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IdL II vi ~bum ~ -w bY VOLUME IV. NEW SERIES. linPlifti It%I 11 mu mu em IUDLI~)flLUDIIVIUI~N& ~U. ~ EYCK SC. / -C II jj;~ A / j /, 2 -7 f

Scientific American. / New Series, Volume 4, Issue 1 1-16

U4) A JOURNAL OF PRACTJCAL INFORMATION IN ART, SCIENCE, MECHANICS, AGRICULTURE, CIIEMISTRY, AND MANUFACTURES. VOL. IV.---NO. 1. NEW YORK, JANUARY 5, 1861. NEW SERIES. Unless we are mistaken in our ol)inion, the hiven- tion which we here illustrate is one of the most valu- able that has been made in many years. In view of the immense number of bricks that are annually man- ufactured and used, inventors have long since recog- nized the importance of a brick-making machine, and a great many patents have been issued for inventions in this department. It was early seen that the real desideratum was a machine which should mold the clay in a comparatively dry state, so us to make what arc technically called prcssed brick ; but the very rigid nature of the material has proved a formidable obstacle to the production of such a machine. We have known a very ingenious mechanic, after spend- ing a great deal of time and money in trying to con- struct a machine that would mold brick from dry clay, to abandon the attempt in despair from the rigid nature of clay, which, he said, was as difficult to press into a mold as cold lead. But, in Crarys machine, while the pressure is one of the most powerful capable of being produced by mechanism, it is brought to bear on only a portion of the brick at a time, and the clay is crowded into the mold with a peculiar kneading mo- tion, which fills the edges and corners of the molds in the most perfect manner conceivable thus producing a brick which, in smoothness, hardness and strength, is greatly superior to those made by the ordinary wet molding processes. Besides this, the rotary motion of the machine enables it to be run with such velocity as to give it a capacity of production which would be deemed incredible without a description of its con- struction, which we will proceed to give. Of the annexed cuts, Fig. 1 is a perspective view of the whole machine, and Fig. 2 a vertical section of the Inincipal parts. The molds are formed in the in- pressure, and afterxvard each portion in turn as it ncr or concave side of the revolving ring, A, and the passes under the roller, while, at the same time, suffi- clay is pressed into them by the revolving roller, B. dent pressure is exerted on the other portions of the The quantity of clay fed into each mold depends upon brick to prevent the clay from yielding upward, and the angle, C, between the mold ring, A, and the press the peculiar rolling motion of the press kneads the roll, B, and this angle must accordingly be adjusted to material into the edges and corners of the mold in the most admirable manner. The rollers, D and E, sup- port the molds and sustain the pressure. As the molds are carried up by the revolution of the ring, A, the steel blade, F, scrapes off the surplus ma- terial. The bottom of the mold consists of a stiff iron plate, g, which has a motion like a piston or plunger to discharge the brick a shank, A, being attached to it to serve as a piston rod. When the mold reaches the upper portion of the wheel, the brick is pushed The bricks fall upon an endless belt, which carries out of it by the shank, g, coming under the roller, I. them out to the kiln. The bottoms of the molds are drawn back into place by the pins which pass through the shanks, h, and rest upon the eccentric plates, J. It will be perceived that the bricks are flat upon one side and slightly concave on the otherjust the form that is requisite for a perfect brick. The roller, K, is only brought into operation when it is desired to give a very smooth polish to the concave surface of the brick. The pulverizing apparatus is an entirely separate in- vention, and is shown in Figs. 1 and 3. It consists of three rollers in a hopper, running with unequal mo- tions the roller, L, revolving about twice as fast as M, and M about twice as fast as N. This produces ex- actly the crumbling kind of pressure required for pul- verizing clay. Beneath the hopper is a horizontal shaft carrying arms placed spirally, which, by its revo the thickness of the brick, vy making the roller, B, of a proper size in proportion to the ring, A. As the clay falls down into the angle, C, it fills the molds as they pass along under it, and as they come under the roller, B, the clay is pressed into them the forward edge of the brick first receiving the full force of the \ ~\ N \, \%, CRARYS IMPROVED BRICK-MAKING MACHINE. 2 lutions, sweeps the ground clay along out of the hop- per into the screen, 0, through which it falls into a chute which carries it to the bottom of the elevator, P. From the elevator, P, the material is (liseharged l)y a chute into the angle, C, Fig. 2. The spiral arias of the shaft at the hottom of the hopper not only per- form the office of moving the clay along to the screen, l)Llt they also mingle it thoroughly with the sand which it is necessary to mix with pure clay in order to make ~ood brick. In case the clay contains pehhles to C he taken out, the screen may he placed ahove the pul- verizing hopper. This machine is the invention of a man who has been engaged for iwtny years in the manufacture of brick on an extensive scale. Having a large con- tract for furnishim~ brick to he used in the construction of Fort Jefferson tue largest fortification in the Unitell States, situated on the island of Tortugas, off the coast of Florida he had one of these machines constructe(l, and has subjected it to a thorough test. He says that it will, when running quite slow enough, turn out 40,000 bricks per day, requiring about a ten- horse poxver engine to drive it; that in New York it takes seventy hands to set and hum 40,000 bricks per day; but that, with his machine, twenty hands will do the work. Ilie brick, too, made l)y his machine are smoother, imetter finished and more solid than those made in the ordinary way ; they have been thoroughly tested in regard to strength and power of resisting pressure, by the engineers who have charge of Fort Jefferson, an(l found to be far superior in these respects to or(liuary brick. But perhaps the most important feature in this machine is the facility which it gives of carrying on the manufacture of bricks in all weather. As lie molded forms require no drying, but may be place(l at once in the kiln as they come from the ma- chine, it is only necessary to provide a supply of clay under cheap sheds to keep the works in constant oper- ation. T he patent for this great invention was granted through the Scientific American Patent Agency, Aug. 17, 1858 ; and further information in relation to it may be ol tamed by addressing the inventor, J. W. Crary, at Pensacola, Fla., or John H. Keyser, No. 2 Bible house, Ninth-street, corner of Fourth-avenue, New York. Bisuiphide of Carbon in Coal Gas. Tt is xvell known that gas, when made from most kinds of bituminous coal, contains a minute quantity of sulphur, even after its most careful purification. In order to ascertain how much is contained in the Lon- (ion gas, Professor A. M. Hoffman was appointed to make experiments by a committee of the House of Lords on Education. The object of the inquiry being to ascertain the quantity of sulphurous acid capable of l)eing formed by the combustion of the gas, an exceed- ingly small jet of gas, carefully washed with acetate of lead and measured by an accurate experimental meter, was burned in a large two-necked glass globe. Through one of the necks the gas tube was conveyed into the globe, while the other, fitting into a condenser, carried off the products of combustion into a two-necked re- ceiver. 1o establish a current of air, the receiver was connecte(l xvi th a water current aspirator; a couple of Woolfes bottles, containing water or dilute ammonia, being inserted for the purpose of fixing any trace of sulphurous acid which might escape condensation with the water in the condenser. The experiment being terminated, the liquids in the receiver and in the wash bottles were unite(l, oxy(lized with chlorine, and pre- cipitated with chloride of barium. Four experiments were made, and two cubic feet of gas burned on each occasion, when it was found that 9.04 grains of the hi- sulphide of carbon were in every 100 cubic feet. SIZING FRENch PAPER. At the celebrated paper mill at Essone, in France, the writing and photographic papers are sized with resin soap, as follows:Good white American resin is placed in a moderately sized boiler and melted; then some caustic alkali in solution is added, which combines with the resin and dissolves it. This resin soap is now conducted to another vessel containing boiling water, where it is allowed to settle to permit the impurities to fall to the bottom. The clear is used to mix with the paper pulp, after which some thin starch, contabsing a portion of alum in solu- tion, is also added. rl7his is also similar to the Ameri- can mode of sizing paper. ELECTRICITY AND SOME OF ITS PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS. AarLcaE I. We propose to give a series of articles on such ap- plications of electricity as are known only to a very limited number of persons. Much of the information which these articles will comprise cannot be obtained without the perusal of a great number of works; and some of it cannot be obtained in any other publication whatever. To all young men who desire to gain a full knowledge of electricity, this series of articles xviii be indispensable. nATTERIEs. The source of voltaic electricity is the galvanic bat- tery. Of this instrument, there are several forms in use, each of which has its merits and defects. One that is easily managed and well adapted to the wants of the general experimenter is Daniells. This battery furnishes electricity, either of quantity or intensity, with gre~t facility. Smees battery is simple in con- struction and theory, but practically it is expensive for, after it has been in operation for a short time, the mercury used on the zinc plates attacks the silver plate, and the resulting amalgam falls to the bottom of the cells. Groves and Bunsens batteries are both powerful, but they render necessary the use of nitric acid, which stains the hands of the operator, and they are expensive in working. Daniells battery is liable to none of these objections, and it has, moreover, the advantage of furnishing a constant and uniform cur- rent for hours. It should be borne in mind that in all batteries there is, for each equivalent of zinc con- sumed, a certain amount of electricity evolved; but this consumption of zinc includes only that which is employed in developing the current; and the fact that one battery has used a larger amount of zinc than another in a given time does not always show that it has given off more electricity. In Groves and Bunsens batteries, the nitric acid, from a variety of causes, finds its way to the zinc, which is consumed by direct chemical action, without any useful effect being produced ; thus in- volving a waste of both zinc and acid. The best method of preparing the zinc plate of any battery is to plumage it in dilute sulphuric acid until a brisk effer vescence takes place upon its surface; it should then be taken from the solution, and mercury poured on its surface in small quantities and evenly spread by a rag of cloth. If this process is thoroughly gone through not omitting the edges of the platethe whole sur- face of the zinc will present a bright silvery appear- ance, and, when plunged in dilute sulphuric acid, no effervescence xviii take place. After the zinc has been xvell anaalgamated, it may be placed in the proper po sition and the exciting liquid poured upon it. In all practical batteries, the zinc is called the positive plate or element, and the other plate the nega- tive. If these two plates are connected by means of a xvire or other conductor, the current will pass from the positive through the liquid to the negative plate; and thence through the conductor to the positive plate again. When a number of cells have all their positive plates connected xvith each other, and also all their negative plates, it xviii be seen that the whole battery is equiv- alent to one large cell. The current produced by such an arrangement is called one of quantity, and is char- acterized, ilrstly, by its inability to traverse a very long conductor; secondly, by its power to produce powerful heating and magnetic effects when the conductor is not too long; thirdly, by its inability to traverse a poor conductor. It has also many other characteristics. When each positive plate is connected with the next negative, and the first and last plates attached to the polar wires, a current of intensity is produced. The chief characteristic of this current is its poxver to pass very long or poor conductors; and, for this rea- son, it is very useful for the telegraph and other pieces of apparatus xvhere a considerable resistance must be overcome. When a current is passed through a conductor, it ex- periences a certain resistance. This resistance increases directly with the length of the conductor, and also varies directly according to its area. If, for instance, a xvire has a certain conducting power, and we double its length, its conducting poxver is reduced to one-half its fornaer capacity; and so on, indefinitely. The con- ducting poxver of a xvire, xvhich forms a part of any machine or piece of apparatus, should always be pro- portioned to the ananunt of electricity xvhich is. to pass through it, or the battery should be adapted to the in- strument. If all the current cannot pass the con- ductor, the size of the battery should be reduced until that point is reached. The Balance of Trade. The folloxving statement of the exports and imports of the United States, for the last five years, is taken from the report of the Secretary of the Treasury: Year Exports. Inports. Ex. seer Isi. 1836 $326,964,918 $314,639,942 $12,324,976 1837 362,949,144 360,590,141 2,039,003 1535 324,644,421 282,613,130 42,031,271 1859 356,789,462 388,768,130 18,021,332 1860 400.122.296 362.163.941 37,938,333 Tsr 5 years. $1,771,470,241 $1,659,073,304 $112,394,937 Several of the papers are parading these statistics as proof that the balance of trade is in our favor. The Balance of Trade is a delusion that has to be ex- ploded about as often as perpetual motion. The whole thing depends upon the way the books are kept at the Custom Houses. A cargo of wheat is brought into New York for $100,000 and sent to England, xvhere, the freights and profits added, it is sold for $140,000. After deducting the freightsay $20,000the balance is expended in hardxvare, & e., and brought to Nexv York, xvhere, xvith the xveighmt and profit added, it is xvorth, say $150,000. In this case, tile exports have just paid for the inaports, and the trade has paid a fair profit besides the freight; but a balance may be made to appear either against us or in our favor by different naodes of keeping our accounts. If the New York prices of both imports and exports are takeia, it xviii show a balance of $50,000 against us; but if the Emag lish price of both is taken, it xviii show a balance in our favor of $20,000. In the long run, every nations imuports must balance its exports. A temporary balance, settled with coin, is shoxvn at any time by the rate of exchangebut not by Custona House returns. DISTINGUISHED MEcHANIcsOne of the best editors the Westminster Review could ever boast of, and one of the most brilliant xvriters of the passing hour, was an Aberdeen cooper. One of the editors of time London Doily .Joernel was an Elgin baker; perhaps one of time best reporters of the London Times was an Edinburgh weaver; the editor of the Witaess was Hugh Miller, a stone mason. One of the ablest ministers in London xvas a Dun- dee blacksmith, and another xvas a Banff xvatchmaker. The late Dr. Mime, of China, was a lihyne herd boy. The principal of the London Missionary Societys Col- lege at Hong Kong xvas a Huntley saddler; and one of tile best missloimaries that ever went to India xvas a Keith tailor. The leading machinist on the London and Birmingham Railway xvas a Glasgoxv mechanic, and perhaps the very richest iron founder in England xvas a Moray xvorkingman. Sir James Clark, her naa- jesty s physician, xvas a Banff druggist. Josepim Ilume xvas a sailor first, and then a laborer at a naortar and pestle ha Moiatrose. These men, hoavever, spent their leisure hours in acquirinug useful knoxvledge. ExPERIxEa-rs xvmrim W~az Ropz. Some experiments, inaportant to all persons engaged in the manufacture of xvire ropes or xvho may be accustomed to use them, have just been made by Mr. J. Daglish, xvlmo has com- municated the results to time North of Emigland Insti- tute of Mining Engineers. The conclusions arrived at avere, that half the strength of the rope xvas lost by heating the xvire; that the ordinary joint is much iveaker than any other portion of the rope; that if a fiat rope xvas avell spliced it xvas not xveakened thereby, but if the xvorkmanship was bad, it lost from 25 to 33 per cent of its strength. In either event, a round xvire rope spliced became 13 per cent xveaker than before. Round steel xvire rope will bear more than double tho aveight required to break iron avire rope of similar di- ameter. AamJxmNumm AND irs Aaaovs.The metal aluminum is coming more and more into use. A firm at New- castle-on-Tyne, England, have begun the manufacture of it on a large scale, in the pure state and as bronze. Unexpected results have been obtained in experiment- ing with it as an alloy; 20 parts of aluminum xvith SO of copper produce a metal xvhich, to the eye, has all the appearance of gold. Alter the proportions, and mix 10 of aluminum xvitk 90 of copper, and the result is a metal singularly hard, and of excellent application for pivots and bearings in machinery. AMERICAN ENGINEERS ASSOCIATION. LRrtmrted for the Scientific American.] On Wednesday evening, Dec. 12th, the regular weekly meetin~ of this associatioa was held at its room, No. 24 Cooper Institutc, this cityThos. B. Stillnen, ES(1., prcsiding Iienj. Garvey, Secretary. MISCELLANEOUS BUSINESS. ]?ooerrrlt a Anti-Frictional JournalThis anti-frictional journal, or box, was submitted to the societ.y for its opinion thereon. The peculiarity of its arran~emerit is, that around a central shaft a cluster of small wheels revolve, each independent of the other, and the inventor claims that by this method there exists no sliding or rubbing point of friction. Wests ]alproIrd ]~IollJ~Mr. Carve introduced this pump to the notice of the association. The inventor claims it is one of the most simple and powerful in use, it is extensively used on railroads, and as a house and cistern pump also for deep wells and (leeks of vessels. The inventor claims that in this pump are combined the double-acting, anti-freezing, lifting and forcing principles. The above articles were referred to the Committee on Scicuce and New Inventions. The late rel)ort of this committee upon the practica- bilitv of Shrimptons High Pressure Condenser, and as published by this journal, was accepted as the sense of the society, without discussion. 1he same committee presented the subjoined report upon ilunkel s Oscillating Piston Engine~ Your committee Ilave carefully examined a neat work- ilig mo(iel of this engine, and have heard and considel-ed the expialiatloils of tile inventor and after taking up his claims, 0110 by one, they have come to tile following coii- cillSiOIlS 3. That tile engine is very simple in construction, conse- quentiy, not ijable to be expensive in first cost, or for re- l)airs. ~u engine fioin 8 to 10-liaise power eaii be con- striicted by estimate for - 340, patterns included. 2. That this eunine is compact fluId therefore requiles illit little space aIl(l is peculiarly well adapted for screw l)iol)ehlers, locomotives, & c., where economy of room is iniportant I. Tb-it tile M eioht of the moving parts is much less than is requile(l in onlIn-ny steam eu~iIies; so that this engine is well suited 101 mob velocities, time momenta of the nmov- ing parts beiun coIii~)aratively so small. 4. That the claini iii relation to the reciprocal motion of the roclcshaft, & c., & c., in our opinion, does not embody any lmecuhial-ity, the same beiiig predicable of any engine. 5. That the claim, relative to the application of modein improveineiits, such as clint-otIs, & c., though coi-rect, is not peculiar to this engine. 13. That there is a peculiar adaptability of tills engilie to steam pumps, fan l)loweI-s, and in general to all kinds of inachilnemy whole a great Velocity is required. Its plinclial alivailtage, however, seelils to consist in its lit- ness fain- I ocoinotives, steaiusilil)s, sd-ow propellers, & c. In addition to the iloilits above euiumerated, the commit- tee have examlimed the balance of foices on the oscillating shalt, antI find it correctly Ilescribed hty the inventor, and that thiei-e is iio extra friction upon tue shaft, the resistaimee hein~ transferred by the steam to the abutuments, and thieiice to the floor or sumlIlloit upon which the eu~ine rests. With regard to conmpau-ative fi-iction, or coiuinam-ath-e cost of fIlch, your coumillittee canntt, as eulgilleers, dive any ulininion, as they have not hall au oh)i)ortliuity of experi- menting with a flihi-sixed engine they, however, do not think that this eiiciume will conipare minlavoi-ably in these particulars with u-eli consti-ucted engines of the ordinary kiusi. By reqinmest, Mr. Lommis Kocim, with the aid of a draw- ing upon the blackboard, deScrii)ed this engine and tite manner of its operation to the seveini nmembers present. 1-fe had seen a large one driven at the i-ate of 2-50 revolutions pem umineite, nnd a small working nms)(hel that could be driven with 01-ics breatim. Tue above meport, being acceptal he in every ilartidn- lar to time association, it elicited rio (hiscussion, but was slnanintoumsly adopted it3 them. Messrs. Warren & Links Low Water Detector wrs iteme inti-stbu-esl. niscussuox. Mr. KoenThe inveiitom-s anti proprietors of this instrlmment hieing present, I should like to Imeam any reasons why the society shioumld not accept the report of tIme committee upon tlmeir detector, to the effect timat it is not reliable. Mm. WAELENIt seems tIme committee have tested an instruiincnt of our manufacture, now in operation in this city, ~uisl they report that no reliance can lie phaced upon it. I have a fact or two in relation to the (leteettil- seems h)y them, which I trust will not me- muama unnoticed. It Imad been tamupered with by the engineer in (-ilarge on several occasions, and at times when expressly fom-Itidden to do so. I contend that the principle upon whichi it is made is a good one, nnd it remains untoucimed by this case. We have fimi- two 3-ears been fully satisfied that the l)ecumliarity of its comistructiomi, and the l)rincilmhe i uvol vod, are such that it can be depended upon. If the instrument seen by thie committee had been left alone and not been mod- died within, as was time case on sevem-al occasions, it u-ouhd not have failed. I do not think that the rehia- bilitv and usefulness of the detector should be thus condeuimned when the only evidence in the case is time isolated one just referred to. All I have ever put on boilers have worked with perfect success, and instances are knowis where tIme water fell but the 1-16th of an inch below the water line when the alarm was given. I hope the society will be pleased to receive furthiem- evidence in the case; we think that we cams offem- such pm-oaf as will materially change the present tisl)ect of it. Mr. BANKSI hiave very recently seen tIme gentleman vhto is proprietor of tise manufactory where the detector in question was seen, and he states as his opinion, that it was placed too highs, and that by droppin0 it a little it would work well. Mr. GARvEYThe fault, as understood by me, is tise rare construction of the gage, that the principle upon whicis it operates is too nice, and that upon trial it would not work as stated. The existence of an error in its construction was very apparent, as when the water was let down below the alarm point the whuistle did not blow until the valve was touched by the point of a knife blade; and, as the committee found upon inspection and experiment that the instrument would not work, they were justified in condemnin0 it. Mr. KoemiThe committee tested the instrument fully. We tried it two different times, and it failed to work in both cases; time fault, as judged by them, was in its construction. A short brass tube, by expansion, operates upon a steel spring, which, in turn, works a valve, n-hen the alarm is given. It is true the brass tube expanded, as claimed for it, but the steel spring failed to perform its duty, and the valve did not n-ark. This is not the only instaisce the members of the comusittee are cogumizant of. Time one at the Cooper Institute did not work at all satisfactoril3; within plemsty of water in time boiler, the steam issued with great force, but the whistle did not blow. 1\Ir. WARRENThe instrument is so constructed that it will blow at any point desirable, and it will also give an alam-m n-linen there is too much water in time boilem- ; this we claim as a very essential point. In melatiomin to time ison-wom-Idag of tIme steel spring upon tIme gage, at time Cooper Institute, I would remark, that at time commencement of our manufacture Nyc were so nisfortunate as to have a large lot of springs burned n-hen being made, which took time life from