of experiments with a view of converting fluid pig metal into malleable iron, with the aid of a strong blast of air, and without the use of fuel, which process I termed air boiling. My object was to drive off the carbon in the iron, and to make pow- erful blasts of air do the work of the fire and the manipulation of the puddlers bar in the puddling process. My first efforts were quite satisfactory, as with a blast taken from my furnace and introduced into a suitable cupola filled with liquid metal taken directly from the furnace I produced a fair article of mal- leable iron. I found when using gray iron cold blast answered my purpose, but when the meal was white I found hot air had a better effect. I therefore had a small furnace erected to heat the air in the blast pipes. My experiments were conducted publicly at this establishment; hundreds of persons called to see the trials I made, and the subject was discussed amongst the iron masters, & c., of this section, all of whom are perfectly familiar with the whole principle and object I had in view, as discovered by me nearly five years ago. I was surprised to notice in the SCIENTIFIC AMERIcAN of the 13th Sept. an account of a similar process of converting pig iron into malleable iron, claimed as the discovery of Mr. Bessemer, of Lond on, and made within the past two years, the process not differing in the slightest from that I had in practical operation nearly five years since. I have reason to believe my discovery was known in England three or four years ago, as a number of English puddlers visited this place to see my new process. Several of them have since returned to England and may have spoken of my invention there. A charcoal furnace such as I haveusing cold blastproduces various grades of metal, that I found had to be treated in the air boil- ing process with some variation; this caused difficulties which I have succeeded in remov- ing, and expect shortly to have the invention perfected, and bring it before the public. WILLIAM KELLY. Suwanne Iron Works, Eddyville, Ky., 30th Sept. 1856. Bessemers Process. Having been solicited to give some expres- sion to my views of Mr. ~ method of converting crude metal into steel or wrought iron. it may not be inappropriate to do so through the columns of your valuable jour- nal. Mr. Bessemer furnishes a clear and de- tailed description of his apparatus, method of treatment by atmospheric air, informing us of the chemical changes produced, and claims the resulting product to be at the pleasure of the operator, fine steel, or masses of mallea- ble iron perfectly free from any admixture of cinder, oxyd, or other extraneous matters, eclual in quality to charcoal iron. Iron or steel, perfectly free from any admix- ture of cinder, oxyd, or other extraneous mat- ters; in other words, absolutely pure iron, is not the article those engaged in their manu- facture should seek to produce. Let us, for illustration, examine the chemi- cal composition of a fow varieties of iron and steel, and ascertain whether Mr. Bessemers proposition, that the nearer absolute purity we approach in the production of iron, the more useful qualities that iron will be pos- sessed of. The following table represents the chemical structure of several kinds of iron and steel, viz., No. 1, English gray cast-iron; No. 2, English refined; No. 3, Danemora Swedish No. 4, German; No. 5, English common steel; No. 6, English, best razor steel No. 1. No, 2. No. 3. No. 4. No. 5. No. 6 9103 9590 9578 9957 9794 93.39 liii) 041 084 009 172 143 0 - trace roo 039 0.40 153 003 Iron. Carbon, Sulphur, Phosphorus, Silicon, 002 003 022 032 Arsenic, 0 02 007 093 Antimony. 012 7d:onganese. 0.50 004 00.5 002 192 Coppir, 007 Nitrogen, 013 Here we find that the English crude iron ap- proaches nearer metallic purity than the best English razor steel; and the Swedish, pos- sIssing less purity than English refined iron, yet capable of sustaining over 72,000 pounds to the square inch, while the latter breaks at about 55,000; and the German iron, which is the nearest approach to absolute purity, al- though possessing fibers, is so soft and weak as to be of less value than either. For one, I must state that experience has heretofore taught, that hoe quality of the man- ufactured iron depends more upon the descrip- tion of ore and fuel, made use of in its first production, than upon the manner of subse- quent treatment. It is in the blast fern ce and not afterwards, that the character of the iron produced is determined. The superior qualities of the Swedish Danemora iron are alone due to the peculiarly fine magnetic ore from which it is manufactured, and not to the manner or method of manufacture, Other dis- tricts in Sweden produce iron by the same process, and from a somewilat similar mag- netic ore, but their products will not bear comparison with the Danemora in mercantile value. It is to the Danemora iron Mr. B. re- fers, as selling in England at thirty pounds sterling per tun, the future sales of which are to he estopped by his invention. There are many cases in which wrought iron contains a larger proportion of impurities than crude iron, and is yet malleable and useful, while cast iron of the saint.. chemical composition will be extremely hard and brittle. Berzelieus, the celebrated Swedish chemist. informs us that he det ected eighteen per cent. of silex in a certain kind of bar iron, and that this iron was still malleable and useful. One-tenth of that amount of silex xviii make crude iron brittle. The best qualities of bar iron are always found to contain a small amount of impurities. Steel ceases to be hard and strong if we deprive it of the small amount of silicon it contains, or if by repeated heat- ing that silicon becomes oxydized. This is the case with bar iron. Deprive it of all for- eign admixtures, it ceases to he strong, tena- acious, beautiful iron, and becomes a pale. soft metal, of feeble strength and of doubtful utility. The main difference between crude and malleable bar iron consists in their me chanical, rather than chemical structure. Crude iron is a mixture of impurities and metal, both chemically and mechanically com- bined~ where the atomatic crystals are found in intimate contact with each other, and in which a transformation to an entirely chemi- cal admixture is readily effected. Wrought iron is a mechanical mixture of iron more or less pure, with a mass of homogeneous impu- rities or cinder, the latter filling the spaces between the particles of iron. Iron, in a con- nected form, and cinder in separate cells, are thus blendid in one bomo0eneous mass. The more this is stretched, either by the hammer or rolls, the more fibrous it becomes, and other circumstances being equal, the strength of the iron will be proportional to the fineness of the fibers. Mr. Bessemer appears to congratulate him- self upon the excessively elevated temperature that he obtains in the latter part of his oper- ation, or after the entire consumption of the contained carbon; in plain terms, by oxydiz- ing or burning the iron. This oxyd, we are told, from the elevated temperature that the metal has acquired as soon as formed, under- goes fusion, and forms a powerful solvent of those earthy bases that are associated with the iron. I am at a loss to comprehend how this is effected ; having heretofore supposed that the melting of such an oxyd could not be effected at any temperature in an oxydizing flame, which Mr. Bessemers clearly is. This immediate melting of the oxyd, as described, I cannot deem other than a physical impos- sibility. The lower the temperature that crude is worked at, the better will be the quality of the wrought iron produced. Good bar or wrought iron is always fibrous, it loses its fibers neither by heat nor cold. Time may change its aggregate form, but its fibrous quality should always be considered the guar- antee of its strength. Fine malleability and fibrous structure can only be given to iron by a tough cinder and manipulation. Mr. Besse- mer does not pretend to do this, but rather rest& upon the demonstration of his ability to produce a crystaline metal, which, although to possess ny practical value, and which, leaving his apparatus in the chemical state he alledges it to be in, I have no hesitation in asserting that it cannot be hammered or rolled sufficiently to produce any fiber, and all sub- sequent imp ovement of its quality will prove to be extrenely difficult. From the remotest antiquity down to the present day, wrought iron, unsurpassed in quality has been produced by one manipula- tion direct from the ore, but the great con- sumpticon of fuel and labor attending this method of ix anufacture, has enabled the blast, and puddling furnaces to supersede it, except- ing where q iality is of greater consideration than quantity. Men of the first scientific attainments have, of late, given expression to the opinion, that the blast and puddling fur- naces, are S )OR to be superseded by the intro- duction of it oprovements upon the direct meth- od of produ cing wrought iron. Such improvements have been made and can now be seen in operation under my charge at the works of the American Magnetic Iron Co. at this Ilace. J. G. MINER. Mott Haven, N. Y., Oct. 7, 1856. Befini tIE iron.The New Process. Since the first announcement of this dis- covery by hr. Bessemer, the matter has been taken in hind experimentally . by a leading American iron-master, assisted by a distin- guished cbs mist, but the results thus far do not confirm the high anticipations which some have entert ained. The most carefully per- formed exp triments on this side of the Atlan- tic have uti criy failed to produce fibrous iron. and the sp?cimens sent over from England as fibrous iror do not, upon examination, pos- sess this cb aracter. 3 he Locomotive Explosion. Mus~as. EDIToRs.I have been to the Boul- ton station of the Baltimore and Susquehan- nab, or Northern Central Railroad, where I had opport inity to examine the character of an explosion that occurred on the norning of the 1st inst., to one of their engines. The fracture w~ s at the upper edge of the bottom sheet, on ti e right side of the fire-box, running about two cet along the rivet line, and tear- ing irregul;trly down about 12 to 14 inches, opening ~ area of about two and a half square feet. The sheet, along the rivet line, does not a rerage more than one-eighth inch in thickness, while it was originally five-six- teouths or perhaps three-eighths. Great he ot and galvanic action between the copper she t and the iron of the rivets and stay-bolts, had been doing this work till a great redut tion of thickness under the rivets, and destru tion to a great extent of the screw threads col tnecting the stay bolts, bad taken place; there was also a great deficiency of head to th stay bolts, which afforded, as a whole, an t ~bundant cause for this disaster. Mr. Wil ans, the builder, and the master of machinery, were present, and seemed to con- sole themselves with the remark that it was one of thote unavoidable and unaccountable accidents that no one could guard again5t.~1 With all c eference to the authority, I must protest that it is one of those cases that could and should have been guarded against, and I am strengthened in this opinion by the remark of the master of machinery, that within a week it would have been overhauled, that they knew it needed repair.~1 The facf is,the boiler thus weakened was given over to the fireman to get up steam for an early start. There are now no external means of knowing the stage of water or the condition )f the safety valve he probably built a str ng fire, and with steam even above the ordinary pressure may have been renew- ing the fir t with a fast valve, and without a pressure gauge, when the explosion occurred. The firemttn was thrown several yards from the engine, and it is supposed was instantly killed. Tie engine was capsized. Nobody to blame. I repeat what I have before written, and what everr new examination of such disasters confirm; i is not necessary that another steam boiler exp osion should ever occur. Science, experienCe and skill have made the path of safety pla n, and only ignorance, neglect, or fool-hardiiess will ever leave that path, and free from either carbon or cinder is nca known it is time tngineers and pretenders to science ceased to gull the public with the idea of un- avoidable explosions. JOSEPH E. HOLMES. Baltimore, Md., Oct. 2, 1856. Locomotive Engines for Propeller.. On page 188, last volume SCIENTIFIc AMERI- CAN~ we illustrated the application of high pressure steam, on the locomotive principle, to the propulsion of propellors, according to patent of Capt. Whittaker, of Buffalo, N. Y. The advantages, in comparison with paddle wheels were pointed out, and the economic results of the side propellers of Capt. Whitta- ker, applied to the steamer Baltic, on Lake Erie, were given. In previous articles we had expressed the opinionthat this mode of pro- pulsion impressed us favorably, and we di- rected the engineering fraternity at home and abroad to examine it thoroughly. We are not aware that any attempts have been made in New York, or any of our Atlantic cities, to apply this principle of propulsion, but from the Leeds (Eng.) Mercury, we learn that it has recently been applied there. It says An interesting trial lately took place at the Railway Foundry, Leeds, in the presence of the Government Inspector, and other scien- tific persons, of a novel applicaion of loco- motive high-pressure machinery to marine purposes. The machinery, which has been arranged and completed from designs of the engineer of the works, is intended, we under- stand, for a screw steamer recently launched at Hull. Nothing could apparently be more admirable than the smoothness and facility with which the machinery worked, a speed of 120 revolutions of the screw shaft per minute being obtained from the direct action of the engines, without the intervention of multiply- leg gear. This quickness of piston motion, which is not attainable at low pressure, is one of the main advantages of the application. Another is the great saving of space and weight, amounting to more than one-half But what seemed to excite admiration most was the ease and quickness with which the motion was reversed, which was repeatedly effected under unfavorable circum- stan& es, and against the full steam pressure of 140 lbs. on the inch, seven or eight times within thirty seconds. Upon the whole, it is not too much to say that this very admirable arrangement bids fair to supersede all other applications of steam power to marine purpo- ses, especially for screw 5teamers. The views presented in this extract are similar to those expressed in our columns, and the engineer who designed the machinery for the Leeds steamer has probably seen and read the illustrated article referred to above. Strychnine, its Tests. Prof. Horsely, of England, has tried exper- iments with strychnine on rats and dogs, and in some cases was unable, by any of the usual tests, to detect the poison. He is of opinion that it combines, in some cases, with the al- bumen, or other solid matter, in the body, and forms an insoluble compound. He has, how- ever, discovered a most beautiful and simple test for it, which will always detect it when not combined with organic matter as an in- soluble compound. The test is, one part, by measure, of the biobromate of potash dissolved in fourteen parts of water and two parts of strong sulphuric acid. By adding a few drops of this solution to another, supposed to con- tain strychnine. If the poison is present, a precipitate of a golden color will be formed, which is an insoluble chromate of strychnine. This test is exceedingly sensitive, and can de- tect very minute quantities of strychnine in any solution. The National Fair. The United States Agricultural Association held its grand Exhibition at Philadelphia last week. The display of animals was good, but it is a fact to be regretted, that this Society depends most for success at its Fairs upon races and cavalcades of men and women on horseback. New Cement. A little ground borax mixed with plaster of paris makes an excellent cement for many purposes. It is simply mixed up into a plas- tic consistency, then applied with a trowel. It soon hardens. 43 It ,t~st.t 44 Traveling Steam Railroad. Our foreign English cotemporaries are loud in their praises of the steam carriage of Jas. Boydell, of London, for drawing heavy loads over bad roads, for plowing, and for many other purposes. It has detached parts of flat rails on its wheels, and as these turn, the rails form bearings which prevent the wheels sink- ing into the soft soil. It is stated to have been very successful in plowing. The farmers on our prairies, who are anxious to get steam plows, will derive some information respecting the nature of this tramway steam engine by examining an engraving of such a carriage, il- lustrated on page 353, Vol. 3, SciENTIFIc AMERICAN. taerpetuai Motion. W have frequent inquiries respecting a prize said to he offered by the British Govern- ment to the person who first discovers perpet- ual motion. No such reward has been offered and if it were offered it never could be ob- tained for such a discovery will never be made. A perpetual motion is a machine which has an inherent power, to set and maintain itself in motiona mechanical impossibility. improved Blower Engine. The invention herewith illustrated is now on exhibition at the great American Institute Fair, Crystal Palace, New York. It refers to blower or pumping engines, and consists in actuating the valve rod by a yoke and weights as follows Fig. 1 is a perspective view of the entire machine. Fig. 2 is an enlarged sectional view of the yoke, and adjuncts. G is the air cylinder discharging into chamber H, from which the blast proceeds to the furnace. F is the steam cylinder. The piston rod,f, op- erates in the usual manner, and has in its center a cross-head, C, which is furnished with a head plate, i. The lower part o~f cross- head C carries a roller, m. On the inner face of yoke D are cams, t t t. The yoke is so formed that the head piece, i, of the cross- head will move in the grooves of said cams. Passing through the extremities of the yoke, D, are rods, r r, to the lower ends of which are attached weights, c C, the rods passing through the short arms of levers, d d, and connecting the weights therewith. These lev- ers have ~a common fulcrum at e, and have weights,f t, hung to their long arms, The rods, r r, are prevented from slipping through the levers by nuts, i, and the upper ends of these rods are provided with threads on which are nuts, z, to regulate the downward move- ment of the said rods through the ends of the yoke. The roller, m, passes beneath and in contact with the levers. The head piece, i, by pressure on the un- der edge of cam t, lifts the right hand end of yoke D, and through rod E, opens the valve and lets on the full head of steam. The pis- ton continuing its movement, the head piece, i, leaves cam t, passes up cam t, mounts upon ti4c upper edge of cam t, and passing on, en- counters the under edge of rim w, against which it presses, slightly, lifting the left hand end of the yoke in its course and producing a movement of rod r, which cuts off the steam, the weight, C, acting with it to depress the opposite end of the yoke. As the head piece, i, leaves cam t, the weight, c, tails to its seat, depressing the end, r, of the yoke suf- ficient to permit the cam, tM, to clear the head piece, i, and at the same time producing a movement of rod r, which lets on a small quantity of steam to the opposite side of the piston, which then begins its reverse travel; the upper edge of head piece i, by action on the under edge of cam t, lifting end x, of yoke, and causing the full head of steam to be let on. The head piece is then passed over cam t, strikes rim w, lifting the other end x, of yoke, and effecting the cutting off of the steam. Then leaving cam t, weight c drops to its seat, depressing end, x, of yoke sufficient to pro- duce the letting on of steam to the opposite side of the piston, and bringing the head piece to the under edge of cam t, where, it effects the lifting of that end of yoke D first men- the change of motion is governed by the posi- er will be the length of rod slipping through tioned. tion of the nits, i, on rods, r r, as the nearer the yoke before the nut reaches it, and conse The quantity of steam let to the piston at the ends of th rods they are placed, the great- quently the yoke will receive the less motion IMPROVED BLOWER ENGINE. as the weight drops to its seat. If the nut be first let to the opposite side of tie piston is terpoise of the weight about to be brought far removed from the end of the rod, the fall regulated. into action. of the weight must carry the yoke with it, The weights f I, lift the weights, c c, and If the engine be a vertical one, springs may and a greater opening of the valve be pro- elevate the roc s, r r, as their respective ends be used instead of the weights, and other duced. It will therefore be seen that by of the yoke nt e, so that the nut of the eleva- modifications made in the construction which means of the nuts, i, the quantity of steam ted rod will j ut come in contact with the will adapt the several parts to the new condi- tion without affecting the principle of action. This construction may also be applied to pumping engines. The advantages of this engine are numerous and important, and will be readily appreciated by those acquainted with blast furnaces ; the most prominent being the maintaining of a more uniform blast than can be effected by fly wheel engines: the sinking at the change of motion being appreciable. A. working engine, on a small scale, is ex- hibited at the Palace, and attracts much at- tention by its beauty of finish and exactitude of movement. The invention has been in practical use for some months past, at a fur- nace in Pennsylvania, and we are informed, has proved to be greatly superior to the com- mon blower engines. For further information end of the yoke at the termination of its up- cessary for the r action, the roller, m, acting apply at the Palace, or address the inventor, ward movement. By this construction, the on the under edges of the long arms of the J. P. Ross, Lewisburg, Union Co., Pa. Pat- weights, Ct C, are elevated to the position ne- 1ever~, causes tie cross-head to lift the coun- ented Jan. 22, 1850. HUB MORTISING MACHINE. Hub Mortising Machine. Our engraving illustrates a machine for mortising hubs, which is now on exhibition at the American Institution Fair, Crystal Pal- ace, in this city. It is the invention of T. R. Bailey, of Lockport, N. Y., and was patented Aug. 5th, 1856. The hub is centered between two bearings in the ordinary manner. One end of the hub not turn unless ihe spring, B, is pushed back, out of the notches, for wheel A and the hub revolve together. The notches are equi-dis- tant, and correspond, in number, to the num- her of mortices o be made in the hub. It is therefore only r ecessary to move the index wheel, A, for a space of one notch. after each mortise is made, in order to cause the mortises to he all cut at 2xactly equal dist nces apart bears against an index wheel, A, whose periph- upon the hub. ery is notched, and into the notches a spring, B, The mortising tool, C, which has peculiar presses, which holds the index wheel firmly auger~ shaped ed ges that bore and also cut and prevents it from revolving. The hub can- sidewise, is attached to the pulley shaft, D, and power is applied, by belt, to pulley, D. The mortising tool, C, and shaft, D, are sup- ported in a carriage, E, which slides Lforward and back on guides, F. This movement is imparted by the attendant who pushes the lever, G, for that purpose, and thus carries the mortising tool against the hub, or withdraws it, at pleasure. The proper formation of hub mortises is beveling, i. e., narrower at their inner ends than on the periphery of the hub. In order to cut such mortises, one of the bearings, H, of shaft, D, is pivoted, while the other bearing, 1, slides laterally. The required lateral movement of I is caused by a self-acting arrangement of parts as follows: K is a hell crank, having a pivot on standard J. One end of the crank, K, is attached to carriage E; the other end conne ts with a cam rod, L, the cam being at- tached to gear wheel II, ~nd located below it. Gear wheel Ii is revolved by the screw, N, on shaft D. The cam turns with each revolution of M, acts through rod L, on crank K, and thus gives the lateral motion to tool C, neces- sary to impart a beveled shape to the mortise. Crank K is slotted at that point where it con- nects with rod L, in order to permit an ad- nitment or variation at pleasure, in the extent of lateral movement given to tool C. This machine is strong, simple, and compact in all its parts, and does excellent work. Any sized hubs may be mortised with great exact- ness and rapidity. By removing the stand- ards at the head of the machine on which the hub is centered, a rest or table can be substi- tuted, and the machine used for various spe- cies of mortising work. For further informa- tion apply at the Palace, or address the in- ventor at Lockport, N.Y. 45 ~cicntifit ~n~cri~an4 NEW YORK, OCTOBER, 18, 18~6. Steam versus Water Power. Various correspondents have made inqui- ries respecting the relative value of steam and water power; and one asks : Whether an inexhaustible water power or only water suf- ficient for steam purposes, with an unlimited supply of cheap fuel, are most advantageous to the developement of a manufacturing town. It is not possible to give a satisfactory re- ply to a general inquiry respecting the com- parative advantages of steam and water pow- er, but we have no hesitation in answering the correspondent (in Iowa) from whose letter we have quoted the above extract. An abun- dance of cheap fuel and steam power, in our opinion, possesses the greatest advantages for manufacturing purposes. Few manufacturing operations can be carried on without fuel even where there is plenty of water power therefore where fuel is scarce and dear, man- ufacturing cannot be carried on but under a heavy expense. In giving this opinion we do not forget that most of our manufacturing towns and villages are indebted for their rise to water power. They are built on river~s and creeks where there are falls of water for driving ma- chinery, but when they were first established timber for fuel and building was plentiful and cheap in their neighborhoods. It has now become a serious question with many manufacturers, using water power, that their supply of water is becoming more unstable every year, as the forests are cleared off; and in many places where water power was ex- clusively used a few years ago, auxiliary steam power is required during certain portions of the year, on account of a deficient supply of water. Forests and swamps are perrenial feeders of creeks and rivers. As these disappear, and the soil is spread out to the direct rays of the sun, rapid evaporation takes place after falls of rain, and thus it has occurred that many streams once flowing with power for the miller are now only water-worn channels. The ruins of grist and saw mills are now to be seen on the banks of dry creeks, where forty years ago the merry clatter of the hopper and hum of the saw mingled from morn till night with the song of the rushing waters. But al- though this is true respecting a number of places, manufactures have not decreased in our country, thanks to the power of steam. With a plentiful supply of fuel, steam forms a constant trusty power for driving machinery, and a steam factory can be erected indepen- dent of rare natural localities, like water-falls. It has thus great advantages over water power. It requires 180,000 cubic feet of water per hour on a 13 feet fall, to produce the same ef- fect in driving machinery that can be obtained with ~0 cubic feet of water and 300 lbs. of coal, by a steam engine. While the power of water for manufacturing purposes is growing weaker and weaker in our country, that of steam is growing stronger and stronger. We have read a statement that in the year 1800 there were only three steam engines in all the United States; who can count them now 3 They number tens of thousands. Steam fac- tories can be conducted in or near cities and commercial marts. and thus effect a great saving in transporting raw material and goods. There are various manufactures, however, which need considerable water to carry on, such as calico printing, bleaching, carpet- weaving, woolen cloth making, & c. The scour- ing, washing, and dying require much water, but then with steam such factories can be heated, the goods boiled and dried, and taking the expense of keeping dams and water wheels in repair, we are of opinion that steam power, where fuel is cheap, is to .,e preferred in near- ly every case to water power. At any rate, there can be no doubt but steam factories must I increase in or near our coal regions, and ulti- mately these will become the great seats of American manufactures; just as the coal re- gions of England have become the centers of manufactures in that country. And as we have the largest coal fields in the world, and these scarcely touched yet by the tool of the miner, it makes us hold our breath to contemplate the vast manufacturing powerthe hundreds of Sheffields, Birminghams, Manchesters2 Leeds, and Glasgowsthat will yet arise in our country and make it (on account of its cheap fuel) the greatest manufacturing nation on the globe. To the Public. There are a number of slothful, ineffi- cient, inexperienced persons, calling them- selves patent agents, in different parts of the country, who manage to make a scanty living by circulating falsehoods in respect to us, and our mode of conducting patent business. They tell people that the Scientific American folks do so large a business and are so over- run with clients that they cannot give to each one, that attention or promptness that his case requires. This is a very plausible and specious story, but we denounce it as untrue, and those who circulate it as falsifiers. Just the reverse is the truth. No Patent Agency in the coun- try possesses better or more abundant fa- cilities for the preparation of patent papers and no other individuah5 engaged in the busi- ness, bestow more professional care or at- ention upon their clients and cases than our- selves. Each particular subject receives the most careful study and deliberation, and when complete is promptly despatched. In proof of this we point with pride to the extraordinary success which attends our exertions. If we were negligent, inattentive, dishonest, or in any manner slighted the interests committed to our care, we should long since have ceased to possess the confidence of the community, instead of standing, as we now do, at the head of the Patent Agency business in this country. Envious and deceiving persons may carp and rail at us to their ~ content, but they cannot alter the fact that the Scientific Amer- ican Patent Agency is, by far, the best, the most prompt, the most successfrd, and the most moder~ ate in its charges of any in the country. The Woodworth Patent. This odious monopoly expires by its own limitation, on the 27th of Denember next. Congress meets December 1st. The monopo- lists, we understand, are secretly but actively at work, endeavoring to organize a new com- bination to press a bill through Congress for another extension of the patent. They hope to have the bill passed between the 1st and -27th of December, for after that date their game will be up. We shall oppose the schem- ers, as heretofore, and expect to be able to head them off. But we request that all who are opposed to the monopoly will second our efforts, by calling upon Members of Congress, now that they are at home, explain the case, and put them upon their guard. Recent American k~n1ents. We omit our usual reports under this head, and give place to extended notices of the va- rieties at the great Exhibition of the Ameri- can Institute at the Crystal Palace. Great Exhlbitiuu of the American Institute at the Cry4tal Palaze, New York. FOIJILTH wEEK. We have to report still further additions to the stock of contributions on exhibition, con- sisting of new machinery, engines, & c. The number of visitors has greatly increased. The evening attendance, especially during the three last days of the week was very great. On these occasions the spacious building was, at times, so crowded as to be uncomfortable. Steam Fire Engines. Lee and Larnards engine, of this city, has been placed on exhibition since our last. We are informed that a trial between this machine and that of Silsbie, Mynderse & Co, noticed last week, will shortly take place. Butler Incrustation Preventer. E. W. Sargent, 17 Broadway, N. Y., Stew- art Kerr, Agent, exhibits Weissenborns Pat- ent Boiler Incrustation Preventer. This con- sists of an apparatus of cylindric shape, some- what like a stove, through which the water passes previous to entering the boiler. While passing through the apparatus the water is subjected to m~chanical filtration, and also to chemical actioii, heat, agitation, and friction being combined, whereby a perfect separation of the incrusting salts and foreign particles is effected, and the liquid perfectly purified. This invention is it use in several parts of the country, and i said to work with entire suc- cess. It preve its incrustation in boilers, no matter how hi:~hly impregnated the water is with lime or other substances. The salts are deposited in the purifying vessel, and the boiler kept cc mpletely clean. Many speci- mens of the salts and other impurities de- posited in the apparatus are shown at the Palace. For engraving and full description see ScIENTIFIc AMERIC& N, Vol. Xl, No. 15. Po4 Boring Maeh:ne. Mr. James I;ell, of Birmingham, Pa., ex- hibits one of I. W. Wards patent machines for boring slots in fence posts, to receive the ends of the fen ~e rails. Two augers are em- ployed, which are rotated by a crank. The construction of ~he machine is such that slots of rarying lengths may be bored, at pleasure, while the work is done with nicety and expedition. This machine is chiefly intendel for use in putting up com- mon farm post and rail fences. It is simple, easily manageti, weighs but little, and is strong and durable. Price $16 and up. The exhib- itor furnishes visitors with a handbill con- taining a poet: c description of the machine, which is quite amusing. For engraving and description see ScIENTIFIc AMEaIcs~, Vol. XI, page 280. Rope Machines. Mr. Thomas G. Boone, of Brooklyn, N. Y., exhibits in operation his new machine, for which he obt med Letters Patent July 15th, 1856. It opel ates admirably. The construc- tion is quite different from other rope ma- chines. Neiti er the spools that contain the strands, the cc pstands, or circler revolve in the direction of the twist. A good and even fore-hard is ~ ut in with the lay. The ma- chine does about twice as much work as usual, occupies only about one half the ordi- nary space, r quires only half as much power, is simple, moi e easily managed, etc. Price $400 and up, according to size. Mr. Win. R. Dutcher, of Troy, N. Y., ex- hibits one of h s newly patented rope machines in operation. The improvements are of such a nature as to increase the rapidity with which the rope is made, improve its quality, lessen the mu uber of attendants, power re- quired, & c. Drop Press. Milo Peck, of New Haven, Conn., exhibits in operation one of his patent Drop Presses, for stamping sheet metal. It is a strong and effective machine. The main shaft has a con- stant rotary motion, and lifts the weight. There is a sprtng at the top, which holds the weight when it comes up, and prevents it from falling, although the shaft continues to rotate. The weight is discharged by a cord or pedal, which the att( ndant touches for that purpose. The machine en exhibition works well, and appears to b under perfect control of the operator. Fo - an engraving and full descrip- tion see ScIENTIFIC AMaItIcAN, Vol. Xl, No. 18. Parallel Vise. Mr. Win. H. Schofield, Agent, of Yellow Springs, Gree:s Co., 0., exhibits Davis patent Parallel Vise, which appears to be a first rate implement. The long screw is dispensed with, the jaws always move on a parallel line, it is opened and clesed in a much briefer space of time than the common vise, is cheap, simple, and durable. For engraving and full de- scription see SCIENTIFIC AMERIcAN, Vol. XI, No. 16. Lathe Chuck. Messrs. E. Horton & Son, of Windsor Locks, Conn., exhibit samples of their lathe chucks for centering. The jaws are moved in and out from the (enter by screws, and the latter are furnished with pinions, which gear with a cogged ring. o that when one screw is turn- ed by hand, all the jaws will move. The chuck box or shell is composed of two parts, and when required may be taken apart, and the cogged ring removed. Each jaw may then be moved independently. Price $20 for chucks of 6 inches diameter, and upwards, ac- cording to size. Portable Saw Mills and Sawing Machines. Pinney Youngs 4 Co., Milwaukie, Wis., exhibit, in operation, one of their portable saw mills. It attracts great attention. The saw employed is a circular one, and the arrange- ment is such that it cuts both forward and back. The setting of the log, after each cut, is done by mechanism, so that the machine is self-acting in nearly all respects. We are told that logs can be placed upon the car- riage, and rapidly cut up into boards without labor on the part of the attendant, except to carry awaythe lumber. It is said that these machines will cut from 2000 to 2.300 feet of siding per hour. This is great speed. The machine is simple, easily taken apart and set up, occupies little space. Price $1000 and upwards, according to size. Channeling Saw.Mr. George Hutton, of Morrisania, Westchester Co., N. Y., exhibits in operation a circular saw arranged for cut- ting grooves of varying widths and depths, and for other purposes. The novelty consists in a peculiar arrangement for changing the relative angle between the saw and its arbor. In our engraving A is the arbor, B the saw. The vertical line shows the deviation of the saw from the ordinary position, at right angles with the arbor. C D are two col- lars which clamp the saw. Each collar is flat on the face touching the saw, and spheri- cal on its other face. These collars may, when desired, be removed from the arbor There is immovably fixed on the arbor an ad- ditional collar, E, one face of which is con- cave, so as to fit perfectly to the correspond- ing spherical or convex face of D. A wash- er, F, similarly concave, is sbpped loosely on the shaft, A, so as to fit in the same manner against the convex face of the collar, C. A nut, G. screwed on A, presses against the plane face of F, and by the aid of this nut all the parts maybe released or firmly secured, at pleasure. The