them. Omie of this lot was put upon the instrument in question, before the fact was discovered by us. Since then, every detector before it leaves our shop is fuihhy tested hay mis, amid tvo years experience has pu-ox-ed to use the principle upon which they work is a com-mect omme. Mr. KocimWith all justice I can call these low water detectors life preservers, for such they are in one respect. The are intended, by wauning us of danger, to save life and property. I repeat what I imave said before, that if one fails to do its duty, be- cause of its construction or principle, we cannot depemid upous any of them. I am prepared to admit ive mnigist visit teim different places xvhere thsey are in opem-ation in this city, and find that they work per- fectly wehh, yet if xve simould extend our visit still furthei- and inspect tIme eleventh, and find it xvhmoliy smmsfit for time purpose inteisdcd could we recommend tIme lustluluent? Might not this very one be the cause of time saci-ifice of valuable li-i-es and property? Mm-. SIMPSONTime questioms should be looked upon by the society in this minsanner, viz Were the cam- mittee examining an instrument in good order, or wei-e they testing omme ivhmich had been tampered with by tie e%ineer in charge, as intimated by Messrs. Warren & Banks. An engilseer m~y, at times, wish to shirk Isis duty, and then xviii alter or regulate an instrumnemit as he pleases. If tunis was tampered xvith, amid its valve screwed up upon sundry occasloIinS in direct violation of orders, can the blame be attached to the construction of the gage, or to its principle, when it fails to act? Was tunis failure attributable to a mechinanical fault, or thinat of the engineer in charge of it? I consider this question an important one. Mi-. BAa-mc~-----Many parties have spoken to me in relation to thie report of our detector, as publishied in the ScuENTIrme AMERIeAN, and they xveu-e, one and all, pomfec-thy astoumuded at its pinurport. We ha-i-c sonse 500 in operatioms, and this is the first that has beems known to fail. Many persons, both in thus city audi in Bostois, husovms to us, place implicit confidence in it among thens are the Manhattan Gas Works, New York city, and the Boston Manufacturing Conspany of tlmat city. We n-ill cheerfully give the committee a list, that they ninay further iusspect and examine our gage, as ve sincerely think they have not seen it as it is. Mr. GxnvzvThe remarks of Mr. Simpson are of thinc highest importance; the conumittee are not reporting upon an instrument that is imperfect. Any tool will give vay under severe usage; omso may tahec a hammer and so batter an instrumeist that it will be perfectly useless, or they may in other ways disarrange it to suiclin an extent that it n-ill be comparativcl3- useless. It is no more than siusple justice to the inventors of this gage, to examine and test timose they consider in good order ; then if their principle is correct let it be so understood. At this period time conmninittee, through its chair- man, asked to be dischsni-ged froisin the further con- sideration of this particular case, which -ivas granted. It was then resolved to appoint a select coisimittee whose duty it will be to experiment still further in relatioins to the reliability of timis dletector. That committee, as appointed by tue chair, is composed of Messrs. Garvey, Holden, and otisers ; the commit- tee to consider the iov nater detector of Messrs. Ashcroft & Co., as named at the l st meeting is Messrs. Merriam, Cameroms, and Garvey. A letter vas received from Mr. Asheroft, n-ho is no-iv in Boston, in relation to Isis imistrument, -ivhichs vas referred to the conumittee, as named above. Time society then adjourned. Spontaneous Decomposition of Chloride of Lime. Time following account of a curious chemical explo- sion is given by Dr. Hoffnsan in the Quuarterhy Journal of the Cisemical Society One niorising, I thinink it vas in the sunsmer of 1858, n-lien entering my laboratory, vhich I mad left hs perfect order am-i the previasus cs-cu- ing, I vas surprised to find the room in the greatest confuision. Broken bottles and fragments of appam-atus lay nboumt, several vindon--panes vere smashed, and all tim tables amid shelves n-crc covered vith a dense la-i-cr of white dust. Time latter vas soon found to be chloride of liuuse, amid fuuriniislmed without dithicuultv tIme explanation of this strange appearance. At the concluision of thie Great Exhibitiems of 1851, M. Kuhlmann, of Lihle, had made me a present of a splemidid cohlectiomi of chemical preparations which hue had com-itributed. The beautiful large bottles n-crc for a long time hept as a callectious ; gradumally, hon-evem-, their comitents proved too great a temptation, and in time comurse of tin-ic all thse suibstances Isad been consumus- ed. Only one lam-ge bottle, of about 10 litres capacit3-, and filled with chloride of lime, had resisted all at- tacks ; the stopper had struck so fast that nobody comuld get it out; and after man3- unsviccessfuh effortsiso one venturing to indulge us strong measures svith tue handsome vesselthe bottle had at last found a place on one of the highest siselves of the laboratory, vhere for years it hind remained host iii dust audi oblivion, until it had forced itself back oms our mecollection by so energetic an appeal. The explosion had been so violent that the neck of time bottle u-as projecte(I into the area, vh-iere it was found si-ith time stopper still firmly cemented into it. I have not been able to lean-n whetiiner similar cases of tise spontaneous decomposition of chloride of lime have been already observed. SEMI-STEEL Loeoumormvz Tncxs-----We hnave lately ex- amined a piece of semi-steel emnplo3-ed for locomotive tires, manufactured at thine Albany Iron Works, of Corning, Winslow & Co., Troy, N. Y., and its grain indicates great tenacity. We understand that this material has been submitted to a great number of tests to ascertain its teussile streinsgths, and the result has been conclusive as to its being from one-third to one-half stronger than high qualities of Low Moor irons. Some sen-il-steel tires of engine n-hmeels have been in use for six momuths and have given entire sat- isfaction. This metal usust caine into vem-3- general ruse as a smubstitute for n-roumghst iron as applied to great number of purposes. We womuld direct tIme attention of railroad companies and engine builders to the advertisement of Messrs. Corisimup, Winslow 8s Co., on aisotiiner page - 4 ROM4NCE OF THE STEAM ENGINE. ARTICLE IV. HEATING BUILDINGS BY STEAM. In a work of Sir Hugh Platte, published in 1660, steam is suggested for heating a oonservatory, by placing a funnel over a kitchen cauldron employed for boiling the beef for the sturdy yeomen. A pipe from thence was to conduct the steam to the conservatory, during the winter, so as to provide a temperate heat for the flowers. By this mode of artificial heating, he said: If I be not deceived, you may have both oranges, lemony, pomegranates, pepper trees, and such like. THE MARQUIS OF woIfcEsTER. The life of this English nobleman has all the air of a romance. He was the Lord of iRagland Castle, and among the most wealthy and ancient of the feudal families. He was a determined cavalier and command- ed a large body of troops under King Charles I, in the civil wars with the Parliament. In that long struggle the Puritans were the victors, and Bagland Castle was taken, its valuable furnishings carried away, its chief driven into exile, and his estates confiscated. Having come from France to London, in 1656, on some secret mission for the king, he was taken prisoner and coin- mitted to the Tower, where he was kept closely con- fined. It is believed that some birds sing more sweet- ly when confined in small cages, and this may be the reason why we have had some very able works writ- ten in dungeons. While confined a prisoner, Grotius composed his famous work, Dc Veritas, and Bun- yan his incomparable Pilgrims Progress, and so it was similar with the subject of this memoir. His thoughts were first directed to the amazing force of steam, by observing the rising of the lid of a vessel employed for boiling food in the prison, and from this circumstance he projected that machine which has thrown a radiance round his name. Being originally of a mechanical turn of mind, he beguiled the long hours of his weary confinement with mechanical amusements, and after Charles II, was restored to the throne and the Marquis restor~l to liberty, he still continued to find pleasure in making new inventions. He wrote a description of his contrivances, which was published in 1663 and called A Century of the Names and Scantlings of such Irwentions as, at present, I calt to Mind to have Tried and Perfected. No draw- ings accompanied the book, but the annexed figures have been drawn from the following descriptions which he has given, namely, An admirable and for- cible way to drive up water by fire, not drawing or sucking it upwards. 0 0 This method has no bounds, if the vessel be strong enough. One vessel of water rarified by fire driveth up forty of cold water, and a man that attends the work has but to turn two cranks, that one vessel of water being consumed, an- other begins to force and refill with cold water, and so successively. Figures 1 and 2 .represent an apparatus for raising water by steam, which appears to fulfill the conditions of the description; x is a boiler connected to two re- ceivers, a b, by a pipe, s; the steam is admitted or shut off by a cock, e, from each vessel alternately, and l)y a pipe, m, containing two valves opening outwards, from each receiver, they are connected with the educ- tion pipe, i. Another pipe, n u, connects the cistern with the r~ceivers, and the cock at n interrupts the the communication between the cistern and each re- ceiver at plea~ure. By a hole in each receiver, capable of being closed tight, the air may be expelled as it ac cumulates in eithei. When steam is generated in the boiler, x, it ~ows through the pipe, s, and passing into the receiver, a, which has previously been filled with water, it presses upon its surface and forces it through the pipe, m, and up the eduction pipe, i, by which it is conveyed to the required hight and distance. When all the water has been expelled, the attendant turns the cock, e, and the steam flows into the opposite re- s~eiver, b, and at the same time he also turns the cock, .z, and water flows from the cistern to the receiver, a. The steam from the boiler now pressing upon the sur- face of the water in b, forces it up the pipe, i, and when it has expelled all that it contains, the cock, e, again shuts off communication with the boiler and the receiver, b, and the vapor rushes again into a, and forces the water thfit has flowed into it up the pipes, as before related, and so en alternately, while steam rises from the water in tl~e boiler. In Fig. 2, we have another view of the steam en- gine, equally answerable, it is believed, to the descrip- tions in the Century of Inventions. is the the steam boiler; a is the pipe for conducting the steam to U press on the upper side of a piston, e. Its rod is con- nected to a beam which raises the plunger of a pump in another cylinder, as the piston, c, descends. A cock, c, permits of communication with the atmosphere, and another cock opens a passage for the steam under the piston, in the very same manner as a high pressure common steam engine would be worked by hand with- out valve rod connections. Of this engine, the devout marquis said: I call this a semi-omnipotent engine, and do intend that a model thereof shall be buried with me; and his reverend and grateful mind for great inventions led him to thank the Deity with the following prayer which was afterwards found among his manuscripts: Oh! infinitely omnipotent God, whose mercies are fathomless and whose knowledge is immense and in- exhaustible, next to my creation and redemption, I render thee most humble thanks from the very bot- tom of my heart and bowels for thy vouchsafing me (the meanest in understanding) an insight into so great a secret of human nature, beneficial to all mankind, as this, my water-commanding engine. Suffer me not to be puffed up, 0 Lord, by knowing of it and many more rare and unheard of, yea, unparalleled inventions, trials and experiments; but humble my haughty heart by the true knowledge of mine own ig- norant, weak and unworthy nature, prone to all evil. 0 most merciful Father, my Creator, most com- passionating Son, my Redeemer, and holiest of Spirits4 the Sanctifierthree divine persons and one God grant me a further coifturring grace, with fortitude to take hold of thy goodness, to the end, that whatever I do unanimously and courageously to serve my king and country, to disabuse, rectify and convert my un- deserved, yet wilfully incredulous enemies, to reim- burse thankfully my creditors, to remunerate my bene- factors, to reinhearten my distressed family, and with complacence to gratify my suffering and confiding friends, may, void of vanity and self-ends, be only di- rected to thy honor and glory everlasting. In this prayer of the noble inventor his secret thoughts are laid bgfore us, and they impress us with deep respect for the memory of the man. He felt the importance, and had a deep insight into the great value of the invention. The steam engine has done more for the elevation of society than all the edicts of princes. The Marquis of Worcester was not well tre ted by the profligate King Charles II., although he had lost an immense fortune in his cause. He met with ingratitude where he should have found friends, but he was cheered to the last by a most devoted wife. He died in London on the 4th of April, 1667, and his remains were carried to IRagland Castle and interred in the family cemetery, and it is said that the model of his engine was placed beside his coffin. It was stated in late news from England that his grave was request- ed to be opened for examination, to obtain this model. After his death, the Marchiones~s his wife, who seems to have been a congenial spirit and actuated by a share of her husbands enthusiasm, continued her ex- ertions to introduce the water-commanding engine. She was so zealous in her efforts for this object that it was considered unbecoming to her sex and bordering on insanity, and a priest,who had some influence with her, expostulated strongly against her interfering in any manner to dispose of the great machine. We have a very good record left us that the Marquis of Worcesters steam engine had been in actual opera- tion in London about the year 1656. Cosine de Medicis, Grand Duke of Tuscany, who was in England in that year, and had with him a number of letter-writers, who noted down everything which they saw. This diary of the Duke was carefully deposited in the ducal library at Florence. In 1818, this manuscript was first printed, and a very clear and brief account is given in it of a hydraulic machine, invented by the Marquis of Wor- cester, which the Duke saw lifting water, 40 feet high, by the attendance of one man, and which he stated was superior to another hydraulic machine which he also saw, operated by two horses, for raising water from the river to a high wooden tower, to be conveyed thence to the greatest part of the city. It is not stated that it was a steam engine which the Duke saw, but nothing else but a steam engine could have effected such results. It was nothing else than the most stu- pendous water-commanding engine, the semi-omni- potent engine, which the Marquis invented and for which, in the joy and devout thankfulness of his heart, he beseeched Almighty God to make him humble, and for which, when he was laid in the grave, his widow incurred the blame of being considered insane by her priest for persisting in carrying it forward and intro- duce it to the public. When we consider what the steam engine now does, we may well say it was pro- duced by heavenly inspiration. Principle of Giffards Injector. There has been very much analytical discussion, invested with an air of mystery, of the principle of the injector. The principle, however, is perfectly obvious: the light weight, or mass, and high speed of the steam are merged into the greater mass and lower speed of the water; the momentum of the steam thus employed is transformed into and is equivalent to the momentum of the body of water set in motion. True, the steam is condensed in the process; and it is said thus to produce a vacuum, which the water rushes in to occupy, and hence the power of the water to penetrate into the boiler against the pressure within. But it is to be remarked that the vacuum is only incidental to the operationor, more properly, it is not essential to the general principle of action. We do not, of course, mean to imply that the injector, as it is made, may operate inde- pendently of the vacuum; but, properly speaking, there is no vacuum at all, for, if there be a vacuum, in virtue of which, it is supposed, the water rushes in, it is obvious that atmospheric air, with free access to the injector would rush in to supply the void, in preference to the water. Whereas, it is a matter of fact that the injector works, or may he made to work, with the same de~ree of readiness, whether open to, or enclosed from, the external atmosphsere.London Engineer. As this is substantially the same explanation as that which we have already given, we have nothing to say but simply to indorse it. Only, it is to be remarked, that the production of a vacuma, or rather of a partial vacuum, by the condensation of the steam as it comes in contact with the cold water, is the first e(~p in the operation, making room for the steam to rush into, and thus giving it the motion by which it acquires the momentum to carry itself back into the boiler, and the feed-water along with it. GOLD COMING BAcKFor seventeen years past the exchange between England and America was against the latter, but now the tide has turned. Instead of sending gold to Europe, it is now flowing rapidly from thence to New York. The Persia brought no less than $3,100,000 on the 20th nit., to pay for the grain with which America is now feeding the population of the Old World. THE POLYTECHNIC ASSOCIATION OF THE AMERI CAN INSTITUTE. [Reported for the Scientific American.j The Association, having adjourned over, week before last, on account of Thanksgiving, and last week on account of the meeting of the American Institute, met Dcc. 13, at the usual hour, and was called to order by the President, Professor Mason. NEW SUBJEcTS. The PRESIDENT proposed for consideration at some future meeting, The best Economy in Motive Power for Farm Buildings and Small Manufactorics. Mr. JOHNSON proposed the subject of Pottery, upon which Mr. Rouse, a practical manufacturer, of Jersey City, would read a paper. Mr. HASKELL proposed the subject of Drawing from Objects. A practical gentleman in that line would give illustrations upon the blackboard with regard to perspective, elevation, and all ot of drawing. her styles TILE CUTOFF. Mr. ROWELL exhibited a card from the steamer Michigan, received from Mr. Isherwood. There was a full-stroke experiment with a single engine, and an experiment with the engine cutting off at one-third stroke. This experiment showed an advantage of 2 per cent in favor of the full stroke. SEWING MACHINES. The PRESIDENT, upon calling up the special order for the evening, said that the subject of sewing machines was rather out of the usual range of subjects, for two reasons first, it was dealing with something not recently invente(l or brought to light; and, secondly, there seemed to be little strictly scientific inquiry to be made respecting it. The sewing machine has brought up the class of sewing women to a well-defined and proper place in the class of educated laborers. For thirty years the wages of household servants, upon the average, have been above the wages of sewing wolnen. Life was shortened by the labor of sewing women more than in the manufactories in this country or in England. He could remember the time when his mother and his aunts carded and spun and wove their cloth. But the cotton machinery made that uselcss, and it was (uS- continued. Not long ago there was a sewing room in every house, but that is now shut up in the houses of people of prosperous condition. Women having sew- ing machines have ceased to use theln, handing over their work to the class which can do it cheaper. Man- ufacturers have put into the hands of the public more than 200,000 sewing machines, and the call for them is still increasing. They are passing down into lower sta- tions in life. A very small proportion, and that of the coarsest kind of work, can be done by machines driven by steam power. Even in our best conducted manil- factories, such as at Manchester, N. H., there is a Inanifest shortening of the life of the female opera- tives. On tile other hand, it is conceded that the use of the sewing machine is decidedly a healthful occupa- tion. Assuming that three-fifths of full work is done upon all the sewing machines sent into the com- munity, it will give us 300,000 hands employed upon the sewian machine; and if the work produced is five- fold, as all agree, it will be equal to the hard labor of a million and a half of women working with the needle. Mr. STETSON considered the Wilcox & Gibbs machine as the highest point yet renched. He was in favor of simplicity when it could be attained; and it was usually found that progress in an art simplified it. The single-thread sewing machine is generally consid- ered impracticable, because the seam can be ripped out. For family work he regarded facility in ripping out a great desideratum. If we can unite facility of rip- ping out when we desire to do so with security a~ainst ripping out in actual use, it will be the perfection of the sewing machine stitch. In the Wilson & Gibbs ma chine this stitch is peculiar. The PRESIDENTDoes this machine require Howes invention Mr. STETSONNO, sir; but it reqnires many of the improvements upon it. Mr. S. proceeded to explain, by means of drawings, the stitch and its formation. The thread is caught by a hook and carried within the preceding stitch, each loop being twisted before it is thrown off the hook; the result being a twisted loop stitch. The twisting tightens the friction, and in- creases tIle compactness of the job; and the certainty 5 of not looping in two loops, due to a peculiar guard, renders the single-thread sewing machine practically successful. In order that the sewing may progress downward to the lower classes of society, it is ilupor- taut that they should be simple that they may be cheap. He hoped to see the day when the sewing ma- chine would be as common and as cheap as the clocks upon our mantelpieces. Mr. Stetson here exhibited the machine and explained its use. As they ordina- lily run, every stitch is tied; but if the operator, upon stopping tile machine, will then turn it one turn back- ward, the work can then be unravelled. This machine could be lun at a higher rate of speed than any other. The form of the stitch insures elasticity, and the Ina- chine can be worked with perfect success, whether the thread is very tight or vary loose. It requires, there- fore, no particular skill to regulate the tension. Nor is any skill required to fit the needle ; there being a little projecting spur upon one side, so placed that the needle cannot be put in wrong. There is a brake upon the wheel to prevent its being turned backward. These slmplifiCations in the use of the machine will also tend to secure its introduction among the lower classes of sewing women. Mr. LANCEv stated that he had been acquainted with sewing machines for fourteen years. 1-us business was the manufacture of shirts and gentlemens furnishing goods. The first sewing machine practically adapted to that class of work was the Wheeler & Wilson ma- chine. But the stitch was weak, and as the work re- quired a great many bias seams, they were all done by hand. Mr. Lancey then exhibited a drawing of vari- ous kinds of stitchesthe hand back stitch, the hand running stitch, and sewing machine stitches; and also Specimens of work done with the different stitches, to illustrate his remarks upon their relative strength. The twisted loop stitch, in respect to its elasticity, he considered exactly the same as if the loops were not twisted. But, in tills respect, no machine ever nlade would come up to handwork. Upon sewing equal pieces of cloth from the same piece, six inches in length, with thread from the same spool, in the differ- ent ways, he found that the hand back stitch would stretch 11- inches, the Grover & Baker stitch the same, and tile shuttle stitch only five-eighths of an inch, be- fore the thread would break. In the use of thread, the shuttle stitch is the most economical ; but this is no advantage. The PRESIDENTIS this a general rule that the best sewing, whether by hand or machine, uses the most thread? Mr. LANCEvIt must necessarily be so. An estab- lishment in Boston is saving $2,500 a year by using cotton yarn, and the stitch is strong. He would cut every fifth stitch of work done with the Grover & Baker machine, and then guarantee that the seam should hold until the linen should be worn out. It uses about one-fifth more thread than the shuttle stitch; but time is money, and the time saved from the ends being self-fastened more than compensates the cost of the additional thread. In family sewing, the Grover & Baker stitch actually uses no more thread than the shuttle stitchwhat is put into the cloth by the former being wastage in the latter. The Wheeler & Wilson machine, however, is generally used in the Albany district, which is the great collar district, having been introduced there before the Grover & Baker machine was perfected. Mr. DIBBEN stated that the needle was seriously im- perfect in the best machines, being so imperfectly made that when work is dressed they cut the material. Some manufacturers who use the sewing machine Con- sider this such an important evil that they refinish the needles themselves. At the price which is charged for them, the needles ought to be better finished than they are. Mr BABCOCK stated that the exercise of running a sewing machine is undoubtedly wholesome; much more than doing the same amount of sewing by hand labor. If each family possesses a sewing machine, and does its own work only, its influence would be good. But, ln the majority of cases, sewing machines are used as a means of procuring a livelihood; and when a person is obliged to run one for a considerable portion of the time, the labor is excessive, and not beneficial. The power required to run a Wheeler & Wilson ma- chinewhich runs as easily as any of themat the rate of 600 stitches per minute, is about 1-60th of a horse power. This seems small, but it is equivalent to 500 lbs. falling one foot per minute, or a tun and a half ten feet per hour. Place before any woman of ordinary strength the task of raising one tun and a half ten feet per hour, all day long, and it would be considered excessive labor. I do not know a single instance where the constant running of the sewing machine is not detrimental to their health; and I have looked into it pretty closely. There isa demand for some kind of power about sufficient to drive a sewing machinecheap, simple and easily managed. At pre- sent, we have no power that will answer the purpose. A steam engine would be dangerous; the air engino would cost too lunch; electricity is expensive and un- reliable. Springs have been repeatedly suggested, but a spring of sufficient tension to drive a sewing machine five hours would require 1,500 lbs. - of steel, and it would take a man an hour to wind it up. So with weights: it would take a weight of a tun and a half, pulling ten feet per hour; and one man could not pro- bably wind up more than five of them before the first would have run down. If it were not for the friction in applying this power, he could probably drive ten or twelve machines; but the power could not be ap- plied without loss. Mr. HITCHCOCK stated that Mr. Ericsson has invented a machine for such purposes, using compressed air. Mr. LANCEY said that, having used the sewing IRa- chine extensively for seven years in manufacturing, he did not know of an instance where ill effects have fol- lowed from its use within proper hours. In manufac- tories, a great many sewing machines are run by water power, steam power and the Ericsson engine. He would suggest that private families adopt the Doe- sticks methodattaching a cat blindfolded, with a mouse before her, and when the machine was to be run, slip of the hood, and let the cat chase the mouse. (Laughter.) Mr. BARTLETT stated that tile sewing machine was an American invention, and the world was indebted to us for it. Probably the Ilighest price ever paid for a sew- ing machine was that paid by the Emperor Napoleon for the first sewing machine he ever saw. He saw in that machine tile means of clothing the Imperial Guard, which was then a question of great impor~nce to the French government; and he paid 120,000 francs for the machine, and the right to construct others for the use of the government. A GENTLEMAN said that he was a fellow-townsman of Walter Hunt, and, to his certain knowledge, Mr. Hunt invented the sewing machine 30 years ago, but Mr. Howe bought it up. Mr. DIBBEN said that Mr. Hunt made the claim, and presented a model which embodied a similar invention, but that he could not prove his model. He admitted that what he presented was not an original machine, but a machine made after the fashion of something he had done some time ago. The courts gave the inven- tion to Mr. Howe as his right. Mr. Hunt may have had a model made and showed it to others, but he could not prove what it was. The PRESIDENTHas any sewing machine yet ever done work which you deem equal to the best hand- work? Mr. LANCEYNO, sir. I have had in my employ over 400 females at one time, and I do not think that there were 20 of them who luade perfect sewing. Furthermore: of the 400, at least 90 per cent were farnlers wives and daughtersabundantly able to live without the work, but doing it for pin money. - When they lost this work it was no great loss to them, and was an advantage to the poorer class, because there was so lunch work in basting, bands, & e., which the ma- chines could not do, and which the better class did nut care to do. Mr. Woon desired to have half an hour to reply to objections made to the shuttle stitch; but, as the ilour was late, it was voted that the opportunity should be afforded him at the Commencement of the next meet- ing. At the suggestion of the President, it was voted that opportunity should also be offered to Dr. Gardner to speak upon the question of the healthfulness of the occupation. SUBJECT FOR THE NEXT MEETING, The association adopted the subject proposed by the President, modified by him so as to read The best Economy in Motive Power for Farm Buildings, Small Manufactories and Sewing Machines. The meeting then a~ijourned. . - - 6 THE SCIENCE OF COMMON THINGS. NUMUER 1. TIlE eIIEMI~TRY OF KNIVES AND FORKS. Good morning, Charles and John. Good morning, father. I wish you would tell ns what everything on the table is composed of. Do you think that would be interesting Certainly, sir. I like to know what things are made of. Very well. Where shall we begin Why not begin with the table itself? That would seem to be the proper place but I think it better to begin with the knives and forks you will understand why by an(l by. Do you know what substance knives are made of? Iron sir. What (10 you say, Charles Steel, sir 012 iron and steel, I s1ll)l)ose. Yes, iron mid st(el. Do you see this little wrinkled l)lace on th( si(le of the blade near the handle ? Ihat is where the steel blade is weld((l to the iron shaisk. Steel can lie made a great deal harder than iron, and, consequently, when it is ground down to a very thin edge, it does not break away as iron would, so that the blade is made of steel and the shank of iron. Why (10 they not aiike the whole of steel Steel is worth 16 or 17 cents per pound, and iron only 5 or 6 cents, and the manufacturers find it pro- litalde to weld iron shanks to the l)lades in order to save the trifling (lifference in the cost of the material. Ihis is a striking instance of the extreme economy in- tro(luced into industrial operations of the present (lay. What il the difference between iron and steel? Iron is a pure metal, and, like all the metals, it is a simple substance. All the matter of the earth is coml)ose(l of a few simple elements. When I first attended lectures on chemistry, there were 44 of these elements known, but others are being constantly dis- covere(l, and they are now reckoned at 62, of which 47 are metals. How many of these metals do you know Iron, lead, copper, silver and gold. That is five. What is that sheet before the stove? Oh, zinc. And what is that in the therm~~eter? Mercury, that makes seven and brass. No. l3rass is not a simple metal. It is a mixture of copper and zinc. Mixtures of metals are called alloys. There are three more metals besides those which you have named that moe of importancetin, platinum an(l aluminum. Ihe others occur in such small quantities that it is of very little consequence whether you know anything about them or not. You have forgotten steel. No stool is iron with a very little carbon in it. What is carbon? Carbon is omie of the 62 simple elements, and we see it in various formus. The (liauomn(l is pure carbon, crystallized and charcoal is almost pure carbon. How (loes a little carbon make iron so hard Nobody knows. [hat is one of the many mysteries that we meet with in natnre. Indeed, the comI)osition of steel has been a very dilticult thing to ascertain. Ihere is now a discussion going on whether it (loes not (olitain nitrogen in a(blition to the carbon and iron. IhL quantity of carbon, however, has been learned, 01(1 it ranges in (lifferent varieties from 6-10 of one per cent to 1~ per cent. Cast iron, which is still more brittle than stedI, contains more carbon, the propor- tion ranging in the different varieties, from 1 9-10 to 4 310 per cent. I low is iron w(l(le(l to Ste(l lIme emids (if both are heated to a white heat, munch hotter than red heat, when the en(l of one is laid upon the (0(1 of the other, with a little borax sprinkled on them, and they are hammered or swedged together. After the knife is made it has to be tempered. In this l)moce5s it is first hardened as hard as it can be, by hieatiu~ it re(l hot and plunging it into cold water. But 5his makes it so brittle that the edge would crumble right off, amid to make it right for cutlery, a little of this laittleness has to be taken out. This is done by moderately heating it again, drawing the temper, as it is called. What are forks composed of? These forks are composed of German silver, covered on the outside with a very thin coating of pure silver. What is German silver? German silver is an alloy of copper, zinc and nickel, which are mixed in different proportions. The ordinary rule is 60Ths. of copper to 25 of zinc, and 15 of nickel. What is nickel? It i~ one of the simple metals. The new cent is an alloy of 881bs. of copper to 12 of nickel. How is the silver-plating on the forks fastened on? Silver-plating is an art which it would take too long to describe now. The reason why I took knives and forks for the first subject in describing to you the several things on the table, is that the metals are all simple substances. We will begin with the simplest substances and go up to those which are more com- I)lCx this rule will require us to examnine water next week. The Steam Experimnents at Erie, Pa. MEssRs. EDITORS The naval experiments upon the use of steamn on board of the United States steamner Michigan are progressing finely. Although the weather has been at times sufficiently cold to freeze a large por- tion of the harbor, yet where the eddies from the pad- dle wheels circulate there is no ice, owing to to the hot water from the condenser. After runnimmg for a few hours, the first experiment of 72 hours was com- muenced Dec. 1st, at 8 P. M. There being quite a leak in the safety valve, this experiment was entirely re- peated, it proving useful only to get everything into working order, and the men drilled to their respective duties. In this experiment, the engine was run as nearly full stroke as possible 13-l4thsthis being the nearest the valves would allow. The results of this first experimemut were not materially different from the fourth, so that I have not thought it necessary to give it in the following table: Date of commencing Duration of experiment. Revomutiotta per minute.. Boimer mress above shoes mhere Press above zero at rum-oil Do. at end of stroke Vacuum in condenser.... Night of barometir Mean inmicator, press nit pistmn Csal inter Stitiate fost of grate Promiortion (if steam room ~n m)O~m~~ to weight sised per strske Coal per effective indica- ted miorse power Totam ponnims feed water inter tank Teroperattire of injection water Do. feed do Do. mist tt-t.mm Do. engine toom Do. exteritam atmosphere. Potmntis of staler cmi. sotued ic lititit per eifictise itidicated horse power .. ..ii I itiZ Sc 9 e. ii. Dee. 5 72 mitiro. mm.035 2O.~ ln,~. 32.8 m2.7 ..a.5 in. 29.71 20.5 Ito. i.223 25 ml 5.855 346.155 33 44 mom 75 m2~ 43.301 - to i. s.c it it 0 10 P. M. Dec. 5 36 bittiro. mm.mm4 20.7 mis. 32.4 mi.s 25.7 in. 29.92 19.5 Its. m4.740 m2t2 Is 1 6.235 575.969 35 55 moe 75 35~ 16. 736 A it~t 0 ~~t.1 it it.it c 7.-7 it. it it 0 Sr. ii. Dec. mo 72 hours. 14.00 20.0 lbs. 3m.7 25.6 25.5 is. 29.95 30.0 his. m2.322 23 Is 1 5.666 626.466 cc 54 101 77 31 42.233 It will lie seen that the secomsd experin4entthe fimst in the tablewas tried with both boilers it was thought by one member of the Board that, the fires being lighted, there was probably some cold air aL lowed to enter the combustion chamber and the thaird experiment, with one boiler only, was tried as a veri- fication thereof. It only tended to prove, however, that a himnited steam room caused a greater consump- tion of both water and coal, as a much greater quan- tity of saturated steam was carried over into the cylims- tIer. Although this is no news to the engimleer, yet the experimuemst is of a-ahme, inasmuch as it shows the exact loss. By comuparing experimemst No. 2 with ex- periment No. 4, you will see that the large per centum of gain by cut-offs is all moonshine, and thsat engin- eers and scientific men have, for the last eighty years, subscribed to one of the greatest of fallacies. Why this idea has obtained so long will be quite plain in die discussiomi sure to follow thsese experimnents. I shall not attempt to commemice the argrmment here, btmt confine nmy rensarks to the exlieriments only, amid show the reader that it is iInpossil)le that there can be any error in the ah)Ove results. The Board consists, as your readers are already aware, of four Chief Ehginee~ and one First Aselotant. Mr. Isherwood, as chairman of the Board, stands no watch, but has accepted the much more laborious duty of lay- ing out all tile diagrams and preparing the averaged tables. Eminch of the other members of the Board stands his regular watch of six hours, and keeps a hog of hourly observations, taken svith the nicest possible exactitude. These observations include many other items than those I have thought necessary to place in the above table. The officer in charge takes a diagrans alternately each half hour from both ends of the cyl- inder, marks thereupon the exact time, and files them regularly. These diagrams, with the exception of the variations in the vacuum line by the changes in the barometer, present a singular uniforulity, due, doubt- less, to thse extreme care in firing, the pressure msot varying a pound during any of the experiments. TIme variation in the temperature of the feed water is due to the fact that the tank is filled partly hiy the emsgine and partly by hand; but it will be seen thsat the vari- ation is not great. The temperature of tlme tank is logged when half emptied; the temperature of the hot well is taken from the average during the hour, as is also thse vacuum per the condenser. The boiler pres- sure is as taken from an Allen gage and a siphon, hioth of whlich exactly agree. The coal used in thmese experi- ments is bituminorms, and does miot show so gonil re- stilts per pound as the coal used upon the Atlantic coast. It is perhaps as well to remark that the dia- grams, both of full stroke and cut-off, are exceeding- ly good, the lead on the valve being no muore thmnm is ordinarily given, although, in muy opinion, a trifle too much. In conclusion, allow mne say that every attention is shown to visitors by members of the Board, and I hlope that many of our engineers and engine builders will accept the invitation of the Secretary of the Navy and witness the experimelits that are destined to effect arm entire revolution in marine and stationary emlgimics. Captain Lanman has done everythsing in his power to place visitors at their ease, and every facility is afford- ed them to take notes or examine the logs. The Cool- - all stopping at Browns Hotel, which is quite near the steamer. Yours, truly, JOSIN C. MERRIAM. New York, Dcc. 18, 1860. Oregon-Its Climate and Productions---Inviting to Me chanicsWages, & c. Mzssas. EDITORS Presuming that your correspon- dents are not very numerous in this remote corner of tIme republic. I will attempt to note down a few things for the information of your readers. Although this State occumpies suchm an isolated posi- tion, there is, nevertheless, a great maumber of people here who take an interest in the mechanical and social progress of the age. The daily line of stages which has lately been started from Sacranlento to Portland, is atm enterprize which the people of Oregon hail with great satisfaction. The mail is carried with greater speed and safety than it was by the steamll- ship company ; the people being sumpplied mmll along tIme rotmte as thie mail conmes from Califormlia, instead ot beimlg cmtrried liy sea to thme extreme miorthern emkl of the route, aimd then southi again at a ormails pace, neam ly hsalf way back to Sacramnento. Tlmis is a fine healthy coumutry, and there are good opportunities for the prudent and induistrious. All the productiomis of a temllermtte clinmtite do well here. Horses, cattle, & c., can graze all tIme yemtr roumud, there seldom being sufficient snoiv to interfere with pastmmr. hug. There is a good opening here for mechanicssumch as house builders, ldacksmiths, saddlers, tanners, shoe- makers, and all those ismamielmes necessary in a miew commmitry. A pail of commomi coasse shoes for a smiams costs $4, a set of harmiess fronm $85 to $50, connmmon saddles (Spamlish) froni $25 to $40. The Chinese smmgar cane grows well in this valley. There is a great lack of labor on this coast. The great majority of people here are farmers, having usually from a half section to a whole section or more of land, a portion of which they cultivate, besides stock-raising; and where there are so few hands to do so much work, under tIme dis- advantages of a new country, a man must labor veiny hmmrd or make btmt little show. The summers here are delightful, and the winters ~fitilly 5Cd50ll) long and gloomy. There is a constant north wind all summuer, which is a gentle, invigorating breeze, .. brimiging healing upon it0 wings. And, taking a more practical view, it is well adapted to the running of machinery by a win(lnnhl, there being, per- haps, a hundred days that the north wind is as con- stant as a stream of water. In the winter it is from the south, bringing rain, andi always (lense with hu- midity. As I write, the mists are brooding on the hills, which are in their autumnal bloom of the sere and yellow leaf. I have often thought that if it were generally known in the Atlantic States that good industrious laborers could get from $25 to $30 per month here the year round, that it would induce a large number of ener- getic young men to come out to this coast, and operate to the advantage of both borders of the country. Such wages can be obtained here without difficulty. I am aware that hiring out is not the highest ambition of even a poor man; yet, as thousands have to make a beginning from their own unaided labor, the wages here mentioned are a very encouraging indication of what an economical man may do in a few years. C. W. S~nrmi. Deer Creek, Oregon, Oct.21, 1860. Patentees Estimate of Inventions and the Scientific American. MEssRs. MUNN & (No.~Sirs: Yours of Nov. 5, 1560, informing mae of the success of the second patent which has been granted me through your agency this Fall, was duly receive(l, an(l its contents found very gratify- ing. Accept my sincere thanks for the prompt and clilcient manner in which you have conducted all my l)osiness to a successful issue ; an(l, as an evidence of my gratitude, I promise you my business in future, although I have had several applications from other solicitors for it. I would further state that it is owing to the inform- ation I have derived from your valual)le paper that I have been in(llice(l to make these applications, and very much regret that I did not subscribe for it years ago, as, by so iloing, 1 might have secured many things that are now lost to mc. There are many thousands of persons who, (oul(l they have the reading of your paperand who ought to subscribe for it at once, or, like me, will regret itwould be led to direct their attention to something useful for themselves and their country-for all useful patented improvements benefit bothwhile those iinpatented are little known, and are therefore of little benefit to the inventor or the community. Yours, G. W. HAThAWAY. Tioga, Pa., Dec. 3,1860. MEssRs. MUNN & Co.-Gcadeawa: My patent papers came to hand on the 29th of November ; and I am very much pleased with their execution as well as with the ac- curacy of the drawings. I have to thank you for your trouble in my behalf and to express my gratification for the favorable opinion of my invention, shown by the editorial notice of it, designating it as one of the best inmprovements lately patented. From the moment I put may business in your hands, I have had every confidence that mny interests would lie guardled, and that the result would lie favorable if mny improvement (leherved it. ibis feeling of entire confi(lence that your interest will be much l)ctter atteudhedi to than you could ~essilu1y (10 it yourself, or have it (lone Isy less reiponsil he agents, is worth hllhi( h mndire than the mwsi- crate fee it (Oats. Yo (irs, r.speetliilly, JAS. H. Axaaasox. Easton, Md., Nov. 10, 1860. Asherofts Low Water Dctector---A Cale in Point. Mmasas. EDIToRs A practical demnonstration of the utility if this instrument eccurmed at may forge and foundry this morning, awl I Iccin it a simple nt of justice to the ileteetor and lb hid Ii to 1(11(11 y state the facts of the case. ihie sevir( cobi of last night caused the water to Irdeze his thi( pipe connected with the street main which nopphies the tank of mny boiler. The l)llflli) is operated by a self-acting feed alsparatus, which, for want of simp- jily, soon exhausted the water ; and the moment it tell in the boiler below thse bottomss of the (Ictector, time plug fused, and tIme alarm was given to some seventy (if my hands, in no mistakable manner, that danger was close at hand. I have reason to believe that, but for this tiusely warning, mnaiy valuable lives might have been sacrificed. I hsad this instrument attached to my boiler in Octo her last, and this is the second time the plug has melt- ed and the whistle alarmed; the first time, having purposely blown off, the engineer forgot to shut the cock whileb is placed in the pipe for convenience of shutting off steam. LYMAN KINsaRY. Cambnidgeport, Mass., Dec. 14, 1860. It would seem, from the above letter and the long list of testimonials in our advertising columns, from some of the largest manufacturing concerns in the country, that the Asheroft Low Water Detector is not tIme unreliable instrument that the Engineers As- sociation pronounced it to be in their discussions of Nov. 21, 1860. The public must decide who is most likely to be correctthe hundreds who are daily using the instrument, and are willing to indorse it over their signatures, or the committee of engineers ap- pointed by the Engineers Association to make an ex- perimentEns. Preserving Meat Under Ground. MEssRs. EDITORS In your paper of Nov. 24, you notice a patent for packing and curing meat in warm climates. I take this occasion to give publicity to a modewhich I suppose is identical with the one above referred tofor curing meats in the hottest climate, and which has been practised in most of the Southern States, not less than fifteen or twenty years at any rate. The plan is to dig a hole in time earth, from four to six feet deep, and lsrge enough for the amount of meat you have to cure ; lay boards on the bottom, and on this pack your meat in saltthe usual quantity anil then cover the hiole with boards and earth, keep- ing it in this condition till the meat is sufficiently salt- ed. By this mode of preserving, no person need lose a pound of meat in the warmest climate Mount Holly, S. t., Dec. 11, 1860. H. CLARK. Artificial Fish Breeding. MEssRs. Euorons:I notice, in your paper of Dec. 8, 1860, an article headed Artificial Fish Breeding. Mr. Kellogg, of Hartford, Conn.,is not the first who has succeeded in this. Mr. Aaron S. Vail, of Smith- town, L. I., one of your subscribers, has been some three years engaged in the propagation of trout, and met with great success. Last year some 25,000 or 30,000 were produced, and the first transported in this country were taken from Mr. Vails waters, and sev- eral ponds were stocked from this successful expeni- memit. This season there is every appearance of an immense increase. A SuBscRIBER. Soap and Civilization. Accoroling to Liebig, the quantity of soap consumed by a nation would be no inaccurate mneasure whereby to estimate its wealth and civilisation. Political econo- mists, indeed, will not give it this rank ; but whether we regard it as joke or earnest, it is not the less true, thiat, of two countries, with ams equal amount of popu- lation, we nmay dieclare with positive certainly, that time wealthiest audi most hmighmly civilised is that which commsumes the greatest weight of soap. This consump- ti(in does oi(it subserve sensual gratification, nor die- pdh1(l upomm fasidon, but upon the feeling of the beauty, conifoirt, and welfare, attendlant upon cleanliness audi a regarol to this feeling is coincident within wealth noel civihisation. The rich in time muiddle ages who con- cealed a want of cleanliness in thicir clothies audi per- sons under a profusion of costly scents and essences, were more luxurious timan we are ims eating audi dinah- lug, in apparel and hmorse~. Pint Imow great is thme dif- Ibrence between timeir ureat days mmdl our owom, uheom a wont (f cleanhiooe~s is equms-alent to mosnpportabAe umosemy and mooisfortune A Nainv ARIsTOcRATIc ORDER-LI Cimimma they hiave a ho thin aristocracy, lime Emperor alone hoas for lois 1 ioittiom a large pearl. Ammmommg time mmmaolanimms thme ormia mmmemmts are graibomated accordling to ranh. Time