movable collars, C and D, must have considerable thickness, so that the convex faces thereof will be portions of large and not of small spheres, and also that the center of such sphere must coincide with the center of the saw. The shaft, A, is of such size as very nearly to fill the circular orifices on the plane faces, and also to fill the orifices in one direction on the convex faces, but in the other direction the oblong shape of the last named orifices allows considerable play. When the collars, C and D, are placed to- gether, the nut, G, being slackened to allow motion of the parts, the saw may be siezed by the hand and readily placed square with the spindle, or as readily inclined over in one di- rection, but it cannot, by any force, be in- clined in any other direction, by reason of the peculiar form of the cavities described. This device allows also of adjusting the obliquity of the saw by percussion, whch is, in some ac- counts a superior agency for this purpose. In order to adjust the saw it is necessary to slacken the nut, G, but yet allow it to press so as to confine the parts with moderate force and strike with a mallet against either of the movable collars, C or D. By this means the amount of obliquity desired may be obtainA with accuracy, after which the nut, G, must be screwed very tightly to its place. When thus screwed up, the pressure against the parts is sufficient to prevent any change, until the nut is again slackened. When it is de .1 ~ciewti~c ~mcncan., sired to set the saw square with the shaft it is only necessary to drive its edge in one di- rection until it can go no fnrther, by reason of the hole bearing fair along the shaft. In order to compel the movable collars, C and D, to maintain a proper position relative- ly each to the other, a projection, H, is mads on the shaft, A, and corresponding notches or grooves cut in both the movable collars, also in the saw. To facilitate a nice adjustment of the parts without percussion, screws J and K are used, tapped throu~, h D, and pressing with their smooth rounded ends upon the shaft, A. To adjust the saw by these means the nut, G, is slackened, and one of the last-named screws withdrawn, and the other advanced, until the motion thus produced brings the saw to the plane desired, after which the nut, G, is tightened, as before. When adjusting the saw by percussion, as first described, both the screws, J and K, must first be slackened. This invention is one of a very useful and practical character. It may he employed for grooving of various widths and depths, the depth of the grooves being altered by chang- ing the bight of the table, which is done by a screw. The saw may also be employed for rabbiting, cutting double tenons, squar- ing, cross grooving, and a variety of other uses that will readily suggest themselves to the operator. At whatever angle the saw is placed it is perfectly balanced. For further information address the inventor, as above. Tree Sawing Machine.The Farmers and Mechanics Manufacturing Co., of Green Point, Brooklyn, N. Y., exhibit some of Ingersolls Tree Cuttin~ Machines. These are small ap- paratuses, light, and portable, but very effec- tive. Two men can cut trees or logs of 16 inches diameter in two minutes. It is alleged that this machine effects a great saving of time over hand labor in tree cutting. It is readily applied. Price $75. For an eaerav~ ing and full description see ScIENTIFIc AMER ICAN S 1836. apt. 27, Hazard Knowles, 413 Broadway, N. Y., ex- hibits specimens of his patent saws, the novelty being in the peculiar formation of the teeth. Each tooth acts independently, and cuts its own shaving, as if it were a separate plane. The result is that a great saving of labor is effected, the stuff being cut, instead of rasped or broken away, as by the common saw teeth. The hand-saws shown by Mr. Knowles, appear to possess an important ad- vantage over the ordinary kind. They work easier, cut straighter, etc. A mortising blade, with teeth formed in the same improved iz~an- ner, also operates well. Saw mills requiring only 6-horse power are made, which, it is al- leged, will cut 1000 feet of inch boards per hour. liurgiar Alaruti. Mr. Win. McLachlan, of No. 76 Hammond street, N. Y., exhibits a curious little contri- vance for sounding an alarm whenever a bur- glar attempts to enter the door of a sleeping apartment. It consists of a small gong-shaped bell, having a spring and wheels within its concavity. This contrivance is hung upon the door key, which is left in the lock, on the inside of the apartment. When the bur- glar inserts his flippers from without, and partially turns the key, the bell instantly be- gins to rings and gives a thorough alarm. Price $5. Boot Crimp. Messrs. Fetter & Co., of Philadelphia, Pa., exhibit one of their patent Boot Crimping machines. It is quite a novelty. The crimp board is divided at the instep, and the two parts are hinged together. Each portion is moved by its own set screw. There are mov- able nippers which hold the shank corners of the leather. The nippers are moved by a set screw. After the leather has been stretched upon the crimp board, it is gradually screwed up into the proper form, and the crimping is thus done in the most perfect manner The work of a man, laboring hard for an hour and a half, may be done by a child, in two min- utes, by the use of this machine. Boot makers may gather from this some idea of its utility and value. The work done is superior to that executed by hand. It is applicable to all kinds of leather, fine or stiff. The instru meat is attached to a small stand, and is so jointed as to be easily manipulated. Price $11. For engraving and full description, see SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN, Vol. 11, page 289. Improved C ane. Mr. B. J. Burnett, of this city, exhibits a large model of his improved Crane, for lift- ing heavy weights, such as steam boilers, machinery, cargoes, etc. The improvement consists of a frame tower, from which arms or beams project at whose extremities the weight is lifted. The lifting rope or chain runs up throu~h the tower and out to the ex- tremities of the arms. One prominent merit in this invention is, that it is an independent crane. It requires no connection or bracing from surrounding objects, involves no waste or other device that becomes dangerous if any s~rap or small portion gives way. It appears to be a valuable substitute for common cranes and derricks. For an engraving and full de- scription see SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN, Vol. 11, page 321. Pipe Coupling, Without Solder. Messrs. Fetter & Co., of H olmesburg, Pa., exhibit specimens of pipes, coupled together with water-tight joints, without the use of solder. Our engraving illustrates the inven- tion. Fig. 1 shows the method of coupling a lead pipe and faucet together, A being the faucet and B the pipe. The extremity of the faucet is beveled, and has a screw cut upon it. C is a conical ferrule, into which the end of the pipe is introduced. The conical extremity of the faucet, A, is now screwed into the pipe, the mouth of which is thus expanded and firmly pressed between ferrule C, and faucet A, as shown. The joint thus made will be perfectly tight and substantial. The tip end of the fau- cet, at a, is left smooth, without screw thread. This smooth surface prevents burring up of the pipe. Fig. 2 shows the mode of connecting dif- ferent lengths of pipes. B are the pipes ; C, conical ferrules D conical connecting tube, with screw thread upon its ends, like the fan- cat A in fig. 1. The junction is made in the same manner as above. On the inside of the ferrules, C, there are projections which strike into the periphery of the pipe, and prevent the ferrule and pipe from turning and slipping. The outside of the ferrules are made in octa- gonal form, so as to be easily held by a wrench during the coupling operation. Previous to inserting the screw, a wooden plug is driven into the mouth of the pipe, in order to expand and bind it and the ferrule together. This is a very rapid, cheap, and convenient method of coupling pipes. Its advantages over the solder joint will be obvious. It re- quires no fire or heat. Any person may use the improvement. Pipes may be coupled un- der water, or in situations where solder can- not be used, etc. Address the exhibitors as above for further information Patented Aug. 19,1856. Tree Cutting Machine. Mr. S. Strauss, of No. 212 Broadway, N. Y., exhibits one of ~ patent machines for cutting down forest trees. It consists of an iron ring, hinged in its center, so that it may be opened and then brought together again sround a tree. It is, in fact, a girdle. The ring carries a cogged rack, which is caused to revolve around the tree by meansof a crank and pinion. The rack carries a cut- ter which revolves round and round tile tree cutting inward as it goes. This is a very compact, portable tree cutter, and works well. It is shown at the Palace in operation, an upright log being substituted for a tree. Price $35. Fo, an engraving and full description see SCIENIFIC AMERICAN, Vol. 12, page 1. Hand Corn Planter. Fenwiclc & Boekien, 77 Poplar st., Brooklyn, N. V., exi ibit a convenient little implement, plain and 1 inpretending in appearance external- ly, but pot sassing several really useful virtues. It accurat ly measures the corn for each hill. and plants and covers it perfectly by the sim- ple operation of forcing its end into the ground and lifting it out again. Covering the corn perfectly i; a step in advance, and commends this impletoent to the farmer in preference to those machines which simply plant seed and leave it uncevered. This implement will be found illustrated in No. 44, Vol. XI., SCIEN- TIFIC AMI RICAN. Mechanics Institute Polytechnic Schools. It has afforded us much pleasure to witness the progres sive spirit which has characterized the New York Mechanics Institute during the past few y ars, and especially the recent ef- forts mad, by its officers and members to carry out he original objects of its charter, by making it a good Educational Institution. To carry o at this object, a Polytechnic School on a large scale has just been organized, and placed undor the control of Prof. B. Garvey. Mathemati s, languages, music, philosophy, engineerin~ , and all the branches of a good education will be taught. A large gymnasi- um for he aithful physical exercises is to be connected with the schoolan essential fea- tureand opular lectures on various subj acts will be gi en. It is also intended to have primary and graduating classes, up to a very advanced s ~a0e of instruction. Ladies and gentlemen~~ classes will be taught, and the in- struction ~ ill be such as to fit both sexes ~or a cultivate I useful life. We think well of the objects of the Institute, with the exception of having a primary de- partment, tais should be omitted from its pro- gramme of instruction. The city Primary Schools arc sufficient for instructing children up to a ceri ala limited point, but beyond that more high schools are now required for our city youth. The Institute should rather de- vote its ant re educational energies to found a superior H 0h Polytechnic School, and no other. St. ch a school is certainly much wanted in t ais city, and we hope that of the l\Iechanics Institute will completely supply the want. he spacious new buildings, 18 and 20 Fourth . ~venue are now occupied by the Institute. Macad umized versus Plank Lb ~ We understand that most of the plank roads which were laid down a few years since in various par :5 of our country, have proved failures; th~y did not pay expenses. This is not the case with them all, but the majority of them, anc some of these in re ions where lumber is cc mparatively cheap. The planks being laid fi at on the ground, rot out so rapid- ly that the expense for repairs amounts to about 30 pa: cent. of the original cost annu- ally. This is a very large amount for wear and tear, an I we do not wonder that many of them should have failed to pay expenses. In the nei ~hborhood of New York on Long Island, the ~ lank roads laid down four years ago are now being torn up and superseded by good Macad amized roads, and it would be well for the road masters of nearly every town in our country to follow the example. Our com- mon roads are very defective; they do not re- flect much credit on our farmers who make them and keep them in repair. They seem to ac as if the time they spent in working on their roads was an infliction, hence they shirk the labor, or execute it so slovenly as ,o merit reproof for want of good sense. If tIe ruts are annually filled up with mud, so as to make a smooth surface in dry weather, thai think they have done their duty; hut mud roads never can be made into good roads; they will always be rutty, and dotted over with sloughs of despond in wet weather. Good roads are civiliEars, by promoting tra- vel; and tl ey are economisers, by making travel easier for man and beast. They are avenues of commerce, and as a team can draw twice he amount of load on a good road that it can on a bad one, and travel twice as fas:, surely it would be wise for our farmers in every part of our country to labor hard and incur considerable expanse to estab- lish a system of good solid permanent com- mon roads. The making of macadamized roads costs considerable at first, but the cost is principally for labor, not materials, where gravel or stone can be obtained; hence every farmer can do his share in making them with- out paying money directly out of his pocket. They are also simple of construction, and re- quire no great engineering skill to execute and when once well made they do not cost much for repairs. We therefore hope that our farmerg will give this subject their careful attention, and act upon the suggestions. Furs. The Journal of Commerce states that on par- ticular inquiry the fur trade in this city will reach $1,375,000 this year. The price of American furs has lately risen considerably. Mink, which formerly commanded from 30 to 50 cents, is readily bought up by our furriers at $350 to $4; ordinary Western, which was worth 25 or 30 cents, now brings $250; other furs, too, are much higher. The Journal says : We lately saw a box of Russian sable, not more than three feet long, of camphor wood, which contained 400 small skins bearing the seal of the Russian Government, valued at fourteen thousand dol- lars. Some of the skins cost $52 each. A lower grade of inferior color are worth $28, and some not more than ~l6. These are com- monly sold at a profit of 30 or 33 per cent. Sixteen or eighteen skins are required to make a full-sized cape, so that the cost of a choice quality garment of this description would be about nine hundred dollars. Adding the cost of making and the profit, such an article could not be procured for much less than fourteen hundred dollars. Hudsons Bay sable cost this year about $25 per skin. It may be mentioned that our large furriers employ no other means to preserve their goods from insects, except beating and airing them every three or four weeks. cold frot Marrow hears. In Australia Mr. Mooney has bean ee- livering a lecture on the origin of gold, con- cernin~, which he propounded the following novel theory He set out by declaring his belief that gold is the petrified remains of matter which was once animate; and accom- panied as it generally is by ocean pebbles, quartz, crystal, and other saline and marine debris, he was of opinion that gold is the pet- rified fat or marro~v of a peculiar fish, which once floated over the gold fields when those fields were beds and bottoms of the worlds great ocean. In proof of the hypothesis that gold is nothing more than the petrified fat of a peculiar fish, the lecturer showed specimens of quartz in which marine shells were embed- ded. Mr. Mooney also alluded to the fact that iron exists in the human blood, and argued from that position that gold might be educed from the marrow of fishes..dlbany Knicker- bocker. We wonder if this is the Mr. Mooney who once delivered lectures on various curious subjects in this city about sixteen years ago. He was a native of the Emerald Isle, a droll fellow, and always discoursed on some strange topic. To Destroy Crickets. A correspondent of the London Cottage Gar- dener says he has destroyed hundreds of crick- ets by means of a common white glazed jar, about nine or ten inches high, put in the place they infest, with a slice or two of cucumber in it, and one live cricket as a decoy. They will hop in, anct strange to say, have not the power to hop out. It is not well to destroy them daily. When the jar is one-third full of crickets have it filled with boiling water. This is a simple and effectual method of get- ting rid of these insects. English Pottery Staffordshire, in England, is the great seat of the porcelain and pottery manufactorias. No less than 60,000 persons are employed in the works, and the annual value of the p Irce.. lain manufactured amounts to about $lo~. 000,000 per annumthree-fourths of which are exported. 46 A W. N. It., efTexas.A fly wheel does not enable ma- chinery to be driven with loss power; it merely regulates the power, and is also ratted a balance wheel. F G. lb., of VaWe published elaborate artirles in our lasI Volume, on byanizing timber. The cheapest way to kyanize your boards, is to steep them in a solution of suit hote of copper, for three days. Use one pound to one hundred gallons of water. You ran steep them in a tauk made of boards; telace stones upon the boards to sink them under use ovater dry them afer they are steeped. 11. A. C., Cf CoonThere i;no time fixed by law when a s applirant naust witladraw his ease in order to get twenty dollars refunded W. It. P., of VaThe in ormation you solicit on Smut Mills we cannot give. Address J. D. Ididwell, Uhrichs- yule, Ololo, J. lb. Gates, Eickmansville, Ohio, George hot erling. Quency, Ill., or G. II, Starbock & Co., Tiny, N. V. Either of the above parties can give you the de- sired infotmalion. J. B., of PaWe have examined your diagrana. and d criplion of Isro combined wheels, with syption con- ductors, t Ut our former opinion is unaltered. Two wheel on one shalt, the water passin through non of them into and out of tise otloer, h sve been triedand are not nosy; but we are not ow ;re of syphons moving been employed wtth the same combination of wheels you have desi5ned. Send along your model, and we ositi examine it. J. lb. E. S.. ot PhilaWe are not acquainted with any work dereribing the latest improved processes of mastu- facturing whiskey. J. F. lb., PaThere has been no epidemic yetlosv fever whatever, in New-York or its virloity, this season. If the insect theory is correct it has not been corroborated by the clouds of flies whicla were neon comm, north. The disease at Staten Island was intrcduced by vessels from the West ludia islands, and every case that occurred has been dL,tinctty traced to contagion. J. G., of N. J.We cannot furnish you with one of the Seeving Machioes referred to. Address the Patentee. Gold in an acid solution, can be precipitated with com- ma a salt, assd then reduced to a solid by severe pressure or smelting By drivitsg off the acid by heal, the gold can 1 o be solilifled by Iscessure. The only way to prevent the evaporati rn r f a glass solution is to seal it up tight, or keep it at a low temperature in an ice-house, C. Y. II., of VaWe understand your ideas perfectly respecting employing hoe icregular poorer of wind by a mitt, to compress air in a strong vessel, and take the power from it to drive an engine regularly. This plan has been proposed a number of limos, but the great diffi- culty in carrying it out is to keep up a regular pressure in the air re~ervnir, whir h is absolutely necessary. S. XV. B., of MassIf the waler in your cistern which is placed above the boiler exerts a pressure on its base q at I r h pressure of the steam in tlse pipe under it, then he too rhould balanre each other exactly, but if tho psessure is usreqoat, the steam, if greatest, xviii rush up into the cistern, arid become condensed; ito pressure be towered, and the water wilt descend to the boiler. C. A, B,, of N 11.If you keep polished steel perfectly dry, it will not rust, but if you cannot do this you mstst coat it wi.h a varnish. Use copal varnish for thispurpose. W. C. T., of tbt.ttabetting metal, means to enclose a soft metal bearing in an iron shell, such as an alloy of copper, tin, and lead, or brass. E. E. B., of Ga. If you boil your cloth for awning.s in a weak solution of sulphate of copper, for one hour, then dry it, mtdew wiil not readily form on it. One pound of sulishate of copper is sufficient for Ili square yards. Write to Wells & Webb, Printers furnishers, this city, about your type. XV. F. V., of N. Y.You can use bleached cotton or linen cloth for window shades. They are prepared by brushiog them over with the best quality of painters varni h. ~ohn Mahoney, of Detroit, Mich., wants the best and cheape .1 machine tenawn for cuttissg shavings for mat- tres~es. Who can furnish Isim E. It., of MassFor further information respecting the reoving maclien address the party named in the paper. J. M. C. Reed, of Girard, Ala., wishes to procure a machine for sawing wood or shingle blocks, the machine to be portable, carried to the wood, and not the wood car- ried or applied to the machine. II. .1. F., of OhioGlazing is effected b;y a mixture of oxrd of lead and ground flint. These materials are first ground o an extremely fine powder, and mixed with wa- le: to form a thin liquid. The ovare is dipped into this Sod, and ovithdrawn. The moisture is soon absorbed by the clay, leaving the giazing particles on the surface. These are afterwards melted by the heat of the kiln, and thus constitute a uniform and durable vitreous coating. 15,3., of N. VThe process of making starcla is very stmple. Potatoes, for example, from which most of the starch of commerce is manufacisired, after being pared, are grated to a putp. This pulp is put upon a seive and stirred about, white at the same time a small stream of water is made to flow upon it. A milcy liquid flows through the seive, but the fibrous portion of the potatoe, the vegetable tissue, remains behiod. This liquid, after a short interval, deposits a while powder, which is starch. Starch can be obtained frono a great variety of plants. W. 11., of MassYour diogram and card do not prove that the moon has a rotation on its own axis, but that it re .oves round and with the earththe earth being the ants. D. P.., of MichWe do not think a patent could be precared on the modification you propose in window bli d stats. It would not be considered sufficiently novel tojostify an application for a patent. 3. M. T., of mdThe coffin level is not ofoufficient in- terest to en,rave The curved lever for the horse power would have a trifling advantage. tim for paper received. S. S., of MassThe old English law regulating the time hdes of various kinds shall be tanned, has, we believe, become obsolete, It is possible that such a law moy stilt be on the statue books, but we think it is never regard- ed. The introducer of an invention in England may oh- lain a valid patent, irrespective of the consent of the in- venor. 3. P. II., of TexasYou can procure hydraulic rami o W. & B. Douglass, Middletown, Conn, IMoneyreceived at the SciENTIFic AMERICAN Office, on accountof Patent Office businesefor the week ending Saturday, Oct. 11, 11156 B. & C., of N.H., $10 t An., of N. Y.,$55 t T. & C., ofMass.. $21; L.& W.,ofMo. $275; GO., ofN.Y., $23 H. P. T., of Mass., $30; 3. C. B., of Coon., 10; W, C., of Ala., $25~ J. F. N., ofN. C., hP5 Vii. P. F., of La., 015 S. Z.11.,ofTexas,$l.t; J.D.S.,of 0.525; 5. 5. Mof S.C.,$25,J.A.T.,ofPa.,$3OtJ.F.P.,ofN.Y., $31t G.S.,ofMass.,$33;J.W.C.,ofN.Y.,$3.trO.R.M.,of N.Y., 225; G. ilS., ofWis.,$25,J,J,W.,ofN.J., ShOt M.L.,ofN.Y.,$21; O.V.D.l$,ofItl., 25; G.S. ofIlt, 311 J. LofO., 25; 11. G.,ofC. W., 30; W.H. MeN., ofN.Y.,$20t C.& G. M.N.,of N. V.25; J. D., ofN. V., $25~ GD. L.. of N. V.. $25. Specifications and drawings belonging to parties with the following initials have been forwarded to the Patent Office during the week ending Saturday, Oct. 11th G.O.,ofN. Y.~ C.& G.M.W,,of N.Y.; J.F.W., of N. V. t W. 3. D., of N. V. t T. & C.. of Mass. G. D. L.. ofN. Y. t E. L. B,, ofR. I.; G. H. S., of Wis.; W. C., of Ala.; 0. lb. 11., of N. V. t N. 11. McN., of N. V. C. C.. ofXca. t A. G., of Mass.; lb. 0. J.. of N. J, t H. H., of Miss. lb. B., ofPa. Important Iteme. Itevacovons SEceosNo MonELs to our address should at- ways enclose the express receipt, showing that the trasasit expenses have been prepaid. By observing this rule ore are able, in a groat majority of cases, to pre- vent ttse coilection of double charges. Express com- panies, either through carelessness or design, often neglect to mark their paid packages, and thus, withoont the receipt to confront them,they mulct their customers at each et;d of the route. Look out for them. A Woon OF Wanesmreo.To those who have procras- tinated in renewing their subscriptions, but stilt design to renait in a foxy days, ave ovould say, be careful and not detay too tong. The back numbers of the present voinuse are runtitug tow, and some of our friends ace going to be disappointed, by and by, when they send in their siobocriptions, and order the back numbers, by a short reply back, Mache numbers ati gone, Monets Inventors, in constructing their models, should bear in mind that they must not exceed a foot in meas urement in either direction. They anti also remember that the law requires that all models shall be neatly and substantially made of durable materiat. If made of soft avood they should be painted or stained. We shall esteem it a great favor if inventors will always attach their names to sucha models as they send us. It with save us much trouble, and prevent the lia- bility of their being mislaid. PATENT LAWS ANO G,JIDE TO Ixvarxvonn.This pqm. phlet contains not only the laws but all information touching the rules and regulations of the Patent Office Price 12 1-2 cents per copy. A Circular, giving in- structions to inventors in regard to the size and proper construction of their models avith other useful informal lion to an applicant for a patent, is furnished gratis a this office upon application by malt. ReosrievsWhen money is paid at the office for subscrip- tion, a receipt for it will always be given; but when sub- scribers remit their money by maih, they may consider the arrival of the first paper a bona fide acknowledg- ment of the receipt of their funds. PATENT CLAIMsPersons desiring the chains of any in- vention which has been patented within fourteen years can obtain a copy by addressing a letter to this office stating the name of the patentee, and date of patent when hmnown, and enclosing $1 as fees for copying. BixnnooWe would suggest to those ovho desire to have thaeir volumes bound, that they had better send their numbers to this office, and have theno executed in a uni~ form style with their previous voiumes. Price of bind- ing 75 cents. Literary Notices. LIFE OF Geonue WAsHINGTONBy Washington Irv- ingVol. it of this superb w ek, doodecimo edition, has js;sl come from she press of G. P. Putnam & to., N. V. Ills embettished wi;h a likeness of lien. Putnam. The LiFe and (tharacter of George Washington, in the hands of such a literary artist as trying, rise in thaeir grandest proportions, and cannot lail to impress themselves upon the Americas; mind with increased poorer and attractions, We wish every family is; our land would procure Ilais work. It needs to be known and read far and avide, and its influence will be peacefut and salutary. We advise our readers to get this, the best Lite of Wacbtngton extant. tt is not only a narration of all the interesting eveinis of his oxvn career, but beconses necessarily a His- ry of the American Revolution. Tire ItseLsoTHatrA SAOnA.The number of this able theotogical review for Oct., contains articlee on Dr. Lop. sisss Universal linguistic alphabet; Authority and Obligation of the Sabbath ; -, The Bible in Schon s An Account of Bashan iturea, and Kenath, by 11ev, J. L. Porter, Missionary at Damascus; A Review of Top. ladys Works, and a long criticism on the Mosaic Nar- rative of Creation. try Prof. Barrows, of Andover, This is an able Essay, partly in reply to Prof. Lewis, of Sche- nectady. The previous number of this Beviesy avas not received by us. Published by XVarren F. Draper, Ando- ver, Mass. MusenATTo CieraissynyThe 11th and lCth numbers of this beautiful and thorough work, have just been issued by C. B. Russeli & Bros., Tremont-sI., Boston. The ttth contains a fine Sleet Ptate Portrait of Prof. Brando; thie articles treated are -- Bone Btack and Bleaching. When completed, this will be the most comptete single avork on Chenaistry yet pubtished. The price is Sit ceests per No. Tume IJcetoen STaTes MAGAzINe for October contain0 an ithestrased articte of interest on the Patent Office at tta.hington, besides other articles spicy and interesting. J. M. Emerson & Co., Publishers, New York. Terms of Advertising. Twenty-five cents a line each insertion. We respect- fully request that our patrons witi make their adver- tisements as short as possible. Engravings cannot be ad. mitted into the advertising cotumne. ~ Alt advertisements musthe paidfoi before insert. ing. p LUMIIEOL4 Universal Patent AgencyPlumbe- ohs and Du Buque, Ioaya. 6 ~* 7 0 WhOM IT M~Y CONCERNThis certifies in - that I hare one ot Wets & Cos Circular Saw Ahilts operation, with xnhich we are now cutting from ten to fifteen hou and feet of road plank per day (12 hoursl and ore have no dotsbt but we could, under favorable circum- stances, cur 41,009 feet in 12 hours. Our engine is 8inch. bore and 16-inch. strotue. Bolter 24 eet hong, 42 inches diameter, two itinch. flues. Our hogs are 8 feet lou,, mostly white ouhe. C. S. THOMPSON, Grand Blone, Genesee Co., Ntich, Sept. 13th, 1116. Orders for mills sent to H. Wells & Co., Florence, hampshire Co., Mass., will receive prompt attention. 6 teow IMPORTANT TO INVENT ORS. THE UNDERSIGNED having had Tew years practical experiesnee in soliciting PATENTS in this and foreign countries, beg to give notice that they con- tinue to offer their sees ices to all who may desire to se- cure Patents at home oc abroad. Over rtree llsssiouensd Letters Patent have heels isoued, whose papers were prepared at this Office, and on an average Inferno. or sue- hird of ailthe Patents issued each week, are on cases whi h are prepared at our Agency. An able corps of En moors, Examiners, Brau,htsmen. and Specification writers are in constant employment, which renders us abte to prepare applications on the shortest notice, while he experience of a long practice. and facilities which few others possess, we are able to give the most correct counsels to inventors in regard to the patentability of in centions pieced before us fur ex- amination. Private consultation respecting the patentability of in- ventions are held free of charge, with inventors, at our office, Irom 9 A. M., u atih 4 P. M. Parties residing at a distance are informed that it is gerweally unnecessary for them to incur the exp nose of attending in person, as all the stops necessary to s cure a patent can be arranged by letter. A rough skete ; and description of the imptove. moot shoutd be first fn ewarded, which are will examine and give an opinion a. to patentability, without charge. Models and fees can be sent with safety from any p art of the country by expro s. In this respect New York is more accessible than a sy othser city in our country. Circulars of informs ion with be sent free of postage to any one uvishing to lean n the preliminary steps towards making an appiication In addition to the ad antages which the long experience sod great success of on r firm in obtaining patents present to inventors, they are informed that eth inventions pat- ented through our esta otishment, are noticed, at 1sXe prop- er c me, in the Sotra CtFtO AstenteAcr. This paper is read by not less than 110,000 persons every oreek, and en- joys a very syide sprea I and substantial influence. Most of the patents ubtained by Americans in foreign countries are secured heough us; srhite ii is a-oil knoarn that a very large props etion of ait the patents appiied for in the U. S., go througo our agency. MUNN Or CO. American and Foes igo Patent Abtortolco, Principal Office 123 Futton stre t, New York. OR ~ALIiA C real Bar sin Valuable Foundry ~.. and Machine She a mi Xtont Ut or. opposite Phoersix- vitte, in ill onogomery o Pa The building is 10 x 120 fe-t, 2 stories high, any very desirable property. XXitl be sold with or avithout p uttertas to sutt purchasers. Atm a double frame daretlin house 3 5 x 32 feet, tuno and a half stories hbgh. This prosnerly wshl he sold at a t argain. For infrnrmatien inquire of OSEPII JO [I N SON, in Phoesoix- ville, or of JOEL FlP K Mont I are Pa. Pt ~ 1). BOBN 21 T Malleable and Gray Iron ~ Works. Hamilto i cor 01 McWhocter ot., Newark, N. 4. Orders prompt y astended to 0 it), AL 2 OF P T0 lNTi~Great Central Inventors, Manhinery ard latent Ilight Depot, No. 210 broad- xv. y roe of Fuiton xl N eon York. blur experiene in disposin.. ol rihts and extensive acquaintance throu5h- oust the Union has induced us to establi-h branch and connectss;g offices ia nil the principal dues; tinerefore ace baa e superior facilities for the purchase avd sate of isasehese. y and for th sate of such valuable patent ri,hts ausd patruted aetteles 5 s avith hear actuat desnonstration. Good re ererce given Address 151 A. & J. T. SPEER. ATFAl BUCK L 2The double jointed huct;le patented Sept. In. 17 2. is claimed to be tlse best in. ventiors is; the aray of auckles for asneoring app:urret, sus- penders, & c., that has ever been produsced. the enntire patent, or territory in States nosy be bought cheap of the palentee. Address. fs r further parsicutars, WILLIAM bLADE, Gum Creek. Dootey Co., Ga. I ~ Ul0l4iIOR tAt IJINISTS 100 5Stotliogma. chines, Planers, ompound Planers, Lailses, Drills, Gear Cutters, & c., & c , constantly on hand, an;d sunade to order at short noticeb - CAtbeENTIsb & PLASS, 470 First Avenue, N. V. 0 WThROFITABLE 4MPLOYMFNT FOR TIlE .~7 X5.intee months. Please 10 read this. Agents want. ed. Ex es inducemet Is for lOSt Alt persons in avant of employment wint at os ce receive our catalogue of snooks for the New Year. pee paid. by frewarding us their ad- dress. Particular attention is requested to the ii; erat of- fers we mae to all t nersons engaging in the sale of our large typo Quarto Pi Social Fansity Inible, wills about one thousand engravim gs. On receipt of the established price. -0, the Pictorir I Family bible, with a woL-bound Subseriplion Book, xvi I be carefully boxed and Ibewarded per express, at our elK t and expesase, to any central town or village in the U S. excepting those of California, t)re- gao, and Texas. Our books are sotd only by canvassers, and avell knoavo to be the most saleable. Address, (post paid,) R IBEIIT SEARS, Publisher, 1 181 bVitliamst., N. V. OODWBBTIlS PATENT PIAMXC, Tonguing, and Grooving MachinesThe subseri. her, from his twenty-f sue years experience both in ttao use and manufacture u fthese unrivalled maclames, is pre- pared to furnish them of a quality sutperior to any that can beproesseed elseayhern- for the same money. Pricesfcom 55 to $1150. Also so cerat good second-hand Planing. Tonguing, and Groovis g Machines fec sate. Eights Ike sale in ail the unoccut iod towns in Neav bock and Nor. thorn Pennsylvania. JOHN GIBsa2N. 5 12 Ptaniog Mills, Albany, N. V. TU 0 INVENTO~ S AND PATENTE~.Tho N.. undorOgned ha established an agency for the sate of patent rights in the rity of Baltimore, at No. 34 Second sireot. PHILtP T. TYSON. 5 50 A REQUESTLI BERAL OFFERWe propose to send to every p eson in the Usnited Sta es, who is interested in thie man ufacturo of lumber, or improved macbinrery, a full illu- tested description of tavo vatuabte inventions. First, THE COMBINATIs)N PORTABLE STEAM SAXY MtLL.This is a new upright mill, so simple to its con struclion that any one can put it up and run it is ea~sly moved from ptace to i lacemay be easit~ shipped to any part of the countryis capabie of cuttin.. from six to ten thousand feet in overt taressly-four hours axhite at the same time it is furnin hod at so tow a rate as to bcsng it avithin the reach of at nost every farmer and planter Second, RtCES PXTENT SP~-tlNG GbIDL The only effectual pian ox or invented for gusdin.s stead~in and strengthening a circular saxe, aylaiie ins moton XVe srists,therefore, o obtain a list of all the machsnisls lumbermen and saw- nih men in the I.. toil. d btate~ and to any person avho avit I send us a list of such partse~ in his vicinsuy. and the adde 55 of each, are avntl send so return a copy of the (Jolter States Journal. the largest illus: tested newspaper in t ue United States, for one year. lo case we receive more than one list from the same tocati- ty, we shall send the Journal to the party from arhom we receive the first tint, only. The New England States are not included in tinis offer, as ave have there aiready compieled a list, as do iced. J. M. EMERSON & CO.,1 Spruce street, Nexv-Y ark. 4 4 ~MPROVEMENT IN BORING MACIIIXESThis ~improvement consists of an arrangement by which tiso auger can be driven in any direction she operator elsooses, rendering the macbin far superior to any other now in use. IblitE & DRYD IN, XVorcesler, Mass. 4 451 IL PRESSES FOR SALEOne set usf Hori- zontal Oil Pressos, complete consisting of taco cyl. indero, lined with co per, and boxes contairnin, S bugs each ovith labs h- -antic pumps and connections, and heating tables, these presses are built in the most im- proved anod substanti& mansaer, and can be delivered im- mediately; sqoeezers and bags can also be furnishsed if required. Apply to Wil. ARTHUR & CO., Atlantic Steam Engine Works, Brootelyn, N.Y. 34. ABRISONS C RIST MILLS20, 311, 36 and 43 inches diameter, at 0100. y200, $300, and 400. with all the modern impro ements. Also, Portable arnsl Sta- tionary Steam Engines of all sizes, suitable for said Mlils. Also liollers, Elevate -s, Beth;;6, & c. & c. Apply to 3 ehwtf S. C. H1LLS, 12 Platn at., N. NW, ROBINSONS PATENT HEAD TURN- iNG AND PLANING MACHINE, for Heads of all kinds and descriptions; it will make from 200 to 150 heads per hour, of the most perfect description. There avilt be one on exhibition at the Crystal Palace, N. V., at the Fair of the American Institute, in October, where those arishing for Machines or Slate rights can see ii in opecasion and jsidge of iso noerils the themselves. Alt co. munications in relation to machines and rights should be addressed to ROBINSON, SCRIMNEIb & 10., Keosevitte, Essex Co., N. V. 1 0* ACIIINE BELTING, Steam Packing, Engine ltN HoseThe superiority of these articles manufac tured of vulcanized rubber is established. Every belt wilt be warranted superior to leather, at one-third less price. The Ste. so Packing is made in every variety, aind warranted to stand 0 degs. of heat. The hose ever needs olting, and is warranted to stand any required pres- sure; together with all varieties of rubber adapted to nierhanical purposes. Directions, prices. & c., can be ob- tained by mail or otherwise, at our warehouse. Nexy York Belting and Packing Co., JOHN H. CHEEVER, Treasurer, No. 6 Boy street, N - V. 48 21* EADY FOR AGENT~T11IMBLES FOR THE MILLIONS TItAT HUSK CORNThe under. sigssed is prepared to flht orders for GOULDS PATENT HUSKING THIMBLES, (Ihlussrated on pa oh 12, vol. xi., Sot. Am.) Bardwace Deaiers and Country Merchant0 are requested to send osi their orders at once. Satisfaction warranted, or no sale. Circulars sent on appiication. Address J. B. GOULD, (Sole Proprietor,) Alliance, Stack County, Ohio. 4 1* EIIIICULAR SA WSWe respeetfulty call the atten ~..tion of mass ufacturees of lumber to the gcea improve- ments recoosthy isitroduced in the asantifacture of our Circular Saars. Beissg sole proprietors of Sottthiwehhs patent ftr grinding sasvs, we are enabled to getind circular saws from six isiches to six fort with thae greatest accuracy asid precision. Tho imIossilliry of grinding a saw with- out leaving it osneres in thickness has always been ac- kusoartedged by practical saw makers. This causes the saxy to expand as soon as it becomes slighthy heated in urork- in,. tYhen Ilsis takes piace the sasv hoses its stifibess, and ovill not ens in a direct line. We will warrant our saws to be free from these derects n they are made perfectly even in tlsickness, or gradually increase in tbirknness froni the edge to the center, as may be desired, As tinere are no thirSt or thin places. the friction on tise surface of the sear is iThiform, consequently it snill remain stiff and true, and arilt req nice toss set and less power. XVIII saxo smooth;, save lumber, and will not be liable to become un- true. Ibls is Ilse oldest etablishnaens nosy iu; existence fnsr the manufacture of circular saws in shoe U nited States, having been istabllshed lus the year 1830. Orders re- ceived at our Warehouse, No. 48 Congress st., hush00. 