dlrago)im, which time Emuperor wears as ids arias, is furnishmed with five claws or miails, but a citizems cams only Imave fommr emmabrobiered oms hmis coat, mmnder sex-crc pemmaities. The yellow color is anotimer inspenial sign, and is somne- timmmes worms by muandanins as areward for inmportaomt ser- vices. The yellow orange waist belt is worn by time ilescendants in a collateral line from the founder of time presdImt olyna sty ; andi these men are often so poor ammi so omunserous thmat timey amay frequently be found con- ducting a piow. 7 ~f At Stowe, Vt., there are five factories in which starch is made from potatoes. Each consunmes ubsout 20,000 bushels per annum, and eiglmt pound of starch is time yield of each bushel. A piece of meteoric iron weighing 2,000 pounds, found in Tucson, Arizona, is about to be sent to time Smithsonion Institute. A smaller piece, found in the same place, imas been used for several years for an anvil in a blacksmiths shop. There are no less than twenty-three steam fire engines in use in the city of Philadelphia, where there are five firms engaged in manufacturing such fire ex- tinguishers, one of which (Neaffie & Levy) lma.s built twenty-seven for companies in other cities. Large quantities of pyroligneous acid are mnanufac- tuned in Philadelphia and sent to Cincinnati for time purpose of curing hams. It gives them time same flavor as those which are sumoked and it may aomswer just as well. M. Auguste Mariette, an eminent French arelmasolo- gist, writes from Egypt that line isas discovered the rensaloms of a large palace, in granite, us the lamnodiate vicinity of the Sphinx. He takes this palace to be that of Cisephrens, who built the great pyraissid. No less than seven statues of this prince have been foioomd in the palace. Time Phoiladelpimia Eooqoiirer states timat the number of oil invells bored on Oil Creek, Pa.,is 345, timat time average product daily of 29 wells is 15 barrels, and that the oil has been sold as low as 10 cents per gallon on the spot. No less than 145 wells have been bored to a considerable depth witimout obtaining oil. Persons are cautioned agaimsst being too enthusiastic about the profitable character of such wells. A simple microscope may be ninade out of a coammon pill box for a few cents. Take out the bottom and put in a piece of window glass; timen paint the inside black, and make a small eye-hole in the lid. In this hole place a single drop of warm Canadian balsam, and allow it to cool. This drop of the transparent resin assumes when cooling, the proper form of a glass lens, with considerable magnifying power. The svood of white thorn is the best known substi- tute for boxwood iii wood engraving. In England, when white thorn of considerable size can be obtained, it bniiogs neariy as high a price as Turkey box. Per- haps the white thorn can be cultivated successfully ims America, so as to be used in engraving, as box is be- coming very scarce and dear. Lobsters are so stupid timat when tisey are left on dlry lamsd by a receding tide they imave not4sufficient instinct to crawl back into the water, bolt always wait for the return of time tide. Several lobsters were throxvn a few feet above the sea by a landslide in England, and altimough the water came with~ ~ve feet of their noses, they remained waiting for time svater to come to them until they died. A correspondent of the Gernmamstowom (Pa.) Tdegooqoh states that he has asade successful experiments los feeding turkeys with cimarcoal. He took ciglmt of these fowls ammd put four in cads of two separate peoms, and fed thens alike, with aseal, boiled potatoes, aomd oats, with the exceptioms that oose set hadi a piost of Isiolvenizedl cimarcoal dinily, svhsile time others imad noose. Timey svere all killed on thme sanme day, svhen it was found timat those which received the cimarcoal averaged each one and a half pounds more than the othcr~, and their flesh was asore tender and pleasnost. The immapenial mooioinister df eomommmmeoee lisa Rdldlressedl a circimlar to time Fremmehi lmrefects, requesting tlsdmsi to exdrcise time utmmmost vigilamice los timeir iminspection of omsaomufactuning estab olishmmmemmts a aspecteci of emssployiug time ar~emiite of coimloer. Certaimi stimtfs, such as grceoi gauze amid the leaves of artificial flowers, are ofteom colored syitim this poisonosms suhostaosce. Commiplaimits of seniomos accideosts, calosedI by time minse of stuffs so colorcol. were snade to tIme Freomeim goss enommnemst. Wlieom gutta iSCin eisa is exlsosedl to time sir for somno tinse it gradually becoosses brittle amind lo~cs all co~ hmesion. This cbonosge us its cisaracter is ovoiosg to us comminbinatioms with oxygeom by absorbiming it from the atmosphere. When laid imosdler water, us telegraph cables, it does msot umsdergo suds chaminges, became it is excluded from the air. In constructing the East India telegraphs lines, vast qnaostities of gntta percima were used to coat the iron wires, which, beconming noseless, an immense loss was sustained. 8 Machinery for the Manufacture of Wire Netting. arrangement of machinery foi bending and shaping the is fixed the die or tool, r, the form of which is clearly Mr. John Reynold, Jr., of Soho, London, has pat- lengths of wire into the form shown at Figs. 8 and 9 shown in the engraving, Fig. 4. This die or tool, in ented a set of improvements in the manufacture of may be varie(l. And I would state that, although I descending, pushes hack the sprin~ bolt, s, which has wire or metal netting and in machinery employed prefer to use both sets of wires, b and c, bent into the at all times a tendency to remain across the opening therein, of which he gives the following description in forms shown, yet I find that the process of makin6 into which the tool, r, descends. The face, ri, of this the Mechanics Magazine ..~ twisted wire nettiiig is greatly facilitated by having one is plain and at right angles to the wire; the other fisce, Heretofore in the manufacture of twisted wire net- set ~say b) bent, as shown, and then to employ there- r2, is inclined to the wire. The wire, in its passa~e into ting it has been usual to twist together by hand with straight wires for the other set, and to bend such the machine, passes under the plate, t, then over the the wires employed at the points where they croas other set around the wires, b, at the points of their sprin~ bolt, s, near its end, then over the platform, U, and pass roimn(l one another. Now, according to this in- bends: by so doing the accurate bending of the one set and then through the tube, w, which is flat at the top vention, I prepare wire for the manufiwtmmre of net- of wires greatly facilitates the workman in getting side, and is capable of being set a little inclined in its ting of this description by first bearing. The descent of the tool, bending the wires at intervals r, presses the spring bolt back viz., at the lioints where the and bends the wire, which, rest- crossings will foil when the wire ing on the end of the bolt, is is ma(le up into netting; and I prevented descending with the make these bends of such a form tool, r ; then, when the tool, r, that the wires, when crossed, has nearly completed its down- have the same appearance and ward motion, the projection, r3, are as firmly held to~ etli er as which is convex on its under side when the wires are bent in the or edge, presses on the bended act of passing them one round part of the wire and depresses it the other, as heretofore. This into the groove, and produces method of manufacturing twisted the concava form required at that wire netting enables me to use part. The tool, r, then asceiids, hard wire in the manufacture, a further quantity of wire is fed and sol produce a stiffer netthan in, and the groove in the bolt, s, that which is ma(le in the manner and in the platform, is for re- heretofore practised, as when ceiving and guiding the bent twisted wire netting is so made part, c, of the wire as a fresh annealed uxire is necessarily em- quantity of wire is fed in, which l)loyed. The machinery I employ fresh quantity, till it i~ acted for preparing the wire consists on by the tool, r, rests on the of a pair of rollers or instruments, edge of the groove in the spring which feed the wire forward at bolt and in the platform. intervals over a lied in which a The above figures represent a hole is formed, an(l the wire is modification of the wire crimping bent by a wedge, which descends machine illustrated on page 202, at intervals, and, forcing the Vol. XIV. old series of the WIRE NETTING MACHINERY. ( wire against suitable stops, gives Scmr.NrmFmc AMEamCAN. Until now to it two nearly right-angled bends. A slight curve truth om evenness of manufacture ; but in this, as in it would seem that the art of manufacturing wire (biwnwards is afterwards given to thie short length the old manufacture, the use of annealed or soft wire netting has been much further advanced in America l)etween the two angle heads hmy a projection on the is required. I prefer, in all cases, that both sets of than in England ; as in that country they have been si(le of time (hescending wedcre forcing the forms shown in 6 twisting ~ ir hand for while, ., wire (hown wires should be bent into the Figs. the nire o~ years, according into a hollow in tIme bed. The arrangement of the and 7 ; d is the main or driving shaft of the machine, to H. Jenkins method, patented in 1847, we have been imiechanical parts of this machine may hue varied so long which may be put in motion by hand or by power. doing it by machinery. as time principle of its action is maintained, which con- The shaft or axis, d, gives motion at intervals to the sists in giving to the wire each time it is fed forward feed rollers, e and f, fixed on the shafts, g Ii, which are Improvement in the Money Market. at intervals two nearly right-angle huends hmy an instru- geared to~ether by the toothed wheel, i i. The feed The influx of gold from California and England dur- meat forcing it against sumitalde stops, and suibsequently rollers are put into motion, and at each motion they ing the past week has had the tendency to greatly im- giving a curve to the p(irtmon hietween tIme two l)en(15 prove the money market, and the result is that gay- an instrumment cauuse(l to press on time wire at this eminent, railroad and bank stocks have advanced from point. In plmuce of wire, metal rods may l)e employed three to six per cent. The appended extract from a in the manufacture of netting of large size. daily paper, shows the amount of gold which had ar- Fig. 1 is a front elevation of a machine arranged in rived in this city up to Thursday evening, iDec. 20, a suitable manner for luending wire when carrying out 1860: my invention ; Fin. 2 is an mmd elevation thereof; and The following are the receipts by the steamers since Sat- urday last: Figs. 3, 4 and 5 show different views of the dies or Per North Stem-, from California $1,083,213 lucumhing apparatus separately; Fig. 6 shows a piece of Per Europa, from Liverpool 540,000 wire bent into a pecular form requisite for carrying out Etmsa, from Liverpool Per 330,000 Per Atlantic, from Liverpool 861,000 my invention. In Fig. 6 it will hue seen that the wire Per Barussia, from Southampton 17,600 is bent at intervals into steps, the distance from bend Per Persia, from Liverpool 3,100,000 to bend representing one side of the mesh of the wire Total $5,931,713 netting, into which several of such bended wires are to Averaging but a little short of a million per day! And as hue made. In addition to bending the wime into steps, as long as the exchanges remain as much in our favor as they are at present, there is nothing to prevent a continuance of shown, the short bends at c (where the intersections or the flow of gold to this point, to pay for the Western bread- crossings of time wires take place when thiey are cam- stuffs and the Southern cotton shipped on English account long before our politico-financial crisis set in. With the I mined into a net), are each bent concave on one side foreign importations down to an extremely moderate point, mind convex on the other, so that, in fact a lenoth of the balance of trade is largely in our favor; but, for the lack of confidence and credit, growing out of the threat wire, when beat out of the straight line into time step- cued dissolution of the Union, the country at this moment like form shown at Fig. 6, represents, as near as may would be enjoying an unparalleled prosperity. me, one of two pieces of wire which have been twisted The State Convention assembled at Charleston, together ; hence, when a nummhmer of these wumes are South Carolina, on the 20th ult., and passed an ordi- brought together and combined, they will, at each of are caused to move forward a length equal to that me- nance declaring that State out of the Union. Business the crossings or intersections, huemid roumad each other, qumired for one side of a mesh of the netting, together in all parts of the country is inactive, and if we except us is showuu at Fig. 7, ~vhere two of such bent wires, S with the requisite head, c. Time lengthu of wire which the department of inventions, the mechanical and mud a, are comnhuined orhulaced amouuuid each other, form- moved in at each motion of the feed rollers is re_ uhated manufacturing industry of the country is mostly at a 1mg an intersectinum or crossing mis if time two had been in the following manner On the shaft or axis, d, ~s stand still. The long list of cases sent from this office luroumghut together urhen straight., and theum twisted or an eccentric, which, by a rod, ;, gives mnofion to a to the Patent Office during the past week shows that luent roun(h each other as hmeuctofore. Ihe pecuihiarity slotted arm, k, which moves freely on the axis of one the inventois from all sections are not so paralyzed by uuf this part of my invent iou consists iii bending eachu of the feed maIlers, on which axis a ratchet wheel, ~, the crisis as to be deterred from securing their inverm- wire into the peculiar form mmd at the precise distances is fixed, into thue teeth of which wheel a driver, m, tions. mipart (according to lube size of meshes) before bringing takes each time the slotted arm, k, is depressed, and the wires together, and this is very important, as such according to the position at which the lower end THE largest tree in Massachusetts is id to be an preparatory bending is done by machinery. This pro- of the rod, I, is attached to the slotted arm, k, so will elm, situated upon the Hubbard farm, in North cess of bending is performed vary quickly, and at com- be the quantity of wire fed in. The shaft or axis, d, Andover. It is one hundred and ten feet in bight, paratively small cost, resulting iiu far greater exactness has a crank, n, at its outer end, which, by a connect- and its branches spread oYme hundred feet in width. thuan when wires are brought together when straight, lag rod, a, gives motion to a slide, p, which is guided Its girth, at six feet from the ground, aseasuires twenty and twisted together into meshes by hand, The in dovetail guujde9. At the lower end of the slide, ~, two and a half feet. & MUNN & COMPANY, Editors and Proprietors. 0----- PUBLISHED WEEKLY At No. 37 Park-row (Park BuildingI, New York. - 0 0. D. MUNN, S. H. WALES, A. E. BEACh. 0 TERMSTwo Dollars per annumOne Dollar itt adrance, and the remainder in six months. Single copies of the paper ate ott sale at tlte eStee of Itttblicatiot, and tt all tite periodical store~ itt Itte Uttited States attd Canada. Sampson Losv, Son & Co., tite Amerteas Booksellers No. 47 Lttdgate Hill London, Ettglaod, are Itte Britiolt Agents to receive ssbocrtptions for the SCIENTIFIC AMEISICAN. ~ See Proolteettlo on last page. No traveltog Agents employetl. VOL. IV. NO. 1 [NEW SERIES Seventeenth Year. NEW YORK, SATURDAY, JANUARY 5, 1860. NOW IS THE TIME SEND IN YOUR NAMES, ACCOMPANIED WITH $2, IMMEDIATELY. This number commences a new volume, and thus a better opportunity is presented for subscribing to this paper than at any other period during the year. We hope mechanics, inventors, manufactttrers, planters and farmers throughout the country, who are not al- ready subscribers, will avail themselves of the present most favorable time to entoil themselves with the band of nearly thirty thottsand who are already its patrons. We believe no etnployer can make his workmen or apprentices a better New Years gift than by presenting them with a years subscription to the SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN. The subscriber not only receives sixteen pages of valuable reading matter, illustrated by a number of beautifully executed engravings, every week, but at the end of tbe year, if he preserves his numbers (which we counsel every subscriber to do), he will have two beautiful voittmes of fottr hundred and six- teen pages each, witit an index, which will be worth to him, as a work of reference, many times the cost of subscription. The SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN is sold by all the principal newsvenders in the country. Persons residing in cities or large villages can subscribe at the news agents, and receive their papers regularly at the counter of the dealer, instead of by mail, if they prefer it. For terms of subscription, see last page. iHE FUTURE. We have entered upon a new year; and are looking forward, each with his own hopes and anticipations, into the future, all eager to know the events which are to come forth from its infinite depths. But an im- penetrable vail is drawn over them all, with the single exceptton of the motions of the heavenly bodies. While all other sciences are limited to the study of the past and the present, astronomy alone assumes the high prerogative of foretelling the events of futurity; and the most impressive of all proofs of tile power of knowledge is furnished by the l)recision with which her predictions are fulfilled. rite possession of the God-like power of foreknowledge is meving astronom- ers with the sublime ambition of enlarging the sphere of its action, and they are now engaged with two great prol)lems, the soltttion of which will reveal the fate of the itniverse to times more remote than those which have yet been explored by the daring intellect of naan. If it sitall be ascertained that there is a resisting medbtm in witich time planets revolve, the prophecy will be R5 safe as tite foretelling of an eclipse ; because it follows, l)y strict necessity, that all the planets will Win(l spirally inward till they severally crash into the mass of the sun. And, besides the final catastrophe, there is no dottbt that many other events in the future history of the solar system may he foreseen. The other great problem is the motion of the solar system, itself, among the stars. If this motion is in a vast orbit about the common center of gravity of our stellar system, then the questions will arise whether 9 this orbit is very eccentric, and whether, in one of the foci, there is a collection of suns, as the Plelades may be. For in this case, as our solar system approached the perihelion, the temperature might be so increased as to destroy all animal life upon the planets, so that the long work of creation would begin anew. Again occurs the possibility of the motion of our stellar system among its kindred collections of stars. It may be that this is sweeping around some great reser- voir of heat, in an eccentric orbit like that of a comet, and that the matter which composes the solar system will be dissipated into the fiery particles from which it was originally formed as this central heat is ap- proached, and again condensed into a sun and planets as it moves towards its aphelion, away from the heat which scattered it. Geology teaches us that, compared with the lower forms of animals that earliest inhabited the earth, the human race has been in existence but a very brief l)eriod; and when we compare the physical, mental and moral state of the Asiatics, the Africans, and of large numbers of Ettropeans and Americans, with that of Carlisle, Faraday or Agassizthe actual con- dition with the proved possibilities of human nature we are, on this ground, impelled to believe that our race is in its infancy. Have we not, in the history of the past, good grounds to hope that the ignorance, in- temperance, licentiousness, superstition, oppression vice, crime, war and degradation which prevail in the world, will be gradually removed, and that the time will come when every individual will grow up to the full measure of nobleness and worth of whicla our nature is capable? It may be that, when the human species has received its full development, it will be swept away like the extinct species that have preceded it; and as this is the last step in bringing the animal life of the globe to perfedion, it may be that all will perish together; perhaps in that final catastrophe when the elments shall melt with fervent heat, the matter of the solar system shall be scattered into a fiery cloud like that from which it was originally fortned. This matter may then again be drawn together into suns and planets, a new earth like our own may be formed, again to be inhabited by animals rising from the monad, through long gradations, up to man; the human race may again be developed from the savage state to the highest form of civilization, again to over- come the evils of ignorance, superstition and intem- perance, again to invent the steam engine, the micro- scope, the telescope and the electric telegraph, again to unroll the records of the past, and again to speculate on the possibilities of the future. And thus the universe may move through successive cycles of per- petual change forever. FOOD AND GAS REFORMS. England has advanced with rapid strides in educa- tion, rational freedom and wise legislation since the Reform Bill was passed twenty-eight years ago. This is very gratifying to all who labor for social and edu- cational progress. During the last session of Parlia- ment, two bills were enacted which, in an especial manner, affect the welfare of the people, and we look upon them with decided approbation. The one relates to the adulteration of food and drink, and the other to the sale of gas by companies. It has been enacted that any person selling any article of food or drink which, to the knowledge of the seller, contains any mixture injurious to the health of the consumer__also any person who sells for pure an article of food or drink that is adulterated, shall, on conviction before two justices, forfeit a sum not exceeding five pounds, together with the costs of the prosecution, and on a second conviction, the justices may order the particu- lars of the offense to be published. Power is given to local boards to appoint competent chemists, subject to the approval of the Secretary of State, to examine ar- ticles of food offered for sale, alledged to be adultera- ted, and report thereon, but opportunity must be given to the seller of such articles to accompany the pur- chaser to the analyst to secure the article from being tampered with. The purchaser of any article of food or drink can also, upon the payment of a small fee, have the article analyzed by the appointed chemist. Ample provisions are thus made to secure justice to both purchaser and seller. This law is certainly sus- ceptible of wider application and might be copied for New York and others of our own cities with immense advantage to the community. It is calculated to deter unscrttpulous dealers in alimentary substances from adulterating their articles for the purposes of unlawful gain. Provision is also made for cases of appeal, if objections are taken to the analysis of the chemist. This is positively necessary, as it requires not only great chemical knowledge but a very clear judgment to be an exact and sound analyst. The law relating to gas refers only to London, but it is applicable as a guide to other cities. The act de- termines the quality of the common gas to be sup- plied, limits its cost, and provides for a sufficient sup- ply. Its illuminating power must be equal to six sperm candles at six to the pound. The gas made from cannel coal is to be equal in illuminating power to twenty sperm candles. It is to be so pure that it will not discolor turmeric test paper or darken paper im- bued with acetate or carbonate of lead during one minutes exposure to a current issuing at a pressure of five-tenths of an inch of water. The gas company which fails to comply with these conditions is liable to a fine of fifty pounds. The local boards have the power to appoint competent examiners, who, for a small fee, will inspect and report to any consumer on the power and intensity of the gas supplied to him. The cost of gas made from bituminous coal is fixed at 4s.6d. per 1,000 cubic feetthat of cannel coal gas at 7s.6d. This bill is judicious and scientific in its features. There is a very great difference between the quality of gases made from different kinds of coal, whereas most persons suppose that all coal gas is alike. The gas made from common Liverpool coal possesses but little more than half the illuminating power of that obtain- ed from cannel coal. In London its price is about sixty per cent less than the gas sold in New York. No corporation or company has any right to estab- lish an injurious custom or practice. It is the duty of tite legislative authorities to protect the public from such practices, no matter whether it be in the sale of food, drinks, gas, or any other thing. Newtons Lon- don Journal contains a most able article commending the two reform acts we have described. It justly as- serts that while laws had been made previously for the punishment of frauds committed by trustees, bankers, and other persons entrusted with property, it was re- markable that until now no adequate provision had been made to prevent adulteration in the important articles of food and drink, on the quality of which our very lives depend. Well, it is wonderful, but when we know that the telescope was invented before the mi- croscope, we may justly attribute the course of legis- lation to the same causes. Our New Years Dress. Some persons make great pretensions to having arrived at a delectable state of mind in which they remain as unmoved in an old as a new coat. We con- fess to a complete scepticism in the sincerity of all such individuals. We never yet knew a sensible fellow who did not feel a sort of all-averish, good-natured opinion of himself, his tailor, and the rest of mankind, when he donned a well-fitting new coat. ii Its human nature to feel so, as old David Crocket would have said. We look upon the old Diogenesians and stoics, about whom philosophers have boasted so much, as a set of fossilatedeurmudgeons, only fit to be stowed away in Dr. Hitchcocks geological cabinet with the teeth of the great Equns Americanus and the footprints of the Ornithichnites. The SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN, in its own personality, feels an inward warmth of conscious regard, sufficient to defy the most chilling blue-nosed norwester, at being enabled to make his New Years bow to old patrons and new friends in a sprit new dress from top to toe. He considers it the handsomest suit that ever graced his redoubted person; and this anybody can appreciate by a mere side glance, even when running to catch the last train at fifteen seconds and a half behind time. Having discovered the ii elixir of life we intend never to grow old, and our friends, with a full knowledge of this fact, have dressed us up accordingly in the tuost sprightly and engaging manner, and yet with none of the gewgaw and gimp trimmings of the flash style. Our suit is of the best quality, and it is cut in the most harmonious pro- portions to correspond with our character. With such notions about ourselves, we feel greatly energized in commencing our new volume, and with the bestdesires for the welfare of our friends, we wish them all A Happy New Year. 10 THE STEAM EXPERIMENTS AT ERIE. It is not a little remarkable that some old questions of science, which it had been supposed were fixed facts, have been l)ronght lip for discussion by men of science, and others (luring the past year. This has been the case with the working of steam expansively. It had bed recugnized ns a general truth in science and practical mechanics, that in almost every ease a great saving was effected l)y using steam expansively in engines; but it is now contended that, practically, there is no economy in so employing steam. We stated, in a l)revions number, hat experiments were to be ma(le for the determination of this question hy a board of naval engineers at Erie, Pa.; and seine of these (xl)eriments are now given in a communication from Mr. Merriam, on another page. As there presented, the experiments nppear to lie conclusive against the nse of steam expansively, and our correspondent, who was previously, like ourselves, a believer in expansion, confesses to a comlilete conversion in opinion. We have always l)een cautions in receiving an(l adopting opinions, an(l just as tenacious in holding on to them. Prove all things, hold fast that which is good, is a favorite text of ours. We objected to Chief Engineer Isherwoods views respecting the uselessness of cut-offs when his second volume of Engineering Precedents wits published, and until we have more full details of the experiments at Erie, an(l have civen them further investigation, the information we have aequire(l will not lead us to renounce hastily our former opinions on this subject. In the Erie experiments, the amount of coal used pe~ nidicated horse liower, was greater when cutting off at a little over one-third of the stroke than w hen running full pressure for thirteen-fourteenths of the stroke, thus showing a positive loss instead of a gain liy expansion. If a saving of fuel is effected by work- ing steam at full stroke, what an economy in working expenses, an(l what a benefit to manufacturers usin steam engines, will be the result, permitting, as it will, most steam engines to be simplified, as well as greatly retlucing the expenses. But is it possible that the whole engineering world, for the past fifty years, has been laboring under the delusive idea that instead of effecting a saving, a great loss has been incurred in the use of expansive steam? It is quite possible that this may have been the case; but as every pound of steam exhaused from an engine, above atmospheric liresslire, involves the loss of just so much work, we certainly cannot (livble how a saving of fuel can 1)0 effected therel ty in comparison with working steam expansively in tIme best manner, and exhausting it at a lower pressure for the purpose of utilizing all the work in it. We have been giveii to smderstand that the theory adopted to account for the loss entailed liy expansion is the condensation of such a portion of the steam as nullifies all the gain that has hitherto heen awarded to the use of cut-offs. Ilmis theory is scarcely new. In using saturated steam expansively, it has long been held that consi(leral)le condensation resuilte(l there- from ; l)(mt the way to prevent this an(l obtain a great saving has been well known. In the experiments made liy III. him, of Ill ilhmause, France, in 1855, with exixussi ye steam, mud surrounding the my1 inder with a heated jacket, a saving of 28.5 per cent was obtained. hIm. ti onion Mckay, ~if Patterson, N. .J. , also made experiments with a steam ~ncket surrooim(lilmg time cyl intlem, as (leseritmed on page 809, Vol. XIV (01(1 series), of the SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN, by which he obtained a saving of 27 per cent of fuel. 1he refrigerating effect imy exfiausion must be as great with as without a steam jacket, and yet the experimneots were conclusive as to time saving effected by the heated steam jainket. Tlmv, then, does the question now stahl with omim old imiinti ye agent, steam ? Why it is supp(ise(1 that while nmliclI is positively known about it, there is a great deal that is still obscure, and demanding further itcestigatioin to (lear up the entire subject. Working and Molding Butter. Mr. James Lamb Hancock, of Pentonville-road, Lon- don, has patented an improved apparatus for working aimd shaping butter, and for separating it from the bitter-milk, of which lie gives the following descrip- tion My apparatus cmomsi,ts of a jar or vessel, opemi at top and perforated at bottom with circular or other shaped apertires, and with the rim termed with a flange or recess in the inside, with portions of the rim removed. Butter is placed in the vessel, and a piston is inserted in the top thereof; a nut is introduced in the flanged rim, the portions removed admitting of its introduction; a screw is then inserted and turned down through the nut, whereupon the butter is expressed in a divided state through the apertures in the bottom of the vessel. Instead of the nut of the screw being placed inside the flanged uim it may be fitted on the outside of the vessel. Movable perforated plates may be used for the bottom of the vessel The accompanying enguaving us a sectional elevation of an apparatus for working and shaping butter, and for separating it from the buttermilk, fitted in a suit- able frame; a is a jar or vessel, open at bottom, the the upper part of which is formed with a flange, b; c is a piston of or about the size of the interior of the jar, a ; d is a screw-threaded rod connected to the pis- ton, and carrying at its upper part a handle, e ; this rod works through a nut, f; g is a perforated metal plate placed in the bottom of the jar or vessel, a. To use the vessel or jar. for the sake of convenience I place it in a frame, A, provided with handles, i i, the flange, b, rests on a metal plate, k, supporting a flanged rim, i, with part removed as shown in the figure; and the frame, it, with the jar, is then placed on an ordinary tuhi, as for example, one similar to that shown, and the butter to line operated on is put in the vessel, a, and the piston inserted, a cloth having been previously wrappe(l round it ; the handle is then turned, which drives the piston down, and forces the butter out in thin flakes or filaments through the perforated bottom of the vessel, d, into the cold water in the tub, A, where it becomes instantly chilled and freed from all traces of milk and whey. In some cases I perforate the jar or vessel near the bottom, as shown. In the specification of his patent, Mr. Hancock shows a drawing of a frame, in which the jar or vessel is sup- ported at a slight angle from the horizontal line. This apparatus is mmcd for shaping or making up butter into certain quantities, such as pounds or half pounds. A plate is placed in the bottom of the vessel, having a hole formed in it according to the size the butter is required to be made, and the butter which is forced through this hole is received on a slab, where it is cut into the required lengths. The piston and apparatus connected therewith, before described, are used for forcing the butter down the jar through the hole. Butter can be formed into an endless variety of shapes for the table amid garnishing purposes, my altering the shape of thie holes in the plates at thie bottom of tise jar. Alecimaimics Magazine. Recent American Inventions. rhe following inventions are among the most mmseful inihirovemmidilts lately patented: MActuNE FOR wiNBINIm WOOLEN ROVINIiS ON sPOOLS. Time oh~ect of this invention is to facilitate the labor of remuoving the roving from the carder to the ma- ciminery whichi subjects them to the succeeding opera- tion in time manufacture of yarn. The invention con- sists in time employmmiemit or misc of a series of spools connected together or placed on the same shaft, the hattmr heimug placed in a shiinhing frame which is fitted in mu swimiging one, an(l morramiged with certain parts wlmereliy thine rovings, as they are ohisehiarged from the (ar(ler, are woumad upon the spools, the latter being filled consecutively hiny a continuous opematiomi and adjusted automatically. J. A. Chapman, of Poquietanumek, Conn., is time patentee of this invention. SPRING BALANCE FOR SAFETY vALvES. The want of some convenient and expeditious means of reducing the load upon the safety valves of locomo- tives has long Imeen felt. With the spring balance in common use, the nut, constituting the only means by which the load can be varied, requires to be turned so far before any considerable reduction of load is obtained, and the adjustment to effect such reduction is so tedi ous that engineers, when compelled to stop for a time, will often neglect to reduce the load, as it is their duty to do on such occasions, or will fail to reduce it as much as they ought to do. The object of this inven- tion is to enable the load on the valve to be conveni- emitly and instantaneously reduced hmy the engineer as much as may be desirable, amid to this end it consists in a certain mode of employing an eccentric and lever in combination with a spring, whereby the desired result is produced. The credit of this contrivance is due to Charles Graham, of Scranton, Pa. GAS BURNER REGULATORS. This invention consists in a longitudinally adjustable tube having a number of apertures, and so fitted to the interior of a gas burner, or to the pipe or passage lead- ing to the burner, that all the gas admitted to the burner must pass through said tube, amid having its apertures so arranged that, by its lomigitudinal adjust- muent, the gas is allowed to pass through iii greater or less quantity, according as may be required hy time various pressures in different localities. It also con- sists in the employment in combination with the said adjustable tube, of one or more chanibers or dia- phragms, either with or without valves, for the pur- pose of reguulatimig the sup~ily of gas at the varying pressures to which any burmuer is subject. The paten- tee of this invention is William Mallerd, of Fairfield, Comims. Wooden-soled Boots and Shoes --- A New Article of Manufacture. Nothing conduces niore to the health mumid comfort of mu human being than to keep the feet dry and wmumni during time winter mouths. How many poor Imunuan beings are wasting away with pulmonary diseases, who can unerringly date the commenceniemit of their de- climiing health to damp feet. The (lisease of consunip- tion prevails to some extent in most qmmmrters of the globe, buit so fearful are its ravages in this couumitry that it is denominated the great American scouurge. We believe that the protection of the feet from cold and damp is a most irriportant thing to be done to preserve time health, and one of the best means know-n to us to secure dry, warm feet, are the misc of the new and most useful article of wooden-soled boots and shiecs patented by W. C. McClelland, of Chicopee, Mass., on the 6th of March, 1860. Tue boots and shoes made on McClellands plan are unlike the French sabot, which is emitirely of wood, or the ugly Lancashire clog. Time sole is made of hard wood and so treated as to prevent its absorbing moist- umme or being likely to crack. The uppers are made of heather and are secured between the thin wooden in- side and thick wooden outer soles, by pegs, nalis, screws, cement, or any other means most suitable for the kind of article manufactured, and, in appearance, are as neat as heavy boots and shoes made entirely of heather. They are cisiefly intended for farmucrs, miners, fommndrymuen, bleachers, dyers, an(l classes of persomus w-orkimmg in damp sitmuatiomis. As wood is mu good mmmii- conductor, such boots amid slices are sumperior to timose muade entirely of leather for keeping tIme feet warmii, mitsui the soles wihi endure, of comurse, niumcii lomuger, while the cost is mmot so gremut, we are imufommed, as the same qumality comalioseul emitirely of heather. During time Crimneams war, nummumh ems of the Fretich soldiers wore ~ininlic!i imi wimiter, amid it wmus remsmmurhwd that they suiftireini less from sickness than theim leathiem -soled comrades. We understand that great quantities of boots and shoes are now mwanufactumred luy McChcllantl & Co.. mit Chilcopee, Mass. rise large slice firm of How-es, Hyatt & Co., Nos. 12 and 11 Coliege-place, thus city, are agents for time sale mA this miew produiction, an(h we learmi that they hiave already sm)h(l mimammy timouusamids of pumirs, muhthmomughs they hmave hieemm imuit recently introdumeed. Pmmtemmts for this valuable and hmuimwmmmme invemitiomi have been secuired imi muost of the Eummohiean couumitries through the Scierstifie Americami Patemit Agency. We would recommend persons who are troubled with cold feet to try the wooden-soled boots. They ummay seemmi mm little stiff at first, but the wearer xviii soon becomume used to that feeling. MOORE S POISRAL NEW-YORKER.We receive regumlar- ly the above popular periodical, pul inlishiemi mit lioches- ter, N. Y. All agricumituirists, horticuiltummists, muecisarm- ics and architects shoumid read it An Interesting Engineering Feat. A well proportioned column of gray marble of the Doric order overhangs the railway at the entrance of the tube on the Anglesey si(ie of the Menal Straits, in England. It was erected in I 8Th to commemorate the military achievements of the Marquis of Anglesey, who was second in conunan(l at Waterloo, and perched as it is on an elevated l)lateau of rock, ami visible for many miles in every (lirection, it has been considered one of the sights of the far famed Menni Straits. To crown this column, the inhabitants of Anglesey have just had a bronze statue (by Noble) of the marquis of that name, erecteil upon it, and the manner in which this stetue, 12 feet 4 inches in bight, has been raised to the top of the column is eonsidere(l a bold and novel, if not an extraordinary feat in engineering The rock on which the column stands presented but an insufficient space for scaffolding, nnd great difficul- ties arose in consequence; these were, however, over- come by the (levice of a youthful engineer named Has- lam, a native of Anglesey, only 23 years of age, and whose untimely (leath, brought about 1)y the anxiety attendant upon the eritic:d operation he undertook, has given additional interest to the 1)01(1 project in question. Ily this (lcsign the expense and incon- venience of the use of scaffolding had been avoidcd. The following is a description of it, taken from the Lomlon Times of November 28 Two balks of tilnl)er, about 70 feet long, were l)laced vertically at the foot of the column, an(l formed a sort of do(ml)le mast, on which was placed what sailors term cap an(l cross-trees, to admit of a tolminast which was lmoisttd imp amd secured imetween the two lower masts the whole atta liming a bight (it 12th feet, giving a clear of 20 feet above time column itself. On the capital of the colunum a shorter mast was erected, aiid betwecim these two nmasts a large pair of traverse beams was lai(l across ; the whole were firmly bolted together and secured with several pairs of shrouds. The strncture looked of so sleimder a nature that wheim the great moass, weighing 2~ timus, whfich was about to be lifted in umi(h-air, to an elevation of 120 feet, was seen, every one felt considerable nmisgiviimgs. The hoisting apparatims commsistc(h of a large hawse carefimlly at- tached to the statue, amid heading throimgh rollers on the traveling truck, along the traverse beams, aimd (lou-n on the opl)osite Si(le of the colnmn, and attachle(l to a heavy three- fold tackle, forumiug time primmeipal purchase. hlesides this, two other tackles, likewise attached to tIme traveler on tIme summit, aimd themmee to the statime, were imsed as supports to time main hoisting alilmaratims. TIme statime coiimimmemmced to move at exactly ii oclock, and rose immajesticaihy in time course of half an Imour to tIme bight of 70 feet, when tIme umalim tackle suddeimly twisted itself up so completely as to al)h)ear like a single rope. This was an awkward moment and appeared to threaten a failure, but time sailors speedily chiumbed imp to time tackle aimd ahih)lieil a lever to time upper hilock, and so untwisted time tackle amminl time hmoistimig was resumneui. Time half-hour c(immsimmneih iii this mimatter was omme of mmo ordinary anxiety, for the statue began to vihirate rathmer imululeasautly. At 1 ochock it reached time simmumit au(l there reumaimmed only time ullemation of sliding it along time beams immitil it stood over its final resting lulace. Film this h)ii~h)05C it was imecessary to rack time tackles in or(her to liberate tIme statue from thmemn dimrimmg its natural movement. Time operation of rack- ing caused a delay of aboimt half an hmoimr, wlmen time pon- derous weighmt u-as slid by time main hiimrchmase, checked by two tackles at the opposite end of the truck, mmmmtil it u-as poised over time column; time pievemiter tackles were timeim mimiracked, amm(l it u-as lowered immto its place at lmalf-lmast 1, anmid time cheers oh time imystamm(lers. Youngs Coal Oil Patent Case. (lime of the most inaportamat l)atemmt cases ever trie(l hmifore any comm rt (omnm(ncecl at Edinb(miglm, Scotland, on tIme 1st of last month uml(l lasted umitil tIme 7th, be- fore A~ McNeil, Is mud I resiinlem it uif tIme ( omirt of Ses mions. lIme hm~(rties iii time case were E. W. Biumney & to., of time I isthigate ehmenmical works, plaimmtitfs, (mmii time (ihydisilahe ( hmi-mumied onm~mammy, defendamats. Time minpphicatiomi was fur mom mmj imumetiomi to rcstrain time (he femmilamits fnuimmi mmnum umfactumrimmg paratfimme oil or oil coin taming parfifimme from any imitmuminoums coal, by (listil- hug it, this being chaimucil ns mm infringement of Vommug s pateuat belonging to the fommer company. The (iommmt was umummimerously attemmiheil hiny scientific muen and otimims i umt(resti(l in time ummammnmfactuire ot coal oil. it was ashmumi tti(l that Jaummes Y(mmmmmg obtamneil Letters [atemit on timi 7th of Octolier, 15.30, for mmmakimig liaraf Iliac oil fiommin coal; time foliouving weme thne tlmmee issues sent to tip juicy: 1st. Whether the (lefendants had used at their works the invention described in the Letters Patent speci- fied. 2d. Whether the invention described in the Letters Patent was tIme original invention of James Young. 3d. Whether the invention described in the Letters Pat mit was known amad publicly used in Great Britain paior to tIme (late of time hn;mtemmt On mill (Imese counts the jury, otter a charge by the President of the tiommrt, retinmmned in half an hommr with a Sec hiet in fa~ou- of the phiuinmiffs This case us of great interest to American manufacturers of coal oil, because Mr. Young obtained an American patent on the 23d of March, 1852, which has been a subject of considerable controversy. We published the speci- fication of the patent on page 186, Vol. XIV. (Old se- ries) of the ScIENTIFIC AMERICAN, and upon solicitation we gave our opinion on that occasion that the patent was a good one, and that Mr. Young, in a legal sense, was the inventor of the improved process which he claimed. Several correspondents disputed the correct- ness of our opinion, most of them asserting that the invention clainsed by Young avas knoavn before the date of Isis patent. Dr. Antisell. of the Patent Office, edited a avork on oils obtained from coals, which avas published by D. Appleton & Co., of this city, in 1859, in which line took the very same views of this patemat which ave had dope. A long review of this book ap- peared in Silliman s Journal of Arts amid Sdemmcea for July last (1860), by Frank H. Storer, chemist, the object of avhich avas tiac annihilation of Dr. Antisell for his ig- norance regardimag the invention of Young. It avas pnimacipally directed to prove that the patent avas in- valid for the avant of originalitythat the process or inveuation claimed in the pateunt avas old and avell kisown. Under the appearance of much candor, smasart- miess and chemical erudition, the article in Sillimans Jounced was very shalloav, so far as it related to the true nature of thac patent. The present trial has proved conchinsively that the vieavs avhich ue first expressed, and with which Dr. Antisell coincided, have been con- firmued in a very distinguished British Court. At this trial, the svhole chemical science avas rama- sacked for testimony by the defendants, and Drs. Penny mind Playfair, Sir Robert Kane, Dr. Taylor, Mr. D. Campbell, and Mr. Brande, all eminent chemists, were examined as witnesses. Tine ciaarge of the President of the Court on the primaciples of the patemat laws avas very able, and we comnamend time follouing extract from it to all svho are disposed to cavil at the issue of too many patents be- cause they do not (according to their notions) contain a sufficient anaount of novelty: I think a patent may be taken for a new method or an improved method of obtaining a product formerly pro- dmmeed, if the neav or improved method has the etIect~of pro- ducing time old article more economically or in greater quantity. A new or improved method of treating a raav material, so as to give more economicalhy or in greater quantity a product formnserly obtained from the same mate- rial, fails under this rule. The rule applies emphatically if thue resumit is to obtain in merchantable or useful qunamitity that avimich, by time former modes of treatment, had been produced only iii small inappreciable quantitiesquantities so small as mmot to be profitably or usefully employed. These views on the principles of patents for ehmemimi- cal improvements are sound, and they come from a judge avhso is distinguished for great legal attainments. The smallest inaprovementno matter how smallis avortlay of a patemat and is capable of being defended at laav. Producing Manure from the Atmosphere. Tiac London (~/ucamicel Niws contains an article on this veiny imuportamat subject by tavo French chemists. rIme value of gmmano amad most other concentrated ma- numres comasists to a considerable extent of the ammonia whicla they contain. As tiaree-quarters of the atunos- Ishenie air consists of nitmogeus, and as inydrogems formsss one-msiuth of all pure avater, if souse cheap means could lie foumad for imaducing tise hydrogen of avater to emater into ciunabination with the nitrogems of air in the form of amniunsommia, this vakiable manuinre could be produmeed in umuhimnited qumamatities, amad the agricultural produmets of tise avorld enormously increased. The production of ammonia at a lou price has been a problem of the Iniglsest imaterest to agi-icumltuirists. It is comnaposed of mi trogeus amnd hydrogemn. Atmmsosphmumie aim is ams imiexhmamustible amad gratamitoums source of imitrogemn. Itowever, this elemniemat Ismesemats so great ama imadificremace in it~ chemical reactiomas, that, notuithistamading tlae maumueroums attemlsts whaicha has-a been made, chemists have not heretofore succeeded in combining it with hydrogen so as to produce ammonia artificially. M. M. Margueritte and De Sourderal, the chemists alluded to, have succeeded in making it arti- ficially from the atmasosphere, by tine use of baryta. The following is the operation In an eartinen retort is calcined, at an elevated and sustained tennperature, a muixture of carbonate of baryta, iron filings in tIme Proportion uf about 30 per cent, tine refuse of conul, tar, amad sawdust. This produces a meductiomi to tlse state of anhaydrous baryta, of the greater part