4.4 11 -, WELCH & GR1FFlTBS. NITTING MACIBNESCiecular and straight and knitting machisres of all sizes and gauges on hand made to order. WALTER AlKEN, Frankliss, N.H. 44 i3 AGES PATENT P 5RPETUAL LIME I(ILX, wilt burr; 100 barrels of lime with three cords of wood every 24 hours; likewise my coal kiln wilt burn 110 bushel willi 1 tssh bituminous coal in thie same time; coal is not mixed syith limestone. tbighbs fr sale. 45 20 C. B. PAGE, Rochester, N. V. STEAM ENGINESFrom 3 to 40-horse power also portable engines and boilers; they are fiess class ersgineo, and will be sold cheap for cash. XV M BURIION, i02 FrosmI st., Brooklyn. 41 tf OLD QUARTZ MILLS of the most improved con- struction; will crush more quartz and do it finer thass any machine noxo in use, and costs much less. WM BURDON, lOo Front ot., brooklyn. 41 B AlliS CELEIITIAT 21) PORTABLE STEAM V Engines and Saav Milts, Bogardo. Horsepowers, Smut Machines, Saw and heist Mill icons and Gearing, Saw Gummers, Ratchet Brilts, & c. Orders Ike Bgh;t and heavy forging and castings executed with dispatch. LOGAN & LIDGER WOOD, 13 Iy~ 0 Gold st.,N.V. AGES PATENT CIRCULAR SAW MILLS with Steam Engine and Boiler, on hand and for sale hoe $ISOt). at Schenche Machine Depot, 12.3 Greeisasich st. New York. A. L. ACKERMAN. 40 10 ARREL .UACIIINERYCROZIER-S PATENT is unrivalled in point of quality assd quantity of xvork pecibrmed, and may be seen in constant operation al the Barrel Mattufactory of the undersigned. For rights and machines address WELCH & CROZiER, 43 iSO Oswego, N. V. F~3 0 CAR IIUILDERSFor Sale, one new Upright Boring Mitt toe boring car wheels. Makers price ,OsO, will be sold for 310 cash. Address GRO. S. LtN. COLN & CO., Hartford, Ct. lIf OILER FLUESAhI sizes and any length prompt ly furnishaed by JAMES 0. MORSE & CO., No. 79 51 3mos ROUGHT-IBON PIPEPlain, aiso galvanized inside and oubside, sold at wholesale by JAMES 0. MOiISE & CO., No. 70 John 51., N. V. 51 Imos ~ORBES& BOND, ArHst~, 19 Nassau st, N.Y., Me- kchanicaian d geosrat Draughtsmen on wood,ssone,& c, AGENTSFor unparallaled indisce- 1999 meots Send stamp to M. 3. COOK A. .d., Detroit, .Xlsch. 5 2* IL! OIL! OIL !For railroads, steamers, and for machinery and burningPease-s lmprovod Machsine- ry and Burning Oil will save fifty per cent., and will not gum. This oil possesses quatities vitally essential for lubri- cating and burning, and found in no other oil. ltis of fered to thie public upon thae most reliable, thorough, and practical test. Our toost skihiful engineers and maclsinist.s pronousnee itoupecior and cheaper tisan any olhsoc, and thse onhy olt tItan bs in atl cases reliable and witl not gum. The Scientific American, after several bob, pronounced it -- superior to any other tlsey have ever used for maclsin- ery. Foe sale only by the inventor and nianufacts;ree. F. S. PEASE, 01 Main st., Buffalo. N. V. And W. S. ROWLAND & CO., A,ents for Chicago, Iii. N. iReliable orders fitted for any part of the United States and Eturope. 1 tf ~RCROSS ROTARY PLANING MAChINE The Supreme Court of the U. S., at the Termoflllh and 1814, hsaving decided that the patent granted to Nich. oias G. Norceoss, of date Fob, 12, 1810, for a Rotary PIa- nisig Slachine for Planing Boards and Planks is not an infringement of the Woodworib Patent. Rights to use the N. G. Norerosss patented machhne can be purchased on appiication to~4. G. NORCHOSS, Office toe sale of rights at 27 St to street, Boston, and Lowell. Mass, 41 Cm 1~5T EW HAVEN MFG. CO.Machinists Toohs, Iron LI Planers, Engine and Hand Lathes, DrihIs, Itoll Cut- ters, Gear Cutters, Chucks, & c., on hand sod finbhing. Those Tools are of superior quality, sod are for sahe how for cash or approved paper. For cuts lying full descrip- tion and pc~ces, address, New haven At soudacturing Co ., New Haven, Coon. 1 If ARIIO.0NS 30 INCH GRAIN IILLSLa. test Patent. A supphy constantly on hamad. Price 200. Address New Baven Manufacturing Co., New Haven, Coon. 1 if Oh ER INCIOIJSTATIONS PREVENTED A simple and cheap condenser manufactured hf XVm. Burdon, 102 Front st..Brooklyn, will take every par. tides of lime or salt out of the water, rendering it as pure as Croton, before entering the boiler. Por-ons in want of suich machines will please state syhat the bore and stroke of the engines are, and what kind of water is to he used. 41 tf (9f~ ~cienti~c ~me~t1cane. ~cicncc an~r ~rt+ Pictures on the Retina of the Eye of a Deceased Person. It was recently asserted, by an English Burgeon, that the last scene viewed by a mur- dered man would remain impressed upon the retina of the eye, as does the impression upon the daguerreotype or the photograph. To test this assertion, the Auburn, N. Y., .qdvertiser, states that Dr. C. P. Sanford, of that place, examined the eye of J. H. Beadle ,who was murdered in Auburn. The editor says: We were present, during the examination, and have, at least, this testimony to hear: that there is truth in the principle involved. Dr. S. made a skillful dissection of the eye, and succeeded in bringing the retina, one of the most delicate of human organs, being an ex- pansion of the optic nerve, under the view of a microscope. There was nothing on the re- tina examined which would lead to the detec- tion of the victims murderer, but there was that impressed upon it which sufficiently es- t~ bushes tile fact that the retina retains the last impression made upon it.. Wh t we saw ourself we do not feel disposed to make an affidavit of, and therefore prefer not to state; but we will say that an ex mination of the reUna of an eve with a common microscope, reveals a most wondmrfu] as well us a beauti- ful sight and that in this instance we discov- ered, as upon a da uerreotype plate, plainly marked impressions at once interestina and startling to behold. We put these flicts on record with a view to arouse an interest in the subject that future experiments may be made, and the cause of science advanced. [We wish the editor had been a little more explicit. We do not believe that any such eli~ct is produced upon the retina of a de- ceased person~s eye as that described. It is stated that the picture is produced like that on a daguerreotype plate; now, how can this be the case, when such pictures are the result of chemical action, whereas, the pictures pro- duced on the retina are simply like those pro- duced on a looking glass. Sniaeitute for Ilops.Nitric Acid Compouads. A. Bebler and F. Quartin have secured a patent in England for a composition called iLupulied,)~ to be used as a substitute for hops in brewing. It is manufactured by add- ing two parts by weight of nitric acid to one part of some resinous substance, such as pitch, broken into small pieces, and heating the mixture over a slow fire until it begins to dis- til, into gaseous bubbles, when they move it from the fire and allow it to bubble over into a receiver. The heating is repeated, until the acid ceases to work the resin and throws it over. After cooling the product is washed to remove all traces of acid; it is then dried, and is fit for use as a substitute for hops. This substance is the distilled product of nitric acid and resin. The wonderful chemical results produced within the past few years with nitric acid and bydro-carbons, such as oils and resins, has excited astonishment. Nitric acid and a lit- tle alcohol mixed with tile most fcetid oils and then distilled, changes them into agreea- ble perfumed oils. Artificial tannin can be manufactured from nitric acid, charcoal and water. Take 1 part of charcoal by weight, ~5 of nitric acidof specific gravity 140and 10 of water. Mix the charcoal with the water in a flask, then pour in a part of the nitric acid, and heat up until lively effervesence and the escape of nit- rous fames ensue. In about two days the re- mainder of the acid is poured in, until the en- tire charcoal is digested. The liquor that is thus produced is of a dark brown color, and clear. The water is now driven oft by evap- oration, and the result is a brown mass, having a slight excess of acid. It is then washed several times, to remove the acid, after which it is evaporated to dryness by a gentle heat, and forms an artificial tannin product. M. Hatchett discovered this tannin, and he re- marks that all kinds of carbon will yield it by the action of nitric acid. Resins treated in the same manner will also produce artificial tannin. Syrnp from the ChInese Sugar Millet. The Calhoun (Ga.) Statesman states that Mr. J. Peters, of that place, has made about 320 gallons of good syrup this season from the juice of the Chinese sugar millet. Sixteen stalks yield a gallon ofjuice, and five gallons one of thick syrup, by evaporation. The stalks are simply run through between a pair of heasy rollers, the juice received into tubs, and then boiled down into syrup or molasses. In Georgia, the Statesman asserts that with proper cultivation 400 gallons may be obtain- ed from an acre of millet. The Boston (Niass.) Traveler states that J. F. C. Hyde, of Newton Center, has cultivated some of thi:~ millet this season, and has made a quantity of excellent molasses from it. It is stated tb~t it can be cultivated as success- fully as In han corn in Massachusetts, and that both yrup and sugar can he obtained from it. TI us is a question which should ar- rest the attontion of our farmers. Not one or two experin ents, but a great number are re- quired to de 2ide whether or not this plant can be cultivate I with economy, for the purpose of extractin ~ syrup or sugar from it. The warm regions of our globe now furnish our saccharine r iatter; it yet remains to be proved whether cob ler climates can furnish a cheap su ply. NEW MOWING MAC:~rINE. The accompanying engraving illustrates an made in the usual manner, and smooth cutting improvement in Mowing Machines, for which edges employ ed. But any other kind of cut- letters patent were granted to Mr. Henry F. ting device nay be used if desired. The gear- Mann, of Westville, Ind., June 2d, 18156. ing is arrangsd in a firm and compact man- The principal novelty consists in a peculiar ner, and ther is little or no trembling when arrangement and construction of the frame, at work. A four feet driving wheel is used. which permits the employment of a very large This invention has been thoroughly tested driving wheel, causes the machine to run in competition with others of the best reputa- easy, diminishes the weight, and lessens the tion, and is mid to be superior in several im- cost of construction. The driving wheel, A, portant parti ulars. It requires less power to large gear wheel, B, and pinions, are of cast- drawn it, is :nore easily handled, weighs con- iron, but all the other parts are of wrong: 4- siderably lest, is not likely to get out of or- iron, put together in the manner shown in our der, is extreriely simple, durable, etc. For cut. The tongue is so placed as almost to do further information address the inventor, as away with side draft. The cutter bar, C, is above. NEW MARBLE SAWING MACHINE. New Marble Saw, gearing into the toothed wheel H, which is The maehine illustrated by our engraving, secured by a :atch and spring to drum F. invented by Josiah Ashenfelder, of Philadel- The saws I are hung on chains I, which phia, and patented June 3, 1856, is principal- are fastened o 1 pins K, arranged at convenient ly intended for sawing up blocks of marble distances on (1mm A, and to drum A, by be- into angular shapes, such as monuments, but ing wound on the small shaft L, placed near it may be used with e ~ual advantage in saw- the top of the drum for the purpose of strain- ing slabs. The method of adjusting and changing the angle at which the saws cut, is both simple and accurate. The drums A A, with their shafts, B B, rest in the flanged boxes, C, to allow them to rise and fall freely in the slotted guides, D. The drums and connections to be raised and lowered by means of the chains or cords by which they are suspendedbeing fastened to boxes C, and passed around the grooved pul- leys E, and wound on the drum F, which is operated by the thread G, on the driving shaft ing the saws. The rods M, serve to give mo- tion to drum A, and also as a stay against which to strain the saws. The rods N, by keeping the shafts, B B, equi-distant, prevent undue friction on guides D, in straining the saws. The guide t ars, 0, are ho ltedto the rods, N, and are prov. ded with slots through which the saws pass and are guided. The saws are operated from the drums A A, which receive an oscillating motion in the ordinary manner, from short cr Inks P, connecting by rods, Q with long cranks, R. To change the angle of the saws it is merely necessary to shift the chains I, on the pins K, and shaft L, to the angle desired, and adjust the saws in the guide bars to suit. The block of marble in the engraving repre- sents one mode of sawing by which no less than twenty-five monuments c~n be cut from a block of sufficient sizeusing six saws, at three cuts, as will appear at Cl, representing the first cut, by which five tapering slabs are sawed, requiring two more cuts to perfect them, and with not more than one-eighth the waste of the ordinary machine. For further information address S. A. J. Salter, Queen street, Kensington, Philadelphia. Explosion on a Steamboat. The steamboat Isaac P. Smith exploded its steam-chest, on the 8th inst., near Haverstraw, on the Hudson River, scalding to death two firemen, and severely injuring the engineer. It is stated that it was racing with the Glen Cove when the accident took place. We hope the Inspectors will give this case a thorough examination. lattessl ia Ducks. Ducklings intended for the table should be confined in a warn-i house, never 1)0 allowed to swim, and hive an unli~nited supply tsf food. A mixture of three parts of Indian corn meal and one part potatoes, moistenhd sliaht. ly with the. weshings of dishes, the liquor in which meat ha lieeti boiled, or milk, with a few nn~ round vra ins of barley once daily, fat- tens them quickly. The temperature ol the valley of Sacramento (Cal.,) durin~ the day, in summer, ranges from i02~ to l2O~,in the shade. SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN. TWELFTH YEAR Read! Read!! Read!!! The most extensively circulated, the most lnteres~ log, reliable. attractive, and cheapest publication of its kind, is the SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN. It has, by far, the largest circulation, and stands, by common con sent, at Ihe head of all other scientific papers in the world. Its contributors and Editors are PaAcvscAa, ENEROjETIC, and EXPERIENCED MEN, whose con- taut endeavor is to extend the area of knowledge, by presenting it to the mind, in a simple, attractive, and practical form. The SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN is printed once a week, in convenient quarto form for binding, and pre sents an elegant typographical appearance. Every num her contains Eight Large Pages. of reading, abundantly ilisustrated with ORIGINAL ENGRAVINGS. All the most valuable patented discoveries are delinea ted and described in its issues, so that, as respects inven. tions, it may be justly regarded as an ILLUSTRATED REPERTORY, where the inventor may learn what has been done before him, and where he may bring to the world a KNOWLEDGE of his own achievements. REPORTS OFU. S. PATENTS granted are alsopub. lished every week, including 0 nat Cepiea ot all the PATENT CLAIMS. These Claims are published In the Scszavssxo AsusascAle in as~vassce sf alt other pa. per.. Mechanics, Inventors, Enginsers, Chemist, Manufac. tusrers, Agricoslturists, and People ef every Profeooisn in Ls~fe, will find the SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN to be of great value in their respective callings. Its counsels and suggestions will save them Ilssndrcds of Dollars an nually. besides affording them continual source of knowledge, the experience of which is be yond pecuniary estimate. A NEW VOLUME commenced September 11, 1116 Now is the time to subscribe! Specimen Copies sent gratis. TERMS OF SUJ5SCRIPTION$2 a year, or $1 for six months. CLUB RATES. Five Copies for Six Months, Five Copies for Twelve Months, 55 Ten Copies for Six Months, 55 Ten Copies forTwelve Months, Fifteen Copies for Twelve Months, 522 Twenty Copiesfor Twelve Months, 5?~ For all Clubs of 20 and over, the yearly subscriptio only $140. Post-pay ailletters, and direct to MUNN & CO., 128 Fulton street, New York. ~ For list of Prizes, see editorial page. OF THE ~t b*~1~

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Scientific American. / Volume 12, Issue 7 49-56

~tiudiiFii THE ADVOCATE OF INDUSTRY, AND JOURNAL OF SCIENTIFIC, IY[ECHANICAL, AND OTHER IMPROVEMENTS VOLUME XII. THE Scientific American, WEEKLY At 125 Fulton street, 2~. Y. (Sun Buildings.) BY MUNN & CO. 0. D. MUNN, 5. H. WALE5~ A. H. BEACH. Responsible Agents may also be found in all the prin~ cip at cities and towns in the United States. Single copies of the paper are on sale at the office of publication and at all the periodical stores in this city, Brooklyn, and Jersey City. TEUNI~~2 a.year,~j in advance and the re- mainclec in six months. Lr9~ See Prospectus on last page. No Traveling Agents omployed. Gravel Walls. A correspondent inquires of us if gravel walls for houses have been a failure, and if they have, thinks the fact should he extensive- ly circulated as a matter of useful informa- I tion. We have been told that gravel walls for houses have one had feature, namely, they admit a great amount of moisture during long rainstorms. But for this defect (which can be remedied by a coating of cheap mastic cement,) we are assured they are both cheap, handsome, and durable. But we wish it to be distinctly understood, that no material, however strong, beautiful and cheap it may be for walls, should ever be employed for house building if it does not exclude the mois- ture in wet weather. Anothor SciessUlic Exst,.lj I sn. Professors More and Francis, of Iowa, have gone on an exploring tour to the Andean re- gions of tlte Equ~dor. The object is geograph- ical and geological research. They will spend some months among the volcanic regions of tile Andes, rcspecdng which little is now known. Such men extend the area of useful knowledge; we wish them success, and a safe return ftom their perilou5 enterprise. Ncw Barrel head NI clslsse. Our engraving illustrates tsn invention for cutting out and ~)laning barrel heads, by N. ~V. Robinson of Keeseville, N. Y. The draw- iltg is from a working ma cltine itow on exhi- bition at the American Institute Fair, Crystal Palace, N. Y., where its operations attrect great attention. The rough hoards are ted in on one side of the machine, and transformed, with great rapidity, into round barrel heads, planed, beveled, and finished in the most per- fect manner. The heads may be composed of two or more pieces, and the boards, laid side by side, are fed in by rollers, upon the ring bed, A ,where they rest. B is a pedal, connecting, beneath the floor, with rod C, and by lever D with rod B. The latter, at its lower end, connects with another ring, F, whose periphery is furnished with a series of clamps or points, each clamp being separate and pressed down by a spring. The boards having been fed in upon ring A, the operator pushes down pedal B, with his foot, which causes ring F, with its many clamps, to press down upon the boards and hold them fast. The operator now presses down the clutch lever, G, which lifts the revolving shaft, H, and brings the cutters, I, up through rIng A, against the under side of the boards. The cutters, I, mark the circle of the barrel head, and cut half way through the boards. The outter head, J, to which the cutters, I, are at- tached, is so made that the cutters may be set further in or out from the center, and be thus accommodated to the cutting of different sized heads. NEW-YORK, OCTOBER 25, 1856. NUMBER 7. MACHINE FOR CUTTING AND PLANING B4RREL HEADS. M is raised, it locks into a notch in rod P, and This machine is strong, substantial, and op- continues to hold bed K against the bottom of erates with the greatest success. It dresses the boards, the heads to a mtiform thickness, or the thick- The operator now presses down pedal Q ness may be varied at pleasure. We are which, through rod R and lever s, acts on informed that one man can cut and finish from shaft T, and brings its lower end down through 1~O to 200 head~, per hour, with one of these ring F, upon the upper surface of the boards. The lower end of shaft T is furnished with cut- ters which complete the operation, by cutting through the boards, beveling the edges of the head and planing off its surface, all at once,leav- ing the head perfectly finished. Lever M is now released, bed K lowered and swung out,leaving upon its surface the barrel head complete. K is the handle by which K is swung in and out. Shaft T is revolved by means of belt T, and shaft H by belt H. U is a swinging cover, to prevent the chips and shavings from flying As soon as the cutters, I, have operated, about. they are lowered, and the swinging bed, K, Fig. 2 is an enlarged view of the bottom of which is supported and swings on shaft L, is the tool holder at the extremity of shaft T, by swung under ring A. Lever M is now raised, means of which the head is planed, beveled and by acting through segments, N, and shaft, and cut out. In this figure V is the cutter O,liftsshaftL,carriesbedKupthroughring which does thebeveling;W cuts out the A, and presses it against the under surface of head, and X are the planes, which smooth the the board. Swing bed K thus forms a firm un- surface; Y are springs which rest on the bar- der support for the barrel head. When lever rel head and hold it down. of heads, out of boards of different thickness- es, at the same time. The handling and sort- ing of the stuff is thus saved. Neither is it necessary to saw the boards up into short pieces, for the machine works up long boards equally as well as short. We are told that by the common hand method of making barrel heads, a man can only make 80 or 100 per day, but by the use of this machine he can make from 1~00 to 2000 heads in the same time. The cutters are all arrangcid so as to be adjustable to cut different sized heads they may be also easily taken out for grind- ing, & c. Flat or crowning heads may be cut, as described. Price $~00 and up. For fur- ther information apply at the Palace or ad- dress the inventor as above. Patented May 6, l8~56. The total amount of foreign emigration to the United States from 1819 amounts to 4,212,624, up to December, 1855. Of these 2,343,445 were natives of Great Britain and machines, and ntore with the assistance 0f keland. another person. The clamps on ring F being all independent, and each pressed down by its Boone~s Cordage Machine is advertised in n spring, perntits the clamping and cutting another column. I w ~cientific ~n~crh~an+ IMPORTANT NOTICE. When an individual has m~de an invention, the first inquiry that naturally suggests itself ts, Can I obtain a Patent s A positive answer to such questions is only to be had by presenting a formal application for a palest to the government, embracing a petition, and oath, speci- fication, model, two drawings, and the payment of the official fees. Aside from these steps, all that the in- vrntor can do is, to submit his plans to persons expe rienced in the business of obtaining patents, and solicit their alsinions. If they are honorable men, he amy con- fide to thens his ideas with perfect safety, atid they will inforns him whether or not they regard his invention as patentable. Those who wish to consult with ourselves on suds matters, are at liberty so do so, either in person, at our office, or by correspondence through the mails. For such coussittations we make no charge. We shall be happy, at all tirries, to examine inventisiss, and wiligive conscien- tious opinions as to their patentability. Pen and ink sketches of the improvement, and a writ- lets description of the same, should be sent. Write plain; do not use pencil or pale ink, and be brief. Remeniber that all business committed to our rare, and alt onsu.ttamione are kept by us secret and strictly confidentiaL Parties wishing to apply for patents are irnormed that they can have the necessary drawings and documents promptly prepared at this office, on the most reasonable terms. Itis not necessary for them to go to the expense ssf a journey in order to be personally present. All the required business can be just as well arranged by corres- pondence. Models may be sent by Express. We leave been engaged to the business of procuring patents for years, and have probably had more experience than any other firm in the country, owing to the fact that the amount of business done by us equals, if it does not exceed, that of all other professional patent agents in the Ctiited States combined. A large proportion of all. the patents annually granted by the American gov- eminent, are prepared and conducted by our firm. We have in constant employment an able corps of exam- iners and draughtsmen, whose duties are so systematical- ly arranged, under our own personal supervision, that every case committed to our care, receives the most care- ful study and attention, and the most prompt dispatch. In every instance we endeavor so to draw up the claims and prepare the whole case, that the patent, if granted, will stand the test of the courts, and be of value to the owner. Patents secured through our agency are scattered all over the country, and in this respect they speak for themselves. to addition to the advantages which the tong expe- rience, great success, promptness and moderate charges of our firm, in obtaining patents, present to inventors, they are informed that all inventions patented through our eslablishiment, are noticed editorially, at the proper tisee, in the SciENTisic AMERicAN, without charge, This we are enabled to do from the fact that, by prepa- ring the case, we become familiar with its peculiarities. Our paper is read by not less than 75,000 persons every week, and has a wide-spread and substantial influence. Isiventors, we believe, will generally promote their own interests by confiding their patent business to our care. Address MUNK & CO., 128 Fulton street, New York. [Reposted Officially for the Scientific American.] LIST OF PATENT CLAIMS Issued rrom the IJnlted States Patent Office FOR THE WEEK ENDING OCTOBER 14, l8~6. RruunAviseo THE DRAFT OF STEAM IIOILERs-... Pliny E. Chase, of Philadelphia, Pa., I claim the ap- paratus osibstantially as described, when constructed and arranged so that the action of the steam in the boiler, 13, when at or above the maximum pressure desired will cause the draft through the fire box, F, to be reversed, and pass dawn through the fire, and again resume its for- mer course in the opposite direction when the pressure is reduced to the minimum, for the purpose specified, MANURE DssTeieuToaJ. W. Barnes, of Murrees- bore, N. C. I claim the hinged side, a, combined with the hinged bottom, as setfocth. PUMPWilliam T. Barnes, of Buffalo, N. Y., and Jacob Barnses, of Oakville, Canada West We claim, first, the employment of the priming reservoir, U, or its equivalent which is connected to the pump, T, and fills it with wa: ter by the action of the pump, whirls water is held by the supporting box, V or its equivalent, and can be dis- charged to prune the pump by pulling the cord, W, or its equivalent, for the uses described. Second, we claim the combination of the levers, G G, with the piston rods, N N, and the connecting rods, H H, and rocking beam, K, in manner shown for the purposes set forth. GRAiN SEPARAToRsJoel W. Cormack and Ferdi- nand C. Walker, of Quincy, Ill. We claim the cylin- drical cheat box into which the air tube en ore, arranged as described, and for the purpose set forth. We claim the flanges, i, and funnel, k. or their eqstiva lent, in combination with the tube, C, for the purpose of creating the spiral or whirlwind blast in a grain separa- tor, as described. Axe PoLesDavid P. Estep, ofPittsburg. Pa., Iclaim the manufacture of axe poles liy compiessing one half only of the axe pole at each operation between dies or swages of the shape described, projertiog from the face of the rolls in which they are set, so that the axe pole ran be inserted and withdrawn without coming in contact with the rolls, in combination with the use of the adjus- tat he giside, g. either attached to the dies or separate therefromlor the purpme of applying the pressure neces- sary to berm the axe pole. in such a monner as to leave snyexcessordeflci ocyof iron in the head of the axe pole, thos securing exact uniormily in the two sides of the axe pole. and ersabhiseg axes of various size to be iniade from the same dies, by simply adjusting the distance of the rolls and the guage, substantially as described. IIAOiTEOTERsCaros W. Glover, of Roxbury, Cono. I claim attaching the flisger bar, E, to the guide box, It, which is fitted over the fianch, b, of the driving wheel, A, as shown, the guide box having the two shafts, C 15, attached to it, by wlsich moulton is coomunicated to the sickle from the driving wheel, and the bar, F, attached to the finger bar by hinges or joints, k. and Ilse guide box, B, to the rod, H, the whole being arranged as shown, for the purmuose set forth. [This invention consists in a peculiar construction whereby the machine tegreatlysimplified, made to work with a light draft. All the parts which require to be ad- ~usted are located within reach of the drivers seat. STmcxms.mo PINS IN PAPERWalker B. Bartram, of Waterbury, Coon., I claim, first, the separator and spacer, composed of a series of bare, y y yin, etc., having a simultaneous movement at right angleo, or nearly so, to the line of pine in the p in feeder, to the line in which the pins are inserted an a movement one after the other in a direction parallel or nearly so to the said tine, and operating substantially as and for the purpose set forth. Second, thee construction of Ilse driver, L, with recess- es in its face to receive the heads of the pins and act in conjunctioms with the paper afier the points of the pins have penetrated it to serve the purpose of guiding thee psos straight and parallel through the paper, thus ena- bling the holder to be opemeed to make room for the dri- ver, substantially as described. Third, the stop. V. acting in combination wills the sep- arsotor and sparer, substantially as described, to retain the pins behind the separator and spacer after a number suf- ficient for one ross has been to en mm the feeder by the separator and spacer, but to be moved away by the selsarator and soccer Fourth, the bar, Q. operating in combination with the forceps. o o, substantially as described, to form a second holder below the principal holder, P P*, and more per- fectly secure the upright and parallel position of the pins during the comesmencement of the driving operation. [It would be difficult to describe the above invention without engravings. It possesses several advantages over the pin-sticker machines in common use, among whIch may be mentioned the following t Owing to the peculiar manner of separating the pins and carrying them towards the devices by which they are placed in the paper, it is almost impossible to leave out a sinegle pin from a row, while in the machines in common use, in which the pins are taken one at a time by the separator, so many pins ere missed that much time is lost in oupplytog their place by hand. Second, the work is much more easy and simple for the person in charge of the machine, and a much greater amount of work is performed in a given time. Third, the pine are held more firmly in the paper, owing to the crease being held closed by forceps during the insertion of the pins through it, and afterwards slight- ly opened by the tension produced on the paper in draw- ing it through the machtne, which causes the paper to bite upon the pins. Fourth, the sharp front edge of the crease seroduced by the forceps gives the paper a neater appearance. This improvement is an important and val- uable one.] OeEeuneo ANO CLoemNo FARM GATEsDennis E Feon, of Tallmadge, 0., I do not claim lifting the gate so as to unlatch it by the same movement or device, which causes it to swing cpezs, as I am aware that such an arrangement is not new. But I claim the cam, P. with its alternate elevation and depressions iii combination with the arm, II, and double-jointed hinge, G I, arranged and operating sub- stantially as describad. PsaraseNS LAnOER.Domenlco Giambustiani, of Washington, D. us,, I claim the combination of the fold- ing foundation frame, e e, with the detachable single laddet sections, a a b b c c d d, as above described, and for the purpose stated. PUMPSEdwin T. Limo, of Richmond, Va., I do not claim a reciprocating piston working in a pump barrel, Ind provided with two valves, when said barrel te fur- nished with two on each side of the piston, and only one eduction pipemy pump, as described, having two in- duction passages, and one eduction passage each stroke or vibration of the piston, when the pump is elevating a liquid, cansisig ouch liquid to be drawn at once through both induction paseages, and be discharged out of the central discharging chamber of the piston. lInt I claim the coosbination and arrangement of the two induction passages or branches c d, by calve chamber 1) Enheir four valves F F, G G, the re.eiving and de- livering chambere g g, f. their four valve openings, i iii, provided with a separate valve to each, or one vibrating plate, K made to operate between them, substantially as specifies1, the piemon being proveded with an edurmion opening or paesage, and the whole being arranged and made to operate within a ryBodrical case, A, essentially as specified. I do not claim a valve made to operate in connection with two valve openings only, or so as to close them alter- nately. But I claim combining and arranging four valve-open. togs, t i i t, with one vibrating plate, K, as described, so that it may vibrate between them, and opposite sides of it, and cover two of them, at the termination of each of its vibratiom. ESCAPEMENT MovEMENTs ma AUTOMATIC FANS Don J. Mozart, of Xenia, Ohio, I claim in combination with sectional scape-wheels, D H, the banking-pin, 13, meeting the sections thereof at each vibration, substan- tially in the manner and for the purposeS set forth. HAreamNo RECIPROCATING SAwsJohn H. More, of West Tiny, N. Y., 1 claim, first, the hinged-jaws, J J, and screws, e e e e. Second, I claim the finished faces on the jaws, J J~, of the fixed body of the stirrup. in combination with the hinged-jaws, and for the purposes set forth. PORTE-MONNAIKSJOhO L. Mason, of Germantown, Pa., I claim the construction of the whole of the pockets of a porte-monnate, or other article of a simBar character, from a single piece of leather, by a system of folding, substantially as described, [The above invention is applicable to porte-monnales or any other articles of similar character, which contain pockets. It consists in forming every portion of any number of pockets, from a single piece of leather, or other material, by a system of folding which gives greater strength and durability than the modes of construction generally adopted. The common mode is to form the sides and bottoms of the pockets of one piece, a3d the ends thereof of two other pieces. A saving of labor and material is effected by thie improvement, and a better arti cle produced.] SAwmnen SToNEJohn North, of Middletown. Coon., claim sawing two inclined sides of a slab of marble or stone at one operation; the two inclined reciprocating saws, connected with one and the same rotating driving shaft, by the oblique connecting-rods, c c~, each rod hav- ing four joints, as set tbmth; the whole being arranged and operating in the manner and for the purposes set forth. ADJUSTABLE STIRRUP FOR SAwMnLL PITMEN5, C. Noccross, of Dixfield, Ste., I do not claim the bolts, E, by which the stirrups and pitman are secured to the saw. But I clasm the manner of attaching the stirrup to the pitman, substantially as set forth, whereby its position on the pitman, and consequently the length of the pilman, may be varied, for the purpose of altering the position of the saw, with respect to the log. SUBMARINE ExPLORINO AaseonsLodner D. Phil- lips, of Chicago, Ill., I claim, first, a submarine armor with which the explorer can be wholly invested, compo- sed entirely of m tal, having free and easily moving jointed-limbs, and from within which the explorer may give motion to the armor and operate the external means as set forth. Second. connecting with such armor a collapsible exte nor vessel, so united ovith the interior air-chamber, as to allow of its being inflated, and buoy up the armor as described. Third, arranging tlse rods for operating the external tongs or nippers, within the tubular arms, as setforth. BiezeneNo MevAs. PIPEJ. Perkins & W. H. Bumnet, of Newark. N. J., We claim the mandrel, substantially as described, with the traversing roller Is, or its equivalent, tar bending coils of metal pipe, and in combination there- with, the furnace, in the manner and for the purposes set forth. CyLINDeRs FOR COTTON GINS AND MACHINE CARDs loho L. Tuttle, of New-York (itye I claim the manner described of making cylinders for cotton gino, or for card- ing or cleaning engines, viz., by introducing the fluid metal, which into unite the teeth to the cylinder between the cylinders a d and through the openings e, into the space t, whirls unites the whole into one rigid mass, and avoids thc danger of irregular flowing of the melted metal, as set forth. GUIDES Fore WORKING BUTTON HonEsOtis Avery, of Bethany, Pa. u I do not confine myself to the use of the spiral groove 0 the tube to give a rotary motion to the tweezers, as tisat motion may be given by making a twist or screw to he tweezers, or they may be revolved by the thumb wh le in the act of moving the tweezers back and forth to atch tIme thread. I claim the con bination of the sliding plate with the revolving toveezes, operating and arranged substantially in the manner an I for the purpose set forth. CANAL htnlnum Balsam G. Anderson. of Chillicothe, 0., I claim comeseructing the bridge of three parts, B C C, the parts, C C, being connected by jousts, F,to part, B, and havi; g their supporbs, B, provided with the ers, a, wletch worl on curved ways, N, at the rotl- bottom of the canal, subotan tally as described, for the purpose set forth. [The above con ists in having the bridge made of three parts, one of whir s is permanent, and forms one half the bridge, and conser nenthy extends half way across the ca- nal. The other h lf of the bridge is divided lengthwise into two parts, wh ch are connected by joints to the sta- tionary part. Thu two parts last mentioned rest upon supports, which I ave rollers in their lower ends, said rollers working ur on curved ways at the bottom of the canal. The tovo je toted parts of the bridge may be open- ed or thrown around when necessary, so as to allow boats to pass through as d also close, so as to form a perfect and entire brid~e;t other times.] PAPeRINo PassLydia Atwood and C. (10. Crosby, administrators of( harles Atwood, deceased, late of New York City; I cIa m fabricating a new article of maseu- facture, called die sound pin-cushions, by sticking pins in ranks or rows through a staple or U-shaped piece of pa- per, the heads of; he pins projecting sufficIently far to al- low the pins to be easily and conveisienuly withdrawn by thee fingers for use. The pins being inserted upon two planes of the paper, with the heads projecting beyond the points a suitab.e distance to protect the points of the pins from being drubled or blunted, all the other portions of the pins being erotected by the paper and sustained by it at a short dis sore fronts the heads and points by the paper making a so id mass of pins set in diamoseds with regard to each other, but not in contact, and which usu- ally contains the r squisite quantity of pins for an ordinary paper for toilet use in a small compass, as specified and represented. ExcAvAToRSI ames Bourbin, of San Francisco, Cal., Iclaim thee ap~hication of any number of shovele re- ;g from one center on the circular prin- cipal. also the diflerent appliances by which the shovels are directed in tIs ir different movements, as described, STICKING PINS IN PAPERLydia Atwood & C. 0. Crosby. administrm tore of Charles Atwood, derd., hate ot Nsw York City I claim the vibrating Dippers, V. armed with a knifin; or double inclined plane for separa- ting the pins, torn og them from a vertical to horizontal position, as specifi d. Second, I claim the straight inclined conductor, K, when combined with the nippers V with their eepara- hog points, as carr er, as described. Third, I claim the lipped driver, K, for driving the pin along a raihwa~ or be a erally into the groove to be stuck into the paper, when it acts upon the pin before the vibrating nip er lets go its hold. Fourth, I Jaim she lateral driver or its equivalent, for the purpose of deli rering the pin under the spriseg hold- er, y, as a means o controlling the pin until it is inserted into thee paper. Fiflh, I claim th.s combination of the sticking driver, P. and its guiding groove with the vertical crimping bars, when the bars perissit the paper to pass over their ends vertically in the p ocess of sticking p ins. Sixth, I claim thee feeding rollers, Y z~, or their equiv- alents, for the purgose of holding thea paper and control- ling it at such a c istance from the guiding rollers, x x x, as will allow the paper to pass up anid down without moving thee spools chile the rollers are in motion. Seventh, I chaise thee rollers and carriages which con- trol pins and thee paper, for the purpose of moving the paper forward tote rmittently, and up and down intermit- tently, to spare off thee rows of pins, and to space thee dis- tance between sa ~h succeeding pin in the same row, the ends of thee p sper resting on spools, Y z dissected from the machine, UTERINE SUPPC RTERSWihhism Provines, of Colum- bia, Missouri, I cl sim the combination of the ball and the valve apparats. s, described in the manner and for thee purposes set forth. BEE HsvxsChnrhes Pawling, of New Pittsburg, Ohio, I claim the arrangement of thee bee entrances H H with the moth entrance, f f f, and moth receptacles E l~ G P. when located as set forth and described, and for the pur- pose stated. WASHING MACSSINEsJacob Purkey, of York, Pa. m I claim the recipro -ating corrugated or fluted board or rubber C, in comb nation with the rollers, J m the rollers being attached to the chains, I I; the board or rubber and rollers, being rranged and operating as shown and described, for the mmurpose specified. [The foregoing improvement consists in thee employment of a vertical wash. hoard, which moves up and down be- tween a series of -oilers. Said rollers are attached to chains which yield when the clothes are put in between the rollers and boa d.] APPLYING TAN LIQUOR TO HIDESSamuel W. Pin- gree, of Methuen, Itass. I do not claim the separate use of any of thee cheese ical materials mentioned, for the pro- cess of tanning, as s am aware that all of them have been before employed, mod particularly, I do not claim the neutralization of the alkali, by the use of sulphuric acid, preparatory to thee otroduction of the hides into thee tan- ning liquor. But 1 claim the use of the catechen and thee sumac, and alum, with referer me to the application of the bark or strong tanning hiquier, as stated, and so as to produce ef- fects as set forth, am d in the order as specified, when the hide is tanned with thee hair on it. Spasree BED BoevosesChas. Scheroder, of New-York City m I claim the arrangement of springs laying horizon- tally, and connecte I together in the manner and for the purpose specsfied. WneeLwasonTs MACHINEJohn Sitton, of Williams- ton, S.C. I do no claim the several devices described separately; but I c aim them when combined and opera- ted as specified. Fmremsnmreo CASe ER Wnra,LsPhilos B. Tyler, of Springfield, Mass., It will be obvious to all mechani- cians that stamping between dies the two surfaces of a piece of metal, is n it new, and I hay no claim to such an operation, or to mom ugatiseg thee disk of a wheel which is old; but the smoothing of the surface of a caster wheel or roller, on the piate or disk connecting the hub and rim, and condensing the metal ire the operation, instead of removing it, has never beibre been done to my know- ledge; its advantat es are obviousit prevents spoilsog any of the castings cy imperfect manipnslation.it greatly strengthens the dish, a, hardening it, and making it stiffer, and insures an equ ol thickness in all its parts, or a pro- portional thickness as desired, the disk can be smoothly finished and corrugated, as easily as if it were a plaso surface, and the expedition and cheapness with which thee operation is per termed, greatly reduce thee labor and cost of the onanufarsure of the article, I do nut claim the. process of stamping or swaging, as they are well-koso n devices, and are used for various purposes, such as soaking rail-road wheels of wrought metal, and other an trIes. But I claim flints sing caster rollers, and hike articles made ofrast metal, by stamping them in dies, substantial. ly in the manner am d for the purposes described, whereby in finishing, the dis. is hardened, and its thickness deter- mined with exactoc a, insuring the maximum amount of strength with the smallest weight of metal. COTTON GireeJoho L. Tuttle, of New-York City; I am aware that a go ard or shiel:., which might be termed a straight-edge, tho igh not thin enough to pass under thee seeds, has been noel; but do not know that a roller, such as described, has ever been used in connection there. with, eo as to romps etely keep back the seeds, which my invention does rum sletely. I do not claim tlt e knocking-roller and straight-edge when used separately, with the toothed-cylinder, as they have been thus usest. But I claim the c. embined use of the straight-edge and roller, for stopping end returning the cotton seeds to the breast of thee machi no and allowing the fiber only to pass through, substantia ly as set forth. FORsItreo HAT BODIESJames S. Taylor, of Danbury, Coon., I do not claim a perforated cone or exhaust, either of which are well-known devices used in machinery for forming fur hats m neither do I claim a picker to pick up or blow thee fur on to the cone, as that is a well-known device used in machinery for pickingfur, wool, or cotton. Neither do I claim moistening or wetting the heat prepar- atory to removing it from the cone. But I claim the revolving feed-table, in combination with the picker cone and exhaust, operating in thee man- ner and fur Ihe purpose set forth. I do not claim the principle of wetting or moistening thee hat when formed, on ame exhausting cone, for that is a principle well-known; neither do I claim the combina- tion of currents of air, and the currents of numerous jets of hot water, in the hardening or wetting process. as that is a combination funod in B. Barnums patent, July lull. But I claim the combination of the revolving brusle, arranged as described, with rovolvunig perforated cone, for thee purpose of moistening thee fur as it is thrown u, on the cone, substantially in the manner described. CARD TEETH FOR MACHiNE CASESJohn L. Tuttle. of Now-York City; I am aware that . Kitoon, in his patent of Nov. 11, 1801, represents a tooth of soft iron and of small wire, with a cross-section resembling the cross-oem- tion of my card-teeththis I do not claim. But I claim thee innakimig of card.teeth by giving to steel wire, the form described, and substantially in the manner set forth, so that when set, and a surlace ground on them, the same grinding shall form the sharp points thereon. NAIL MACusIssEsPomny A. tmTilbur, of New Castle, Pa., I claim thee arrangement of the cutting, griping, heading, and delivery apparatus, with regard to the small- plate feeder, so that the whole may be operated from one cam shaft, substantially in the manner set forth. FASTENING FOR GATEsSmith Yonng, of Milton, N.Y. I claim thee employment of two pivoted spring catches on thee post B, in combination with a stationary central stop, b, and two hand levers, F F, on the front edge of the gate, substantially as and for the purpose set forth. [Thee above improvement is intended for gates which open in two directions, inward and outward. Thee inven- tion consists in providing a fixed tongue on the front edge of thee gate, and two spring catchos on the post, against which the gate closes. Said catches are arranged at a short distance apart, so as to leave a space between them for the tongue, on the gate, to fit in and hold the gate, when closed.] CLEANING EMERY WHEELSStephen A. Whipple, of Shafisbury, Vt., and Reman Whipple, of Port Richmond, N. Y. m We are aware that rollers partially immersed in water or other fluad, have heretofore been used tier a va- riety of purposes, therefore we do not claim the some. But we claim thee use of the roller B, revolving in con- tact with the water, and the superincumbent wheel F, substantially as and for thee purpose set forth. FELLING TREESSimon Ingersoll. of Greenpoint, N. Y. (assignor to Farmers and 1tlechanics~ Manulacturiog Co., of same place) I claim attaching the saw 0, to thee bar M, which is connected with the levers J J, L L, and bare K, I, as shown, the bar I, being connected with the spring R, the whole being arranged as described, for the purpose set forth. [This invention is now on exhibition at the Groat Fair of the American Institute, Crystal Palace. An engraving and full description will be found in our paper of 27th of September last, being No. I of present volume.] BRACE FOR CARRIAOE SPRnsmus~Theumas Dutton, of Washington, B. C., (assignor to John R. Elvans, of same place); I claim the combination of the brace rod, with the toggle-joint and lever, or any of their equivalents, substantially in the manner, and for the purpose set furthe. PICTURE CASESAlfred P. Critchelow, of Florence, Mass., (a0signor to A. P. Critchelow & Co., 01 same placel I do not claim a hinge of common construction, or one having each of its leaves bent at a right aneghe, no that it may be inserted in a mortise made in the side of a case or box. But I claim the application of a hinge of a daguerreo- type or picture case, molded of a plastic moaterial, or made of a frangible substance or Substancese said hinge being made with each of its leaves bent twice, as set forth, and so applied to the halves of the box, that it may embrace two contiguous sides of such halves and be in- dependent thereof and extend or lap over and be fasten- ed to the to p and imottom plate of said box, substantially as described. CHIMNEY Cowm.Theomas W. Chattleld, of Utica, N.Y., I am aware that a patent was granted to Braer & Simonds, June 11, 1854, as also one palent to F. Emerson, July 1, 1847, as well as other patents and rejected applications, wherein thee use of cones is described, which I do nut chasm. But I claim thee improvements I heave made upon said patents and rejected applications, by the use of two in- verted funnels B B, and B B, logether with the short cylinder C C, arranged as described. SALT EvAPORATORs-James L. Humphrey, of Syra- cuse, N. Y., I claim, first, the arrangement of thee fur- nacethe closed evaporating vessel, tIme flues, B B, the blower, F, and the chimney, B, whereby the products of combustion are drawn through thee evaporating vessel be- low the surface of thee liquid to produce evaporation of heat, and afterwards driven in the opposite dirertiun over the surtare of the liquid to produce further evapo- ration and carry off the evaporation to the chimney, sub- stantially as described. Second, the scraper, K, fitted to thee flues and pipes which pass through the liquid in the evaporating vessel, to operate substantially as sot forth. [The above improvement consists chiefly in an arrange. moot whereby thee heated products of combustion from a furnace are drawn, by a blower, through flues passing through a closed evaporation vessel below thee surface of brine, or other liquor, and by thee same blower are forced back again, through the vessel, over the surface of thee liquor. and into thee chimney of the furnace. The heat from the furnace is thus used to effort evaporation both below and above thee surface of thee liquor, and the draft ofthe chimney is employed to carry off the evaporation. The improvement consists, further, in a scraper fitting to thee flues below the surface of thee liquor, and having a movement back and forth along the tubes, to remove the deposit which is caused to incrust itself upon them by crystahization, and which, if not removed, would pro. vent the heat being rapidly conducted to thee liquor.] SPRINGS rose Sine SPAR WAGONOM. G. Hubbard, of Penn Yan, N. Y. m I claim the mode described of com- bining the two semi-elliptic springs with the side spars of light wagons by bringing one asove and the other below the end of said spar. ANTI..FRICTION BUSHING FOR Snsa.s BLome5-s.....J55 Kelly, of Sag Harbor, N. V., I claim the described mode of constructing thee bush, by riveting the head within the cylinder, and the annular grooves, d d, for the mocop.. lion of thee bearing rings, E H, of the rollers, for the pur- poses specified. PLowsSamuel A. Knox, of Worcester, Mass., I do nut claim the formula or rule, by which the form of the weerking surface of the mold board is determined or ob- tained, as I heave only described such rule or formula as a mode of determining and defining the furm which dues constitute my invention, that it may be distinguished from all other forms of mold boards known prior to my inven- tion. I claim the form of thee working surface of the mold board of plows, substantially such as described. and com- posed on combined of the several characteristic features specified. GIMLET HANDLEsGuillaume H. Talbot, of Boston, Mass.; I do not confine myself to the parlicular arrange. moot or rag wheel gearing represented. But I ctaim the a p plica lion within the stuck or heandl uf the gimlet, or other tool or instrument, of an arrang moot of ratchet or rag wheel gearing, Operating substsn, tially as described, so as to enable the tool or inslroment to be rotated in either direction, at the pleasure of the operator, by turning the handles back and forth sin oppo- site directions, and at thee same time pushing i from or pulling it towarde himthe direction of the rotation being seaMs, syq. 50 s-s ~n~cri~rn+ varied by the pushing or pulling of the stock or han- dle. [The above invention consists in the application within the tool stock or handle, ofsuch an arrangement ofratchet or rag-wheel gearing, as will enable the tool or instrument to be rotated in either direction at the pleasure of the operator, by turning the stock or handle back and forth, in opposite directions, and at the same time pushing it from or pulling it towards him. By pushing the handle from him the tool or instroment may be rotated in one direction, and by pulling it towards him may be rotated In the opposite direction. It forms a highly useful and convenient instrument.] ARRANGEMENT Os- 1~IsN TsrsLo.s OF VEHIcLEsNoah Wartick, of Lafayette, Ala. I claim the swinging frame composed of bars a, and b, and braces c, adapted to the reception of either thills or pole, substantially as and for she purposes specified. RAILROAD CAR Coupx.sreoJohn C.Ward, of Charles- on, S. C. I make no claim to a tumbler where a partial rotation effects the coupling, when such rotation is pro. duced by hand; neither do I claim the fastening produced by the rotation of either socket or link, and known as the bayonet joint fastening. But I claim the weighted arm A, stud H, and slide- catch B, in combination with the partially rotating tum- bler, when said tumbler constitutes the securing socket, constructed, arranged and operating substantially as de- scribed, for constitoting a set -acting car-coupling. RE-IssuEs. ARTIFICIAL STONESt. Jullien Ravenel, of Charles. ton, S. C. (Patented Aug. 12. 1556) I claim theomposi. tion of mart and staked lime, substantially in the propor- tions specified, fsr producing an artificial stone, or a substitute for stone and bricks. SELF-SEALING CANsRobert Arthur, ofPhiladelphia, Pa. Patented Jan. 2, 1855) I claim, first, a ves~el made with a groove to surround its mouth, prepared with ce- ment, and ready for hermetically sealing, hut to hermeti- cal sealing itself I make no claim. Second, I claim the employment of elastic packing, ar- ranged and retained by a groove of an acute form, or whose sides are in close proximity, in the manner and for the purpose described. BORING MAcIIINE.....Arcalosss Wyckoff, ofElmira, N.Y. (assignee of Wyckoff & Morrison, of same place.) Patented Sept. 25, 1355; I claim, first, the tubular or hol- low auger or bits, D, as constructed, having the cutting lips of he bits approach t~e center, and yet separated from each other, boring without the use of a screw on the end of the bit, for the purpose of preventing the bit from following the grain of the wood. Second, I claim the worm - operating on its own axle, and todependent of the revolution of the auger or bits D, for the purpose of clearing away the chips, as set forth. [This invention is now on exhibition at the great Fair of the American Institute, Crystal Palace, N. V. We shall shortly illustrate it by an engraving from a working machine.] DESIGNS. SvovEsHudsola E. Bridge, of St. Louis, Mo. Electro-Plating with Aluessiussais. [Concluded from page 11.] No. 7. To plate with an alloy composed of ./llusninum and NickelWe form a bath of al- umina according to the solution No. 3 and we attach a pole of nickel, with which we work the bath, supplying the alumina in so- lution from time to time. A strong battery power may be used for the baths of nickel, but they will work with various powers. Or we add to the bath of alumina a bag of the oxyd of nickel, which we prepare in the fol- lowing manner We dissolve nickel by nitro-muriatic acid say one part muriatic and two parts nitric~ and precipitate by ferro-cyanide of potassium; we then wash the oxyd, and it is ready to be placed in the bath. If this bath be used with a platinum pole, both the oxyds must be sup- plied from time to time ; if with a nickel pole, the alumina alone must be supplied in solution. Or we take about 4 oz. of nickel, which we dissolve with nitric acid, and pre- cipitate with carbonate of potassium; we then take the oxyd so produced, with about 4 lbs. of carbonate of ammonia, and 4 gallons of distilled water, to this we add about 1-4 lb. of the oxyd of alumina, prepared according to No. 3, boil in an iron vessel, filter the solution, and then it is ready for the bath, which we work with a nickel pole. No. 8. To plate with .dluminum and Copper. We dissolve alum in water, and precipitate either by carbonate of potassium or carbonate of ammonia; we then filter the alumina, then take the alumina and roast it upon an iron plate until dry; we then place about 4 lbs. of cyanide of potassium in an iron crucible, and completely melt it; we then add about 1 lb. of the dried alumina, and melt this with the cyanide; we then add (by degrees, so as to avoid too violent an ebullition,) about 1 lb. of carbonate of soda, and we fuse these three in- gredients togethr about one minute, at a red heat; we then take about 1-2 lb. of the sul- phurate of copper, which we add to the fused alumina, and again fuse it with copper, until both are melted, then turn it out on a slab- then place the compound in about four gal- lons of water, boil it, and filter it, and the so- lution is ready. This solution should produce a deposit of reddish purple, having the red ~,, color of copper influenced by the aluminum. ~ This bath may be worked with a platinum or a copper pole. In the former case the bath A must be replenished with the oxyds of both ~l. metals; in the latter case, with alumina in solution only. No. 9. To plate with .Aluminum, Copper, and Zine.We take half a pound of the sulphate of zinc, which we fuse with the alloy of al- umina and copper, as described in No. 8, in- troducing the sulphate of zinc next, after the copper has been fused with the alumina, and we then proceed to complete the solution as in the foregoing. We then try the bath, to ascertain if there has been a change in the color from the former red color, produced by the bath of copper and alumina, to a color more resembling gold or brass. If it be not sufficiently changed to a yellow tint, which should be the effect of the sulphate of zinc, we add some oxyd of zinc and a further portion of cyanide of potassium. It is preferred to work this bath with a pole of brass, supplying alumina in solution from time to time ; and we have found the same results from various powers of the battery. No. 10. To plate with an alloy of .dluminum, Silver, and TinThe bath of alumina is made in the same manner as No. 4, with the excep- tion of using 8 lbs. of cyanide of potassium in lieu of 4 lbs. We then take 8 oz. of metallic tin, dissolve it with nitro-muriatic acid, pre- cipitate with salts of tartar, and dry the oxyd; we then melt the cyanide of potassium in an iron pot. We then fuse the alumina and car- bonate of soda, as described in No. 4; then add the oxyds of silver and tin to the hot liquor, let it remain a few minutes, dissolve it in about four gallons of distilled water, boil the solution, filter it, and it is ready for the bath. This solution may be worked with a platinum pole, in which case the oxyds of all the metals must be supplied; & r it may be worked with a pole of silver and tin, in which case the alumina alone must be supplied, and a moderate battery power should be em- ployed. No. 11. To plate with .Illurninum and Iron. We use a bath of alumina, prepared as be- fore named; then take sulphate of iron and dissolve it with water, precipitate with salts of tartar, filter it, then take the oxyd of iron, and add to the solution of alumina, in the pro- portion of about 1 lb. of the oxyd of iron to 4 gallons of the solution of alumina; boil them together, filter, and the solution will be ready for use. This bath may be worked with a platinum pole, and the strength of the bath is sustained by adding the oxyd of aluminum and the oxyd of iron from time to time. If aluminum or the alloys of aluminum with other metals be required in a solid state, it or they may be deposited, as before described, on a metal which melts either at a higher or low- er temperature than the aluminum, or the al- uminum and its alloys, or upon a metal that is harder than the deposit, and the deposit can then be separated by beat or by scraping, and the aluminum or aluminum and its alloys, so obtained can be consolidated by processes al- ready known. The Ste om Frigate 8nn Jacinlo. MEssRs. EDITORSIn reading the first num- ber of this volume of the SCIENTIFIC AMERI- CAN~ we noticed the remarks about the San Jac-into, and believing that you have no wish to do us an injustice, we send you the follow- ing information :The present machinery of the San Jacinto was completed by us in July, 18~4, and up to the present time (propeller excepted) has given entire satisfaction. The first propeller was seriously injured (while at the Navy Yard here, previous to her trip to Europe) by being suddenly stopped, when making thirty-three revolutions per minute, by a large timber floating into the propeller well. As the injury was not visible, the ship sailed, and broke a blade when going to the Baltic. On docking the ship it was found to be the injured blade that was lost, and a pre- vious fracture of considerable magnitude ob- served. The subsequent breaking of the second and third blades followed as a natural conse- quence the breaking of the first. The present reports of the breaking of the machinery are all untrue, and are based on the following cir- cumstance :After steaming to China, they left for Japan ; just after leaving port a slight jar was observed in the propeller and on ex- amining it, it was found that the key which held it on was becoming loose. As there was a dock in Ch na where it could be secured and none in Japan, the engineer advised re- turning to por;, and hence the various reports as to her breaking down, etc. In sending you this information we have no desire to be ourselves known in print, but simply to give the facts of the case. MERRIcK & SONS, By B. H. BARTOn. Philadelphi~., Oct. 11th, 18~6. For the Scientific American.J Growing the Chinese Sugar Cane. Mzssas. EDIToRsAs the Chinese Sugar Cane is attracting the attention of the com- munity, and at it is likely to be of great value to the farmeri of the United States, and as you have give a us an article on this subject in No. 1, Vol. (1, of the SCIENTIFIC AMERI- CAN, I thought I would write down and send you the result of my own experience in the growth of this plant. Some time during the last winter I obtained about three l undred seeds of the Sorgho Sucre from the Patent Office, which I planted on the 1st of May last, on land that had been cleared three years ago. I laid the field off in checks three feet apart for corn. In some of these hills I Itlanted tht seeds of this sugar cane, dropping eight seeds in a hill, making thirty-seven hills in all. I worked the cane precisely as [ lid the corn, giving it three plowings and ;hree hoeings. In four months from the time the seed was planted the cane was fully ma;ured. It then measured ten feet six inches high, and one inch and three- eighths in dit meter at the butt end. The joints average twelve in number to the sane, measuring fro:n six to eleven inches long, the shortest at the bottom and the longest at tlle top. As soon as the seed was ripe, another head of seed Put up out of the second joint from the top, and in a short time grew as high as the original head, though not quite so large. By the time tI e seed on this head began to turn dark a third head sprung up from the third joint, wI ich was about the size of the last head, and now a fourth head is making its appearance from the fourth joint. Where this shooting f)rth of new heads would end if no frost shonic come to kill it, I cannot tell. The roots, whc re I cut off some of the canes some time ago. are sending up new sprouts, some of which are four inches high. I am of the opinion tht Sorgha Sucre is a perennial plant, and would grow all the time if there were no severe cold to kill it. It appears to surpass anythiag we can plant in producing fodder for catt e. There are commonly twelve leaves on a cane, and these measure, on an average, three feet long, and three inches and a half broad. We commonly plant two stalks of corn in a hill. I had eight canes in the same space, ea sh cane producing full as much fodder as one stalk of corn. At this rate, which is to me matter of fact, one acre of cane will produce at; much fodder as four acres of corn. But I m persuaded that I might have planted the cane in drills of three feet apart, dropping eigh seeds in every space of eighteen inchet, and by this means have eight times as much fodder as corn would pro- duce. One head of seed that I picked up at ran- dom measured three gills, and one gill con- tained eight htndred seeds. I then selected a large head, and measuied it, and found it to contain four and a half gills of seed. The 37 hills that I planted produced three pecks of seed, this, after drying it two days in the sun, weighed 32 pounds. I had no mill to squeeze the cane, in order to make experiments in syrup and sugar. I made a little roller, which I thougi t might press out some of the sap, but it was a failure, for want of sufficient power. It flat;ened the cane, but did not press out the s ip, of which the cane appeared to be full. I twisted a joint in my hands after being flattened with the roller, and obtained about half a gill of sap, which was as sweet as any of the sap of the sugar cane of the south. I intend, Providence permitting, to plant at least aalf an acre next spring, and procure a proper mill and boilers, and make a thorough experiment. Jos. MCKEE. Juno, Lumpli in Co., Ga., Sep 1856. [Fogthe Scientific American.] 51 10 The Action of the Galvanic Battery. In S. B. Smiths answer, on page 19, Sci- ENTIFIC AMERICAN, to M. Vergnes, I was sur- prised to see him attempting to prove his theory of the electric current taking the sur- face of fluids in preference to descending into them, by stating the well-known fact of the positive pole in solution being more rapidly dissolved at the top than at the bottom, when in reality this action arises from a totally dif- ferent cause. It is well known to chemists that all metallic solutions, if allowed to stand, become n~ore dense as you descend below the surface, from the fact that the heavier portions of the fluid settle to the bottom until the low- est stratum becomes nearly or quite saturated with the metallic salt, and finally crystalizes on the bottom of the vessel, while the top of the fluid is comparatively free of metal. If a solution of cyanide of silver and potassium be set aside for twenty-four hours, it will be found upon examination with the proper instrument, to contain 50 per cent. more silver at the bot- tom than at the upper stratum of fluid. If any person will examine a negative plate in a battery after an action of a few days, he will find the silver deposited two or three times heavier at the lowest extremity than at the upper. Now the reason why the positive pole is more rapidly dissolved at the upper part is this The solution being nearly saturated with metallic acid at the lower portion, there is little or no free solvent to attack the posi- tive plate at that point, while, on the contrary, at the upper part of the liquid there is a large quantity of free cyanide ready to take up the metal when the action begins. In the process of precipitation, the losver part of the liquid, instead of supplying itseli from its own part of the positive plate, is actually being fed from the top, and by a close examination the two currents can be distinctly seen with the naked eye, the one saturated and slowly descendng from the positive pole, and the other having deposited Ps burthen of metal, rapidly rising to the top to again receive its load of precious metal, thus producing a continual circuit, as long as the action goes on. This inequality of density in metallic solutions is more dis- tinctly seen in a sulphate of copper solution than any other. If the positive plate be set flat down at the bottom of the solution, and the negative at the top, and left in action a few hours, it will, he found that the top of the liquid is entirely robbed of metal, while the bottom is so completely saturated that large crystals are forming upon the positive pole, and entirely obstructing the electric current crystalized metallic salts being non-conduc tors. JAMES POWELL. Cincinnati, 0., Sept. 30, 1856. [We have also received a letter from Geo. H. Guild, of Lexington, Ky., on this subj ect, confirming the statements of Mr. Powell. He says Having had several years experience in the silver plating business, I believe the plate is decomposed according to its density, and in no case yet, where I used a plate of uniform density, have I found it more decomposed at the top than at any other point of its contact with the solution, Mr. Smiths assertion to the contrary notwithstanding. I have specimens with the center entirely gone, others with the lower corners and edges gone. Mr. Smith scouts the idea of the irradiation of electricity being governed by the same laws as those of light and heat. If there is no irradiation to electricity, how is it that an object subjected to the silver plating process is plated with a uniform coat at the lower extremities, as well as at the surface without regard to the size of the silver plate immersed ? Stove Polish. As the period has arrived for the polishing up of stoves for winter use, we have a good word to say in favor of the polish prepared this year by Quarterman & Son, No. 114 John street, this city. Excellent though their for- mer polish has always been, they have made a decided improvement on it this year; it far surpasses anything of the kind we have hith- erto tried. tar The steamship City of Savannah, sprung a leak on the 12th inst., off Cape Hatteras, and soon sunk; officers and crew were all saved. ~cicntific ~n~cr ican.~ ctu ~nbc~1tirn~r5+ New Mill Stone Dress. Mr. W. P. Colemen, of New Orleans, La., has lately patented a mill stone dress, the furrows of which are arranged in a peculiar way, whereby the grain is retained between the grinding surfaces of the stones a requisite length of time, and the surfaces of stones at all times supplied with a proper quantity of grain. The surfaces of the two stones are thus prevented from coming in contact with each other, a much hrger amount of grain can be ground, while the quality of the flour will be improved. It is an important and valua- ble invention. .~ ~ New Mode or Bending Wood. Messrs. E., A., & C. Kilburn. of Burlington, Vt., have lately patented a method of bending ships knees, end which consists in forcing the stuff endwise into a close sided mold, hav- ing the desircd curved form longitudinal, and having its interval transverse section only just of the dimensions of the transverse section of the piece of wood. The wood is thus con- fined laterally, in all directions, during the bending process, and is thereby prevented from breaking, splitting, or splintering. The Great Bridge at Montreal. This immense structure brining part of the Great Trunk Railroad of Canada, has been pushed forward with considerable energy this summer by A. M. Ross, the resident engineer; but even with the greatest efforts it is be- lieved that it cannot be completed within two years. And when its gigantic proportions are taken into consideration this will ejeite no wonder. The mason work alone will amount to 28,000,000 cubic feet, and the iron tubing will weigh 11,000 tuns. When completed it will be the greatest bridge in the world. New Marble SawIng Machine. Our engraving illustrates a novel machine for sawing marble blocks, by C. A. Schultz, of Chicago, Ill., which is now on exhibition and in operation at the American Institute Fair, Crystal Palace, N. Y. It is the only op- erating machine of the kind exhibited. The principal feature of novelty consists in the employment of endless saws, A, which are strained around the pulleys, B, like endless belts. The pulleys are made of such a diam- eter that the saw blades will not bend in passing around them, but simply spring, so that no injury to the saws takes place, no matter how rapidly the pulleys move. The pulleys and saws are carried in a frame, C C, which has a vertical movement within the main frame of the machine, D. Motion is given to the pulleys, B, and saws, A, by means of power applied to shaft E, which causes the vertical shaft, F, to rotate. G is a pinion on shaft F, which drives the pulley pinions, B. Pinion G revolves with shaft, F,andalso rises and falls upon it. In order to introduce fe block of marble the frame, C, with the saws, A, pulleys, B, pinions, B and G, are raised vertically by turning the crank, H. This operates shaft, I, and winds up the lifting cords, J, which are attached to the four corners of frame C. The block of marble having been placed in position, frame C is allowed to descend, and the saws are brought upon the top of the block of marble. The weight of frame C then serves to give the required downward feed to the saws. The saws are readily set to cut at an angle, and thus produce tapering blocks for monu- ments, by altering the position of the frames, C. Said frames are so arranged as to be near together, or moved apart, at pleasure, by means of set screws, B. The frame, C, is divided into two parts, each portion carrying a saw, and being separately adjustable. Adjustable guides, K, are also attached to frame C, for the purpose of guiding the saw. Guides K are furnished with friction rollers, L M, be- tween and beneath which the saw passes (see ~ fig. 2.) Each saw makes two cuts, which are ~ perfectly true and smooth. The saws are made of common hoop iron, and therefore cost but very little. We are NEW MACHINE FOR SAWING MARBLE. told that this machine cuts about three times and there is no appreciable wear on their sur- faster than the common marble sawing appa- face. No difficulty is experienced in feeding ratuses. The endless saws may be driven at in the sand. a high speed, their motion is always steady, The machine at the Palace is of full size, New Bedate ad Rail Ma chine, the American Institute Fair, Crystal Palace Our engraving illustrates a machine for N. Y. It is the invention of T. R. Bailey turning Bedstead Rails, now on exhibition at Lockport, N. Y. Patented July 25th, 1854. and operates with entire success. Further in- formation can be had at the Palace or by ad- dressing Fulton, Perkins & Co., box 698, Chi- cago, Ill. Patented March 18, 1856. This machine is intended for the turning of plain round rails for the cheaper kind of bed- steads, and also for all kinds of plain round turning, such as posts, window curtain rollers, pickets, rake bows, & c. In our cut, A is a revolving mandrel, made hollow. B C the cutters. The rough rail is turned by being passed through the mandrel. At the entrance or mouth of the mandrel there is a stationary guide plate, K, through which the stuff passes. The rail is fed in by nand for a short distance, or until its forward end comes hetween the rollers, I J; these rollers then seize the stuff and carry it through, with- out assistance from the operator. E is anoth- er revolving hollow mandrel for cutting ten- ons on the ends of the rails, for screw bed- steads. The tenon produced is of the usual shape. Both of the mandrels are driven by one belt I). The machine is strong, durable, very simple, easily managed, and not liable to get out of order. It works with great rapid- ity. being capable of turning out 600 to 800 bedstead rails per day of ten hours. Price $150. For further information apply at the Palace, or address the inventor as above. The propeller Falcon was burned at Chica- go on tLe 17th inst. ~1LE\ DID PB lZE~.PAll) iN CASh. The Proprietors of the SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN will pay. in C. h, the following splendid Prizes for the largest Lists of Subscribers sent in between the present time and the ftrot of Janoary. 