of the carhionate emsaployed. Afterwards is slowly passed a 11 current of air across the poroums mass, the oxygen of avhich is converted into carbonic oxyd by its passage over a column of incandescent charcoal, nvhile its nitrogen, in presence of the chaarcoal and ham-inns transforms itself into cyanogen amsd produces consider- able quantities of cyanide. In effect, the matter sheltered from the air and cooled, and avashined avithn boiling water, gives avith thse salts of iron an abundant precipitate of Prussian blue. The mixture thus cal- cined and cyanuretted is received into a cylinder of either cast or avroumght iron, svlaich serves boths as ama extinguisher and as an apparatus for the transforma- tion of the cyanuret. Thronugha this cyhinde r,ata temperature less than 300~ (Centigrade) is passed a current of steam, which disengnnges, under tlse form of ammonia, all the nitrogen contained in the cyanide of barium. It is inspossible to foresee mill thac results of this great discovery. Among othaer things, it suggests thac production of maitric acid froni the muir by oxydisimag amnmomua. Silvers New Steamship. A maeav steamshaip possessing several maovel featummes laas been projected by Mr. Tlaonaas Silver, of Phailadel- phnia, thae imas-emator of the auclhkmaoavma naarimae govermaor, illustrated oma page 356, Vol. II. (Old series), SeImixTI- uc AsuzIumeAx. She is to be 600 feet lomag, 75 feet broad, and to draw only 16 feet water. She is to have two paddle engines that are to be located on thae sides amid not in tise cemater as is the case iii all stemmuacas, amad each emagine is to avouk its oun indepemadent shaft amid whacel. She avill also laaae two screav emagimacs, eacha separate amid avorking a propeller under cads quarter. The haumli of thais vessel is to be braced in the masost tinorough muamaner for stremagth ; she is to be dia-ided into fifty avatar-tight conapartusents, and be 15000 tuns burden. Mr. Silver is now in Europe, amid it is stmnted that sea-eral American gentlemanen in Paris have examined his plamas. and are confidemat that sumek a steanser could make a voyage across time Atlamatic in six days. We are of opinion that thae propellers avould ratlaer be an injury than a benefit on sumcha a shalloav steanser. The model of a propeller and a paddle avheel steamer should be quite different; the former does best when it draavs considerable water, the later avhen it is of lighat draft: therefore it is scarcely possible to combine the two primaciples of propulsioma successfully in one vessel. Death of Chevalier Bunsen. By recent news from Europe, ave learn that this dis- tinguished Pruissiama diplomat, mama of science and literature, died in the early part of last month, at Bonn, at the age of 70 yeam-s. For 12 years he filled the high office of Anabassador of Prussia to the court of St. Jamases, from svhich position he was remasoved in 1853 for liberal opinions. As a writer on theological and literary subjects, he had feav superiors in Germany. His sciematific attainmasents avere avell knoavn, and thac Bumasen battery bears his manmase as a mamonunsemat of his invemitiomas iii electrical science. In puiblic amid private life lie avas both admired and reslsectedl, ninmad at thac present mssomaaamst ave do miot thimik that Prussia has a man that cams fihl his pimice. GREAT MINE ExpaosmoN.Ama explosion of fire danap toohi place ins the Bisca coal naimia, at Neavport, Wales, on the 6th tilt., by avhaicha mao lesKthmama 170 persons lost them lives. This is lsarhnalss the most destruictive name exislosion on record, mimad it avas all caused 1 my a stumpiml mhmaar avho reusios-ed tIne cap of his safety lamp to light his pipe. In Glasgou, Scotland, there is a Mimaimag Schiocul avhacre the avhsole laractical art and the sciemnee ut mnsiusimag are tmnmght us time mnaost Iserfect misamaiser. Iluuuidreds of avorking coal umaimiers muse as-ailed timemma- scha-es of its advamatages. amid lease smneceeded as suihser- intemidamats naiad os-erseems of mialmnes in ahmniost ea(ry lsart of the globe. Bnoxzz CASTINGS FOlt WASHINGTON. Thie bromaze foundry us Munich, in avhich the Bavaria ayes cast, has just complatad the cast of Rogers two doors for the capital at Washington. These doors are devoted to the history of Columbus, svhich is told in compart- ments isot umalike those of the gates of the Baptistry of Florence. Betaveema each compartmncmat are nichied busts of historiamas u-lao have avrittema oua Columasbums. Ansomag these is mu fimie head of Waahington Irvimig. Aromad are statuen of man conmiectad with Columbus, and at the top of each door is the head of an Indian. 12 Practical Directions to Engineers. We continue our extracts from Kin) s work on the Steam Engine, published by F. A. Brady, No. 24 Ann- street, New York: REGARDING THE FIRES WhILE UNDER WAY. Small as this may appear in the eyes of one not practically conversant with the management of the steam engine, it is one of the most important things that the engineer is called upon to regulate; on the one hand, that a proper and uniform supply of steam is maintained, and on the other, that more fuel is not consumed than is actually necessary to produce the re- sult. Different fuels and differently constructed boil- ers re(luire the fires to be re~ulated in a different man- ner, and notwithstanding the repeated efforts, the adoption of specific rules, which shall apply alike to all, is positively absurd. A few general hints, however, touching the leading features, may be useful to those who have not had much experience in this matter hilt they must bear in mind nevertheless, that actual service and observation for themselves, will alone make them proficient, no matter how well they may understand the chemistry of coal, or the natural laws governing the combustion of matter. The proper supply of atmospheric air, and the prop- er time for the combustion, are the important ele- ments in the consumption of coal. A slow rate of combustion, and a moderate draft, always produces a better evaporative result, than when the fires are ur- ged, occasioning them to be more rapid; and hence, on 110 occasion, should blowers~~ be resorted to, if the proper supply of steam can be maintained without them. The fire should be sprea(l uniformly all over the grate 1)ars, and in the use of bituminous coal, should he from 6 to S inches in thickness, bit with anthracite coal, 4 or 5 inches will be thick enough. So long as the ashpit remains bright, there is no necessity for slicing or stirrin~ up the fire, but whenever the spaces between the bars become choked with clinker, or ashes, it will be indicated by the darkness in the ashpit, and, if burning bituminous coal, a slice bar should be run in through the stoke holes or furnace doors to break up the fire and clear out the air spaces. A pick applied from below is also very useful in this respect. In the use of anthracite coal the pick alone should be used ; the breaking up of the surface of such fireas it does not amalgamate or run together, formin0 a crust like the bituminousprevents the regular uni- form combustion by allowing too much air to enter among the disturbed parts of the coal, it requiring considerable time for them again to unite in regular ignition after being once disturbed. It is very impor- tant that no part of the grate bars be left bare, as the admission of cold air, through such space, deadens the fire, an(l cools the flues. It has been ascertained of late, that better results are obtained by admitting air through a number of small holes in the furnace doors, on the plan of W. Wye Williams, Esq., of England. No two furnaces should be fired at the same time; the fresh coal of the one should be fairly ignited before a new supply is added to another, in order to keep a regular supply of steam. Anthracite coal requires less frequent firing than l)ituminous, but with either, the coal should not be thrown upon any particular part of the furnace, l)ut uniformly all over it. Before firing with bituminous coal, it is well to break up the upper crust of the fire, which sometimes amalgamates so closely as to exclude tile proper supply of air. The trouble with most firemen is, that they are disposed to heap their fires too much, particularly in front, some- times half way to the crowns ; this they (10 for three reasons first, because they suppose the larger the fire the greater the supply of steam; second, the more coal there is piled in at one time, the less frequent they will have to fire ; and third, it requires much less labor to shovel the coal into the mouth of the furnace than to supply it uniformly, all over the grates. No coal larger than ones fist should be allowed to enter the furnace, nor in cleaning the fires, should more than one be cleaned at the same time, which should be done at stated intervals, unless it 50 happens, that they all or many of them, have got so dirty that a further sup- ply of coal is useless, when the engine can be throttled off a little while the cleaning is going on. In cleaning anthracite fires, care should be taken not to reduce them too low, otherwise they will take a long time to recover. In cleaning fires, as well as when supplying them, the furnace doors should not be kept open longer than necessary, admitting an undue supply of cold air; and the party, therefore, who, performing his duty as well, does it the quickest, is the best fireman. The slower a steamer runs the greater distance she will perform with the same amount of fuel, provided she has not an adverse tide or head winds to contend with ; with men-of-war, therefore, it often occurs that the saving of fuel is a more important consideration than high speed, and for this reason the consumption of coal is reduced far below what would be required to keep the vessel up to her maximum speed. This can be done in two ways: either by shutting off a por- tion of the furnaces entirely, by shutting the ash pit doors and closing up the cracks around them with wet ashes, or else reducing the quantity of coal consumed in each, by covering the back part of the grates with a thick layer of ashes. When the diminution in the quantity of coal is not very large, this latter plan is the better, by retaining the original heating surface at the same time that the combustion of coal is allowed to go on very slowly, an end very desirable to secure. When, however, the reduction in coal is very consid- erable, some of the furnaces can be shut off, while the back ends of the grates of the remainder can be kept covered with ashes. Men-of-war sometimes proceed at half or less speed, and as a large extent of boiler sur- face occasions considerable loss from radiation, in such cases it will be more economical to shut off some of the boilers and continue with a moderate supply of fuel in the remainder. The furnaces and ash pits of the boil- ers shut off should be closed tightly, to prevent cold air from passing in to cool the surfaces of the other boilers, or, to injure the draft. After a boiler is shut off, the steam should not be allo~ cd to escape, but to remain in it and condense, to freshen the water. PATCHING BOILERS. Inasmuch as all things constructed by human hands are liable to decay, steam boilers are not exempt from this infallible law ; they therefore frequently require to be patched, new stay bolts and braces to be put in, old rivets cut out and replaced with new ones, & c. In patching boilers, wherever the defective part can be reached so as to work at it well, it is best to cut it out and rivet a patch on, calking the seams; but as this cannot always be done, the most common practice is to put a patch over the defective part, securing it with bolts and nuts, or tap bolts, and making the joint with stiff putty, composed of white and red lead, and a small quantity of fine iron borings. A piece of sheet lead fitted over the place to be patched, will answer for the pattern to make the patch by, which, however, before the joint is made, should be fitted snugly to its place while hot. Owing to imperfection in the iron, small cracks are sometimes discovered in the flues or other parts of the boiler subject to a high temperature. Should these not be more than two or three inches in length, they can be stopped by drilling holes and putting in three or four small rivets, hammering the heads well down so as to cover the crack. A leaky stay-bolt, or rivet, has, like the toothache, but one sure remedy, and that one is to cut it out and put in a new one. In cutting out a stay-bolt fitted with a socket, the latter can usilally be saved and retained in its place, ready to receive another bolt; but sometimes a screw bolt is cut out which has to be replaced with a socket l)olt, and as this may be in such part of the boiler which cannot be reached by the arm, or tongs, a very good plan to get the socket in its place is to pass a string through 1)0th holes and secure the ends, drop- ping the centre down and hauling it out through a hand hole ; cut the string in two, pass the ends through the socket, join them to~ether again, and haul the socket to its place. In the fitting of sockets, it is very important that they should be the exact distance be- tween the sheets, with the ends filed square, otherwise the sheets will be drawn out of shape. Application for the Extension of a Patent. 3faum{/acture of Wire CratingHenry Jenkins, of Brooklyn, N. Y., has applied for the extension of a patent granted to him on the 6th of March, 1847, for an improvement in the above-named class of inven- tions. The testimony will close on the 4th of February next; and the petition will he heard at the Patent Office on the 18th of same month. American ArchitectureA Noble Idea. The American Institute of Architects is an associa- tion which belongs to the city of New York and which holds its meetings from time to time, without making much ado about them. At a special meeting of the Institute, held on the evening of the 18th nit., one of the members, Mr. Idletz, read an essay on the .~s- thetics of Architecture, in which he maintained that in everything of practical utility there is a certain adaptedness to its purpose which causes the object to possess something of symmetry and beauty. Here we have a principle in architecture enunciated, and it may be applied not only to architecture but also to en- ~ineering, the construction of machinery of all kinds, and every article adapted for the use of man. Let the idea of Mr. Idletz be accepted as a governing truth in the construction of all things. Every article of utility should combine harmony of form and proportion beauty with usefulness. Some persons seem to be im- hued with the idea that ugliness and utility are twin brothers, and that gracefulness in a machine is a token of its flimsiness. A more mistaken idea never entered the human brain. Let the mechanic, the artizan, and the architect all strive to improve their works in beauty as well as in utility and convenience. Burning of a New Steamer. On the morning of the 18th nit, the fine new steam, ship fames P. King, belonging to Spofford & Tilleston, of Charleston, S. C., took fire while lying at pier No. 4, North river, this city, and was consumed to the water line. This steamer was 1,800 tuns burden, cost $180,000, and was just finished; she was about to take her place in the line to Charleston. Her model was beautiful, and her engines first class. The fire broke out in the engine room, but no person has been able to ascertain accurateiy how it origimiated. Although it took place in broad daylight9, A.M.and two steam fire-engines, together with several hand engines and a number of steam pumps belonging to several of the ferry and tug boats, were early brought to bear on the flames, they were unable to prevent the entire decks and the whole interior wood work and hull from being burned to the waters edge. The engines of the J. P. King, it is believed, may be again fitted up, as they are but slightly injured. The burning of this beautiful new steamer affords evidence of the danger- ous and combustible material used in the construction of a wooden steamer- STEEL FROM CAST AND WROUGHT IRONAn impor- tant invention has been patented by Messrs. Noel & Co., of Paris. It relates to the production or manu- facture of a new metallic alloy, which is easily melted, and when cast forms a species of cast steel capable of being substituted for ordinary steel; and consequent- ly, when used in the construction of machinery, obvi- ating, to a great extent, the use of forgings. The principal bases of this alloy are wrought iron and cast iron, the proportions of which are varied according to the degree of hardness required. To the bases here mentioned are added oxydized iron ore free from sul- phur, manganese, nitrate of potash and chlorhydrate of ammonia. These several ingredients may be used in various combinations and proportions, according to the required degree of hardness of the alloy to be pro- duced. PAPER NEcK-TIES AND COLLARS. Messrs. Smith & Brouwer, of No. 36 Warren-street, this city, have re- cently applied, through the Scientific American Patent Agency, for a patent for paper neck-ties. They are printed in imitation of gingham, silk, & c., and count- erfeit the cloth with wonderful exactness. The whole- sale price is from 25 to 50 cents per dozen! This firm sold, last season, of one single style of cloth neck-ties 17,000 dozen. The introduction of paper neck-ties as a new article of manufacture goes considerably ahead of paper collars, which have been so extensively sold for the past two or three years, and are sold for about the same price. Who will go, in future, without a clean collar and handsome neck-tie of the latest style, when he can purchase both for Six cents. IcE BoATsGreat sport is anticipated this winter with ice boats such as we described on page 249 of our last volume. Of all winter amusements this is the most exciting and exhilarating, and it can be enjoyed at once by ladies without the necessity of learning a new art, as is required in skating. 13 ISSUED FROM THE UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE FOE THE WEEK ENDING DECEMBER 18, 1860. Repsrtol Officially far the Scientific American. n,,* Pamphlete giving fall particulara of the mode of applying for patents, nice of model required, and much other information useful to mnventers, may be had gratin by addressing MUNN & CO., Publiohero of the SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN, New York. 30,905.John Allen, of Union, N. Y., for an Improvement in Harrows I claim the cnmbination and arlangemnent of the vertical oblong links, g g, and horizontal oblong hook links, 11 h, substantially as deocribed, whereby the double advantage of allowing a free vertical and horizontal play to the sections of the barrow, and a very eflicient and Convenlent means of connecting and disconnecting theus readily is secured at the same time. 30,906.E. C. Atkins, of Indianapolis, JIld., for an Im- proved Method of Attaching the Handle to Saws: I claim the attachment of the ear or tang to cross-cat saws by means of a scresv and opeis slat passing in at the cud, or on the edge of the saw near the end. 30,907.E. G. Atwood, of Derhy, Conn., for a~i Improve- ment in Skeleton Skirts: I claim the conshimmation of a series of lsoops to form the skirt, with a Serles of flattened olsiral spi-iligs extending from the waist baud or upper hoop to the bottom of the skirt, crossing the intermemliate hoop and at- tached by any well-klsowls menus far tise purpose set limrth. 30,908:L. P. Brady, of Mount Joy, Pa., for an haprove- ment in Rakes for Harvesting Machines: I claim the overlapping plate, F, on tIme rake isanmlle, E, and the guide rod, G, On ils side, in combinatlals with the slotted suvivel, C, and per- pendicular cramsk ittim, H, melien combined aiid arrangcd in tise maniser described far the purpose opecilmed. 30,909.Lysander Button and Rohert Blake, of Waterford, N. Y., for an Improved Coupling for Hose Pipe: I claim time folding handle lever or levers attached to a part or parts of such conpliisg far Isose aii(i pipes as require a rotary movement of said part or parts us the act of setting nit, asset forth. 30,910.Cyrus Chausbers, Jr., of Philadelplsia, Pa., for an huprovement in Paper Folding Machines: I claim, first, Sliding (mc moving the paper ott or tmetweeii Pars or their equivalents, by mealmo oh revolviimg wheels or rollers, whose surlisces come in contact insult the paper as sn(i for tue purpose specified. Seconmi, Time -omuhinatioms of revolving surhisces insithm lairs amid stops, or their equilvaheisto, arranged substaistially as aisd hoc the immirimmise de- scribed. 30,911.J. W. Chinicli, of Cold Water, Micli., for an Im- proved Fastening for Haine Tugs: I claim misc cmmmsmhiiiatiois of the self-locking imerformmtm-mh audi- ssitli list- perfoisteci beth imiece, its time mamimmer amt(i for time htii~it(t5C5 stii)stsiitiahly as simoss-im such miescrihemi. 30,912.John Ende, of Buftklo, N. Y., for an Inaprovement in Horse Collars: I chains the mmsmmmmer its whim-li time chips, U 14, Fig. 4, aimmh imold-imack rimigs, D D, Fig. 1, are attacimesh, as dieacrit)m-di mmmcl fir Ibm- imurimose set forth. I also claim time pccmmiimsr cottsttttcllmmn of mitt- imick, hi I, 1-ig. I, smith Fig. 2, iii time mimammisec smith for thin- immmmimmmoe specillid. I also claim time mmrcsmmgenseimt minf time ms-cit semmomed its with the imami, and the seam covered by time Imamnes, so miescritmed amid far time imuirimmise set forth. 30,913.John Duarhiam, of Cherry Gi-ove, Ohio, for an Im- proved Boot Jack: I chain the caumbinatlaim muf time frame, A, within time fahhiimg imidemited crotch, B b b, simmi time hid, C c, adapted to imoid time crotch to its opeim positiomi, and to covem it mis dosed lt(msiti(mim, smmbstamstiahly as set ftmrth. 30,914.G. N. Faircisild and Thomas Joyce, of New York City, br an Improvement in Collimators: uVe claim time comhimmmmtioms of use tinvo wires, c d, moithm etmehm olhmem smith with the mirror, D, so sltmssrii sisti described. ~Thme object of usia immmemmtiomm is to prodmice a simmipie, chmemip smsd reli- able immotrmmnmemst smiths inshifit slrmmigimt hues, cmmmmmmimmg from amine Isoimit ma another, at a great ttm a smummil mhlstmmuce, mind rmmmmmmimmg iii a hmorizomitmsi, a vertical sin aim immehimmed elirictiomi, cams he determssimmcd its aim easy smmd ready manner.j 30,915.J. P. Fishier, of Rochester, N. Y., for an Intprove- ment in Carriage Wheels: I claim The combination of time bindimig rods, c, with the hollow spokes s, hub, H, and feihoes, ~, iii time nismmmmec showis and desci-ibed. IThis inventiomi coimmtsts in the eanstruchiomi of aim entirely metallic wheel and axle for common carmiages, ammini invisichm avihi slfitrd the greatest possible strength with no mace inveight titans that of invoodhems onmes.] 30,916.E. F. M. Fletcher, of Georgia Plains, Vt., for aii Improvement in Water Wheels: I claim the combinations of the Inca heimmispherical hubs, D D, simaft B, concave and taperimig buckets, ml I, and springs, E, time ashmuinle beimig cent- structed anini anraisged ammd operathig ins the maummer amid for she pur- poses set forth. [This invemitlomm consists in time emphumymemit or nise of oviseels formed by having spiral buckets attached to central hubs, and also mised iii con- nection with time buckets springs so applied tint the osheels as to cegumiste the capacity ol the issues, according to time farce mc supply of water, so that the wheel scihl ahuvays svinmck ecomsinmmicsily, or, in othem words, give out the maximum powem of the head mmmdcc varyimig bights of the samuel 30,917.Cornelius Godfrey, of Brooklyn, N. Y., for an Im- provement in Boilers: I claim the arraisgement of butiler antI hurnace or furmisces with time steam chamber, as described and for the purpose set farib. 30,918.Joseph Grice, of New York City, and H. H. Long, of Philadelphia, Pa., for an Improvement in City Rail- road Cars: We claim, first, The employmeist in conshimmation invitim the rear end of the frame or car body, A, of a truck pivoted ins advamice of time axle or axles, and so constrmscted ammd arrangad with aim ice, d, smmd suitable bearimig plate and frictimina rolls as to have time entice inveight supported by the truck brought on the said arc, d, substantially as described, for the purpose set forth Second, We claim the employment of tinvo tracks in combination invith the frame, A, when time to-a trucks are each constructed with a single arc, d, which sustains the emmtire weight of the car, and both pivoted at points lying between time axle, substantially as described, hoc the pur- pose set forth Third, We claim the combination of the spring shaft device, e f s, with the double inverted incline, one frame A she svhole arranged and ope- rating as specified for the purpose set ltortlm. Fourth, Weelaim extending the frame of the Irmuck from the platform, and forming them-eon a pole holder, m, as and for the parpose described 30,919.J. F. Hah~nmohad, of Lynn, Masss., for an Improved Cement for Roofing: I cisimim time combimimaulcums of time ssithminm-mentimunmed immgmediensta. or tiseir equivalents, ins substantially tIme proportions specified 30,920.Jacob Hiney, of Hartford, Conn., for an Improve. ment in Faucets for Bottles: I claim the conical and poimited valve, is, its stem, m, and the hollow tinthe, g, invith the scresv portimmms, c, in combination with she screw stem, a, substantially as and for the purpose set forth [This invention consists in applying to a faucet comistructed in a peen- liar maummer, a pointed valve which ms-ill allow the stem of the faucet to be passed through a bottle cork sin-bile it is in the bottle, and -svhich will also serve as a valve for opening and ciosimsg time orifice in the stem of time faiscet. I 30,921.R. W. Hix, of New York City, for an Improve- ment in Railroad Car Brakes: I in-Imihus time ctmmbinmstioms snitis time brake simaft, B, of time geared cap, J, gedmn-edl invimin-els, 14, ammd iuimsiomm, H, ins she masummec and for the purpiuses shsanva smidi miescribed. [This imivenstioms commoists in applying to time ordinary brake shafts, ins- stead of she hand invited at presemst used, a circular box invith a mon-able cap, which box contains three or more spur wheels imaving stationary bescimmgs amid wimicim engage with the teeth of a pinsion that is keyed to the brake shaft, and also with inside geacimsg on the movable cap, so that by tainting the cap the motion invihl be transmitted to she brake shaft and multiplied according to time size of the central pinion.] 