18d7. to wit For the I. rsest List, ~200 Fur the 2ss.i tasuest List, 175 For t ho 3rd lnr~est List, I so For 1st, 4th lrsrtsest List, 125 For tho 5th tsr~est List, 100 F,r the tith largest List, 75 For use 7th largest List, 50 For the 5th largest List, 40 For the 9th largest List, 30 For the 10th largest List. 25 For the 11th largest List, 20 For the 12th largest List, 10 Names can be sent in at different times and from dif. ferent Post Offices. The cash will be paid to the order ot the successful competitor, immediately after the 1st o January. 1817. l~ See Prospectus on last page. 52 MACHINE FOR TURNING BEDSTEAD RAILS. I ~cienti~c ~metican+ ~cicn1ifie ~nrerican. NEW YORK, OCTOBER, 25, 1856. Failure of the Steam and Ether Engines. Many of our readers will remember the flat- tering accounts that were published in various papers, respecting the wonderful success of the combined steam and ether engines of M. Du Tremblay, of Paris; and how their ap- plication to some steamers engaged in the Mediterranean trade had, hy their superior economy of fuel, enabled their proprietors to pay a dividend of forty per cent. in January 185.5. A correspondent at Marseilles, in a: letter to us, on page 251, Vol. 11 ScIENTIFIC AMERIcAN, corrected some of the extravagant stories then in circulation, yet he also stated that the combined ether engines were a suc- cess ,that they saved 60 per cent. of power with the same fuel,that they had been ap- plied to several steamers, and that four more were then in the course of construction. We had expressed the opinion that we could not see how such a gain of power, and such profits, could be realized, and stated, in our remarks at the end of that correspondent~s letter, that, taking all things into consideration, simple steam engines were preferable. We learn by the last number of the Lon- don .~rtizan, that two of these steamersLe Jacquard and lYIragohelonging to the Fran- co American Company, were lately taken to one of the Graving Docks, at Southampton, for repairs, and were objects of curiosity to English engineers. The combined engines, were well made, and the whole machinery un- exceptionable in construction, hut Le Jacquard, which was first afloat, used the ether cylin- ders only during three or four voyages be- tween Marseilles, and the Crimea, then gave them up, and used the steam alone; while l~.i~rago, which was laanched afterwards, nev- er used its ether cylinders at all. Thus the ether engines are a dead loss,entirely use- less, while the simple steam engines alone are now used to propel these vessels. It is stated that the cause of the failure of ether engines arose from the difficulty in keep- ng the ether vapor from escaping through the stuffing boxes. The loss is stated to have been about thirty-eight and a half gallons of ether daily, valued at ninety dollars,a loss far too great to be compensated by the reputed econ- omy of fuel, and no wonder it was abandoned. It is, however, still asserted that the ether cylinders economised about 60 per cent. of the power, and that, were it not for the loss by the escape of vapor, they would effect a great saving; these views are presented by a cor- respondent of the .Artizan. We believe that although there was not a particle of loss by the escape of the ether in such engines, the simple steam engine is still preferable. The economy of power said to be effected in Le Jacquard when the ether engines were used, is based upon the work now executed by the steam engines on board that vessel. This is not a fair comparison, for the steam cylinders employed were designed to work steam of 35 lbs. pressure, to be exhausted at the end of the stroke into the ether vaporizers; they are consequently too small to work the same amount of steam alone, to advantage. It the small steam cylinders of 64 inch bore were taken out and new ones of 80 inches bore put in, and the steam cut-off at half stroke, they would be found to work as economically with respect to a saving of fuel, as the ether and steam cylinders combined. When it is taken into consideration that beside a steam engine in each vessel, there was an ether vaporizer, resembling a large flat tubular condenser, and two ether cylInders, with all their connec- tions, valves, and rods, the great loss sustained by this company in adopting themnow that they are abandonedmay be conjectured. Mexican Emigration. Since the appearance of our article on the Colonization of Mexico, we have had several letters of inquiry from young men, as to the propriety of emigrating to that country. Such letters should not be addressed to us, as we are unable to answer them. Our notice was based upon a pamphlet issued by a Mexican official, who has quite recently returned to his own country. BitumenIts Uses. This is a name employed to denote various inflammable substances found in the earth. There are a number of different kinds of it, most of which pass into one or other, from petroleumthe most fluidto asphalt, which is sometimes too hard to be scratched with the finger nail. Extensive magazines of it are found in various parts of the world. Elastic bitumen is of a brown color, and erases pencil marks like india rubber, hence it is called mineral caoutchouc. Compact bitumen, or asphalt, is extensively dissemi- nated, and is found in great abundance in some of the West India Islands, and New Brunswick, N. A. It is black, and of a hard resinous appearance. The Pitch Lake of Trin- idad yields bitumen in all conditions. Petro- leum is fluid bitumen; it is of a dark color, and oozes from certain rocks and crevices in the earth, and becomes solid by exposure to the atmosphere. Naphtha, or mineral oil is another variety of it, which becomes petro- leum by exposure to the air. Petroleum is common in various parts of the United States, such as at Kenawba, Va., Scottsville, Ky., Oil Creek, Pa., Liverpool, 0., Hinidale, N. Y., and it was at one time collected by the Seneca In- dians and sold in the market as a lotion for rheumatic affections and bruizes. It is in the form of petroleum that bitumen is most common in our country, and but very little use is made of it, owing, we suppose, to its pungent smell. In Burmah it is used for fuel and illumination; and mixed with soap, is said to form an excellent remedy for many cutaneous diseases, a protective against the prickly-heat of warm countries: and was sup- posed at one time, to be a remedy against cholera. It is a remarkable fact in the history of the useful arts, that asphalt, which was once so generally employed as a durable cement, should have almost fallen into disuse for thousands of years. It resists the passage of air and moisture, and has therefore a most valuable quality for lining cisterns and the in- terior of deep cellars. Bricks or stones coat- ed with hot bitumen resist moisture, and are rendered proof against decay by changes of weather. Possessing these valuable charac~ teristics, it is wonderful that it is so little used. Some attempts have been made in this city to make a concrete pavement of it, such as at the building on the corner of Beekman and Cliff streets, but for this purpose it is ev- idently not equal to stone flags, because it has had to be relaid, and now huge cracks are again seen in different parts of it. On the other hand some beautiful mosaic asphalt pavement, has been laid down in the streets of Paris, and is said to be perfectly successful. All the volatile oil and water should be ex- pelled from bitumen by boiling before it is ap plied as a cement, or it will not resist the changes of heat and cold well. Many failures in the employment of pitch and bitumen for cement have been caused by neglecting to boil it thoroughly. It is our opinion that iron pipes, coated inside and out with hot bitu- men, especially the elastic kind, will prevent incrustation iuside, and render them very dur- able. And may not this substance be so man- ipulated, that it can become a substitute for india rubber and gutta percha I These veget- able resin gums are becoming dearer year af- ter year, and are only obtained in limited quantities and at considerable expense. On the other hand bitumen is found in exhaust- less quantities, and is very cheap. Can it not, by some chemical process, be rendered as elas- tic as these gum resins, and as capable of vul- canization. Here is a field, we think, of great extent for chemical experiment, to which we invite attention. Commissioners Report for 1855. We are indebted to the Hon. Chas. Mason, Commissioner of Patents for copies of his Annual Report for 1855. The work is pub- lished in two volumes of equal size, and con- tains the claims of all patents granted for that year, together with outline diagrams of their prominent features of novelty. The gen- eral plan and arrangement of the Report is excellent and the execution good. Great Exhihition of the American Institute at the Cr vital Palace, New York. FIFTH WEEK. The Fair continues to attract thousands of visitors from ill parts of the country. The day fixed for tie closing was October 25, but we presume the time will be extended until the public attendance materially diminishes. During the past week the Annual Cattle Show of the American Institute has taken place, the bc elity selected being Hamilton Square, a large open lot in the upper part of the city. The New York Tribune intimates that the awar 1 of prizes was influenced by bribery. The judges give a list of the suc- cessful compeitors; but no statement of the reasons for ti eir decisions is made public. This Cattle Show appears to have been at- tended with n special result. We continue our usual reports of the novel- ties on exhibit ion. Besides those annexed, it will be obser~ed that our illustrations this week, are nea 4y all taken from objects at the Palace. Ano her noticeable fact is, that near- ly all of the most prominent objects, in the mechanical line, in the Exhibition, have been illustrated anc described in the SCIENTIFIc AMERICAN. Printed Muslins. The Dunne 1 Manufacturing Company at Providence, R I., exhibits a case of well-ex- ecuted calicoe i, and the Manchester (N. H.) Print Works c isplay a case of fine muslin de lames and er licoes; but the Pacific Mills, Lawrence, Ma;s., make the greatest show of printed goods. Fine lawn muslins, manufac- tured at the Portsmouth Steam Mills pleased us both on accourt of the quality ofgoods, and1 the elegance of th ~ir design; the checked organ- dis, calicoes, tad delaines exhibited by this company giv( evidence of good taste and ,the variety of work they execute. There is no branch of art connected with manufactures, which embrac, more varied skill, knowledge, and taste, t calico printing. The bleach- ing, dying, anti color-making departments, de- mand great chemical experience; the patterns require great taste in designing, and skill in engraving, an:. the machinery for executing the various kinds of work, is complex and ingenious. It affords us pleasure to be able to pay a comp iment to the printed goods dis- played at this fair. They undoubtedly show a great improt ement in design and coloring in comparison with the flashy vulgar daubs that were fashionable a few years since. It is our opinion, that the public taste has not been improved by the abundance of coarse mixed goods, half cot ton halfwool, now so common; a finer quality )f fabric, all cotton, is not only more beautiful, but more durable. The su- perior qualitiem~ of calicoes, manufactured in France, Belgium, and England, are beautiful fabrics; we wish that some of our manufac- turing and printing companies would pluck up spirit enough to produce as good fine calicoes as the foreign, before the expiration of another year. Spring Beds. Messrs. Lip~encott ~ Co., 1180 Broadway, N. Y., exhibit Wrights Patent Sectional Spring Bed. Uhe elasticity is obtained by the employmer t of a series of spiral springs, composed of strong wire, each soring having a round seat and a head of wood. These springs form a cheap, durable, and comforta- ble bed. For e ugraving and description see SCIENTIFIC AM:nIICA~r, Vol. 11, page 340. Wagstaff 4~ Co., 499 Broadway, exhibit specimens of EOwe5 patent spring beds. The springs are sir gle boards, ahaped somewhat like one half of an elliptical carriage spring. They are stretched across the bedstead. Cheap and simple. Steel Pens. The great seat of the steel pen manufacture is Birmingham Eng.; there the art originated, and there it is still carried on to an immense extent. This Peculiar manufacture, after re- peated efforts, nay be said to have attained to success amo~ig us. The American Steel Pen Manufacturing Co., of New York, exhibits a case of excellent pens in the South Gallery. Each pen has a stamped medalion likeness of Washington on it. for which a patent was ob- tained, as a de8ign, on the 15th of April last. We have tried these pens, and can give them a good recomnendation; still, we have used some English pens which were better. Our steel pen manufacturers will, no doubt, soon produce pens unsurpassed, if not superior to the best Gillott. Grate Damper. Messrs. Jacob Cohen & Co., exhibit inprac- tical operation, one of their improved grate dampers, illustrated in the annexed cut. A is the damper, which, it will be seen, swings on pivots, and is perforated with a num- ber of small holes. With the exception of the damper, the grate is constructed in the ordi- nary manner. In lighting the fire, when a strong draft is necessary, the damper A is opened. But after the fire begins to burn well, the damper is turned so as to close the openings into the chimney, B, and present a reflecting surface to the caloric, of similar angle to the back piece, C. When closed, the damper, A, throws out all the heat of the fire into the apartment, but the gaseous products of combustion are drawn off through the perforations, and pass up the chimney. We are told that this damper effects a saving of fifty per cent. in fuel, and gives the highest satisfaction wherever used. Price $3 and upward, according to size. Fur- ther information can be had at 407 Broad way, N. Y., or at the Palace. lmproved Grooving Plane. Mr. John P. Robinson, of Matteawan, Dutchess Co. N.Y., exhibits his patent Groov- ing Plane, which is shown by the accompany- ing engraving. ~\ The plane stock, A,it will be seen, is made of triangular shape, and the cutting tool, B, which is quite narrow, projects at the apex of the angle. The plane is moved like the ordi- nary tool. Every variety of groove, square, angular, or round, of the same dimensions or tapering in form at the pleasure of the workman, can be cut, with the utmost facility and rapidity. No circle is required to be struck, and asav- lag of 50 per cent. in time is gained. The plane is chiefly intended for the use of pat- tern makers in working out core boxes. It is in use in the pattern shops of the Novelty Works, in this city, at ~ Troy, & c., where it gives the highest satisfaction. Price $250. For further information address the inventor as above. Patented Dcc. 18th, 1855. Wooien Cloths. Marked improvements have been made in h e manufacture of woolen cloths during the past few years: even the satinets are more ike bros4~loth than those so common a few I 53 iI~ ~cienti~c ~nier~an. years ago. Wales & Co., of Wale~~ Mass., and Messrs. Hilliard & Spencer, of Manches- ter, Conn., exhibit some pieces of fine sat- luets. The color and finish of all these goods are excellent. Cassimeres appear to be the most common woolen cloths at tbe Fair; the Middlesex Co. Lowell, Mass., exhibit a number of pieces; the Powbattan Co., Moosup, Coun., make a large display of ribbed and plain cassimeres. A. Morse, of Eaton, Madison Co., N. Y., ex- poses some beautiful black doeskin; the Bay State Mills, Mass., display some excellent bea- ver cloth, and the American Mills. Rockville, Conn., exhibit a few pieces of double-fold fancy cassimere, of very good quality. It requires a large capital to conduct the manufacture of woolen cloth on the most ap- proved principles, to produce fine goods. Fresh wool does not work freely, therefore wealthy manufacturers have always a large stock ahead, so that it can attain a proper age before they commence to work it. Agea few months, at leastimparts to it, by some cause not very well understood, a superior working quality, which gives an advantage to companies who can lay up a large stock. A great desire to produce cheap goods with a good surface has led woolen manufacturers to use too much cotton in their warps. They display much skill, we admit, in covering it up with the wool; but such goods after a lit- tie wear, become bare, and fade in color, and they do not possess that soft and agreeable feeling to the touch that belongs to goods made entirely of wool. We have seen state- ments in some of our daily papers to the ef- fect that American wool was not suffiriently fine for the manufacture of the finest kinds of woolen cloth. This is an error. As fine qualities of wool are now raised in the United States as can he found anywhere. We only wish that there was more of it. According to the capacities of our country for sheep- grazing, not a tithe of wool is raised that might be. Pianofortes and Melodeons. Messrs. R. G. Nellis ~ Co., 547 Broadway, N. Y., exhibit one of Speer and Marxs patent (1852) Culindron, or Cylindrical Pianofortes, which presents a very beautiful and ornamen- tal appearance. It occupies a prominent po- sition in the central part of the Palace, and is the observed of all observers. The prin- cipal feature of novelty consists in having the strings arranged around an upright hol- low cylinder, which forms the sounding-board. It is alleged that a cylindrical sounding-board acts on the principle of a drum, and gives a certain roundness, fullness, and richness of note which the ordinary instruments do not possess. Another advantage is that two pianos may be combined in one, with but little increase of space. Thus the instrument at ~he Palace has two key-boards, and is, in fact, a double piano. It is elegantly finished and makes a fine display. The position in which it is placed, however, is very bad for sound, and the merits of the invention are, therefore, not so fully apparent as they other- wise would be. Mr. R. G. Nellis uses, in con- nection with the instrument, a recently-pat- ented contrivance relating to the working parts. For an engraving and full description of the Culindron see SCIENTIFIc AMEILIcAN, Vol. 8, page 73. William Miller, 158 East 21st st., New York, exhibits several improved pianos, the novelty consisting in stringing some of the lower or bass octaves over the center of the sounding-board. The wires for these octaves extend the whole length of the piano. It is claimed that instruments thus made have a certain richness and fullness of sound that other pianos do not possess. Messrs. Chickering ~ Co., Boston, Mass., ex- hibit a magnificent grand piano, and several others, large and small, which evince the most careful and excellent workmanship Henry Hanson, 100 Center st.. New York, exhibits a new diagonal scale piano. William Compton, 103 East 40th at., exhibits a patent arch-shape rest, plank plate, and, reversible bridge piano. Anthony Kuhn, Baltimore, Md., exhibits a ., grand patent Harp Dulciana piano. It is a beautiful object. A large and splendid harp 2. crowns the upper part of the instrument) whose strings, when the keys are played, send out delicious sounds. Among other fine specimens of pianos and melodeons we notice those exhibited by T. Gilbert & Co., Boston, Mass., Taylor & Farley, Worcester, Mass., Earnest Gabler, N. Y., Grovesteen & Truslow, N. Y., Horace Waters, N.Y., Schultz & LudoloW N.Y., Steinway & Sons, N. Y., Theodore Roz, N. Y. Broadcast Seed Sowers. H. Willard, of Vergennes, Vt., exhibits some of his lately patented seed sowers, which pre- sent a novel and practical appearance, and attract considerable attention among agricul- tural visitors. The machine consists of a two wheeled vehicle, which carries two small re- volving seed cylinders, which scatter the seed upon an inclined board, whence it falls to the ground. The inclined board is furnished with certain upright slats or guides, which insure an even scattering of the seed upon the ground, no matter whether the surface is level or hilly. A ro~ary harrow is attached be- hind, which covers the seed as fast as scat- tered. The seed falls only between the wheels of the vehicle, so tha4 the operator is never in doubt as to where the grain is spread. The machine can be readily adjusted to sow in hills or in drills, The driver rides upon a convenient seat. Several other important ad- vantages are secured which our limited space prevents us from naming. For engraving and description see ScIENTIFIc AMEMIcAN, Vol. 11, page 361. Win. S. Sampson, of Boston, Mass., exhib- its a broadcast sowing machine. It is in the shape of a hand-cart, and it is said will sow forty acres per day, at an expense of 3 cents per acre. Hay and Cotton Presees. C. J. Fay, of North Lincoln, Me., exhibits a full sized hay and cotton press, which is very strong, durable, and simple. Price $100. For engraving and full description see SCIENTIFIC AMEasc~x, Wol. XI., page 249. G. D. Harris, of Fitchburgh, Mass., exhib- its one of Ruggles Patent Combined Cotton and Hay Press and Stump Puller. By a very simple and compact arrangement of a lever frame and gearing, a tremendous power is ex- erted upon the substance pressed. Or the press may be quickly disconnected, and the machine used as a stump puller, or for moving buildings, raising burdens, etc. Price $100 and up. For an engraving and full descrip- tion see ScIENTIFIc AMERICAN, Vol. XII, page 5. Farmers and Mechanics Manufacturing Co., of Greenpoint, L. I., exhibit Ingersolls patent Hay and Cotton Press, which possesses the merit of cheapness, compactness, simplicity, strength, durability, ease, and rapidity of op- eration. Price $50. See engraving and de- scription in SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN, Vol. 11, page 233. W. Deering $~ Co., Albany, N. Y., exhibit ~ Patent Parallel Lever, Cotton, and Hay Press. It is claimed for this machine that the follower can never cant or bind against the sides of the press. It operates with great power and speed. Two men and a boy, it is alleged, can bale from five to nine tuns of hay per day. Price $100 and up. See engraving and description in the SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN, Vol. 11, page 384. fames A. Disbrow, of Poughkeepsie, N. Y., exhibits a new press, which will be found frilly illustrated and described in the present number of our paper. Cow Milking Contrivance. John W. Kingman, of Dover, N. H., exhib- its an air-tight milk pail, from which the air is exhausted by means of a small lever or pump handle. Four flexible tubes, each hav- ing a rubber pocket at its extremity, re~ ceive and clas;: the cows teats. By pumping with the lever the air is exhausted from the pail and suction produced upon the teats, which causes the milk to flow rapidly into the pail. This contrivance is said to be a good one, and to operate with success. It certainly has the merit of cheapness and simplicity. Fruit Grinder and Press. Win. 0. Hickock, of the Eagle Works, Harrisburgh, Pa., exhibits a newly pat- ented portable apparatus for grinding and pressing fruit of all kinds, such as apples,cur rants, grapes, etc. Cider, currant and grape wine, etc., xx ay be readily made for private use. From ( to 12 barrels of cider can be made per day, by one man. The grinding is done by merely turning a crank. The press- ing is effected by a powerful screw and lever. The machine occupies a space of only 2 1-2 by 3 feet, anc. weighs but 370 lbs. all com- plete. It is herefore very compact. Price $25 and up. For family use, in town or coun- try, machines of this kind are just the thing. Car Springs. F. M. Bar, of this city, exhibits large op- erating mode s of his volute car springs. Their elasticity and strength is shown by placing them under long levers, heavily weighted. We have seen a rumber of testimonials from ex- perienced ra Iroad officers, whose companies have these ~r rings in use, and they speak of them in the highest terms. We understand Mr. Ray has an axtensive demand for the spring, and t tat it gives full satisfaction. P. G. Gar liner, of this city, also exhibits his newly patented volute springs for cars and other purposes. Taey are highly spoken of, and extensively manufactured. mo. W. A. lams, of Harlem, N. Y., exhibits his new sprin ~ for cars, etc. It is composed of convex disks of steel placed between solid plates of iror. A very excellent spring is thus obtained, strong, durable, and compara- tively cheap. Speed and Bailey, Jersey City, N. J., ex- hibit their new corrugated plate car springs, which are composed of small metallic plates, having corru:;ated surfaces. The plates are piled togethe:, and appear to form excellent springs. II aus Power Loom~. Another new Power Loom called the Vic Loom, has I een placed on exhibition. By certain deviceS in this loom, when the reed is beating up the filling, it is perfectly firm, but it will afterwards liberate itself entirely, and swing back, if the shuttle should be obstructed or fail to pass through the warp. All break- age or injury .o the web by the obstruction of the shuttle in ts race is in this manner pre- vented, and ti e common protector dispensed with. This 1 )om can, therefore, be run at a very high, ani also at a low velocityfrom 80 to 220 picks per minutewithout any re- arrangement .f its parts. It is a good loom. and occupies six inches less space than the common ones-an important advantage. The inventor is Elijah Hall, of Rochester, N. Y.; it was patented on the 12th of February last, and the price it: only $55. Some of these looms are now in oj~ eration at Jones Cotton Mill Rochester, N. Y., and in Harmony Mills, Co- hoes, N. Y., and another in the Steam Mill, at Newburg, N. V. Manufacture ~s of cotton cloth visiting the Fair, cannot bitt be favorably impressed with the improveme ats embraced in all the looms on exhibition. The parallel picker-staff mo- tion of the S ;ockport looms has no equal, and the reed arrangement of Halls loom is a peculiar and ecellent invention. Patents for both looms we:e obtained through the Scien- tific American Patent Agency. India Rubber Manufactures. Vulcanized India Rubber fabrics are among the most astonishing triumphs of modern in- ventive genius, enterprise, and skill, and they had their origin and have their principal seats of manufacture in the United States. It is not many yeax a since that all india rubber was only used for was erasing pencil marks from white pal)er; now it is manufactured into every van sty of form, and applied to a countless numl,er of useful purposes. The united India Rubber Companies of our country make an excellent display of their goods in the North-West Gallery of the Palace; we h ive endeavored to collect a list of them, to show its adaptable character. The articles on exh bition consist of coats, pants, carriage cloths, piano and table covers, (beau- tifully printed in various colors) blankets, sad- dle and gas bags, aprons, beds, pillows, boots and shoes, host and tubeing, life-preservers, bath mats, wattr buckets, hats and caps, bot- tles, drinking cups, diving, or submarine dresses, (one shown suspended, with a divers helmet,) breast pumps, nursing bottles, cup- ping cups, water bags, gloves, all kinds of toys, balls, combs, packing for steam engines, belting for machinery, pencil cases, pen hold- ers, pulleys, insulated telegraph wire, and valises in imitation of morocco leather. The nature of india rubber renders every article to which it is applied air and water tight, elas- tic, tough, and strong, not liable to be affected with the weather. These are qualities of an important and useful character. A very small amount of the india rubber in each arti- cle is sufficient to impart air and water-tight qualities to it; in f some india rubber act, goods, such as overshoes, contain but a mm- inium of the gum elastic, the rest being very cheap materialshence enormous profits have been derived by the manufacturers of such goods. The best valve packing is made of 30 lbs. of india rubber, 6 lbs. of lamphiack, 22 lbs. red or white lead, and 22 oz. of sulphur; these metalizing substances are all very cheap. India rubber is easily rendered plastic and combines readily with almost every substance, such as the oxyds of metals, clay, pulverized sand, gums, carbon, sawdust, ground cork & c. It is, certainly, one of the most wonder- ful and useful products of nature that has ever been applied to the arts. Trial of Fire Engines. Trials of steam fire engines took place last week at the Crystal Palace, in competition for the gold medal, between the machine of Lee & Learned, New York, and that of Siilsby, Mynderse & Co, of Seneca Falls, N. Y. These were the only steam fire engines exhibited. Steam was raised to 45 lbs. pressure in Lee & Learneds machine in 11 1-4 minutes after lighting the fire, and the engine commenced throwing water. Through 65 feet of hose and a 1 3-8 inch nozzle, the distance thrown was 125 feet, and with a 1 1-4 inch nozzle, 178 feet horizontally. Sillaby, Mynderse and Co.s machine exhib- ited a pressure of 35 lbs. of steam in 24 min- utes after lightin, the fire, and threw the water 115 and 179 feet. This trial took place on Wednesday, and was not deemed satisfactory by Messrs. Sillsby & Mynderse. Another trial was, therefore, agreed to be made at 2 oclock P. M. on Saturday. On this occasion the engine of Lee & Learned commenced playing in 7 minutes after the fire was lighted, and in 10 1-2 minutes had a pressure of 140 lbs. in the boiler. It threw a stream horizontally of 171 feet 10 inches, out of a 1 1-4 inch. nozzlesolid col- umn 120 feet; out of an 1 1-2 inch nozzle it threw a stream of 172 feet 4 inchessolid column, 116 feet. Sillsby & Mynderse~~ machine commenced to play in 14 1-2 minutes after the fire was kindled. It threw a stream 167 feet horizon- tally out of a 1 1-4 inch nozzle-solid column 126 feet 4 inches. It played 20 minutes, when the steam got very low, and it then stopped. It did not do so well as on the previous trial. It could not generate steam in sufficient quan- tities to work it ; while the engine of L. & L. from the moment it commenced working, never ceased, and seemed to have no difficulty in generating plenty of steam. This was a very exciting trial. The place selected was alongside of the Croton Reser- voir, outside of the Palace, and there was a great crowd present. A Destructive Freshet, It is difficult to account for the unexpected falls of rain which take place some times in certain localities. Thus the northern part of this State was visited with tremendous rains during the last week of September, by which great damage to property has been caused by he sudden and great rise of certain streams and rivers. The Essex County Republican states that the Ausable river rose higher than it was ever known before, and as there is a great deal of manufacturing carried on along its banks, much damage has been done. The dam at Keesville was carried away, and saw mills, grist mills, nail works, machine shops, and rolling mills were destroyed. At Ciinton~ vile a number of factories and saw mills were nearly destroyed; at Ausable Forks the de- struction of property was also very great, and more lamentable than all, nine persons were drowned. 54 c~C~CWtjfiC ~n~ctican. R. H. J., of KyThe fiber of the cypress bark is not so II white in color as jute or indian hemp, but it is much stronger, and we think it might be made profitable to man- 4h _ W.McD ,of N. CResin gas, we think, must be the _ ufacture into small rope. ....-- cheapest for your State. It is easier to manufacture for public illumination than coal gas. You will find a full description of the method ofmanufacturing it in Parnells Chemistry. Resin oil makes an excellent gas also, and am C. A., ofMe..Tlse greatest depth of descent by a diving bell recorded, so fr as we know, was 170 feet. The fig~ it is cheap in North Carolina it should be more exten- sively us ures to which you refer represent dollars and cents. ed. Many cotton factories at the North now use Blot & Guy Lussac ascended 13,00) feet in a balloonthe resin oil gas. R. H., of N. Y.Steam is employed in distilling various greatest balloon elevation known to us. 0-. II. Ii., of N. VSmoke is the result of imperfect substances, such as coal oil, camphene, & c. combustion. Oxygen is the only element in nature to Moneyreceived at the ScIENTIFIc AMERICAN Office, mix with your fuel to consume it. If you supply your on accountof Patent Office businessfor the week ending fire with a greater quantity of air, and heat it before ad. Saturday, Oct. 18, 1856 muting ills the fire, ouch as by conducting it through S. B. H., ofN. V., $30; B. & P., of Wis., $30; T. H.. of tubes under the bottom of the grate, you will get rid of Pa., $30; J. J. P.. of 0., $25; S. B. II., of N. V., $33; G smoke. & F., of N. V., $20; J. H. V., of Mo., $25; D.& R.,ofN. II. A., of N. VWe published all we knew respect- V.. $5; J. S., of Cal., $30; E. & G., of Vt., $30; G. C.2d. ing the sewing machine, of Cono., $25; J. M. J., of Ala., $10; L. S., of Conn.. $30; C. H. W., of N. C.The machine for making ice, to J G. P., of N. V., $250; L. W. B., of N. V., $155; 0. H. which you allude, is in Cleveland, Ohio, at the Sheboy. N ,g,f N. V.. $30; J. C. S., of Mass., $259 V. N.M., of N gan Works. We are root acquainted with its construction, C., $3); W. C., of L. I,, $30; 0. XV. D., of N. V., $30; C. boo have no doubt that chemicals are used in it to pro- W., of Cono., $30; C. H. B., of N. V., $55; T. R. H., of duce a low degree of temperature. We believe that it Conn., $55; J. T. R, of N. Y., $25; 0-. 5. B., of Conn., cannot make ire as cheap as has been represented. A $55; W. W., of N. V., $30; M. L., of N. V., $25; 0. 0. mactune or process that could make ire cheap, would, as W., ofN. V., $25; W. & M., of N. V., $25; 0. F.. of L. L, you state, be a grand acquisition to those regions bulsuch $15; N. L. N., of Conn., $20; F. & B., of N. V., $30. a machine, so far as our knowledge extends, has yet tobe Specifications and drawings belonginglo parties with isovented. the following initials have been fsrwarded to the Patent W. J. C., of N. C.Hutrbisons method of straining Office during the week ending Saturday, Oct. 18th saws with a spring, illustrated on page 28, our last vol. j J. P., of 0.; M. L., of N. V.; J. L., of Ohio. A. 0. ume, is simple and good. Any of the plans for straining C., of Vt. 0. V. D R., of Ill.; D. & R., of N. V.; 0. C., reciprocati;;g saws, illustrated in our last volume, are of Cono., 2nd.; J. H. V., of Mo.; H. 0., of Canada; goad. It is impossible to t;ll wbirh is the best, without A. D. B., of Prussia G. H., of L. I., 0. 0. W., ofN.V.; practtcallytestingit; andthesame, wemay add,is the W. & M.,ofN.V.; 0. F.,ofL.I.; F. & B.,ofN.V. case with re-action wheels for sawing and grinding pur poses. Apply to the makers of themthose who have Important Items. advertised in our columns, and tbose whose wheels have been illustratedand bargain with the one who willfulfill Subirribers to the SCIENTiFIC AMERICAN who fail to the best roo;ditions. get their papers regularly will oblige the publishers by A. S., of KyThe arAcle you send, on steam stating their complaints in writing. Those who may boiler explosions, was noticed by us when first published have missed certain numbers can usually have them in the Intelligencer. It is not correct in its premises. supplied by addressing a note to the office of publlca- tion J. J. J., of Ala.llulkleys Kiln.Drying Apparatus is a PREssAny n good one, we believe. We would advise you to address To THE ewepaper or publication which him, It. 0-. Bulkley, Kalamazoo, Mich. is entitled to the SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN on the terms W. M. C., of Tenn.We do not know that there is any prescribed in the Circular which was sent from this demand for cedar bedsteads in this city, office a few weeks ago, and does not receive it regular, 0-. W. It., of 111.Your offer is liberal, but we are not is requested to make complaint to this office, when the in a position to accept of it. omission shall be promptly corrected. L. It. F.. of Mich.Vou want to know how to make INVENTORS Ssuenireo MoOELI to our address should al- blue and white colors for printing figures on muslin to be ways enrlose the express receipt, showing that the embroidered. 0-rind up some prussian blue, sold by all transit expenses have been prepaid. By observing this the druggists, into powder, and then mix it with a little rule we are able, in a great majority of cases, to pre. gum water; use fine whiting in the same manner for vent the collection of double charges. Express com- your white color. These will answer your purpose. A panies, either through carelessness or design, often little starch well boiled will answer as well as the gum. neglect to mark their paid parkages, and thus, without J. J. XV., of 111.You want to know the power of the the receipt to confront themihey mulct their customers water inyosur spring, which runs at the rate of 120 gallons at earh end of the route. Look out for them. per minute, and has a total fall of 27 1.2 feet. It is exact. A XVono or WARNINGTO those who have procras. ly one-horse power, from which one.fourth would have tinated in renewing their subscriptions, but still design to be deducted if applied to a wheel. You also want to to remit in a few days, we would say, be careful and know how many pounds pressure on the piston of a steam not delay too long. The back numbers of the present engine S inches in diameter and 20.inch stroke, will be volume are running low, and some of our friends are equal to the power of your spring. Such a comparison going to be disappointed, by and by, when they send in is curious, for with an engine of that size (and at a high their subscriptions, and order the back numbers, by a pressure, as you state) a pressure of 10 lbs. on the square short reply back, Back numbers all gone. inch, and running only at the rate of 20 revolutions per GIvE INTELLISINLE DIRECTIONSWe often receive let. minute is more than one horse power. ters with money enclosed, requesting the paper sent for T. 11.0-., of Pa Send on your sketch for examination the amo~t ofthe enclosure but no name of State given, without delay. We make no charge for examining in- and often with the name of the Inst office also omitted. ventions and giving opinions in regard to their novelty. Persons should be careful to write their names plainly Inventors who wish to consult us on such matters, can do when they address publishers, and to name the post of SO freely, and we will furnish them with a printed cir- fire at which they wish to receive their paper, and the cular of information free of charge. By delaying to me. State in which the post offire is located. cure your invention in time some one may get ahead of tiOREION SUSSCRISERSOur Canada and Nova Scotia yo;i. This is often done. We have the most extensive patrons are solleited to compete with our citizents for Patent Agency in the world, and our prices for preparing the valuable prizes offered on the next volume. [It is cases are very moderate. mportant that all who reside out of the States should A. 0-. C., of VtYour invention caveated in 1843, em. Femember to send 25 cents additional to the published bracing a claim for the combined use of steam and air, ratesfor each yearly subscriberthat amount we are or steam alone, in a blast or other furnace, is quite differ. obliged to pre.pay on postage.] cut from that which has rereived the name of the Bee. PATENT LAws AND Gseinx TO IievEoeToRs.This pam. semer process. It embraces a blast of air or steam and phiet contains not only the laws but all information air, through the liquid metal, after it has been run from touching the rules and regislations of the Patent Office the furnace. The use of steam as a blast was patented in Price 12 1.2 cents per copy. A Circular, giving in- England in 1840. structions to inventors in regard to the size and proper 0-. B, 0., of Perforated plates are now used in construction of their modeis with other useful informat some ovens. lion loan appllcant for a patent, is furnished gratis a 0- P., of MichWe have the work of Liebig to which this office upon appllcation by mall. you refer, and referred to his opinions some years since, HECEIP to sustain our views in a controversy respecting electro. ~ aTs~When money is pald at the office for subicrip. receiptfor it will always be given; but when sub- magnetism as a motive power. We are obliged to you for your offers, however, scribers remit their money by mail, they may consider J. T., of OhioUse rommon plumbers solder to make the arrival of the first paper a bona fide acknowledg- the swell joints of lead pipes. It is composed of 66 parts ment of the receipt of their funds. of lead and Ii of tin. PATENT CLAIMSPersons desiring the claim of any in N. B., of Conn.Ilunts photography is published by vention which has been patented within fourteen years Humphrey, 287 Broadway, this city, it is such a work as can obtain a copy by addressing a letter to this office you -uvant. Stating the name of the patentee, and date of patent N. K. L., of AlaHodge on the Steam Engine, is such when known, and enclosing $1 as fees for copying. a work so you want. It is published by D. Appleton & - _____________________________________________ Co., this city. Price $10. Terms of AdTertlslng. H. B. T., of N. VThere is no theory in existence 50 Twenty-five cents a line each insertion. We respect- for as we are aware, respecting how much weight fully request that our patrons will make their adver- a pile of 000 lbs will support under a rain of 1600 lbs. with tisements as short as possible. Engravings cannot be ad. a fall of 20 feel, Some of our readers may have adopted muted into the advertising columns. a theory on pile-driving from their own experience. ~ Alladvertisementamusthe paidfoi befoie Insert- C. D. L., of 111.It is impossible for us to tell what tog. quantity of water will flow through your ditch per min ________________ ____________________ ute, owing to its length, and having only six feet fall to the ~1BAND DISCOVERY, whereby the whole of the mile. The resistance of its sides and bottom to the pas. ~j~Be es in a bee.hive can be driven down on to a sheet sage of the water must be very great. If you, by experi. or board and remain insensible for 10 or 15 minutes, and per mm. by setting a weak stork hive over them they will run up ment, will find out how much flows through it and make a strong family. The whole secret will be sent ute, we will tell you what power it will take to raise it to any address by remitting one dollar by mail to the sub- 100 feet high. scriber HUGH M. MOORE, 1* Painted Post, Steuben Co., N. V. H. B., of MassThere are different kinds of iron ore, each of which require to be treated in a manner arcord.. ORN HUSKERSI wlll send one to any person on ing to its nature, the carbonate must be treated in a differ- receipt of $1. Warranted to save thirty to fifty per ent manner from the red or brown oxyd, therefore one . rent. of labor and all sore fingers. Patent pending. Ad- dress J. HEkVA JONES, Rocklon, Winnebago Co., process will not answer for all. The best iron is made Ill. 7 3* from the magnetic oxyd. C. .7. W., of OhioThe sulphate of zinc is the best drier J)LUMBEOLA Universal Patent AgencyPlumbe. 66* you ran employ to mix with your paint. - ~. ola and Do Buque, Iowa. H. T., of PaResin is soluble in an alkali, and makes b~ISS DRAWING INSTRUMENTS A full stock of these celebrated instruments always on a kind of a soap; it is employed extensively in making hand. Catalogues gratis. AESLER & WIR common brown soap. 7 6*eow 211 Chestnut st., Phlladelphia. IMPORTANT TO INVENT- ORS. T HEUNDERSIGNED having had TEN years~ practical experience in soliritingPATENTS in this and foreign rountr es, beg to give notice that they con- tinue to offer their services to all who may desire to se- cure Patents at hone or abroad. Over three lhsusseirl Letters Patent have been issued, whose papers were prepared at this Office, and on an average Jofteeis, or u ne.tliird of alithe Patents issued each week, are on cases which are prepared at our Agency. An able corps of Engineers. Examiners, Draughtomen, and Specification writers are in constant employment, whirh renders us able to prepare applications on the shortest notice, while the experience of a long practice, and facilities whirls few others possess, we are able to give the most cocci-ct counsels to inventors in regard to the patentabllity o - inventions placed before us for ex- amination. Private consultat ons respecting the patentability of in- ventions are held fee of charge, with inventors, at our offire, Irom 0 A. M., until 4 P. M. Parties residing at a distance are inform od that it is generally unnecessary for them to incur the .xpense of attending in person. as all the steps necessary to secure a patent can be arranged by letter. A rough sketch and description of the improve- ment should be first forwarded, which we will examine and give an opinio i as to patentability, without charge. Models and fees cais be sent with safety from any part of the country by ex inress. In this respect New Vork is more accessible thu n any other city in our country. Circularo of information will be sent free of postage to any one wishing to earn the preliminary steps towards making an application. In addition to the advantages which the long experience snd great success of our firm in obtaining patents present to inventors, they ire informed that a14 inventions pat- ented through our stablishment, are n;kiced, at the prep. er time, in the Sr ;ENTIFIC AMERICAN. This paper is read by not less tht.n 100,000 persons every week, and en- joys a very wide spread and substantial influence. Most of the patents obtained by Americans in foreign countries are secured through us0 while it is well known that a very large p:-oportion of all the patents applied for in the U. S., go thraugh our agency. MUNN & CO. American and loreigo Patent Attornies, Principal Office 128 Fulton treet, New York. JR. STAOTORDS FAMILY RECEIPT Book, Containing 150 Household Receipts, all of them practical, anso most of them new to the public. Aiso accounts of several new discoveries and recent improve- ments interesting iso Mechanics and Farmers. Also a con- densed account of time most prominent diseases of the hu- man body; what produces them, what will cure them, and why it will. too 20 anatomical illustrations of the human body, con picuously showing all the muscles, nerves, joiots, bloot vessels, heart, lungs, throat, brain, eye, ear bogus, skin, bowels, snd other interior organ- ism. This book also contains a list of nearly ft different subjects comprisins- inventions, discoveries and informa- tion which, in the opinion of the London Smcietyof Arts, are now required be the public and for which inventions, & c., they offer valuable premiums. The List affords a brilliant opportuni y for the display of American talent and genius. Evert merhanir and artist should possess it. The above book ~ 11 be sent free of postage on receipt of Ten rents or three lamps, by J. H. STAFFORD, Practi- cal Chemist, No. ls State ot., New York. 1* B OONESPATENT ROPE MACHINE is an in- vention of gr oat utiity. Those who have had it in operation at:out six months, with a number of superinten- dante, who for wor omanship have long been known to be at hue head of II; mir profession as rope manufacturers, unite in saying tha- it is by far the most superior machine for manufacturing small rope that they ever saw; that it makes a superier article of rope, occupies but about one half the room, works at double the speed with about one half the power of any other machine they know of. The potent is do-ed July 19th, 1850. The inventor, T. L. Boone, 7 Nassau ot., tirooktyn, N, V., prefers mak- ing cordage with them to selling, but would sell the right of a few States by -. to raise fuimds to build a mill of his own, or supply a r umpany with machinery, with a State right and take par with them in a Rope and Cordage Manufactory. 1* S ALEOF PA TENTSGreat Central Inventors, Machinery, a ad Patent Right Depot, No. 212 Broad- way, cor. of Futtoi ot., New York. Our experience in disposing of rights, and extensive acquaintance through- eut the Union ha. induced us to establish branch and connecting offices on all the principal cities; therefore we have superior lacilities for the purchase and sale of machinery, and foo the sale of such valuable patent rights and patented articles as will bear actual demonstration. 0-nod reference gis en. Address 1* A. & J. T. SPEER. RE UEST--LIBERAL OFFERWe propose to J-~. send to every person in the Ui;ited States, who is interested in the -nanufacture of lumber, or improved machinery, a full itlustrated description of two valuable inventions. First, THE COMBINa5 TION PORTABLE STEAM SAXV. MILLThis is a isew upright mill, so simple in ito con- struction that any - one can put it up and run itis easily moved from place to placemaybe easily shipped to any part of the countryis capable of cutting from six to ten thousand feet in es ery twenty-four hours; while, at the same time it is fu nished at so low a rate as to bring it within the reach o almost every farmer and planter. Second, RICEl PATENT SPRING 0-U IDEThe only effectual pla so ever invented for guiding, steadying, and strengthening s circular saw, while in motion. We wish,therefo:e,to obtain a list of all the machinists, lumbermen and s;w-mill men in the United States, and to any person who will send us a list of such parties in his vicinity, and the a Idress of each, we will send in return, a copy of the United States Journal,~ the largest illus- trated newspaper n the United States, for one year. ln rase we receive m mrs than one list from the same locali- ty, we shall send tius Journal to the party from whom we receive the firs: list, only. The New England States are not included in this offer as we have there already completed a list, as desired. 4. M. EMERSON & CO. 1 Spruce street, Nm--York. 4 4 ~ 1). BAR ETT, Malleable and 0-cay Iron ~e Works, Ham lIon cor. of McWhorter ot., Newark, N. .7. Orders promptly attended to. 6 10* EZIATENT BUIDKLEThe double-jointed buckle .EI patented Sept. Id. 1856, is claimed to be the best in- vention in the wa~ of buckles for wearing apparrel, sus- penders, & c., that uas ever been produced, I he elotire patent, or territory in States may be bought cheap of the patentee. Address, for further particulars, WILLIAM SLADE, Gum Ccc ek, Dooley Co., Ga. 6 2* PORTABLE 4TEAM ENG1NES.S. C. HILLS No. 12 Platt St., N. V., offers for sale these Engines, with Boilers, Pun po, Heaters, etc., all complete, and very compact, fron- 2 to 10 horse power, suitable for print ers, carpenters, farmers, planters, & c. A 2 1-2 horse can be seen in store, it occupies a space 5 by 3 feet, weighs 500 lbs., price $240; other sizes in proportion. 1 elw NGINEERINoi,~The undersigned is prepared to .UThd furnish specill rations, estimates, plans in general or detail of steamships, steamboats, propellers, high and low pressure engines, b- ilers and machinery of every descrip- tion, Broker in s sam vessels, machinery, boilers, & c. General Agent for .l.shcrofts Steam and Vacuum Gauges, Allen & Noyss~ Metallic Self-adjusting Conical Packing, Fabers Water Gu~ ge, Sewells Salinometers, DndgeoWs Hydraulic Lifting I ress, Roeblings Patent Wire Rope for hoisting and steering purposes, Machinery Oil of the most approved kind, etc CHARLES W. COPELAND 1 eowtf Consulting Engineer, 64 Broadway, CLOCKS for Cl urches, Court Houses, & c. Regula- tors and tim, pieces for jewelers, railroads, offices, & c. Also glass dials of any size for illuminating, and other kinds manufactureis and warranted by the subscriber. JOHN SHERRY. Oakland Works, Sag Harbor, N. V. 37 12 sow fl LARKS PATENT WATER REGULATOR...- The only perfet security against steam boiler explo- sions, caused by cant of water. Every steam boiler should have one. tegulators sold and applied and rights for most of the States and Territories, for sale by S. C HILLS, 12 Platt sIN. V. 1 4eow* ~HE NEW YORK DAILY SUN for $2 ~r.e~ The miracle of the present age is accomplished by the Publisher of the New Yerk Sun, in furnishing sub- scribers in clubs of thirty or more with,the dally paper by mail for $2 a year. The Sun commenced in 181 ; is the oldest, as well as the cheapest of all the cheap daily newspapers. It contains the )atsst news to be had by tel- egraph, mail, or expressis independent on all subjects, and has for its platform~ Common Sense. Club rates payable in advance, S copies one year $1630; 10 copies $30; 15 copies $4125; 20 copies $50 t 25 copies $5625; 30 copies $60. Single copies $4 a year. Papers to be sent an one wrapper, and only by mail, and to be directed to one person only. The postage on the Daily Sun within the State of New York is only 78 cents per year, and only $156 to any other part of the United Stales. Specimen copies sent gratis on a plication. Letters (always post paid) to be directed to MOSES S. BEACH, Sun Office, New York City. 37 If UPERIOR MACHINISTS TOOLSSlotting ma- chines, Planers, Compound Planers, Lathes, Drills, 0-ear Cutters, & c., & c., constantly on hand, and made to order at short notice by CARPENTER & PLASS, 470 First Avenue, N. V. 6 i~ OODWORTHS PATENT PLANING, Tonguing, and Grooving MachinesThe subscri- ber, from his twenty-four years experience both ios,ths use and manufacture ofohese unrivalled machines, is pre. p aced to furnish them of a quality superior to any that can be procured elsewhere for the same money. Prices from $85 to $1550. Also several good second-hand Planing, Tonguing, and Grooving Machines for sale. Rights for sale in all the unoccupied towns in New York and Nor- thern Pennsylvania. JOHN GIBSON, 5 12* Planing Stills, Albany, N. V. TU~ 0 INVENTORS AND PATENTEES.Th5 undersigned has established an agency for the sale of patent rights in the city of Baltimore, at No. 34 Second street. PHILIP T. TYSON. 5 5* U MPROVEMENT IN BORING MACHINESThis .3. improvement consists of an arrangement by which the auger can be driven in any direction the operator chooses, rendering the machine far superior to any other now in use. RICE & DRYDEN, Worcester, Mass. 4 4* 1~U ACHINE BELTING, Steam Packing, Engine lYE. HossIhe superiority of these artirles manufac- tured of vulcanized rubber is established. Every belt will be warranted superior to leather, at one-third less price. The Steam Packing is made in every variety, and warranted to stand 300 degs. of heat. The hose never needs oiling, and is warranted to stand any required pres- sure; together with all varieties of rubber adapted to mechanical purposes. Directions, prices, & c., ran be ob- tained by mail or otherwise, at our warehouse. New York Belting and Packing Co., JOHN H. CHEEVER, Treasurer, No. 6 Deystreet, N. V. 48 20* UT NITTING MACHINESCircular and straight knitting machines of all sizes and gauges on hand and made to order. WALTE RAIKEN, F conklin, N.H. 46 13* AGES PATENT PERPETUAL LIME KILN, .31 will burn 100 barrels of lime with three cords of wood every 24 hours; likewise my coal kiln will burn 160 bushel witn 1 tuh bituminous coal in the same time; coal is not mixed with limestone. Rights for sale. 45 26 C. D. PAGE Rochester, N.Y. STEAM ENGINESFrom 3 to 40-horse power portable engines and boilers; they are first class engines, and sill be sold cheap for cash, WM BURDON, 102 Front St., Brooklyn. 41 tf fl OLD QUARTZ MILLS of the most improved con- struction s will crush more quartz and do it finer tluan any machine now in use, and costs muds less. WM BURLION, 102 Front ot., brooklyn. -01 tf AlLS CELEBRATED POIITABLs2 STEA~ I V Engines and Saw Mills, Bogardsss Horsepowers, Smut Machines, Saw and Grist Mill irons and Gearing, Saw Gummers, Ratchet Drills, & c. Orders for light and heavy foiging and castings executed with dispatch. LOGAN & LIDGER WOOD, 13 1y5 9 Gold ot., N. V. 11~AGES PATENT CIRCULAR SAW MILLS .31 with Steam Engine and Boiler, on hand and for sale for $1560. at Scheurk Machine Depot, 111 Greenwich ot. New Vork. A. L. ACKERMAN. 49 10 B ARREL MACHINERYCROZIERS PATENT is nisrivalled in point of quality and quontily of work performed, and may be seen in c.iuotont operation at the Barrel Manufactor~ of the sindersigned, For rirluts . nd machines address WELCH & CROZIER, -03 18 Omwego, N. V. ~117 ~ BUILDERSFor Sale, one new U~orighut Mill br boring car wheels. Mak - $ , will be sold for $300 cash. Address GEOS. LIN- COLN & CO., Ilartford, Ct. lIf B (flLER FLUESAll sizes and any length prompt- lyfurnished by JAMES 0. MORSE & CO., No.79 John st., N. V. 51 Imos ~UTROUGHT.iRON PIPEPlain, also galvanized inside and outside, sold at wholesale by JAMES 0. MORSE & CO., No. 79 Jolun ot., N. V. II Smos IF ORBES & BOND,ArIisls, 89 Nassau st, N.Y., Me- land general Draughtomen on wood,stons.& c. IL! OIL! OIL For railroads, steamers, and for IPmachinery and L-urningPeases lmproved Machine- ry and Burning Oil will save fifty per cent., and will not gum. This oil possesses qualities vitally essential for lubri- cating and burning, and found in no otloer oil. lt is of fered to the public upon the most reliable, thorough, and practical test. Our most skillful engineers and machinists pronosonce it superior and cheaper than any other, and the only oil that is in all cases reliable and will not 0010. The Scientific American, after several tests, pronounced it superior to any other they have ever used for macloin- scy. For sale only by the inventor and manoufacturer, F. S. PEASE, 61 Main ot., Ituffalo, N. V. And W. S. ROWLAND & CO., Agents for Chicago, Ill. N. BReliable orders filled for any port of the United States and Europe. 1 If ~T50RCROSS ROTARY PLANING MACHINE. 11 The Supreme Court of the U. S., at the Term of1853 and 1854, having decided that the patent granted to Nich- olas 0-. Noreross, of date Feb. 12, 1850, for a Rotary Pla- ning Machine for Planing Boards and Planks is iuot an infringement of the Woodwortb Patent. R ists to use the N. 0-. Norcrosss patented machine con be purchased on application to~ - 0-~ NOR CROSS, Office fbr sale of rights at 27 5 Is street, Boston, and Lowell, Mass, 41 ttm* 1~T EW HAVEN MFG. CO.Machinists Tools, Iron lii Planers, Engine and Hand Lathes, Drills, Bolt Cut- ters, Gear Cutters, Clsurks, & c., on hand and finishing. These Tools are of superior quality, and are for sale low for cash or a pproved paper. For ruts giving full deorrip- tion and pruces, address, New Haven Manufactsiring Co ., New Haven, Coon. 1 tf UlUARRISONS 30 INCH GRAIN MILLSLa. .173, test Patent, A supply constantly on hand. Prire $200. Address New Haven Manufacturing Co., New Haven, Conn. 1 If OILER INCRUSTATIONS PREVENTED ms~ A simple and cheap condenser manufactured b Wits. Burdon, 102 Front st.,Bcooklyn, will take every par. tides of lime or salt out of the water~ rendering it as pure as Croton, before entering the boiler. Persons in want of such machines will please state what the bore and stroke of the engines ace, and what kind of water is to be used. 41 tf 56 Natural Curiosities. In Australia there is a beetle which has the peculiarly formed legs of the Kangaroo, and appears to be half kangaroo (on a small scale) and half insect. It is a grotesque creature, and from its appearance has received the name of ~ Kangaroo-Beetle. In the same country there is also a bird (Menura superba) which has a tail resembling the ancient Greek lyre. The margin of the lyre is formed by two broad feathers on each side, wbich curve into scrolls at the upper end, while a number of delicate ones represent the wires in the middle. These birds are hunted for their tails, which form an object of curi- osity and beauty in museums. In the zoological kingdom there is a curi- ous variety of shell called Harpa,~~ from the bars with which it is marked having the re- semblance of a harp. There is another shell called the B~lj~~,)~ which resembles a rose bud, and another which resembles a straw- berry. Loisdon and Old Rome. Rome in the days of its glory was a mag- nificent and great city, but historical students assert that London already surpasses what that city was in her palmiest days. London has a population of 2,500.000, and what is very remarkable, it increases proportionably fast- er than any city in England. If it goes on in- creasing for half a century as it has during the past 50 years, it will then have a popula- tion of six millions. The Commissioners of Sewers in that city are now providing drain- age for such a population. What a buman hive! Improvement in Paddle Wheels. Abraham Houseworth, of 259 Houston st., N. Y., has now on exhibition at the Great Fair of the American Institute, Crystal Palace, N. Y., his improvement in Paddle Wheels, for which Letters Patent were granted Aug. 19th, 1836. Our engraving illustrates the im- provement. The principal objects of the invention are to prevent the injurious concussion and jarrina caused by the common paddles in the act of entering the witer; also to avoid the loss of power by the lifting of the back water, when the paddles emerge. For this purpose the paddles are made in three parts, the central portions, A, forming the spokes of the wheel, and the other portions, B B, being pivoted at E in pairs to A. The inner extremities of B B are furnished with projecting arms. C D, which are intended to strike upon the csm, F, as the wheel revolves and open the paddles. The opening or spread of the floats, B B, takes place just after they have entered the water. At the moment of entering the floats are folded together, so that only one-third of their actual surface is presented to the water, but after entering, the cam, F, causes them to open, or spread, so as to treble the propell- ing surface. In the act of emerging the pad- dles close a~ain, and thus avoid the lifting of back water. When, therefore, the paddles reach that point where the greatest surfitee is needed, and where the power of the engine can he most advantageously employed, they open as described, hut close in time to obviate the other difficulties named. The cam, F, is movable, by means of its shank, F which passes through a slot in the supportiu~ beam for that purpose. When it is desired to reverse the motion of the wheel, cain F is shifted to the opposite end of said slot. If cam F he moved so that its shank occupies the center of the slot, the floats will remain closed during the entire revolution of the wheel. The inventor pro- poses to make an advantageous use of this fact. By means of suitable rods and connec- tions he will cause the cams to be shifted by a lever, located in the pilot-house of the boat so that the pilot can, at pleasure, instantly alter the power of one or both wheels without causing the speed of the engine to be changed. If the paddles of one wheel are folded, and fD ~, those of the other spread open, it is evident that greater force will be exerted on one side than the other, and that the vessel may be ~cicwtif~c ~nicric an4 more quickly turned. Or the paddles of both the vessels steed instantly reduced. wheels may be prevented from spreading, and Instead of ingle arms, A, the inventor pro- NEW PADDLE WHEEL. PRESS FOR HAY AND COTTON. sure is obtained by means of chains or cords, C, which extend over the follower, A, their ends winding upon roller shafts, D. There are two of these roller shafts, D, one on each side of the machine. They are rotated, res- pectively, by the levers, E E. The roller shafts, D, project from the sides of the ma- chine, far enough to receive the ratchet wheel and pawi, F, and also to receive the lower ends of levers E, which also have a ratchet and pawi, G. The office of the ratchet wheel and pawl, G, is to convey mo- tion to shafts D, when power is applied to lev- ers E E. The purchase is retained by ratchet wheel and pawi F. Whenever the shafts, D, are rotated in the proper direction, the cords, C, will be wound up, and the follower, A, pressed down towards the bottom board B. The degree of pressure is only limited by the length of the levers, E E and the strength of the materials of which the machine is composed. The bottom board, B, is furnished with ribs, a, between which cords for binding the bales are passed. The under side of follower, A, is similarly provided. It is almost needless to say that there are no parts connected with this machine that are likely to get out of order. Its compact- ness, ease of managemant, and economy of manufacture, with the other advantages de- scrilied. render it worthy of public flivor. For further information address the inventor. Jas. A. Disbrow, Poughkeepsie N Y. Patent ap- plied for. The Selma (Ala..) Gazette states that M. Dillard of that place, has grown 80 acres of Boyd Cotton this season, the yield of which has been very great100 well- formed bolls being formed on a single stalk, on an avera:,e. SCIENTIFIC A~IERICAN, TWELFTH Y AR Road! Read!! Read!!! The most extensively circulated ihe roost interest lug, reliable, attractive, and cheapest publicalion of its kind, is the SCIENTIFiC AMEItICAPs. It has, by far, the largest circulation, and stands, by common con sent, at the head of all other scientific papers in the world. Its contributors and Editors are PRACTICAL, ENERcOFTIC, and EXPERIENCED MEN, whose coo- lant endeavor is to extend the area of knowledge, by presenting it to the snisid, in a simple, attractive, and practical form. The SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN is printed once a week, in convenient quarto form for binding, and pre sents an elegant typographical appearance. Every num ber contains Eight Large Pages, of reading, abundantly illustrated with ORIGINAL ENGRAVINGS. All the most valuable patented discoveries are delinea ted and desccibed in its issues, so that, as respects inven. lions, it may be justly regarded as an ILLUSTRATED REPERTORY, where the inventor may learn what has been done before him, and where he may bring to the world a KNOWLEDGE of his owus achievements. REPORTS OF U. S. PATENTS granted are also pub. itahed every week, including Official Copiea of all the PATENT CLAIMS. These Claims ace published in the ScuEruTIruC AsizalcAre in Olvonce s/all at her pa. per:. Mechanics, Inventors, Engineers, Chemists, Manufac. turers, Agrirsulturists, and People of everg Prefeasiesa so Lsfe, will fluid the SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN to be of great value in their respective callings. Its counsels and suggestions will save them Huundred.s qP Dollars an nually, besides affording them continual source of knowledge, the experience of which is be yond pecuniary estimate. A NEW VOLUME commenced September 13, 1816 Now is the time to subscribe! Specimen Copies sent gratis. TEEMS OF SUBSCEIPTION$2 a year. or $1 for six months. CLUiJIIATES. Five Copies for Six Months. Five Copies for Twelve Months. Ten Copies for Six Months, Ten Copies for Twelve Months. Fifteen Copies for Twelve Months, Twenty Copiesfow Twelve Montha For all Clubs of 20 and over, the yearly only $140. Post.pay all letters, and direct to lion MUNN & CO., 12S Fulton street. New York. l~~ For list of Prizes, see editorial page. sa& W poses to have two arms of similar shape, and wearIng at tne pivot, etc. For further infor to pivot the paddles, B B, between them. mation apply at the Palace or address the in- This will contribute to strenRth, prevent ventor. as shove. OF THE Cotton and Hay Press. sists in its simplicity, cheapness of construc Our engraving is taken from a full-sized tion, durability and great power. The sub~ Press now on exhibition at the Crystal Pal- stance to be pr~ ised is placed between the ace. The chief merit of the improvement con- follower, A, and bottom board, B. The pres

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THE ADVOCATE OF INDUSTRY, AND JOURNAL OF SCIENTIFIC, ~IECHANICAL, AND OTHER IMPROVEMENTS VOLUME XII. THE Sciontific American, PUBLISHED WEEKLY At 128 Fulton street, iN. Y. (Sun Buildings.) BY MUXN & CO. 0. D. MUNN, S. H. WALES, A. E. BEACH. Responsible Agents may also be found in all the prin- cip al cities and towns in the United States. Single copies of the paper are on sale at the office of publication and at all the periodical stores in this city, Brooklyn, and Jersey Usty. TE1MS.$~2 a.yeac,~j in advance and the re- mainder us six months. L~ See Prospectus oss last page. No Travelissg Agents employed. Notes and Queries on Gas Lighting. In tile number for September 20th, of that exceedingly interesting and peculiar London periodical, Notes end Queries, there is a letter from a correspondent, T. H. W., of Rich- mond, Va., correcting Thos. Peckston ,in his treatise on Gas Lighting; also Sami. Hughes, in his treatise on Gas Works, especially the latter, Who has attributed to Dr. Watson Bishop of Landaff, tile discovery that coal gas retained its inflammability after passing through Water. Peckston attributes to Rev. Dr. John Clayton the discovery of a perma- nently inflammable gas from pit coal, about 1691, but says nothing about his discovery of its inflammable property after passing through water; While Hughes, in his treatise, published in London in 1833, says, To the celebrated Dr. Watson, we are indebted for tile first no- tice of the important fact, that coal gas re- tains its inflammability after passing through water. The Virginia correspondent of Notes aed Queries states that Dr. Clayton had mde a voyage to Virginia, and in a letter to the Roy- al Society, May 12th, 1688. after describing some severe thunder storms Which he had Wit- nessed in the Colonies, he says, Durst I offer my weak reasons, I should here consider the nature of thunder, and compare it With some suiphurous spirits which J have drawn from coals, and that I could in no way condense yet were inflammable, nay, would lssern ajter they passed through water, and that, seemingly, fiercer. I have kept this spirit a considerable time in bladders, and yet if I let it forth and fired it with a match or candle, it would con- tinue burning till all was spent. We are glad that an American correspond- ent corrected Mr. Hughes respecting who was the real author of this scientific discovery, and we understand that he has written to Rich- mond, thanking T. H. W. for the correction, and that he will make it in his next edition, giving Dr. Clayton full credit. We have to remark that we are surprised Mr. Hughes should have given Bishop Watson any credit for such a discovery in a work pub- lished in 1833 ; while Parnell, in his work on gas illumination, published in London at least sixteen years ago, gives Dr. Clayton the full credit, and quotes the extract of his letter given above, from Virginia, on its first page. Mr. Hughes should have been better read in the history of gas lighting before he attempted to write upon it. The Largest Piouring Mitis in the World. The Richmond (Va.) Enquirer says :~ We notice that the extensive addition which is now in course of erection, by Messrs. War- wick & Barksdale, to their already mammoth fiouring mills in this city, is progressing fine ly. The foundation of this new edifice is stone, sixteen feet thick; the brick wall aver- ages five feet in thickness from the founda- tion. The length of the building is one hun- dred and ninety feet, its breadth ninety-five feet. When completed it will be eleven stories high. The cost of the addition, with machin- ery, and everything necessary to ks operation, will not fall far short of $200,000. These mills will constitute, collectively, the largest flouring establishment in the world. NEW-YORK, NOVEMBEL 1,1856. NUMBER 8. NEW PLANING MACHINE. Improved Pin nin., Machine. One of the prominent novelties at the great exhibition of the American Institute, Crystal Palace, N. Y., is the Planing Machine invented by C. H. Denison, Green River, Vt. Our engraiuing is taken from the machine. Its operations attract croxvds of spectators, who evince much satisfaction at the novel and rapid manner in which it does its work. The machine is supported on an octogonal frame, surmounted by a circular revolving bed plate, A, of polished metal. The planing is done by means of two cutting apparatuses, both of similar construction, one on each side of the machine. Two hoards are simultane- ously planed. The boards are fed in and pass out on a tangent line to the circular bed, A. The feeding is done by means of the rotating bed plate A, acting in conjunction with feed rollers, B C. There are two of the latter up- on each side of the machine, one being plain, the other fluted. Bed A and the feed rollers move in the same direction. In nearly all other machines the feeding iu done by means of feed rollers only, the bed being stationary. The stuff is pressed tight- ly down upon the bed, thwa drawn across its surface by the rollers. It is obvious that this method of feeding consumes much power, and is otherwise disadvantageous. A bed which presents a firm foundation for the stuff to rest upon while being cut, and which also moves in conjunction with the feed rollers, is a de- sideratum long sought for and often essayed; but the inventor of the present machine af- firms that it has never, until now, been reached with pr~ctical success. From a care- ful examination )f this invention, during oper- ation, we are sa isfied that the method adop- ted for feediun i a superior one. D are the cutt ars, which consist of straight edges attached to a horizontal shaft. The cuAers are adjut ted at pleasure, and may be easily removed (or grinding, etc. The cutter shafts are opera ed by belts passing over the pulleys, D. E I are accommodating pulleys, whose office is t s keep the belt always in con- tact with D, dur ng the adjustment of the cut- ter shafts. The cutter si afts are mounted in sliding frames, F, which are raised or lowered to ad- just the cutters t any thickness of stuff by the hand screws, G. Frames F are further tightened and sc cured in a given position by the hand wheels. H, whose shafts are provided with screws tha gear with pinion nuts, I. The bight of the feed rollers is adjusted by the screws, J. The feed rollers and the revolving table, A are all operated by the main shaft, K, with which the above parts are connected, by means of gearing, as sh IWB. The under surface of bed A is furnit bed with a cogged rack; on which pinions, I, traverse, and give rotary motion to the be I. This planing n achine is simple, strong, and substantial in a~l its parts. The stuff is fed through with g~ eat ease and precision. Its work is done with a most excellent finish. Two hoards, as stated, are planed at once. It is well adapted to the planing of ships knees, curved and crool .ed stuff for chair and car- riage ~ use, etc. Address the inventor as above, or Geo. Denison, 33 Cliff St., New York City, for further information. Patented Feb. 12th, 1836. The Atlantic Teiegraph Cable. The London Artizan proposes that the new giant steamer Great Eastern be employed to lay the Atlantic telegraph cable between Ire- land and Newfoundland. It could carry the whole cable and lay it down without trouble; and could not be employed in a better business on its first voyage. Russian Steamships. A correspondent of the London Post writing from St. Petershurgh