30,922Jedediak Holcomb, of Brandon, Vt., for an Im- provement in Platform Scales: I chains, first, The combimmation of the jointed rods, c2, connected by the link, D, and six limiks, B, for supporting the same, invith the frame, A, and inveighing levers, E, of a phatforns scale, fan- ihe purposes set lktcthm. Secommd, I also claim the use of she extensan case, H, in combination inviths time stationary case, P, inveighimig levers, E, and scale beam, T, for the purposes set forth 30,923.J. H. Jacob, of Ehizabethtown, Ky., for an Im- proved Valve Gear for Steam Engines: I claim the combination of the forked independent rocker, K, invork- ~mmg on the valve rockshaft, the tinvo arms, I J, invith their studs, c d, rigidly attacimed to the said rockshaft, and the spring, f; the svhoie ap- phied ins relation to each other and operating substantially as set forth [This imsvention is usoce especially designed for a direct-acting engines, such as are mised for puniping and other purposes for which a rotary ummintion is unnecessary It may, boss-ever, be applied to aim engine invish a rotary simaft. tt camisists of a forked rmmcker wacked upon, but nude- pemideisthy ol, an ordinscy valve cockshsft by a connection a-this the plo- tutu rod or other reciprocating portion of the emigimmes, and operating up- aim sins ordinary valve cockshsft, in combination invith a spring acting up on ammothec snin thmeceog to cause the valve to be first moved gradually to a position so chose the steam part at either end of the cylinder, as the piston approaches the other end, and then to be moved suddenly suffi- ciently furtimec to give a fail opening to the steam pact at the hast-usen- tioned end, to admit steam to move the piston in the opposite direction] 30,924.John Jameson, of Gateshead, England, for an Im- pi-oved Apparatus for Expanding and Compressing Elastic Fluids. Patented in England June 11th, 1860: I cicsins time cmmmbinatiamm if time aphstocatus to produsce tlsmmse actiomma snimicim I mane cahied borcossiming amid iensdimmg,t insithi time apparattins fain- pecfttcming time lumnetimmums muf invimat I have called the comlmreosimmg ap- macsinus, sumbstemnstiahiy as described 30,925.F. C. Leypoldt, of Philadelphsia, Pa., for an 1n4- A ~ intin Ales for Cutting Button Holes: bdmttou Imohes, cousbimsimmg time hen-era, mid C, invimen armaisged mind ,joimmsed in the maummec described, and act- mumming the cuittec, B, suibstautmahly as and for the pmmipose set lsrth. 30,926.Isaac Miers, of Clay Lick, Ohio, for an Improve- ntent in Cultivators: I ehistism tIme arrangenmmemst of time homsgitudinahhy adjuinstable side imeaums, C D, straits, a a~ b bt, mmmcl adjnmstinmg plate, d, innimim time center besmmm, B, imlmsnns, N F hI, srljastmsimie hmamidles, hi in, mmmd stamindarda, y y, all as shonon smith uhinsninibind, fain time pmmm-pmtses set lortim. [This imivemitioum commsisms ins time scrsngemmment of the center shovel or lusts iii thmcd-e-taotiied cdthmivstars, ins the rear of time side pionins. It also coissists itt usskinmg time side besniss adjustable lomsgitudinslly. By means of time said arcamigement of time censter Itloins it divides time ridge of mold fat-med by the camubimmed inimmem furrosvs of the side ishainva smmd thmronvs it up escim invay, fromis time cemmler tonvards time roots of the coins, in addition trm time ridge thsmonsis ump to time casins by etinchm of shine side plans-s.] 30,927.P. P. Mills, of Washaington, Ohio, for an Improve- ment in Sugar Cane Leaf Stripper: I chains ihe described leaf stripper ftc sarghuns or sugar canine, consist- iming if tinvo or more elastic blades, D F, and the semi-circular plates, H, tlue svhole being armamiged and combined on a block or frame, A, fur time imurpose and in she manner set forth and explained 30,928.D. K. Nixon, of Sandyville, Ohio, for an Improved Device for Preventing Hogs from Rooting: I claim the combinations of tlme metallic pact, A, having the opening, B, invith two or more pins or inviren, substantially as and for the purposes set fcuctlm. I alsuin claim time cunved or projecting paimits, C C, invith the loss-er pact of A, as set forth. I fuirtimer chains bendiming time honvec ensds of the pins in, as shoivn at c, fan time purposes set fortim. 30,929.W. II. Pease, of Dayton, Ohio, for an Improve- ment in Tobacco Cutters: I cisium, in commuectian invith time endless belts, C C, arranged as de- scrinbed, and the throat, d, the revolving knives, H F, and screw thread, G, the saute being arranged and made to operate substantially as and for the purpose specified 30,930.John Pike, of Syracuse, N. Y., for an Improved Churn: I claim the combinmation and arrangement of she adjustable cominvex dish, ID, cancava-convex dish. H invith the radial beaters on each, as de- scribed, togethem invith the sin-ings, d d, shaft, C, and dashers, x xn & c, when used for she purposes specified. 30,931.Robert Plexvs, of Smithfield, H. I., for Improved Cylinders for Spinning Frames: I claim tlme improvement in the process of manufacturing tin plate cvhinmders described, consisting in peribrating the edge of each plate of s~hmich the several sections of she cylinder are composed with a series of holes, sin-hereby, on time application of heat, the air is expelled and the soldering metal is permitted to flow over the entire surfaces in contact 30,932.F. W. Robinson, of Richmond, lad., for an Im- provement in Grain Separators: I claim, first, Obtaining a separate and independent discharge of grain Icons the grain carrier, ID, and straw carrier, E, by means of a division board, a, and she inclined bottom board, G, the upper line of the straw carrier, H, being arranged below the plane of the cellular grain carrier, ID, so as to obtain a fall between the carriers, substansial- hy as specified Second, I claim the deflecting plate or board, mu, arranged in relation to the shoe, F, and hans, L, as set forth, to effect the object stated. [This invention consists in arranging endless carriers on an inclined plane, one of which conducts the grain and straw from the threshing cylinder and delivers the straw on the othem- endless carrier, separating the grain and chaff from the straw and depositing it on the shoe; while the second carrier (which is open) conveys off the straw and con- ducts the grain, & c, left by she first carrier down into the shoe,where it is submitted to the operations of blast and screening The invention fur- ther consists in arranging a stationary or adjustable inclined deflecting plate or board, ins such relation to the shoe and jaws that the blast of sic is tam-mined cicussunvards lists time silse and drives tIme partially threshed imeads back, and they are elen-sted and again submitted to the tisresimimig operation, svhihe time chmaff smind omimec impumities pass out over the back end of the shoe.] 30,933.J. S. Royce, of Cuylervihle, N. Y., for an Improve- ment in Harvesting Maclames: I claim, first, The donvmmninard curved, arched, metallic frame, A, con- structed as described, in comubinsatian invith the driving wheel, ID, shine pinion or pisman shaft, 5, and its rod, the cuttin apparatus and the svheel, W, for the purpose set hbcth and substantia~hy as set forth Second, The arched projection of the frame, F, in combination sinith the adjustable cross piece, 14, and its fricsian ins-heel, W, and the rod, r, for the purpose set forth, and substantially as described 30,934.G. M. Selden, of Troy, N. Y., for an Improvement in Eave Troughs: I claim time combination and arrangement, substantially as described, of the air passages or flue spsceswith an eaves trough audits conductor, located upon a building, as usual, amid invith a warm air apartment or has air furnace, for the purpose of pieventiug the damage which ordinarily results to the building f-am she freezing within, and consequent over- flanving of time conductor and eaves trough by the invater which some- times cans from melting snons- or ice on the roof in freezing weather 30,935.S. A. Skinner, of West Berkshire, Vt., for an lam- provement in Fountain Pens: I chains the combination and arrangement of a valve, f, separate f-am the agitator, H, with a spring pen-carrier, B, arranged ins-i-tb respect to the agitator, h, and she branch, e, provided invish a valve opening and extending from the ink fountain, as described I also damn the improved mode of making the spring tongue, k, viz., ins-ith carrugationso, the same being for the purpose described 30,936.J. J. Slocum, of New York City, for an Improved Rotary Engine: I claim, first, The arrangement of the rotary winged abutment, F, in combination invith Abe rotary piston, A, constructed and operating as and for the purpose specified Second, TIme comabinatton and arrangement of the notched disk, I, smith she spring catch, J, phase, H, ss-tth the rollers, b and e, and rotary abutment, F, constructed and operating ommbstansnahhy as and for the purpose set forth [This invention consists in the employment of a rotary winged abuh- inent, in combination svtth a rotary piston, in such a manner that, by impacting to said abutment a rotary motion at certain intervals, the pis- ton is allowed to pass by unobstructed It ama consists in arranging on the shalt of the piston a notched disk smith a spring catch, in combina- tion with two sets of rollers, attached at different distances from the cemiter of a plate that is scressed to the axle of the rotary abutment in such a umannec that, by the action of the notched disk on the outer set of rollers, time abutinemst is kept perfectly statiommary, umutil, by the cons- bined action of the spring catch and the tins-a sets of rollers, the aisust- meat is partially rotated] 30,937.E. N. Steere, of Providence, H. I., for an Improve- ment in Oiling Spindles: I claim the tube, B, or its equivalent, constructed and arranged, invith the step and bolster of a spindle, substantially as described, for the pur- pose specified 30,938.S. M. Stone, of New Haven, Conn., for an Im- proved Means for Ventilating Buildings: I claim the use of the pure air psoosge as A, in combinations with time passage, H H, and smoke pipe, U, when the sm-hole is constructed, ar- maugeul and fitted to produce she result as described 30,939.Claude Sturel, of New York City. for an Improve- mont in Fire Escapes: I chains the armangemuent of the platfaruss, ID, alternately aim opposite sides of the frainenosik, and hahdimmg them rigidly isaraihel to time deck of time smagams tins all cauditioums of tIme Iramue, by minsesmms of the barn d or slmeir equivalents, substantially as anind for time purpose set iorth 30,940.Horace Tupper, of Buffalo, N. Y., for an Improve- ment in Turnouts for Street Railroads: I chains lime immeitinseul sn-sine or sinnell ID lint eainbinsations sin-ills time mails, A B and F, spenamiming in the nuammuer and fumc time purpuinsins set fumcth 30,941.D. T. Ward, of Mansfield, Ohio, for an Improved Churn: I datum the disk am- ins-heel, C, cominstructed as described, and, iii conmmsec- tiams therenvitim, tIme rium or collar, ID, si-ranged mint time nmssniser and for time purpose specihied 30,942.Seth Wheeler, of Albany, N. V., for an Improve- noent in Ash Sifters: I claim time use of lever, U, treadle, F, amind spring, H, ins-hen used in eoinbtustionm inviths shine sieve, B, sabstanmtially and for the puirpose speci- fled. 30,943.C. K. Hostetter, of East Donegal Township, Pa., assignor to J. H. Koffer, of Mount Joy, Pa., for an Im- proved Bag Holder and Conveyer: I cisins time sliding frame, H, held and operated by the cord, H, frictismm and ratchinet pulley, I, sprung pall, J, and cord-u& mghtner, L, together ins-mb the bag rest, B, time smimohe mounted on inviseels, ID, substantially as dc- scribed 30,944.Hirsch Heinemano and John Buser, of New York City, assignors to Hirsch Heinemann aforesaid, for an Improvement in Machines for Covering Cord: We claim, fist, The arrangement of the revolving creel, f, to twist the strand, with a revolving carrier phase, e, tar laying the silk or other fibers upon the outside of said strand, ins-hen each has a separate revol- ving motion, so as so make different sizes and characters of strands, as set Iorth Second, We claim the construction of the cap, 1, and jaws, o a, in combinsation to guide the stramind so that the cavermug material may be laid evenly tisereon, as set forth Third, We claim the revolving bobbin, I, and fly framsse, acting as spe- cified, ins combination smith time covering apparatus, to twist in a cord or cut the strand as it passes from the covering apparatus, as set forth. 30,945.Xavier Karcheski (assignor to L. T. Valentine), of New York City, for an Improvement in the Manufac- ture of Vegetable Parchment: I claim the application, to certain parts of the paper, of starch or some other gelatinous substance, either plain or colored, substantisily as set forth, for the purpose of producing in the parchment an indehibhe aster-mark [The object of this invention is to produce vegetable parchment equal, or nearly so, mu strength to the animal parchment, and of a uni- form transparency, smith indehiWe water-marks, in such a manner that the same can be used with particular advantage for bankbihls and other papers of the sanse character] 30,946.Peter Keffer, of Reading, Pa., assignor to himself and D. A. Ulrich, of Berks county, Pa., for an Improve- ment in Car Brakes: I claim, first, The spring sliding rod and its projection q in combina- tion with time slotted arms, T and T, and the frammime, X, ms-isis its roller, e, the said arms being operated and motion being communicated trom the said frame to the brake bars by the devices described, or their eqmmiva- lents Second, The levers, K and K, hung to the pin, I, on which the truck turns, in combination with the rods, L and L, and rods, M and Min~the whole being arranged and operated as and for the purpose specified. 30,947.J. L. Mahan (assignor to D. Stuart and H. Peter- son), of Philadelphia, Pa., for an Improvement in Gas Stoves: I claim the inner chamber, ID, diminishing in size toward its mouth, d, the outer chamber, c, the plain plate, F, the plate, mu, of wire gauze, or its equivalent, and the hot air passage, i, when the said plain plate, forms a continuation of the wire gauze and when the whole of the above named parts are arranged, in respect to each other, as and for the pur- pose set forth 30,948.Andrew Parkinson, of Norwich, Conn., assignor to James Parkinson, of Newark, N. J., for an Improve- meat in Looms: I claim the employment of a comb, substsnsiahly such as described, In combination with the hay of a loom, snsbstantiahly as and for the pnrpos~ specified. ?ihe itifi ~nwvh~xn, A. iO,949. C. 1. K Wardwell, of Lake Village, N. H., assignor to S. I-I. 1)oteni, of Plymontli, Mass., for an Improved (otob Cicaner: I butt, as ti tote urine of toatittfaclnre, a esotti leaner, constriteteti stittetatit jail IS tltsitilatl ititi OCt lortli. 30,930Parker Wells, of Moldieton, Mass., assignor to B. Townsend and William Wells, of Boston, 1\tass., fo~ an Improvement in Pegging Ma chines: I claim changing the supply of pegs (ii one length lor others of a ulif- fetetut length, hr stihotatitially the otettos ilesceiheti flu changing the 1)ttiitiuttt iii lie peg wooti channels, s v. Also the descrilted arrangenicot of the awl anti driver hats, ii anti which rotusists in permitting titent t(i oscillate in the top of lIt, head, a, when they itt etinoertetl with a shut, I, whielt to tootle to reciprocate Also tlti aria tigetitetit oltoicti intl uleserilted of the oluaft, e, itolli with tegtutd lii its ulirectittii if etitaliutti miii ittoilittli hr which liii usual gage iii the peggitig Itati, a, is hi-lit preoseti againot Ilie etlgi of bite otile. And I cltiito tilsit the tirrtiuigtuuuettl tlrorribteul liv which bIte whole of lie peg-ulriviutg tittelitittiotit is chatugetl itt ito 1tttsitittti reltitire tit Ibti tittittit, It, urltich toebtuates bItt 1 titit bitt slitte etittiet, Ilir die pepto oil tilteritig bIte atugle tt whit-u liii It-go itt set itt bitt wtttk. 30,951.C. E. Bertrand, of New York City, for an Improve- anent iii Tanks for Crystallizing Sogar: To the itiatitillici itt tutu rutittitig rib suigat, P cittito the titetbioti It set-itteth of ext rattitig I tot- reottilliza bilti stiguir It-itni the secuttidarv duds ot- ibrutittitigs iii ttitlltititx stugttu- Itittlils, liv the etiiltlttvtuittit ttf ciiltacitttio stilt, lt:uri t ugi-tittihuituetl uritbi it ii Iterlutriteil uliseliat-ge Itulut atuti plug ttt A ttbtbttr Ittitli Cut itbiet (ialttihile itt rottitiutit, lb wituute Iteitug iuuuisttuicuu-ul tttitl tuirtutigeul suiiuotuitubitultv as set. Ilurtli atud utluci-aleul in the ticututuer intl tic the Itttnltttses ~ -ilicul. :10,932.Levi Bissell, of North Ileigen, N. Y., for an Im- proventetlt in Stove Pipes: I claim thut hutiubs ttf the sale as c,uostrticteul iii coinhuiuualiutti with regis- bets atid moult ti1tis, g g, wlueii saul plies ut-i priuvitheil with rcuiuihtuhuiug huhs, atid all utretutatuud ~us atitl liii- Ilti Po~I~wi sit forth. 30, 933.Jol1n lime, of Covett, N. V., for an Improvement in Harvesters: I claitut thu cuutuubiitututititi itf the kutee joitit, i, with lie reti otatiularil, I,, shaft, ii, tt utul luutut-itugs, k kt, wlti-ti thu i-si surertul butt-Is it-c uri-uttugeut flit uulteituuiutit itt tue uuuauuuuur ufisi-tibutth, flit- t hit iititltttsi Olticihitil. 30,954.Gabriel ll(tos, ott Neuv Voik City, to uto Impiove ment in Machines ftr Enameling Moldings: I clttiusa liii tuu-u-tutugt- tutu-itt a itt u-uutusttuuctiuuiu if the It-ustut Itiece, A, atuti suIt Iratuuts, I t, ii u-tutu huttutut tutu ut-ithi the gutiuts uiect-,t, .1 1, flit- blue liii piuse if c-huuuuugitug blue tutu- hi itut- u-tilt iii univ ut itfilt utf ututulutitug to trill us ti itutuke bItt-i-thur bItt situ-li ut-u if itt- tututlthitug hi ut-h as gutiuti- fit itutu, stibtsttutititilly us 30,935.B. I). Bootnoan, of .Janesville, Wis., for an Tm- laroihaciuhent in Antotuttic Attachment to Keyed Mosi- cal Instrnments: I ulsitut, lust, Thu toe tutu aphulicuhioti of blue Obuhit-tictil halls, i, itt- thutit tuhuuiu-tileuubs, whit-ut toith oiihistuutthitullr to uhusu,-ihueuh tautul futi bItt ittithtitOt di ot it hi utl. Set-ututut, I u-ltttuuu but cuuosiuuuuhiuutu tutu use tuf a cylitutlet- tutault of atus outtutuhule uttuuuttitit, uuiuhu it uuuuutuuuuuuuuus sitittit briunuve cut tututittuti Cite cxliii thu-i- stutuilat- hut ti ot-tiut , uihuiu-bu u-tutu-i is ctuusstuh it itttulti-t ubiottotues liv lthu ~ s tuiuututtug hiutitillit ut-tilt hhut sluiiht ot axis itt thit cvluittlet, thuiti hut hitutiuluig it t hut u-uuusstuugs tuf liii It-tutu,- i5 ittutlut -t tti-t-httuuchus liii stuhisltuttttuuitiutbbr its thu-oct-thu-il tutuil liii- b hut hiiithuiist si-b hit-hIt, Ihuit ub, The tutuluhttyitug t hut-lu ii u-tutu It, u, iii u-ouuuhututtuttuuuu ut-tilt tuillt-us to ku-iIt t lu hutulbs, ito lieu buttit-is tutu thut crlitiuhti, auth hut hitiuhtel the cyl tutu-c itt lu,-ubititutittg titutoic, suthustut otitulbe us tleoctihueuh, ot auty attattge tutu-ut ttcctttutbthishuiitg stubtuttuuit tally hut stutiti- tuhuject. h-uuuuuuhu, hut stuic itt hutturuib tuttut-eutuetut iii bitt shiulitug cattitoge, C, in cuuuuuhtiuuuutiuuuu uuullt bItt uuitys, X X, stihistatutially as ututut hut the htuuthiose seb itt-u hr Filth, The totobutiuuuhtuutu if but keyo ot leuet-s, k k, gusouts, II, pits, I I, -ugus, A, a tub ututtuhi it-tutu s, k, iii bItt-ti ,utttiualeuuts, uufutuu ttsuuI suitustuiti litull us Oittittti untuit ulusu-cihuiul, itt atty uturttuugeuiucutt ticciititluhisliitig suth- uttiuutiut thy the stuttie thutuig. Sixhht, I clultit blue ttttauugetttittl if the cutunpuututtul let-eu-s M, iii cuitutuet- tituti ututli t iii uusu-ibbtuuiiug lu-ut-u-, If, iii- thucit C(fuiitalents, siibisutiithitully us sluttutui tuitub liii the iutigitusi uf-sunihued. Setottult, hut- ttse tuoth tipphiutuhito of hue screuu~, x, attn slide, I, or lit-i u-u-u iuttttb,tths, utlutti tusiuf tutu-ut utnet-liout ut-tilt a cylitttlet- to pit-c us lout gitutilititul tiutuhtuiti to huts stuitue its it ri-u-tilt-es, outhobaunlially as tutu fist- the Eighth, Ilut tunt-tuuugt-tinetut tutuil cituuthuiuitition of the heuet, P utitht hue titubht- tin Chistithiut I ittuf liii Ibut- itt lutist set futulli Nitit hi, I u-luiuuu hue tuututututi uth utuisitug blue. hutnentitet, 12, to ott-ike flue it, ku-vs if a luttittui, stutistuttut itulty its ulcsuuthsu-ul, ot titty itrrtitugtu tiuttut suuhusluuuthituhly thu s-tutu- ri-tutli, I ultututi the tutuittutul uhu-su-uihueul if lutessiuig uhuituti the keys tututuit thut ougutut to ,uueluuuhuuuuu hip tiututtus if hut fututs, t ti tith ur, huts, t I, tuhut-el, tit iS, iii itir attuttigetuut-utt icu-uutttltlisluiutg flue utattie thuitug Elet-euttli, P cl~uiiti thu ahuhuhicautuiti mutt tot if blue devices conipositug tily atttuu-luuuuu-uul, siubtolauttitibly uuu uhuscuihed, ho counhuitnahiuin tuith iii ut-gaul, huitnutut, nut-bouleutut or tither iutstruutgtrutts to tulticht it unay he ahilihieth ho Inuodutee itt huerfiurun tuniusic. The renn~tituiiei- of huts uteiks Iltuitius ut-ill he gluen itt otur utexl 4 J. II. A., of MdConical rifle halls at-c both molded and stunutulned tuutuit hue solid tint-tub Sitttute if rIte uiutnchuiuncu-y ut-c lotte tutu acrutuntuhislitiug this Intiut ptut~ntisc is ifiuitun ctutiilihio-tihi-th D. I. jg~, of MassThIe edition of flue lIateilt laws wlticlt tat aunuuuuuuuuceuh, butot ut-eu-k, as huetiug fit Inreso, is unour suit, arid yott caut hut siubthnlitil tutu hi a ittlux iii teteilit uuf si-u-cit tluuue-ccunt ottitinhOs. C. C., of N. Y.We cannot tell you tite annonnt of snlpllor thitib us iii bItt it-tim st-i- tubuiehi u-ott have seunt Its, uribtutuuut aut analysis if it; hutul fututut iuushucu-hiuuuu, uti cuttusiub,,- it utututhi utoukitug if yout Oust it ito tuhnuuunubutuucu- is guituul us the Ohteuuuiteti (Nut 2) itt the inackage J. T., of N. Y.Mrdtiply thue qoantity of water in ponnds utbuichi ~ to oune unitnutte tints bite vertical higlut of yiittc ftull soul ibiriuht lie luiuuhuict hun 3:1,000 This ut-ill give yonu hue isouver of the ftobb, fututut tuluichi ulculuict uuuuu-bhuiruh, aund youu utihlinave thin actual potter of ytiutu itt-i u-hut ti-lit-el J. R, of PaTIe lteautifnl, glossy, black varnish for iron un-itt-k ut-up hi- tti~ntle hip futohung (tune inututunul of aunuhuet in aus iron tessel auth auluhtiug, ut-built- hut, tue qutaut of inoileul hitusced oil anti three otunces eutehi itt ultiuk utuotut auth aspitaltutun, itt poteufer Wheun the uvhnutle is hbuuitttttghtlp itttsrliutittletl take it oil; autul, ut-lien cool, auICI ainotut one t~t if t,uu-hueunhiuue Serurab coals of this tautuisin arc putt on, autul the ar- Itch-s tore ubriud, uftcu each althshitatiinn, tun a uvaruti nt-en B. B., of IllThuc elteapest gas that you can use as an cx- pbostue agiuth, urlu,-uu mixed tuitbi air, is carhutueleul hydesgeunthuat tuseti tutu uhiuumiuu~uhiuuun Water, uvhten decomnosed itato its elennentaty gasso, is luiglulp exhuhtisire, hutut no rainor kunouvo to tus trill exphuude utur- less nsixtih uriult ait- or tuxygen An explosite gas eungiune., pc se, is nuth pateuntahobe, hutul sutune uf your arrangeutneunlo onay inosteos unovel anut iuaheustahbu- ft-ut tees Xour ut-ill Itutul salbnhuturic acid chteapet- tbraun hnpdro- cbuluiric tutu ohutuutiutuig hupuirogeut gtts, buy Cherompotiung ut-ater utith ziunts L. C. G., of Cal.