states that a powerful company hBs been formed in that city, under government patronage, for the purposes of steam navigation on a grand scale. Twenty screw steamers of the largest class are to he built for it as soon as possible,some in America, so me in England, and a few in Hus- sla. Gold in North Carolina. Since 1838 the gross produce of the gold mines of North Crrohina, as far as indicated by the Mint returns, is $4,233,336, and of Georgia, $3,683,864total, $9,919,200 for the whole period. German Sliver for Castings. Take lead, 3 oz., nickel, 20, zinc, 20, and copper 60, and fuse them together. The cop- per is first melted, then the nickel and lead added, and lastly the zinc, which is a volatile metal. IMPORTANT MITICE. When an individual has made an invention, the first inquiry that naturally suggests itself is, Can I obtain a Patent ? A pssitive answer to such questions is only to be had by presenting a formal application for a patent to the government, embracing a petition, and oath, speci- fication, model, twn drawings, and the payment of the official fees. Aside from these steps, all that the in- ventor can do is, to submit his plans to persons expe rienced in the business of obtaining patents. and solicit their opinions. If they are honorable men, he may con- fide to them his ideas with perfect safety, and they witi inform him whether or not they regard his invention as patentable. Those who wish to consult with ourselves on such matters, are at liberty so do so, either in pereon, at our office, or by correspondence through the mails. For such consultations we make no charge. We shall be happy, at all times, to examine inventions, and will give conscien- tious opinions as to their patentability. Pen and ink sketches of the improvement, and a writ- ten description of the same, should be sent. Write plain; do not use pencil or pale ink, and be brief. Remember that all business committed to our care, and all onsultations are kept by us secret and strictly confidential. Parties wishing to apply for patents are informed that they can have the necessary drawings and documents promptly prepared at this office, on the most reasonable terms. It is not necessary for them to go to the expense of ajourney in order to be personally present. All the required business can be just as well arranged by corres- pondence. Models may be sent by Express. We have been engaged in the business of procuring patents for years, and loave probably had more experience than any other firm in the country, owing to the fact that the amoussi otbusiness done by us equals, if it does not exceed, that of all other professional patent agents in the United Stales combined. A large proportion of all the patents annually granted by the American gov- ernment, are prepared and conducted by our firm. We have in constant employment an able corps of exam- iners and draughtsmen, whose duties are so systematical- ly arranged, under our own personal supervision, that every case committed to our care receives the most care- ful study and attention, and the most prompt dispatch. In every instance we endeavor so to draw up the claims and prepare the whole case, that the patent, if granted, will sland the test of the courts, and be of value to the owner. Patents secured through our agency are scattered all over the country, and in this respect they speak for themselves. In addition to the advantages which the long expe- rience. great success, promptness and moderate charges of our firm, in obtaining patents, present to inventors, they are informed that all inventions patented through our establishment, are noticed editorially, at the proper time, in the SciasNrssso AsIERICAN, without charge. This we are enabled to do from the fact that, by prepa- ring the case, we become familiar with its peculiarities. Our paper is read by not less than 75,000 persons every week, and has a wide-spread and substantial influence. Inventors, we believe, will generally promote their own interests by confiding their patent business to our Address MUNN & CO., 128 Fulton street, New York. [Repouted Officially for the Scientific American.] LIST OF PATENT CLAIMS leaned from the United States Patent Office FOR THE WEEK ENDING OCTOBER 21, 1%6. THRAsHING AND SEPARATING MACOiINEsJohn Barnes, of Mount Morris, N. Y., I do not claim as new a thrashing cylinder. B, and revolving screen, C, in trans- verse relationship to each other, when the said cylinder occupies a central position across the mouth of the screen, as such has been used; neither do I claim the in- troduction of a blast into the mouth of the screen, to as- sist the separation, and urge the straw down through the screen, irrespective of the lateral and relative arrange- ment of the blast described. But I claim the arrangement in its transverse relation- ship to the screen, C, and across the mouth thereof, of the thrashing cylinder, B, on the falling side of the screen, when in motion, or mainly on said side, in combi- nation with the introduction of the blast Iby branch, d,) on the rising side ot said screen, and between said side and the inner end of the cylinder s throw or action, for the better clearance of the groin from under the cope, and the more easy and effectual separation of the grain as it rises asid falls, and is kept tree and loose by the lift of the screen, as described. COTTON SEED PLANTantIChas. it. Belt, of Washing- ton, B. C., I claim effecting the seed discharge by the opposite reciprocation of the inclined plates, a a, consti- tuting the bottom of the hopper, in combination with the armed rollers or their equivalent, arranged and operating substantially as and for the purposes set forth. CLEANING COULTERO Os PLowsEdmund C. Bills, Jr.. of Perry. N. F. I expressly disclaim smooth cones and cylinders, and those that are ribbed in direction of their elements, as mutter cleaners; t also disclaim the employment of mechanical devices for rotating such cleaners. But I claim the employment upon the front of a mutter of an inverted cone, having spiral flanges thereon, self- acting by the upward pressure of the grass to free the coulter, substantially as set forth. ConN SHELLER5WD-I. Black, of Allegheny City, Pa., 1 claim two or more holes, g. of different sizes, with teeth A, converging in the manner shown, or any equivalent manner, for the purpose set forth. PuMpsJohn P. Cowing, of Seneca Falls, N. F., I do not claim an oil or water chamber for keeping the pump cylii;der air-tight, irrespective of the arrangement of the same; neither do I claim as new the air-chamber valves and water passages, for they are essentially the same as in many other pumps now in use. But I claim the auxiliar ycyi inder placed on top of the pump cylinder, and so arranged as to form a reservoir for oil or water around the stuffing-box and piston, and at the same hose to on p port a guide to the piston, which may be turned in any desire dposition. [This is a valuable invention. The valves may be re- moved and repaired without difficulty, as they are, by the arrangement of the parts, rendered very accessible. The pump may also be placed in any position as occasion requires, without reference to the position of the crank which drives it. There are other improvements, such as the construction of the piston rods, oil or water cylinder, etc.] KEEn son MusIcAL IN5TRUMENTSJ. C. Briggi, of Woodbury, Coon., I claim the reed constructed substan- tially as described, of a ring or frame, A, with a vibrator, B, consisting of a disk or plate suspended by a central em from a spring, to vibrate within the said ring or frame, in right lines perpendicular to the plane of the disk, thereby enabling a column of air of uniform thick- ness in all parts, to be admitted through the reed, ~nd enabling an unitorm vibration to be produced all around the reed. [This reed is intended to be used principally for the sub- bass of metodeons and harmoniums, as it is capable of producing a deeper and more powerful tone than the common reed. It consists of a ring of wood, ivory, or metal, with a vibrator consisting of a thin disk of similar material, suspended by a central stem from a Spring. to vibrate within the aforesaid ring, in right lines perpen- dicular to the plane of the disk. Between the ring and the vibrator, a column of air of uniform thickness or volume, in every part, is thus admitted, producing an uniform degree of vibration all round the reed. This gives a greater purity of tone than when the column of air varies in thickness or volume in different parts, and the vibration is greater or less, as in the common reed.] CAitnIAonsIlaniel Freeman, of Burford, Canada, I am aware that the bodies of carriages have previously been suppsrted upon springs arranged in pairs, both above and below the axles. I am also aware that the draw brace arranged directly behind the point of draft, and coonectiisg the swingle- tree with the body of the carriage is not new; I therefore do not claim broadly either the arrangement of the double springs, or of the draw brace. But I claim the combination and arrangement of the body, supported by and distributing its weight upon all four springs, when placed above the axles as described; also the arrangement of the draw.bar and brace, by svhich the former is connected directly with the centre of the fore axle; also the arrangement of the fif;h wheel or circle, H. upon the tower of the two front springs; also making the head-block, M. elasticas set forth. PHOTOGRAPHIC PIcTUREIVictor M. Griswold, of Lancaster, Ohio, I claim, for taking photographic plc. lures on paper or other substance, prepared by the de- scribed or other equivalent process, substantially the same and producing the desired effect. FIRE-AnalAlex. Le Mat, of New Orleans, La., I claim, first, the substitution of a shot barrel to the solid cylinder or pin, upon which the revolving cartridge cylinder of revolvers, constructed upon Colts or simllar systems of revolve, in the manner and for the purposes as described. Second, the gun-cock, No. 11, with a double hammer, a as;d b. constructed and operating substantially as described and for the purposes specified. SIcicLEs FOR HARvEsTEDsPelts Manny, of Waddams Grove, Ill., I do not claim the employment of back cut- ting teeth on the cuter bar, and operating between the cutter and finger bars, and over the fingerswhether the same be fhrmed by the extension of the front cutters, or be separately attacised at their base ends to the cutter bar. But I claim as an improvement in the cutting apparatus patented to Ileisry Green, March 21, 1354, the arrange- bent at the back of the cutler bar, C, and for reciproca- ting operation wich it, of a back set of cutters or deacon a, between the finger and cutter bars, whsn said teeth, e, are shaped and arranged to cut laterally forwards alter- nately in opposite directions through or over the bocks of the fincers, for joint action with the front cutter, or cutters, d, ibm the boiler clearance of the fingers and cutter bar race, essentially as set forth. [The above consists in a peculiar construction of the fingers and sickle, whereby the sickle is allowed to work more freely, and is effectually prevented from becoming choked or clogged.] HAnvEnrEnsPells Manisy, of Waddams Grove, Ill., I claim the straining stirrup or brace bar, it, arranged diagonally beneaih the franse, and fitted so as to secure the ready and effectual adjustment of the frame or finger bar portion thereol, as described. [lly the above invention the sickle is always kept in a horizontal position, and the finger bar is allowed to rise and fath so as to cousform to the inequalities of the ground, and at the same time the finger-bar is prevented from being casuahly raised. The grain may also be readlly raked from the platform, with the heads outwardno exertion being required on the part of the attendant, to turn the grain while raking it off] SPIKE MACstINKC. A. MePhetridge, of St. Louis, Mo., I claim the conducting arms, C C, as constructed, when operating in connection with the means employed for cutting, pointing. heading, and clearing, and the closing guide, lit F, as described. I also claim the use of the feed rolhers P P, the ratchet wheel V. bar C. pinion K, pawl 0, in connection with the wheels, B B, and the ~sio, 4, when constructed and operated in the manner and or the purpose set forth. SIzING HAT BonizsJoseph McCraken, of Brooklyn, N.Y. I claim the use of the india rubber or other elastic perforated cylindrical roller for working or sizing hat bodies upon, when constructed an the manner, and ope- rated in the mode substantially as set forth. COTTON GINsJames B. Mell, of Riceboro~, Ga. Whether the arrangement of fan it, within the roller B, as described, be new and be my invention, I do not chaim it in these letters patent; nor do I waive my right toil in another patent. But I claim the arrangement of two or more sets of ginning rollers, in an arch of the radius of the cleaning cylinder, in combination with brushes so arranged as to keep the rollers clean, and the fan, F, for removing the cotton from them as fast as ginned, substantially as de- scribed. COTTON PnrssEoW. F. & C. J. Prevost, of Setma, Ala.; We claim the so uniting of the follower nuts and hevers, as that when the follower shall arrive at its high- est point of elevation, it shall automatically swing out of the way of the filling box, to facilitate the placing of the cotton or other material therein, as set forth. SCREW MACHINEJohn Moore, of Madison, md., I do not claim the peculiar shape of that pact of the body which is semi-circular; tisat is not new. I do not claim the vibrating motion of the die-chuck that is old. I do not claim the peculiar shape of the dies. But I claim operating the cutters in the die-box, by means of the links, N, the internal and external plates, as described in connection with the bar, F, the arc, 2, the lever, T, and set bolts, W, in the manner and for the purpose set forth. SHiPs CAs.sTANIChas. Perley, of New-York City: I do not chains a capstan with the barrel filled to rotate with, or be independent of; the handspike head, as this has been done; neither do I claim varying the power of the capstan, by means of gearing in itself; as worm pin- ions, gears, and a variety of means have been heretofore in use, but I am not aware that a wheel around the base of the capstan, has ever before been actuated by a mova- ble pinion. receiving its motion from the handopike head, center shaft, and gearing in the base, thereby the power to revolve the capstan, is applied to the best advantage, and with the largest possible leverage against the rope or chain round the barrel of the capstan. But I claim, first, retaining said pinion, m, in place, by the overhanging base of the capstan barrel, except at the notches, q, at which point said pinion, m, can be removed as specified. Second, I claim constructing the oil receptacle and groove, 0, (that contains the sustaining balls,) higher at the outside than the inside, to cause said balls in their motion, to lubricate the journal, 5, substantially as speci- fied. NAIL PLATE FEEDINGPerry A. Wihbur, of New- castle. Pa. (Ante-dated Oct. 14, 1856), I claim giving to the tubular nail-plate feeder, its rising and falling, semi- rotating, and forward and backward movements, substan- tially in the manner and for the purpose set forth. I also clams the lateral adjustability of~ the nail-plate feeder, to change the angle at which the nail-plate ap- proaches or passes under the cutting-die, for the purpose of giving more or less head or point to the nath; whllst said feeder continues to receive its multiple motion, as set forth. PREPARING CL T FOR ALUM MAKINGHenry D. Po- chin, of Salford, it ag. Patented in England, Jan. 10,1865, I claim the calcini sg of china, clay, or other aluminous minerals, with the carbonaceous substances, in the man- ner described by s rhich the alumina is brought into a condition to be eas ly acted upon by strong sulphuric and other acids, withon t adding thereto any substance injuri- ous to the quality of the resulting compound, and the use of atuminous cake - obtained in manner described, in manufacturing the aluminous mordaunts used by calico printers and dyers, and in various other processes used by dyers, and in prep;.ration of white leather, in the process termed tawing, al; o in the manufacture of paper, as a substitute far alum and the ordinary sulphate of alumina, as well as far the p irpose of deodorizing and disinfecting, decomposing animal or vegetabhe matters, and for the preparation of the ordinary sulphate of alumina and alums of commerc; - CAsT-IRoN RAI ROAD CAR WHEELsJohn M. Si- gourney. of Water; owls, N. Y., I claim the formation of the hub of an iron rheel cast in one piece, in the manner described, viz., recessing the same by means of annular flanges bordering is inside, outside, or both in and outside, when combined wi h the single plate and braces, as set forth. SCALE SON INsT tUMENTAL MusicAbbey S Smith, of Rochester, N. Y., 1 do not claim the use of letters to denole musical sou ads. But I claim an i oprovement of the established letter organization of the instrumental music scale, by origina- ting aisd giving tans ible form and shape to a character to be calle to enote sharp key A, and another flat key, A, and anoth sr sharp key. B, another ft at key, B, another sharp ke3, C. and another flat key, C; and the same of fiat and s sarp keys B, it, F and G, for which characters I claim different specific forms or abapes of each of the seven r dopled musical letters, and different from the adopted shape of the adopted lettersall of which I arrange wi .h other musical characters, upon the staffso that all retain their value, capacity and position, in perfect confomn ity to the organic law thereof; and the different keys. n their definite capacity, are in form brought tt sight, 1; be read at a glance of the eye, by teacher and leamne , as described and set forth, or in any way substantially tao same. HEAD REsTs so CHAIRSC. A. Milhs, of Dubuque. Iowa; I claim the emi-revolvable and vertically adjust- able supporting roe, C, said adjustment being effected by means of the sprint, a, with its fork, 5 working into the notches of said sup art or its equivalent. BALANCE AND ~A5TENKR FOR WINDOW SAsH. Walter Worthen. f Danville, N. H., I claim balancing andfastenjng winfic w sash, both by one spring construct- ed, arranged and 01-orated essentialhy in the manner and for the purposes so forth. FILING AND SEa TING SAwsH, R. Howlet (assignor to himself and A. W - Goodell,) of New York City; I claim the file tram; - C, attached to the stock, A, in con- nection with the g suge. B, guide C. and lever G, with saw set, H, attache;.; the whole beint arranged as shown and described for t ;e purpose specified. [By means of ihi; implement any person unacquainted with the art.may fie and set a saw in a proper manner. The file, and also tie lever which gives the set, are so arranged that each tooth will be filed so as to have the proper rake, and a. so the desired set, the filing and set- tin1 being done at tao annie time, with the same imple- ment.] SPLITTING MAC.ZERELS, S. Turner, of Lewislon, Me., assignor to him self and Elner Townsend, of Boston, Mass. 1 claim combining with the cutting knife, B, and the movable carnia te. it, a set of centering and holdui;g jaws, H 1, or the m schanical equivalent therefor, I also claim th s improvement of making the knife move faster than ti e carriage, or. in other words, combin- ;ng with the cuttin, knite and the carriage, a mechanism for rotating the cutting or splitting part of the knife at a greater velocity thu n the carriage may be moved, the salne being not onh~ to facihitate the splitting of the fish, but to cause the dis -harge of it from the carriage, as de- scribed. I also claim comi doing with the holding carriage the centering jaws and the splitting knits, a mechanism for operating or opening the centering jaws to allow of the discharge of the fists by the action of the knife, as speci- fied. I also claim comt ining with the holding carriage, its centering jaws and the knife, a mechaniom to open the said jaws during thi backward movement of the carriage, the same being to p -epare said jaws for the reception of a fish, substantially a; aol forth. LARD RENDER12 IG KETTLE5J, J. Bats, of Brooklyn, N. Y.~ I claim the combination of the double steam ket- tle with the annuls r chamber, substantially in the man- ner and for the put poses set forth, and covering the ex- terior of said chain sec with a non-conductor. COMBINED TARLI AND BEDsTEADsChas. Baum, of Philadelphia, Pa.; I am aware that combined seats and tables have boon h retofore known and used, such as the sofa table of W. L. lass, patented May 15th, 1854. I there- fore do not make ar exclusive claim to the combining of table and bedstead together for the use of artisans. I claim the fram; work composed of the upright posts, A A, longitudinal bars, C C, transverse bars, B B-, up- per longitudinal ha s, it and it. in combination with the board G, rods H H, and frame K, the whole being arrang- ed and constructed ; ubstantially in the manner set forth. BENDING WOOD- -Thomas Blanchard, of Boston, Mass.; I do not now claim ; ubmitting the timber to compression upon its endi, But I claim, first, objecting the timber to pressure upon aht sides, and contli ulog the same whilst lisa being trans- ferred from the stra ght trough to the curved mode, as set forth. Second, the descr bed machine for the purpose of bend- ing timber, consist log essentiahly of this fallowing ele- ments or their equi alents in combination; tat, the bend- ing lever. 2nd, the device for compressing the timber while it is being beit, 3rd, the curved mohd in which the pressure is cant. nued, and in which the timber is re- moved from the ma -hine after the bending operation is completed. WASHING MACHI seEsA, A. Bailey. of Wilson, N. Y. I claim the combination of the fluted cylinder, B, and concave it, with the fluted cylinder I, substantially in the manner and for the purposes set forth. BOTTLE CAsTERsEdward Gleason, of Dorchester, Mass.; I do not claim any of the devices separately con- sidered; nor yet of tself a caster provided with doors to enclose the bottles, and opened to expose thena by the turning of the cente; handle or rod of the caster. But I claim, first, the arrangement of the bottles, F, centrally or there shouts on or over the pivots of the niched or semi-cyl odrical doors, B, when the latter are arranged for operat on in relation to the body of the cas- ter by the central rs d or handle, as described. Secondlylalsoc aim so gearing and connecting the revolving body, C, s t the caster, with its separately turn log doors B, and at ranging the same with its stationary base, A, that upon c mntinuing to turn the central rod, I, after the doors have been opened or closed, in the same direction which wa. required to open and close them, the whole body of the caster is made freely to turn on its base, A, with the dc ors in the condition they were set by said turning of the e entral rod, I, or handles, as set forth. [This isa very us; fut as well as ornamental article for the table. The bott Os are placed in niched doors which turn on pivots. ths doors being connected by suitable gearing with the handle of the caster By turning the handle the doors ar; rotated on their pivots, and the bot- tles maybe exposed on the outer side of the caster, or n closed within it, as lesired.] INDIA RUBBER I oeEJ. H. Howell. of Ansonia, Ct.; I claim the described method of constructing india rub- ber hose; that is to ay, by winding a fillet spirally upon a mandrel, and upo s this winding a second which shall cover or break the line of joining of the first, the said fillets being made tc adhere along their cut edges, as well as to each other, ant stantially as set forth. SILVERING MInE ORiTony Petitjean, of Tottenham Court Road, itog., t claim the employment of tartaric acid with ammonia sal nitrate of silver, in any manner substantially as doss ribed for the slivering of glass. [A full descriptic n of this invention wlll be found on page 403, Vol. 11, 5 a~. Ax.] WAsRING MACRINESJas, M. Kern, of Morgantown, Va.; I make no claim to the reciprocating pressure, as such. But I claim the hollow slotted faced presser in combi- nation with the cloth covering thereof arranged and up- orating substantially as described. ROsIN SoArsAugustus Pfaltry, of Saxonville, Mass.; I do not claim rosin soap either alone or mixed with other kinds of soap. I do oat claim rosin soap as ordinarisy made, by using as much alkali as will dissolve the rash; nor does my claim extend to any of the cempounds of ios- in and alkali, which attract mosslure. I claim the described mode of producing a solid soap from rosin, viz., by the one, as specified. of an excess of soda or carbonate ofsoda, so asia term alkaline salts, with the pinic and sylvic acids, which compounds are ren- dered nearly anhydrous. COOKING STovEsSamuel Pierce, of Tray. N. Y.; I claim the flanges or slats, x x x, for the purpose and in manner and form as cescribed and set forth. Also, I claim the method of constructing the ash pit and lower oven bottom plate in one piece with holes, y y y. tar the passage-of air, in manner and foam as sot forsh, for the purpose of communicating a creater degree at caloric to tlse air in the air chamber surrounding the ove;;. - Also, lclamm the employment of the dumb flue, Al. hy- ing withiis the upper fire flue, and forming a part of lbs lower plate, and commuisicating with the elevated oven by a passage opening into its battens, substantially as sot forth. COATING METALs WITH METALsJoseph Poleux, of New York City; I claim in the process of coating iron ware with metallic alloys, the employment of muniatic, isitric, or sulphuric acid of the ordinary degrees of con- centration in commerce, viz., muniatic of 18 deg. Baume. nitric 18 dog., and sulphuric 01 degrees, without diluting them, embracing the solution of sl;ebter in the cleansing acid, in the proportion and maImer, and for the pa;rposes specified; and the passing the cleansed articles directly into the nietallic bath without any intermediate treat- ment whatever. CAPsTANs rosa STEAss BoATsJohn Schaffer, of Man- chester, Pa.; I claim the drum. C, on the shalt of tine capstan B, as arranged, the capstan. being steam driven by geared shafting connecting it with the - little older. and the whole being combined and made operative through the pulley, 1, substantially in the manner and for the purposes described. SEED PLANTER5J, H. Shireman, of East Berlin, Pa. I claim the slide, x, and clearers, n, in conabinatian with the stirrer, w, constructed rand operated substantially in the manner and for the purposes set forth. STOVE BLACKINGWin. Thomas, Jr., of Biogham, Mass.; I claim the described compound to be used for coattog staves and metallic sosrlaces, to impart to them a very durable polish, and to protect them more effectual- ly from rust, as set forth. ~f his stove polish contains black lead combined with manganese, asphaltum, and lamphiack, mixed with a quick drying menstrum, and wIsile it farms a brilliant polish, it is easily put on and brushed up, and is very du- rable. Ills excellent far iron castings that have to be sent to a distance and exposed to the air and moisture, as it is very adhesive aisd a good protective against rust.] PUTTING UP CAUsTIC ALKALIEsGeorte Thompson, of East Tarentum, Pa., 1 claim the mode described, or its equivalent, of protecting small packages of caustic soda or potash from the action of the atmosphere, in the manner and for the purposes described. WAsHING MACHsNEOC. N. Tyler (assignor to itenry Pardin) of Washington, B. C. 1 claim, first. suspending the shaft, C, to the cross beam, it, in such manner as to he free to turn en its axis for the purpose of oscillating the disk to wash the clothes, and at the salne time be car able of vibrating back and forth as tIne lever Is raised or low- ered, for the purpose of throwing the disk into or out of the tub, substantially as described. Second, I claim the sliding disk, Ii, in combination with the slotted shaft, C, and adjustable spring. B - she whole being arranged and operated substalstialty as and for the purposes described. BS-EINGJ. P. Derby (assignor to the Salisbury Alan- ufacturing Co.) of Amesbury, Mass., I claim protecting certain portions of the fabric from the actien of the dye, by a resinous compound. which may be applied cold, and afterwards removing the same by water, diluted al- cohol, or the other means enumerated, substantially as set forth. SHEARING SHEEPJ. V. Jenklias, of Jackson, Mich.; I claim operating the lever or plate, B, by means of the eccentric d, upon the shafte, said shaft being connected by a universal joint, g, to the compensating shaft fIrmed of the tube it, and rod F, the rod being connected to the driving shaft G, by a universal joint h, as shown and de- scribed. [This simple device will save much labor in shearing sheep. The implement is pased over the body of the animah, and the wool is cut off evenly by vibrating teeth operated by an eccentric. The implement may he moved in either dirocUosa by means of a ball and socket joint.] RE-ISSUES. PrANOTORTE ACTIONB. H. Shirley, of Boston Miss. Dated Nov. 28, 1814, I claim the described manner in which the back catch, m, and the lifter, 1, or its equiva- lent are combined together, and with the key lever, viz., by a lever, i, hinged to the key lever and fastened to both back catch and lifter, the whole being substantially in manner as set forth. DESIGNS. CooK SvovzsN. S. Vedder and W. L. Sanderson of Tray. N. Y., assignors to G. W. Eddy, of Waterford N.Y. STATUETTS OS BURTON AS CAPTAIN Cus-vurChas, Muller, of New York City. Erratum-Buoys. Win. M. Ellis, of Washington, D. C., Writes to us, stating that the word moving, in his claim, on page 42, in the SCIENTIFIC AMER- ICAN, 18th nit., should read nsooring. It is difficult sometimes for us to discriminate be- tween the right and wrong in the claims as written. When the error is palpable we can correct it, as we have done this week in the claim of Mr. John P. Derby, for the resist of resin in calico printing. The claim as written and sent to us says it is for projecting certain portions of the fabric ;tt we have changed it to protectingwhich is without doubt the true meaning. Reform of Wei1hts and Measures. A correspondentJames Ediwriting to us from Verona, Wis., states that it is time Brother Jonathan roused himself up in earnest from his Rip Van Winkle sleep to devote his energies in reforming our systems of weights and measures. As the scientific world has nearly settled dbwn upon the French system, he thinks it is the duty of the secretary of the Smithsonian Institute to urge its claims, in a report, upon our next Congress. I-, ~w;-r ~58 ~cien1if~t ~n~eri tan+ About Plows and Husk Splitters. MESSRS. EDITORS On page 20, this volume of the SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN, an improvement in the common plow is called for. I should like to make a suggestion or two on that sub- ject, for the consideration of some of your agricultural societies that are, as I perceive, wide awake to the duty of keeping one eye on the look-out for improvements, whilst the oth- er is prying into the bad habits of careless husbandry. In the fat black soils of the rolling prairies and the oak-openings in this part of the coun- try, a cast-iron plow of Nourse & Masons most improved long slim wedge-shaped pat- ternsuch a one as would delight the heart of an Eastern~~ farmer,is ofno use atall. Our old farmers tell me that they might just as well put handles to a log of wood and drag that through the ground. Such a plow will not scour here; the soil will stick to it like pitch to a monkey~s paw. Now, to meet the wants of our farmers, the plow makers here make their plows of common steel hardened, and of cast-steel hardened; and these last are the best and will scour in localities where the others will not. But all this is not enough the favorite shape of the ~ plow is as much at fault about scouring as the cast- Iron material. To make even a hardened cast-steel plow scour (although its surface is ground and pol- ished) the mold-board must be brought up more nearly to a right-angle with the bottom of the furrow, and the off-side be brought for- ward more nearly to a right angle with the line of the furrow, than is the case in the cast- iron plows before refrrred to. This makes a blunt-looking stubbed plow, and always calls forth the exclamation from the ~ farmer, at first sight, it must draw ~ I suppose it will draw harder than the cast- iron in a gravelly or sandy soil, but here comes the point for the consideration of the agricul- turists, whether they have not been using a bad-shaped plow, by pressing down their sub- soil harder and harder, year after year, with this long slim wedge, for the sake of saving some of the labor of their cattle. The blunt, stubbed, hard-drawing Western plow scarcely presses upon the bottom of the furrow at all; at all events, nothing like as much as the cast-iron plow referred to. One of your correspondents wanted a hand husk-splitter for Southern plantations I can easily furnish him with such an article that would not cost more in the manufacture than some of the straw cutters in common use. The husk business is carried on quite exten sively here. Wss. D. ARNOLD. Beloit, Wis. Silvering and Gildin~ Metals. MESSRS. EDIToRsI observed in your paper of Sept. 20th, page, 16, an article headed Silvering Metal, patented by Adville, of Paris. I have discovered a process much more simple than his, and the articles to be silvered need not be freed of grease nor immersed in the liquid. This process I have given to sev- eral, among whom some are readers of the ScIENTIFIC AMERICAN, who will recognize it. I will state also that I have used it more than 18 monthslong before Adville patented his process. I will give my mode of making and using the silvering solution for the benefit of those of your readers who may he interested in such things Take 32 grains of lunar caustic (nitrate of silver) and dissolve it in 4 oz., by measure, of rain water, add to this 128 grains of cyanuret of potash, shake for a few minutes, and it is ready for use. Apply this solution to the polished brass or copper, using a soft cloth, with prepared chalk. This is a simple and quick way of prepar- ing the cyarauret of silver in solution. It is very poisonous, and should be labeled Poison. If there is a sore on the hand or on a finger it should be protected before using this, other- wise there is danger. It can be applied to many purposes, and is useful in polishing spoons, forks, and candle- sticks, and, indeed, anything made of silver ~ when it is necess ary to clean them up. # The process of gilding is easy enough, but the articles have to be cleaned and immersed. 4$ Dissolve gold filings, or in small pieces, in nitro-muriatic acidmade of one part of nitric acid and two parts of muriatic acidwith a gentle heat, and a strong solution of cyanuret of potash in water, till the acid is neutralized and an excess of the cyanuret solution added. It is better to throw in, also, a little carbonate of potash. The article to be gilded is put in- to this solution and clamped with a strip of sheet zinc. The zinc is cut into a strip four or five inches long and half an inch wide, and the ends bent together so as to hold the arti- cle, which should occasionally be taken out and polished. The gold solution should be kept in a dark place. B. F. REA. Lafayette Ala., Oct. 1866. The New Old System of TannIng. MESSRS. EDITORSBy the last steamer I re- ceived No. 67 of Le Genie Industriel, in which I find a long and flaming account of a new and wonderful invention in the tanning busi- ness, just made by Mr. Charles Knoderer, of Strasburg. The French and German journals are full of bombastic articles on the subj ect, and a large joint-stock company has been or- ganized in Strasburg to carry out the wonder- ful invention, which consists in enclosing in large wooden cylinders the skins of various animalstan liquor and ground bark; the cylinders are filled completely full, and closed by a man-hole, and are then revolved, and every few hours the liquors are changed, and in a few days the skins are found to be as well tanned as in the old way in as many weeks. The cylinders are of such size that wheG loaded they will contain of skins, bark, and tan liquor 10 to 20,000 lbs. in weight. As long ago as 1846 the very same system was in practical operation in the Brooklyn Tannery of Mr. Jonathan Trotter. The cylin- ders were fully as large, mounted the same way, and to the smallest particular the whole French process is a repetition of the Brooklyn process. Mr. Knoderer will have to try again. If the thing was put forward in a modest way it might be passed over without notice, but Knoderer has a book out, filled with such high falutin, pompons language that I find it necessary to clip his wings. It may he a new thing in Strasburg, but it is certainly an old affair in New York and Brooklyn. Harlem, N.Y., Oct., 1866. J. T. T. Dark Days. Mzssas. EDITORSThat most delightful of all seasons, Indian summer, is upon us. The weather has been dry and pleasant, with con- stant sunshine, and a temperature of the at- mosphere just warm enough, while the forests present a variety of colors most pleasing to the eye; but the great distinguishing feature of the scene, and that which marks it as In- dian summer, is that the atmosphere is filled with smoke. Now I wish to ask where this smoke comes from. Some assert that it comes from the fires of clearings, others that the at- mosphere gets so light that all the smoke set- tles to the ground. If Indian summer only occurred in New York City, that might do to talk about, but New York City could scarcely send up as much smoke in one day as is to be found covering two miles square around Day- ton at this moment. Early this morning the smoke was not remarkably dense, but it has been thickening up all day, until daylight is almost shut out. When the sun shines every- thing has a bright yellow color, at least, I suppose it is the shining of the sun, for I do not know what else would cause it, but can- not be certain about it, for it is too dark for the sun to be seen. You must not suppose that I mistake fog for smoke, for smoke produces a sensible effect upon both eyes and nose, and is readily dis- tinguished from fog. It is just half-past 2 oclock, and is so dark that I can scarcely see to write while seated in a window of very large size. The room I am in is remarkably well lighted, and yet at this hour it is too dark to rcad ordinary print in the center of the room. The day is one that will be remembered as a very dark one. G. Dayton, Ohio, Oct. 13th, 1866. The steamship Perseverance was burned at Galveston on the 3d inst. Improved Contruction of iron Fences, Ada4~ ted t Farms, Railroads, & c. The impro rement relates to the mode of constructing r double-lipped post or tie, and also fastening. supporting, and taking up the slack of the rail, whether fiat or round. Fir. 1. The post is bent or curved so as to form lips, B B. EL ch lip is mortised at various hights from U re ground, corresponding to the position it is lesired to fasten the rail. The rails are pass d through the mortises, and a key, E, is the i inserted, which fastens the rail to the tie. When it is desired to tighten or take up the 51 ~ck of these fiat rails, the key, E, is driven dow award, and as it is made wedge- shaped and I ears upon the corners of the posts as a fub rum, it crimps the rail, and thus shortens it, a: id takes up the slack. At the same time it is held firmly, and the whole fence rendere I very substantial. FIG. 2. Fig. 2 shovs a method of fastening, on the above princi~ le, applied to common wooden posts, the lip parts, E, being screwed to the posts. Flat iron or fences is a decided improve- ment over th common wire used for fencing purposes. T ae objection to invisibility is en- tirely removed by the use of fiat rails, as the broad side of the rail is exposed to view, s that cattle or stock easily perceive it, and thus avoid damage to the fence, as well as themselves. The fiat rails being placed edge up in the posts prevents the rails from sagging, as in the wire fence. The posts can he manufac- tured of very thin iron into the U-shape, thus making them strong, light, durable, and cheap. The rails can be manufactured of light hoop iron for farm enclosures, and where heavier fences are required, the size of the rail can be of any desired width. The chidf novelty consists in the manner of securing the posts and the rails together, and in taking, up the slack in wire fences, or in the fiat rail fence where it occurs, and holding all the parts rigidly and permanently together. For further information address J. B. Wick- ersham, 312 Broadway, New York. Patented Sept. 16th, 1866. TrIal of Fire Engines. A correspondent at Lowell, Mass., sends ns an account of a trial of fire engines, which came off in the city of spindles on the 2nd and 3rd of this month. Three prizes were played for: the first, for $300, was won by the Washington engine, No. 3, of Medford, Mass., built by Hunneman, of Boston; the second, of $200, was won by the Tiger, No. 1, of Haverhill, Mass., built by Jeffers, of Paw- tucket, P. I.; the third, of $100, was won by the Eureka, No. 1, of West Cambridge, Mass., built by Howard & Davies. Twenty-four ma- chines entered the lists for the prizes. The prizes were granted for the greatest to- tal length thrownthe horizontal and perpen- dicular streams added together. The Wash- ington threw a total length of 336 feet. These trials of skill do not prove which en- gine is the best; they are not conducted to test this point,they are simply feats of work- ing,more indebted for success to the ability of the firemen working the brakes than to the superiority of the machines. That machine is the best which, by a given number of strokes, in a given time, by the same power expended, discharges the greatest amount of water. Steam Plows. The Charlestown, Mass., .fldvertiser has been sent to us marked, in order to call our atten- tion tc an article in it, describing a steam plow stated to have been invented in the month of February last, by George Rumrell an American gentleman who has resided for some years in Peru, and who made a contract with Messrs. Hettinger and Cook, of that place, to construct it. It is a locomotive or traction steam plow, designed for ten horse power, with two cylinders of five inch bore each, and twenty inch stroke. It is intended to run six plows in a gang and turn over six furrows, measuring four feet wide altogether. It is to he steered so as to turn in a very small space, and is well adapted for the light soil of Peru, where it is to be used. The object of it is the plowing of sugar cane fields, which are very level, and the bagasse, or dry sugar cane stalks, are to be used as fuel. It will weigh four tuns, carrying its own water. We hope it will prove very successful; but the .~dvertiser is in error in stating that it is the first of its kind inventedthat is, a loco- motive to draw its plow after it. There have been two kinds of steam plows con- structed and tried in England,one having a stationary engine, fixed at one part of the field to be plowed, and dragging the plows through the soil by ropes passing over pulleys; the other being a locomotive, driving through the fields and dragging its plows. Our opinion is most favorable to a locomo- tive traction plow; no other kind is suitable for agricultural purposes. A number of very successful experiments were made in England last month, at Chelmsford, at Hownslow, and Hanworth, with Boydell~s steam locomotive plow, against horses, plowing in the same field, and the London Engineer states that the cost for steam plowing is not over one-fifth that of horses. If this is so, then a great re- volution in plowing is at hand; and our farm- ers on the Western prairies,may indulge hopes of having their wishes soon realized, and an -~ effinient prairie steam plow provided for them. 59 ~cicntific ~nicr ~ ~3eb~ ~nbcn~i~n~+ issiportant Patent Cases. Battens Coal BreakerIn the United States Circuit Court at Philadelphia, Judge Grier presiding, some very important cases were de- cided on the 21st nIt. The parties were Bat- ten agt. aggart and others, for infringement of his patent on the machinery for hreaking coal, which was illustrated on page 17, YoI. 6, SciENTIFIc Ansaicxn. The trial occupied several days, and the case was keenly con- tested. The Jury gave a verdict for the plain- tiff on all the issues. There were in all seven cases tried together three actions at law,and four equity suits. The questions of fact were the same in all the cases; that is, an alleged infringement of Battens Coal Breaker, rc-issued patent of September, 1849. Upon the question of dam- ages in the suits at law tried hy the Jury, in which the plaintiff claimed two cents per tun as a license for the use of his patent, the Jury made the following assessment for the time claimed :Against James Taggart, $6394; against Rateliffe & Johnson, $5217 and against John U. Hughes, $29588. improved Turning Lathe. Our engraving is taken from the operating lathe, invented hy P. C. Camhridge, Jr., and exhibited at the great Fair of the American Institute, Crystal Palace, New York. This invention is intended for the turning of all kinds of round ornamental work, such as hedstead, tepoi, null work, balusters, etc. It is chiefly remarkable for its simplicity, ease of adjusting the tools, and excellent finish its work. The stuff to he turned is centered, and caused to revolve in the usual manner. The cutting tools are all attached to a rest, A A, which is divided into two parts, the lower portion, A, moving lengthwise on the frame, in the usual manner. The upper portion, A, moves cross-wise upon A, or at right angles to the frame. The cutting tools are carried upon A, and they are moved in and out, and caused to act upon the wood by means of lever B, which connects with A. C is a round adjustable mandrel, which supports the stuff at the point where the cutters act. The collar is adjusted by screws, a, c c. The roughing is done hy tool D. The ornamental turning is done hy tools B and F. The shape of these tools must correspond to the design which is to he produced in the wood. For different patterns different shaped tools are therefore necessary. The tool holders of fi F are of peculiar for- mation. Their lower portions are of convex shape, resting in concave heds somewhat like a hall and socket joint. This permits the setting of the tool at any desired position, with the utmost convenience, accuracy, and rapidity. The tool is secured after heing set in a given position hy screws B F. The longitudinal movement of the rest and its tools is effected, hy means of the lever G, which is hinged to rest A. The operator places the lever G against the side of his body, and pushes, at the proper moment, in the direction of the arrow, thus moving the rest A for a distance, corresponding to the width of the tools; the rest is then fastened, and lever B pushed, so as to move A, and hring the tools against the stuff. Rest A is now released and again advanced by means of U, as described. In this manner, step by step, the turning is accomplished. The alter- nate release and fastening of rest A, is done by the spring ratchet H, which meshes in a long rack, I. Said rack is eight sided, with teeth upon each side; in other words, there are eight racks comhined in one piece, the teeth of each heing arranged at different dis- tances, in order to suit different kinds ofwork. When the operator wishes to move the rest A, he presses the spring ratchet, H, and releases it from the rack, I. In fig. 2, which is a sec- tional view, the situation of the spring ratch- et and rack, and other parts, may he seen. This lathe is very simple in all its parts, and therefore not expensive in construction or NEW LATHE FOR ORNAMENTAL TURNING. frt;q.i liable to get out order. It is very easily seen excelled I y any lathe. From a careful $75 to $150, according to size. For further operated, works rapidly, and gives a smooth- examination of the invention we are satisfied information address the inventor at North En- ness of finish to its work that we have never that it is a val, able improvement. Price from field, N. H. Patented July 15, 1856. Novel Auracnlar Table. Our engraving illustrates a new game for the amusement young people at social gather- ings, parties, & c. A stand table is provided, in whose top there is an aperture covered hy a hinged lid, A. Beneath the top is a revolv- ing wheel, B, whose upper surface is furnished with a numher of small oblong boxes, C, each of which is partitioned into two compart- ments, with a separate hinged lid for each division. The inner lids have slots in them, through which checks (fig. 3) can he slipped without lifting the lid. Each hox is desig- nated hy a different number. The game is as follows :Those who par- ticipate select one of the numbered boxes as their own. Inte the front or numbered end of each box, C, s few checks, like the speci- mens (fig. 3) art deposited. All the checks placed in one ho are alike, but differ from those in the other boxes. The hack compart- ment of the boxe are empty. By putting the hand under the table and touching the bot- tom part of whet 1 B it maybe revolved. Itis proper to state, I ere, that one of the principal objects and uses of the table and game is to enable a lady to signify to a gentleman her special preferenc for him, and vice versa, with- out speaking or ermitting any other person to know that sue 4 signal has been given. In this respect the invention serves as a sort of heat telegraph. Suppose a lady wishes to signify to a gen- tleman that he is the ohject of her preference. She revolves wheel B until the box hearing her number appears at the aperture in the ta- ble top. She then opens her box, extracts a check, and turns the wheel until the box of her favorite appears, and drops the check through the slot into the hack compartment; she also opens the front compartment, and extracts one of his checks, which she keeps. None of the company are to see what boxes she has opened. When all have played in this manner the table top is removed and each compares the check found in his or her box with the one retained. If the lad1 finds in her box a check similar to the one which she cx- tracied from the box of her favorite, she will know that he alone could have deposited the similar one, and therefore, that their prefer- ence is mutual. Should she find a different check, she will not know who was the de- positor, and vice versa. The box marked N is a neutral box, into which those who prefer to make no selection, can play. We are informed that this game is a source of much amusement in social circles where it has been introduced. It is, obviously, of considerable utility in a matrimonial point of view, as it enables the bashful swain to say Barkis is ~ without ever opening his lips. It also gives to the anxious young lady the rare privilege of promptly respond- ing Yes, sir-e-e~ to his proposal, and of thus catching him on the spot. Oracular wheels of this kind may be made of paper, or as articles of furniture, as shown, also in a great variety of forms. Patented May 20th, 1856. For further information ad- dress the inventor Win. 0. George, Rich- mond, Va. SPLENDID PBIZES.PAID IN CASH. The Proprietors of the SCIENTIFIC AleKascAN will pay, in Cash, the following splendid Prizes for the largest Lists of Subscribers sent in between the present time and the first of January, 1857. to wit For the largest List, For the 2nd largest List, 175 For the 3rd largest List, 159 For the 4th largest List, 125 For the .5th lergest List, 100 For lIce 6th largest LIst, 75 For the 7th largest List, 50 For the 5th largest List, 46 For the 11th large. t List, :io For the 19th lnr~ est List, 25 For the 1 liii lnrgest List, 20 For the 12th largest List, Names can be sent in at different times and from dif- ferent Post Offices. The cash will be paid to the order at the successful competitor, immediately afterthe 1st a January, 1857. NOVEL AURACULAR TABLE. 11 it- 61 cicntific ~nwvicai~ NEW YORK, NOVEMBER, 1,1856. New Cast-Steel Process. R. A. Brooman, of London (Editor Mechan- ics Magazine) has secured a patent as agent for a foreign inventor for what is called a new method of manufacturing ~ The basis of the invention consists in the in- troduction into crucibles, along with the pie- ces of wrought or malleable iron, of certain chemicals in which cyanogen is contained. As for example, cyanide of potassium and ferrocy- anide of potassium, are to be used in con- nection with some form of sal-ammoniac. The usual furnaces and melting pots suitable for melting blister steel may be employed. The mallcable iron (which may be of any de- scription, such as bar, scrap, blooms, & c.,) is prepared by cutting or breaking it up into small pieces. In a 50-lbs. charge of iron in a crucible are introduced ten ounces of char- coal, six ounces of common table salt, half an ouncc of brick dust or oxyd of manganese, one ounce of sal-ammoniac, and half an ounce of ferrocyanide of potassium. The pot is then to he covered and introduced into the furnace, and the contents thoroughly melted, the heat being maintained for the space of three hours or thereabouts. The mass is then to be poured off into iron molds in the ordinary way of pouring cast-steel, and with the usual care required for producing a solid ingot. This may then be rolled into sheets, or hammered and tilted into bars, after the common method. In this process the employment of table salt, manganese, or brick dust is for the forma- tion of scori upon the top of the melted mass, to keep out the air. The propor- tions of ingredients given may be varied, and some may be omitted altogether, or others substituted. The essentials are the sal-ammo- niac, some substance affording cyanogen, and charcoal. Fine cast steel may be produced with ferrocyanide of potassium and charcoal, also with sal-ammoniac and charcoal. The hardness or brittleness as well as firmness of grain and degree of malleability may be va- ried by altering the proportions of the several ingredients, especially of the charcoal, sal- ammoniac, and cyanogen. No particular char- acter or quality of iron is necessary. Steel, it is stated, can be produced by this process from common English iron equally as well as from the best Swedish. There is only a mixture of common materials to convert iron into steel by this process,and yet there is considerable that is novel in the par- ticular mode of applying them to produce the specific result. For example, the ferrocyanide of potassium (prussiate of potash) is now, and has bean used for a long time to steel the surface of iron articles, by the process called case-hardening; but so far as we know, it has not before been employed in the crucibles to convert iron into steel. Then again, charcoal and manganese, and brick dust and salt, have been used, and are now employed mixed with scrap and broken iron in the crucible to con- vert it into steel; this is ~ process,~~ and was a most valuable discovery when it was made. Cyanogen, which is stated to play the important office in this new process, is a compound of nitrogen and carbon; sal-am- moniac, which is also used, is a compound of nitrogen and hydrogen. We have no doubt but good steel can be manufactured by this new process, as the cyanogen materials em- ployed have been proven by experience to pro- duce the effect of steeling iron, even before cyanogen was known by name in chemistry, or its composition was discovered. That is, pieces of horn and scraps of leather were em- ployed hundreds of years ago by blacksmiths, tool makers, and armorers, for case-hardening iron; and it was the cyanogen in these sub- stances which produced the specific effect; but the cause was then unknown to those who operated with it. The prussiate of potash is manufactured from hoofs, horns, and scraps of leather, and although it is now much employed as a sub- stitute for these crude ingredients in case-hard- ening, there are many who still follow the old method, and continue to use scrap leather. Illustrate your Inventions. Last week we briefly alluded to the fact that nearly all the prominent novelties at the Crys- tal Palace, in the mechanical department, had been illustrated and described in our journal. The same circumstance is observable at al- most every public exhibition, whether of a mechanical or agricultural nature, wherever held. The most successful and profitable patents, beyond all doubt, are those that have been il- lustrated in our paper. In reminding paten- tees of this fact, we would also inform them that we make no charge for publishing en- gravings of new inventions, so that if they fail to avail themselves of the privilege which others enjoy, it is their own fault. All we require is, that parties shall pay the cost of the cuts. The ScIENTIFIc Annascxn is probably read by 75,000 or 100,000 persons every week. It is the leading guide and authority in respect to inventions. Indeed, it is a sort of public record of them. Every inventor should put his discovery on record, even if it is only for his own satisfaction. Sales ef Patents. Bishups Sad Iro, Patented May, 1856. G. W. Bishup, Brooklyn, N. Y., has sold one half of his Sad Iron patent, illustrated in the SCIENTIFIC AnEascxN, Vol. 12, No. 1, for the sum of thirty thousand dollars ($30000.) Vices WindmillPatented Aug. 29, 18.54. T. C Vice, of Rochester, N. Y., and XV. D. Snow, of Chicago, Ill., half assiguce, have sold the patent of the above windmill for the State of Indiana to James C. Rose. for the sum of $7,000. Also the State of Missouri to A. C. Pardee, for $10,000. We are in- formed that there are nearly fourteen grist mills driven by this windmill, now in course of erection in different parts of Illinois. Spears Weather Strip.Patented April 22d, 1856. Mr. Alfred Spear, of Passaic, N. J., has sold the above patent for the State of Ohio for . 3,500, and the State of Illinois for $2,500. All the doors and windows of the new Court 1-louse at Cincinnati, 0., are fur- nished with the above invention. See ene,rav~ ing Vol. 11, pa,~e 96, ScIENTIFIC AMEnIcAN. Stephcns Corn ShellerPatented April 22d, 1856. Richardson & Co., Chicago, Ill., report the sale of the above patent for Illinois, Iowa, and Missouri, for $3,000. Gr~ffiths ~ Shields Hoise Shoe 11L chine. Patented Dec. 19th, 1854. Mr. Robert Grif- fiths, Philadelphia, Pa., informs us that he has sold the above patent to a joint-stock company in that city composed of practical wealthy, and energetic men, for the sum of sixty-five thousand dollars ($65,000). ~ Tanning Process and Apparatus. Patented March 4, 1856.Ellithorp & Co., of this city, report the sale of one-half of Abra- ham 5teers patent, as above, for a handsome sum. In addition to the above we have names and reports of many ether patent sales, but they do not come to us sufficiently authenti- cated to warrant their publication. These reports are intended for the informa- tion of the public and for the encouragement of inventors. We want our men of genius and means, to understand that their minds and their money cannot be better employed, than in originating and developing new in-~ ventions. All persons who make sales of patents, or who hear of such sales, are requested to re- port the facts to us with a view to publica- tion. Give names and dates, so far as possi- ble. We have reports of some large sales of American inventions in Europe, but shall de- fer publishing them for the present, for certain reasons. Resmelting.~cas~ Iron Turnin,s. It has been stated in some of our daily pa- pers that iron turnings have been heretofore valueless, because of the impossibility to re- melt them, but that Abiel Pevey, of Lowell, Mass., has invented a new method, and E. Lyon, of this city, another, to resmelt them,and thus render them useful. The method of the former is to place iron filings in hollow cast- ings, and then resmelt them altogether; the plan of the latterMr. Lyonsis to make them into a cot ipact mass, and smelt them in an open furna e surrounded with glowing fuel. Such stuff is being continually set before the public by t tose who know nothing about the art of iron melting. Why, excellent steel has been man ufactured for a considerable period in this dty from scrap iron, turnings, film s, & c. TI are is no difficulty experienced in smelting iro turnings and filings in a cru- cible. New M thod of Hangln~ C, ws. By John Rot ingson, of New Brighton, Beav- er Co., Pa. Ir this improvement the saw is strained betw( en the arms, A A, pivoted at their back end, to the frame B. The upper ends of the saw are - furnished with jointed pendants, F F. Reciprocating motion is giv- en to the saw 1 y means of pitman, C, which connects with crank, D, on shaft E. As the shalt, E, is rotated, the two frames will have a vii ratory motion, and the saw, in consequence o being connected to the frames as shown, viz, by means of the pendants, F, will have a ro king motion, t.he lower teeth of the saw cutting the log and then receding, the upper teetl acting successively in the same way, the last t toth that enters the log cutting last. By this arrangement the several teeth of the saw, as they perform their work, re- cede, and the 5: w dust is allowed to pass freely out of the ker f; the saw also requires but a small stroke, a td will, it is said, cut a log 4 feet in diameter, w th an eight inch crank equally as well as a le; only half that diameter. The saw also may e operated with comparatively a small expent iture of power, and cuts rapid ly. There is r ot much friction in the working of the saw, an I but little lubricating material is requisite. he saw, in consequence of its short stroke, does not require to be long. In case of gettin~ out of a vertical position, the saw may be r ~adily plumbed, by having the bearings of th frames, A, and pendants, F, made adjustable. Patented May 20, 1856. Address the inventor, as above for further in- formation. Great Exhibition of the Anierican Institute at the Crystal Palace, New York. SIXTH WEEK. The interest manifested by the public to witness the Exhibition, has increased with each succeeding week since it was opened. During the past week, the visitors in the af- ternoons and evenings have been greater than on any former occasion. Some good ma- chines and 6.rticles are entered every year too late to compete for prizes, but not too late to be seen and examined by thousands. This has beeu the case last week; we shall refer to some of these in our next number, in which shall also be published a list of the Prizes. The Fair has been continued open for a week longer than was previously intended, to the great satisfaction of the p iblic and ex- hibitors. Porta le Saw Mill. R. Frazee, 114 West 15th street, New York exhibits one of his patented portable saw mills, which appears to be exceedingly cheap and simple in its construction. Its whole weight, we are informed, is only one tun, and it is said to be capable of sawing any length or size of log. An upright saw is used. It can be readily put together or taken apart. Price $450 and upwards. Emerson & Co., manufacturers, No .1 Spruce street, New York City. X eeOc. Sha~ I The Bay State Mills, Lawrence, Mass., ud the Watervliet Mills, Troy, N. Y., exhibit a number of checked woolen ladies shawls and gentlemens plaids. Their quality is equal to any of those imported, and their colors as brilliant. One scarlet shawl, by the Bay State Mills, embroidered with silk, is as well exe- cuted as any embroidery we have seen on forei an crape shawls. There is one great de- fect which we have often witnessed in the ar- rangement of colors, both in our shawls and carpets, to which we wish to direct attention, namely, a want of care in blending the colors according to the law of intensity, as well as the law of contrast. Thus there are various shades of the same color; these e brace quantity and intensity, and should always he blended with other colors, according to their degree of tone. We have sen fceb~e green contrasted with a deep red, whereas it should have been a deep or intense green. l7ra. o~ klauS ire it~niuee. A trial of various hand fire engines took place at the Crystal Palace on the 23rd nit. They played horizontally through 600 feet of hose. Engine No. 3, of Brooklyn, L. I,threw a stream 167 feet in lengththe furthest thrown. It was built by Win. Jeffers, of Paw- tucket, R. I., and has proved itself to be a superior machine. The stream thrown was from an inch and an eighth nozzle. It is a short stroke engine on low ~heels, and is of the kind called piano. It is our opinion that this form of ire engine is the host tor hand work. as the men can exert their poveer couch better with a short than ion~ stroke. Thus a stroke of the arms, reaching from the chin to a few inches above the knee, is one during which a man can exert the greatest force throughout its range. That part of a long stroke taken above the bight of a ~ chin, tends to strain the muscles. Every engine should be built with such a stroke as can be best executed by those who work it, and as the strength of a man can be best exerted on a short low stroke machine, of course it must be the best. It is true that the length of the lever is less, but by making the arms longer, and putting on more men, they can be worked as easily as a long stroke engine. ~,win, Silk. H. M. Ilemingway & Sons, of Watertown, Conn., exhibit two cases of sewing silk man- ufactured at their mills. All the samples do credit to the manufacturers. The uniformity of the twist. and the closeness of laq in the strands, afford evidence that good doubling and twisting machinery are employed in its manufacture. Thecolors and luster are equal to any silk thread we have examined. Uneslans. J. R. Pratt, 62 Attorney st., N. Y., exhibits a number of Capstans, of different sizes, ~cientif~c ~n~errcan. made under Holmes patent. The common levers are not used, the power required being obtained by a pair of cranks, one on eacliside of the capstan. These cranks are adjusta- ble. When a quick speed is wanted the cranks caa be quickly shortened for that purpose, or if great power is required, they may be lengthened. See SCIENTIFIC AMERIcAN, Vol. 11, page 2~7, for engraving and a more full description. Talcott, and Son, of this city, exhihit some improved lever capstans. The bar- rels are made large, to prevent breakage of line, and the pawis are placed within, out of the reach of water and ice. IIdters Laihes. L.W. Boynton of this city, exhibits an im- proved Hatters Lathe containing several novel features. One of them consists in the intro- duction of a suction fan, which carries off the dust arising from the sandpapering of the hat body. This dust is very offensive, and highly injurious to the health of the operator. There is a lever loi~ stopping the lathe, at pleasure, while the fan continues to revolve. The hat block is made in two parts, so that it may be extended or reduced, according to the ruling fashion. The making of a new block for each change of style is thus avoided. lUras Hitch. Edward Boynton, East Hartford, Conn., exhibits a novel spring clamp, to be applied to posts, for hitching horses. The end of the halter needs only to be passed into the clamp, and no other fastening is required. Press a spring and the halter is released. ~toam aawlng Machine. Fairbanks, Wilmot & Co., 343 B roadway, N. Y., exhibit one of Wilmots patent portable Steam Saws, for cutting down and then cut- ting up trees. The handle of the saw is made holio~v, and contains a piston, to the front end of which the saw is attached. Steam is introduced, through a flexible pipe, to the handle, and the piston with its saw is thus caused to move back and forth with great rapdity. The apparatus is shown in opera- tion, and can cut through a log of 20 inches in diameter with great speed. Li; ranle tiock w;ii. J. Ecuols. Columbus, Ga., exhihits his new- ly patented drill for boring rocks. The cen- tral part of the drill passes through a small box, from the upper and lower sides of which a stream of water is allowed, alternately, to spirt. The water strikes into cups that are attached to the drill, and the latter is thus caused to rise and fdl with great rapidity. The water is introduced to the drill through a flexible pip~. For an engraving and full description see SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN, Vol. 11, page 244. Window \aO poor Lack. Alfred Speer, of Passaic, N. J., exhibits an improved patent weather-strip and door lock, which is really a valuable invention. By simply turning a knob or button a tongue or strip is made to project from the casing into a corresponding groove in the window or door. A tight joint is thus made, which excludes rain ~nd dust. The device also serves as a firm lock, and thus gives security. It is neat, durable, a ad so simple that it cannot get out of order. Price $2. See engraving and de- scription in ScIENTIFIc AMERICAN, Vol. 11, page 96. American Watches. Dennison, Howard & Davis, of Waltham, Mass., exhibit several fine specimens of gold and silver watches made at their establish- ment. The finish and general appearance equal the best imported articles. CoakinE WIthout Fiie. B. D. Seeley, of this city, exhibits Aibros patent apparatus for cooking without fire: the required heat beink generated by means of lime. The apparatus consists of a small tin boiler-looking contrivance, within which the meat, ye e tables, bread, etc., are placed A small quantity of lime is placed in the hot- tu~n,luau apartment by itself. Cold water is now conveyed by a tube to the lime, and a strory chemical action instantly ensues. The result is teat a heat sufficient for all ordinary cooking purposes is produced, which contlin- nec from half an hour to an hour. For an eograving and description of this novel con- trivance see SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN, Vol. 11 p. .~e 281. Carpet Sweepias, Machine. L. W. Boynton, of this city, exhibits an ingenious little contrivance for sweeping car- pets, which is the delight of all the ladies. It consists of a small box in which there is a re- volving brush that sweeps the carpet. There is also a revolving fan, that sucks up all the dust and dirt, and carries it into a small com- partment containing water. The woolen fi- hers and larger particles are deposited in a drawer. The sweeping is done by pushing the box along over the surface of the carpet by handles. The whole apparatus is light and simple, and will outlast a thousand brooms. No dust is created, and the sweeping is most thoroughly done. IStone ~& wing Machines. .lverys patent Stone Dressing Machine is exhibited by Lucius Thompson, of New Ha- ven, Conn. The cutters are arranged upon the surface of a rotating disk. The stone is placed upon a carriage and fed up to the disk. The latter revolves vertically, being at- tached to the end of a horiEontal shaft. Starbucic Brothers, of Troy, N. Y., exhibit a new machine for dressing stone, which operates with great success. In this machine the cutting is done by means of a series of chisels arranged side by side in a line. The chisels are pushed down and caused to cut the stone by means of a series of projections attached to an endless belt. As the projec- tions come around they hit the shanks of the chi~ei~ and drive them down. The chisel shanks and projections are beveled so as to graduate the blows. Only two chisels are struck at once, but such is the rapidity of movement that they all seem to act together. The points or cutting edges of the chisels are made of thin blades of steel, which are move- able at pleasure from their shanks. The method of grinding the cutters and the ad- justment of the parts is simole and conve- nient. ~muoihng Irons lilenied iu las. L.W. Boynton, of this city, exhibits a new device for heating smoothing or sad irons The common objection is, that in the combus- tion of gas, water is produced. Hydrogen from the gas unites with oxygen from the air and forms water. This collects on the bottom of the iron, and soon roughens its surface by corrosion. Mr. Boynton divides the bottom of the iron into two parts, which slip togeth- er. The lower part, or shell, is removed and heated by exposing its inside to the gas. The other part is now placed within the shell, and the iron is ready for use. In this manner tile bot- tom is heated, but never exposed to the flame. The removal of the upper part always insures a cool handle. The iron presents the usual form and appearance. Blowing Apparatus. John Boynton, Jr., this city, exhibits a new- ly invented blowing apparatus, which is al- leged to present a gain of 75 per cent. in pow- er over common fan blowers. In other words, only one-fourth as much power is needed to drive this improvement, as the common fans require; or, with the same power, four times as much air can be delivered. Th~i improve- ment is applicable to steam boilers, furnaces, and all kinds of machinery where a blast is wanted. The apparatus consists of two shafts, e ch having two arms that mesh together like cog wheels. These arms are encased in a cir- cular box. The air enters at the periphery of the case, on one side, and is discharged, in the same manner, on the other side. The air is partly compressed and forced along by the said arms. The invention may he applied to pumping purposes, or used as a rotary steam engine. Machine for BorInE Pumps and Tubes. A. Wyko~ of Elmira, N. Y., exhibits one of Wyckoff & Morrisons patent Tubular Bo- ring Machines, for boring pumps and wooden tubes. It consists of a hollow tube or auger having cutters at its extreme end. Within the tube is a rod furnished with an auger- shaped screw. The cutters on the tube effect the boring, while the auger rod extracts the chips. The parts named move in different directions. The machine bores at the rate of ten feet per minute, and with an accuracy that is truly wonderful. We are preparing an engraving of the above machine, which will be published next week. Planing Machines. C. B. iVorse, of Rhinebeck, N. Y., exhib- its his pa ented planing machine provided, with a se f-adjusting, unyielding knife bed which per nits the planing of stuff of from three inch( s in thickness down to one-eighth of an inch. We are preparing an engraving of this im ention, which will shortly appear. Jones 4- Crowell, 208 Broadway, N. Y., ex- hibit a planing machine that operates with much suec ss. It puts a good finish upon its work, plan ~s thick or very thin stuff; is easily adjusted, etc. Price $500. N. Bark w, exhibits one of his small-hEed planing ma Ihines, celebrated everywhere for their simplicity and practical excellence. Price $500. For a full description and en- graving se SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN, Vol. 11, page 49. Woodwor hs Planing Machine, small size, is exhibited by the Fitchburg (Mass.) Foundry and Machin Co. It is a fine specimen of workmansh ip. Denjsons planing machine, an original in- vention, will he tound illustrated on the front page of thi, number. The ahoy comprise all of the planing ma- chines at the Palace. All of them use cut- ters attache I to rotating horlEontal shafts. Ratchr t Handle Borlii Instruments. G. H. 71 Thot, of Boston, Mass., exhibits several van ~ties of his newly patented ratch- et handles, I or gimlets, screw-drivers, augers, hit-stocks, :ork-screws, etc. The arrange- ment is suel that the handle of the auger or other instru: aunt, may be turned hack for a new stroke, without removing or changing the grasp tf the hand. As applied to bit- stocks it pe: mits them to be used in corners or narrow I laces where the common stock cannot he ei eployed. In appearance and siEe these handle are about the same as the com- mon kind. One handle may be used for dif- ferent slEed onis. Gas Regulators. Henry G. Beatley, of this city, exhibits Hoards Pat nt Gas Regulators, which are alleged to pr )duce a saving in the amount of gas consume I of from 25 to 50 per cent. This economy is said to be effected by a self-act- ing valve arrangement which causes the gas to escape with a uniform velocity at all times, no matter ho ~v unsteady the street pressure may be. Pr ce $8 and upwards. Kidders Gas Regulator is exhibited by the New York C as Regulator Comp~ny, No. 262 Broadway. Phe saving which this device is alleged to eff~ otis surprising. One theatrical establishment in this city certified to a saving of $2000 by i 5 use in one year. That it saves from 25 to 5) per cent. of gas, has been too often proved i o he doubted. For engraving and descriptic a see SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN, Vol. 11, page 100. WeIghIng Machines. Strong 4. floss, of Vergennes, Vt., exhibit a variety of s cecimens of their newly patent- ed platform s :ales. Among others is a plat- form scale hr ving a capacity of six tuns. A test burden cf 2500 lbs., placed on a truck and rolled ab )ut from corner to corner, on the platform, carcely indicated any variation in the beam, r o matter in what position the weight rested. We were much pleased with the accuracy of the machine. These scales are construct d on scientific principles. No pit is required and small links, which always prevent accuracy, are also avoided. Price for scales of 6 taIls capacity, $150. For an en- graving and d escription see SCIENTIFIC AMER- ICAN~ Vol. 11, page 369. The Vergen ies Scale Co., B. A. Johnson, Agent, New X ork, exhibit several specimens of their scales, made under 5ampson~s patent. Among them s a railroad weighing machine, 40 feet in length. We witnessed a trial a few days since, during which a burden of about twenty tans, p laced on a railroad truck, was rolled from one end to the other. But little variation in ;he scale beam was observed when the posi ion o