~ 1-litchucocks Geology is a little old, mutt yost trill fiund hr iuusuruuetiu-e iltught Millers Olti Neil Sanuislotne ituteucotitug Ily the huttut p-tutu luau-c t etnut hut-si-, hietinalnO Inc Stetetus truck sun bite geuuluugp- Cuf the Lutiteul Shutus ut-ill hue uttut, atud this urill pitt p-tutu blue iuulsuuuu-uhiuuuu putt tuecul J. IL, of GaWe do not know of any stimulant offered for o~ule lucre as a sohuslitrute for tohnacco If the ruse of tire treed is hut- jturiuug xuuuuu htetuluht, regutrul it as aur etuenty nutid treat it ui-csrdiurglp A ourhuslihiute migiut mnruuue to he a remedy uvorue thraur the disease J. B. C., of IllWe do not know of any other State but Virgitria thnat bias to Olsecial laur agaitrot thnc tree iunlroduuctioun aund sale otpalcuuts The desigun of it uras to unhoerve the putt-poses otdonneslic mnetrce Its courstirariouuahiry hat neu~er heen tested C. P. P., of AlaSo long as you can take oath tltat you arc a citizen of the Utuited States, so long urtli yotu he entitled to apply fur ut lutubi-uth sun the ~naymeurt of a tee of $30 We canutot say urhat is to hue the tulhiunnate restuit of tire Inresent nlate of thritugs; tue itope ah1 uvill conse stir tigiut in thre eursi. To SOUTHERN INVENToRsWe are in receipt by every mail of lelleus ft-sm ott, Sustuthoern clietils, asking it in urhuat telatiout rbsey stand to the Paleunt Office iun case their respective Sturtes obroruld seceule frotun lire Uuuisuth We aunsut-ered this iunqsuicp- fuullp in orur isorue of thue lItIt till We trill unour state, however, in hefet, tboat so hung as aut ap- lulinutuit caut out-eat- that lie us a citizen of tIne tusiteul Sluntes, hue ut-ill hue reiltuireil Its ~utup tutulp $30 The matter is therefore oure that mrrst he sehIlesi hy hlue counvictioto tuhichi the alsluhicaunt hiturselt euntertaitos our this Isoitul C. W. S., of OregonWe suppose tluat when a bird, at a great ituglol, appears to float uvitinout motioun rupoun Ilue air, me is really sluuuulp ftulliutg thtrorugh it J. S. B., of N. VWe Ihave pulhlislhed hut one article with the cahulisin Does a Men lIst Shove atucun Ilne Air Youu trill fund it sin pioge 21, Vol II (Incur series) Thtere are olloet arhirles relatiung to the satire otttgject; oune etutilled A Sooblo-east haiti, oto page 22G, aund sue, hteauhed ~ A Ititut itt ERegaud ho Sleaun Pipes aund Furnaces, on fuisge 4th, Vol I (uocuv serics) A. D. W., of MissSmee says that in electro-plating, gold is nest uctituced from rIte atuco-cyaniule of polasohium, tutod suhrcc from rIte au-gentun-cp-aunide tuf porasoitum Iltub the inroiner o-uluutiuuun tir he ursed delneunuts supoun rue onarerial our auluichn it ho to me she~issilesi Your tutuly s~ufe cusutuse is to get putoctical tuostruichions front sottte tue exhtet-ieuuceth ito rIte art; othuertuise p-out ace urot ouuhp- hiahle to destrop- porut osateruabs hurt tin hlouv psnuroelf ttlS tt-irh some fruiminatiung osetal J. W. G., of MassYou can neither make, use, nor sell auny Inateunted article tuithiotut hecomitug liahhe to the isatetutee tot ito- fritugennetut of his patetut There ate hualeunt hlouvurs uthich you rosap ruse as ru oruirstiturte tune a hhacksnniblus tsebbuuuo Initoptels eateunt isbotuet is nnautuuf~tcttured at tire Not-elty Works, tIns cirp Pecboalna p-site hhustuec is aut itoprotennetob, hnuut are caururot tell urithuosut hetiug fuir- tuisloeti uviths a nnore nuinrute descriptisur T. H., of PaWe do not understand uvltat you itacan by a unsachuitue fuit lusiuttitug iroun If port mean a sIstIne cruthiung toachuitue, there ire several of tbrese ussaciriunes uvhuicir have heern patented, aurd stunue have hecur descrihed to fitumec voltunses of thus joortoal. The role it cuulcuuburhirug the puessurre to Inch a hoihec mnde oh good American itniur trill osussniut, is to take the tensile sictnius ut-luicir site uqxrare tunch of the it-situ trill hear, uliriute it lop 3 (tot thc ut-eakeunitug effect of rivetiurgl, autul hip the ulianneler of the hoilec iun ironlues The teursile orrengtli of tnuuiler tnlalc is futhOGO Itontods. A long hoilec is avuaket thaur a shroct J. D., of N. Y.Yon are perfectly rigltt in stating that a ~ueat aunonot of gas escapes in an utuncouronnoed slate from counrutrour hnuuuuueus, titrus eturaihing a pu-eat hiss, aurd, at tire same time, pointing thue atmospluerts of rooms Voure remedy tsr tins is of great innpoet aurce Money Received At tire Scientific American Office on account of Patent Olhice hosineso, foe tire aveek enuhing Satruuday, Dec 22, 1560: G N B, of Coutut, $25; J N A, of hod, $30; III W C. of Ga, $30: A J, of burr, $23; 0 5, of Couno, $23; K & T C, of N V, $250; S W, of fIn, $25; A & L, of Courun, $63; A B & N In J, of Texas, $30; A & In B, of N 3, $30; N N C, of N Y, $35; W B, of N J, f30; J II, of Ill, $13; 5 C A, of lid, $25; N N In, of Mo, $25; S & N, if N V, $30; In C, of N V, $30; 5 5 N, of S C, $35; L C, of (utha, $25; C G, of N V, $10; W & S B 31, of Mass, 30; Z F, of Mit, $30; W S W, of Coons, $25; 0 C T, of Pa, $30; 11 B , of N V, $10; ( II In, of Phi, $30; J L, of Mass, $25; S N B, of Pa, $35; J P A., of Ga, $25; E C, of Conur, $30; II & II, of Ga, $25; F IX S, of N V, $30; C 0 L, of Vt, $25; J hi, of Counur, $25; h T, of Va, $25: A & In, of N H, $10; A N, of N V, $25; 11 A McL, of La, $35; J T, of Cuni, $30; W F G, of N V, $25; L F, itt Mass, $25; A N T, of La, $25; W hi In, of PhI, $25: hi P Ine (P, if N V, ~30; ~ G N, of ho, $10; In W S N, of Ill, $45; G 1 N, if lass, $15: S A A, suf Puturut, 18; L C, of N V, 25; A 11 H, of N J, $30; J B B, of Putura, $25; 3 3 C S, of Pa, $10; T S, of N J, $55; B & B, tuf N V, $30; A L F, of N V, $50; N L G, of Count, $25 Specifications, di-awimrgs aild models beloilging to parties ut-hit tIne funlitiut-inug inittials hate teen functuan-nied to tine Pateunt Office do- ciung tine aveek eunutiung Dec 22, 3560: 0 N B, of Counur; A 3, of Isuva; 0 5, of Courn; XV H In, of Phi; J P A, of Ga ; S IV, of Ga ; N 0, of N V ; 3 K S, otN J; In IV S, of N V; J II, of Phi; E L G, of Cuinun; 3 11, of Conun; 3 a a, of Isura; IV 5 IV, of (stun ; J T, of Cal ; 0 C T, of Pa (2 caseol; T S, of N A; A N T, of La; N ML, of N V; C W 5 II, of Ill; A. F, of Ill; G P N, of Ilaus; N & 11, of N V; B & NEInot Pitt; NRC, of N V; W F. Got NY; CL Hot hIass ; L F, of llass; 5 5 II, of S C ; 3 L, of Ihass; N 11, of N V; N N, of N V ; In S IV N, of Ill; P H T, of Va.; C 0 L., of Yr; 3 C A, of liii ; A N, itt N V. Important Hints to Our Readers. BACK NUPraNEs AND VohUMEs OF THE SCIENTIFIC AMENI- taxIshutmes I, II and III (honund or tunuhounund) tory he load at this ollice anti Poet all pecfsdicai dealers Price, luonund, $lSilper volume; Ity unail, $2uvlrich incisudes postage Price in shreds, $1 Every me- chuannic, inveurtor or artisan to ibm Ututted States alnonuld have a com- phere set of this pohhheation for reference. Suhocrihees should not fail to pueserve their tortunhees foe hiodhog BINnINGWe are prepared to bind volumes, in handsome curt-us, truth itlutmiunated stiles, aund to facunish covers foe otloec hind- ers hrice tot- hinding, 50 ceunts Pu-tee for covers, lay mail, 50 cents lty express or delivered at Ore office, 40 ceunts IlVIPORTANT TO INVENTORS. Ti-TB GREAT AMBRICAN AND FOREIGN PATENT AGENIY hlesors - MLTNN A CO, Proltriettucs of rite ScucuTuruc Autrurucur iuuhiurno rhocir lututronus rinunt tbuep- usre shill unugungeut nun lurelnaring sinectbicatiuuuns aunt drunutings annul atheundinug Itt tire tuanots if inut-eurrors nun every departmeurt hefutre tint P~utetrt Othice, surcin as Exteunotours, Appeals, Punterfeceunces, cortectunug iuoiuerfcrl painuco sunhnunirteuI to the Patetur Office hp tuncompetent personts, exaussinutung tints tIne usoveity of ioaenrluununo, arg,uung retecled cases, Ac Tine liunug exinerteurce hhesses IIUNN A CO inutue had inn prepariung siuecificunniours annul uic~tuuiuugs, extenusfitug otet it lien-hod of sixteeuu p-ears, mao teunuiered lineuns perfectip- conuersauni urithi tine nosuhe of doing hunsiness at the Unribeth States Pateunt Otbiuc, annul utitli tIne greintec inuortiuf tine inot-enuhitunno tuhuicbr inusue beers inareunted Inufutrurna- lists cousceunsiung the bnateurhtshnitihp of tunuenuttouns is freclp giren, ut-ibhuittub cboarge, tint seundiung a onutniel or duatatung aurd descritnhton to tints tuttiet Cuuuusinlhustton osay he mad avilir tine lirunt, loituteeno anon annul coon uucluuck, ulaily, at their PntNcucutL Oceucs, No 37 Ponun-nour, Nitut VourK IIe huave about a Bausco Os-uncut mu tine CuTY or Wostauruovox, sun tine tOONcO or F AND Scucrueuu-oTnccTs, oluitunsihe the Unuiheut Stales Pat- eni Otlice This utihice is runodet tine getter~uh suupeuinuueunuieunce of onue uuf bite Ituuin, aunul is in daily counsnnruunicuntiuuuu to irhi rite Prinuctinal Olhice inn Neut- York, anudt inersununal atreuntisno arihl Inc pit-cit or his Pareunt Othice to all suncin cases as oray nequntie it Punoeuutuurs aurA otiners autos stay u-toil W~usfniungtoun, inautung tourstuness at tine Pateurt Otfice, are cuurshiativ innunti-ul tin call at ulseic shire Ileosro MUNN A CO ate very exlcussireby engaged inn tine inreinarabtour unnuch sucunriung of Patenrus Ito tint tioriuturs Nunropeunun ciutunuhuies Fur tine tt~tttsacliitn of tints haunsiuness tinep- hate Oulices ar Nos 6$ Chranceup- La not, Luinudrunt ; 29 Hounletanul Sr Abarriun, hturus; anoub 26 Rune ulus Niuu-nuuunuiiu-u s, ilcurossebs lIe riuttiir tue noap- osteip ~ay hliunt su-ueun-eiglnthns ruf all rite Niursuineunun Patents secured to Anunericaur cihizeros are itruictunet tiorruirgin tune Agency P tune ustous at-ill do aau-hi to heat- inn miunub hoot tine Murplisir laut does untul ittusit rite tostre itt huateitlo 10 iusaeuntsrs Amp site cant take sort a ptuhu-nit inn Greust Huttuotun A hututorphet of iunforurraiiuuuu courcecusiog tine burunhoen corurse tin he hauuusuneui mi stnttstnturg pusteunho tiunoungir rineir Ageuucp, tine requitreuneunts of tint hatenur Onutue, Ac , osap- he hash guano inpour aisphictuhiorn at the Priunuiltuni Odice, ot eirhneu tuf thue Brauscises Threp alsus funrnnisli a Circurluor tuf Inilurutuation atnouth Futneigun Paleunto Ttne aunusexeti betters, inson tire last tinree Cuunnmtssiouuec of Paleunts, tue cousnuneurd ro tine boerrosat of nil ~nerosuss tunheresteut tin sbnhainiung Pal- etnbs Ihesses Plume A Co I take pleasture tut olatinug that, uthibe P hnebui tine olhice of Ciiusrnntssitutter if Punuenurs, nuons TOON oun-urouni-cut or ALL TOS sosurunso os- Tntn ocrucs: corns; vuuu;ooouu u-sour ussuns I have nut, duutuht rhar utre innnhnlic cununhiuhennue nintus inuuhicared hoas hetut tulip uhesen-teul, as I hate alutap o stuserueth, in alt puitne iunuu-rcuuuurse urithi tIne Ohlice, a mnurked degree of tnu-ottrlntttess, skull aunt fiutehuip iii tine innuerests of pitur cuuuphunyero Yours, teep- retnip-, CHAS MASON Ponmetiarelp- after- lire ahninoinrlunuenit of Plc bUilt to the office of Post- nrasuer-tAenneeunb tuf blue Unrited Shustes, ire unufdressscoh to no bite surhojutiuneut ten-p gunutifyitug nestiuniounitul Messrs 110am & Co hr atfutrubs ore nuntuchn inleasiure to hue-ur teotiunuouru tot tIne nohie aund elhicienut utonuttier hun tabuicin pour hove ulisciran-geul putuir ditties of Sohictr,nrs of Pareunts uthihe P inaut bite ho-tutor suf hituldiuig rine utihici of (uunrmissiununer Vonun hunsiness avas ten-p luirge, aurd pont srtstutiinusl (uruod, P uhun,uht trust, jiusihy desecuith) tine u-ehutnlatiorr of enueu-a- notukeul ahailiry and uunnconnhuu-unnsisiung uiuletitp tin hoerloruntung --tutu- lttoteeoiuitral eurgagcuuucunts I erp- resiuectfuuhhp, Vorur usheuhir-nut seentunl, s iPOLr Pleostos Plovmo A- Co :Gennlbeuusuunu II gires tine nuntruhi mubuasutre Is sap lintur, shunniurg rite hirsue tf trip lusiulinog line nuitice if Cuunuounnissiuuuuer of Pal- eunts, a a-eu-p hunt-gui puuuhuuurlisnu of nine hursinueso of inuuenntuuu-s hoefuire hire Purl curt Ohlice ttiOO Iranusacteut thiroungin ponuc ageunnP, annul thnttt h oars- suer funrunnul p-sun tailiufuni aund ihi-usteub tnt rise iuuten-usns oh aunnun- clienuts as avuhi as enuniurenruip- qinabilteul to muerfutrnni line ditties of Inureunt Attorurepo urilhn skill aund accrnracp Seep- reshnt-chfinblp-, Vunute tutteufienur serraust, 1151 In IIISHOP Plessus PboruN A Co csuuhialhp tutu-the inersonus utoitiung this nIp, tur resi- denurs, out call tut nhnein opacituins slices, Nut 37 htnrk-rouu, annul extitunitte Pint- unuuolets tuinicin tie tutu exfnthutiunuu, out u-then nit tine axoiks iii n-ell-n-enucc coun- taunted tnt their iuhuracp, access ho utiutch caur tue luau at alt humus Purteurtous caun cuinonnunuricane inn Gerurruoun, Freunch, Shuittnlsit, or treat-hp atop otinen langunage, in sohicitinog tunfon-marinuno frouns thins sulbice Ciectuhaus of intscnratiour ceg~rtdtnip tine lirocuttitog of paleunts, hurinnted tnt Gerninaun, utrap hoe huaui inn nupinticattour Cuunrmruunicahtoiuo aurul renniltances shusoulti tne auhubressed to MUNN & CO., Psnhnhiobnero, Nun 37 Park-rout-, Neta Vunrir NOW WITHIN REACH OF ALLGROVER & BAKERS celeheateth noiseless sesiung unachniunes, Nut 495 Brutauturay, Net, You-k Tire iunuhhic atreuohion to restuecultulip reqineshush ho tine futhlsuriun, condo of Ehias Hunure, Jr, aunt tine Guoret A Hakec 5 N (in (A cacti friutun tIne ticuit-er .5 Burket S Pt Co) Oune patents hetung unsat estahhtoincut hp rite sununcto, are ace eurabnleul ts turuinhola hhne Grotet A Baket ousacisiure, an tilt insupounaunt imlncou-eunieuuho, not greatly ceulsuced morices Tire urnostenahe lurice oh tuinicin macmines noakunug tine Grunt-er A Btokeu stitch, cuonr unutuc hue hail, tin-mugs thueno auttiriun ifuc tetocli of all, annul teunuiens tire use oh unnuociitnues nuntukiung turleutiut stitches as tituttecessisup as into munutuise Peusouns tiesiriung thu e heot machuinres, aurd tIne right rut tuse tineurn, nounsr trot onulp hue ounce ro huny murchiunos cuu~ukhttg rhoc Groter & Baker otitrin, hunt nolsut rhutut sunch unsachiunes ace unashe aussf otanomned ourder sour Inatetuns auuul thuose of Ehiuto Runave, In GROVER & BAIfEII S Pt CO, Nun 495 ilnunadoap, Neur You-k (A cuord frutuin Elias Iltutue, Au-i All peesouns ace cannututured tout hut trr~tke, itt-al inn, on- unse any seut-unug macintures tuhuicit seut- hisnun rut-s sinouuls annA untuulne tine stitch innout-un as hut- Grout-c A Baker stitch, unnuleos tine satire are muorcinaseut trono tine Ilicovic & Baket Seuriung Macmime tinuun~ttoiry, orthein- agenbs, or nicenseus, moth stamped under my pareunt tuf St-~tteiohec tO, 1846 Said cintn~nany, rund thoehe liceussees, atuiune, are hegaihp auntison-ized tinnier tint-tn out-us ituinunuts, nod tiup satut pateurt, dutuinug rhine exteurshed memo rtmereunf, to maine aund sell this kinmul ut seut-inug nnacbninne, rind all ohineus ate bairacuts nupono urup- s-nit purneunt, aund ut-ill he teait uririn accuundiungly tulnereuce futunnid ELIAS lIOlIE, An, Neuv York THE NEW YORK OBSERVER, A RELIGIOUS AND secrulan fanouip mutter, to ihue largest umetuspainen inn tine uuoutd Putt- lished uteekip-, aunt uleutuned Its ruligiunsus, liter~sry, aund secunban iuotefiigeurcu of everp u-arietp- Its uumuuunumuuutiu otneet is ss scrausged as Is esuosrintmnt- tuto cuinmuptere nena-sin:utnersrhne tunic nehigiouno anuit rite unthuen sectuhar each tuf auhotchi itt larger thutoun a nunajunctip of its cuuunteuomuunu-an-ieo hi is until seerartaun in neligiour, niur itunriotiun hut inoltrics, hint ubesiguneul Ilur a pheurs aurul iursrructiu-c ciunopaumioun inn cutup eutungeticat Clocisutaur familt P riosrotughihy courseuuatiue, annul siumuoseul lii alt tine uhioougaunizing tount of dap A large nunuoher of time butt ut-titers of lime age as omneetal cuunnun-ihtun tors aurA cuurceopunurdeuulo, inn toll rime muninucimnal cutununtnies of rue turin-huh, urn sinnited ua-tth a fnsth enhtroritut cormus of lung expericmnce, to gite inntereon tahure ns tine huamnec Tlne Religions Inemnusrrmunemnr, hesiules its euhitut articles aurA corrcspouonientcc, countatuno a soumnsarv tnt rise roost innununctanut unsa-eunseusts of all Cinriortaus deusominaniouno fire Sccnth~nt Simeub, adutitiutun ro the finceigur mmmd domeshic tuetus, trios uhumnaurmeunts of agri tore, of octence, annA of commercetine lathen etonhunaciung full anti ac rate tepocts of nunununep, luntudunce, cattte, and other nunackels, ttl5 lit ni- tinre of guninug to puess Tire price if time Olnoen-rec is $250 a yea advanoce Tut every persons seundiung rio tine noannues if fire nieur sunhusc ero, auttim one p-ears inavuroent inn aduanuce ($1250), uve utull give thue oumno of $5, arlnicir map hi deulmuched fronan time sum forutardeut tin ton Aduinuss SIDNEY N MORSE, An, & (0, No 37 haek-csuv, Neur You-k ENLARGETIENT AND IMPROVEMENT!! ItOONES RURAL NEW YORKER, to tine ht-aubiung aurA largish cit- cunlateut, as ir to conucenteul ho he tIne hocol mmml rmssot useful Agricuuht,iu-uub Horticuiittrrtni, Lutecacp- anuol Paunruly Neutomnatuec ,,f this ice tine Tutefith Volume, cunnonnenocinog auttir Aamntuarp, t561, ut-ill he usoabe- u-tally emnlaugeuf auuul otimertuise inospesued, u-eunnberiusg it osumnecioc to ettineriuf ths rivals or innoitalocs inn size, slyhe, conrteuots, ntc Tine enshauged Room ut-ill cousratun amount unmse-sixthn ursore neading, until coninseurce urilin a Nt-ut Serial lay T S Arnimnuc, Eoq, inn iris hesr style hIs mosthut, Excelsior, and objects, hciugcuos unumut bnuhnruuoeumnenol ut-ill hue nuanmifeored inn bututin matter aund mauntuer, temmulerinug ir utuncrhmp a laugehp- tincretoseub unahitiunal cii- crnlattoun Nour is time time to get TftE BEST, CHEAPEST AND PIOST POPUlAR! Toe Roast Ecta Vonunno cunnoprises eight dosthohe qunuirtut pagen (40 colomuns) An tundex. tithe mnape Ac, pta-en at tIre diutoc out eacin uuilumutui complete toe loturdiung TENPIS, Pm ADvANce :$2 a year; 3 copies fiur $3: 6 fur $10; 10 flit $15; 20 for $25 ~ Nout is the tunre Is sunboscritne annul focuom cluibus line roost hilneral huodocements run chub agenurs; rhine nest yet otteced Shneciusneus nmnumtuern, shout-botils, iusnhuuceuneunrs, Ac , seust free bun all appilcaunho Aniitress In In T PIOORE, Ruininestuc, N V 15 SEMI-STEEL. SEMPSTEEL LOCOMoTIVE TIRES, F IRE-BOX ANI) Tithe Sheets, 011(1 Ilitiler Phil i-a. ~\Tttt.atlteil Ii liv iier tetit at lull gil huh ititite ilitluihIC iltutit the lient Lois Moit qualities iii ion. TIRESltnlied, bho-hi-ul tad welded Ii fit oiiy given di:iiiieter of center. PLATESIhtll(-d an-i nil to nov putt It-en and sic eon level. RolletI attil Ilittit ittereil Bat Atlin atid l-ttvaiogn of saute metal. Any lttvtliev itt fovitia intl halved will he fttvttinlted, and all orders Maiittftetit veil tiy (iJllNJNtl, WINSLOW & Co. Albatty Ivntt Wttrko, Tiny, N. Y. P OITTEIIS TM PROVEI) ( 0 VERNOPS. TIn vehiiltatiiill iii Iltene gorerittirn in st-eli estahiliolteil. P;tvlies lt-nithtlt--l tilt It ititoteatle louver Ittity oct13 fur Ilietit in etitive eiittlitleiiee. They nt-tat fail. Tite tittitet-itito vtilseo in itne tire till equally gonil, if isa-Il tootle; the lot-ni ttf the oliening is itiiiii:itevial. The gitee mitt-n ore tearraitteil lit is-nt-k ltt-llit-lly with aity ttnil all salves, wltieli nitise freelo and dune tiuleruilulr light. A style in made expressly ailaliteil lit ivaterti heels, to si-luirli they it-ill glee a lierfeelly tittihirna titittitill ittitler sits- s-at-ialiiitt ttf tesiniti ote. I tare tine little si-itli li-titthiliog 1115 ettstiiiiti-t-n hit rerlilietiten till 5111 ahie tit tiler In a Itirge lititoli eritf liartien nitit tisitig thin goserlior ~ii ii niajoiitv if lie Stolen if the Uttutiti. 1 is-ill nenil ut gitial- 1101 lit ally reoliilll~iltle tally itt vial. If it does litil olterilie ~ter let- liv it lisay he l-etilvlleil. A lilteral ilineiitlllt lii the Il-aile, ss-ltttne itrib-vo is-ill ihisays he ~ttitln~illy filleil. ChARLES T. PORTER, Niu. 235 Weal Tliirteetitli-nlveii, i-nv lit-v utf Nititli-as-etitte, Ness Yiirk City. 1 13 C IOAL OHSA PRACTICAL TREATISE ON COAL, ltelriiletlnl, aitil nIhtil- lintilled jib, thy Ahivuiliani (desiier. 8so. 111110 illastrated cliiili, $1511. ENIlINEERIN(l. Ellgillec-l-iilg Pri-i-edt-ttln ml- Ste-itt t Mat- htineir, ritiltrat-itig tIm her- lul-illalites iil Si tillinIlilto. Exlti-t-itttt-tiis ti-ills Pi-vthtilling Iltslrallaaellts, Cuittiletisets, Ottilt-in, hi-. Itt-ti stiltitties, Stat. ; Pill illtislr~ited elolb, $:h75. il. Ill., tt-t-ouiilg titi Sit-atti Jackein, is in ruttirne oh lirt-liliratittll. Seat fl-ic ity litulil till leteijit of the tilliOtlIti. BALLIERE BROTIIERS, 25 4 Nix 440 Brtiadtsay, Nets- Ytirk. G IVFAP1DS BOILER INJECTORFOR SUPPLYiNG ttaler tti hoihirs is duet hiressate if sleatit si-itlititit tIn ititeit-eta huts of tilts- nailtinery. the littilliltill tif etigineers uiiiul uttliels intetented is itititiul tit these neiths ititetitetl itisittttttttils, tints- iii v-xliiliitiutti and hun sale hty (IIARLES W. (OPELAND, No. 122 Bi-itailuvay, Ness Yttrha. 24 13~ GROVER & BAKERS SEWING MACHINES DO ALL kitiuls if tnisitlg isitli tisti sittiths withiustit tettittilitig awl stiult the nisly Iii Inhieth attul elastit- iluinlihe Iiitha-otltthu it-lilt-ti tatititit lie ltavnieil Ity si-ashitig attul it-titlitig. We hiatt liath tine of (iritst-r & Bukein tiaclilnes itt tue in tittt faultily liii sitine tune tast, itt-I it is e(ttinitli-liil Ilie lutist ttsefiul at-tit-hi- in the huuuuse, tixI itt the etaitlhe, ittul nit hiss indinhiennahile Ilian lhuitSettursaatiii Aiti-titiCao. Nti. 495 Broaditily, Neis Yuiuk. Setid Ihir a ciuctihar. 22 13 TURBINE WATER WHEEL (WARREN & y~TARRENS ittititis tatitil), tnatiitfuictnretl us thte Atnerican XVtthcr Wheel Coniluatal, Buunuutti. Matitihiieitiiets totiul all those sshio hitise heeiu saulls detitlige, 1-c., ailil ishiti is tutilul tilitti sihiuls ihluit isill gist ihie nest ltrae- tue~ul tenithl sslitui tesicil lip lit n1tiiiille tuttil hiuittli, si-ill In isell In itisesli guite this hitrltitue. Altotit lute hiiiuiihteil hiti-ituties ti tints l~tlui~~ful by hIlt-se it heels iii thin Pulled Sititia, 5i11Ituisnitig. iii ennuintuty, i-tniseuiietiee atitl ellit-leney, ulitiety 101 ceull sihiecls Intl itilleil), auth till silucels siltiehi it lion hakeut uhii- hihilee if These uuhuuiaiueuit ails-atitages are ackuutitvhi-tlgeih hiy Ilte hu-tiuliuig tnatutufiettnevs iii the c-ituitihiy. Seoul luir pSitilihilit (34 htuiges), etitsitiiuiitiu etigrustiuigs, & -e., cuttitilt-te. Itichuise Isso Stiitiil)5. Auhuluess ALONZO WARREN, agutit, Nut 31 Exchittuuge-streel, Bostiun, Mtiss. 23 6~ M ACIIINE BELTING, STEAM PACKING, ENGINE ThOSEThe stupi-rititity tf these tirtieles, mtuuinlhictittetl uth suth- catticeil unhhter, is estahilislietl. Etety tell still lie sant-ratiteul suipeulnin to hesither, it iiuie-hhiird less lithe liii Stetstit Ptit-kiuig is tuittihe iii is-ery sariety, antI ssatrrtttiieul iii sttuuitl 31)0 hi-Is. if ut-at The Ihutne tietet- neeths ullitug, tiutul is titiruttuiteil lit 5t~utiul tiltS let lilirt-ul pi-issttri- ; tiugeiliet- st-lilt all stitieties uuhuuihtueu tiuluihuteil lii ut-u- Iiatilcuil hittliutnes IJitectltuuts, litites, the, -iti lie tihululuitil hty ii ill itt iii liettilsi at tutu truuut- luittist- NEW YOUR IhELTINIl AND PA(l(TN(l COMPANY JOhN II. ChhRl-;VER, Treastirtin, 1 13 Non 37 tiutul 35 Puirk-ruusi, Nt-ti Ytit-hu. O II~! OIL! OIL FOR RAILROAI)S, STEAMERS, AND liii Shachuitiety slid ButiuiiiiaPeunse5 Illilli-osed Shachuiuueuy atid hhtiutihug 11th ssihh susie litty lieu- u-tnt, titiul will hut gut This Oil hum na-snus iioalilies situilly inniullltul liii luuluiiuuiiiuug tututh hiututitig, utuid hitutusul iii tiut ollit-u-it il. 11 is tufleteul ttu thu littlulil uiluutul thu nitust ueliuihhe. thini-- otigli usutul lutuitIlCuth tint Ott- tutuost skillful i-uigiuueu-us ~ttiil unticlulutisho htiuuiiittiiiee it siquiliuti lii ititl ulleahuvi Ihtaut oup tiuhiet, utuitl the nuihy luil uhuil us iii ill tussis u-eliuituhe titiul it-ill hut glib Thu Setunaltete Asutututi is afhit si-si-util lusts, huuui~~ it nui~tititti lii thy iuhhiiu iltey lutist-u-ut-u tuned liii utiutehilun-is liii stilt- lilly lip Ilue Iuisiuituuu tututh Shtiuiuihiictoueu, - h S. PEASE, Nui. 131 3hutiit-siteii, Bitlhishn, N P N. hhRtllutltht mit-un lilleul liii tulip puivl ol 1110 Cuileul Statis titiul Eulitulue. 18 13 SAVE YOUR STEAM.AIOARD & WIGGINS TM- litiutiul Sicatit Tiutli Vtolve, liii -eliesiug suetoun pipes, cyhituders, the, if eutuotetuned isauut By its utni the hutuilir hul-isslire is kelut tip, Ilit- full hicat uiiuiiuiiutiuueul, tutid a lutugi suisluog its fuel utiutuhe Seveutul tliouusatiuln iuf hiune ti-till suihsis tile iii atuitusoftul tine, uttuil sie tWit Ilicun stithi etuulue u-tuuiiithiuice thutut thui~ still uutCuuuuihtllSli till lliutt us-u choini fo Ilteun. heni out illtistititeul ciui-uuiiu iii to tultil uitutulliule. utuhuli-ess a. XV IhOAltI), ~ Proviuleuace E. I. 14 15 PRO B WIGGIN, I SOLID EMERY VULCANITEWE ARE NOW MANU- fuictuiriutg si-lieu-tn if this ui-usiuorktible sutiustuuttue liii- ruttitag, gulutul itig tiutul ~ittlishiiuig itueluils, Ilost is-ill uiuutsseau liutuitlruds iii thic kitid cult- utuitily ausiul, tituth ti-ill thu a utiutult grituter uutiiuuuuutt utf isutik lu the stoutut- Iluisi, tutiul unuurit illicicnthy All iuiteresteth cuiti see ulteuti itt ohtetalioti lit it 11111 it-arehituttie, or cit-colors ulescrililog thu-hi svill be fuiiuiishueuh by nail NEW YORK BELTING AND PACKING CO, 1 13 Nuts 37 intl 35 Psirhuaross, Nets Putik ru HE NEW-YORKER I5RESENTS ITSELF FOR A STILL I lauger aiililuuirtTlii NEWYOIIKER, aluicIhy tton-set-hiiiuuah, a culluihiheti sa-eukhs utthv i-ut- of the isuuthul, literalutut-, rnuuuuuuuice, sotiets, lotush- tuuss uiiutl tiess s, to 15131, still cuitulutli the nhtnicest reanhing nialter, uuuchtud itig uuigiuuuth uaiiiliiuiutttauy utulul luicuti lilIes, itrigiusuil otutuies, original rouitatices, the uugvicuultuututl utathels cuireftully hurehutuled, reouluible edi- torials, itrigiuttil utucusun, htiuittitiis, ihlisiiaiiouis hip the best al-tints liom tinie to Ilitue Alnut, iti IhIE NEW-YORKER, ustuvelties uttut lit be hail itt lilly utthiet sicikhp ptiluiu Ti-tItus liuisuuiitihihy itt advtttici), Situgle copies, $2 ~-r ausnutust ; Its it etuhuies, $3; lituir cuu~til5, $13; eight cutluies, $11; post utiantlis atiul itliers siluti get till iltulis u-uuiu alteristutuls amId aiisgle ttu~ite5 at $h31h Thie hiarties siluti seutnl tus $11 ftur a chili of i-ighut cuupiet (all to he acuit lii nite adnhress), still lte ciuuilleth uti to ciupy fri-u 1 ShAfhhEWS, PI-ilhlrietor, Nn 105 hCuthhtuiinirieh, Ness York WOMEN OF NEW YORKAGENTS (MALE AND fe stain-) stutuited to sell a cuiritmuis tilts hutotuk of ~ (huoruiciers hut the (ity, cuttstainiiug Iuortraiti atuth aketuhues of 313 lis-itog si-utuisi-ti, 40th ~isges, 50 etugruisitugs, hutuumul us liauicy cluitli, tituth usututliul hiutnIltaith Itut $1 Catusuissitug igeutus ahsti si-ausleul fur the ~ Pictutritul Fuituuthy Ness-s liahili uinly 130 ti-tits a petir Slueciusicul cttlutes hI hatuhiur auth ihi-it-riht- titun of botuk seust gruttis $3 ii uha~ hut guind tigeltha is mariohotioly liheruth Address MARIE LOUISE lIANKINS & CO, No 133 Ntisnaua-street, Ness York 1 S CIEN TIFIC REPORTINGPATENT SUITS, INVOLV- iuugu~uuestiuuuu5 utf setut ut-i-itt uuuui-hiuitiics, t-eliot-tetl s-euliatitn; act- utitilic lit-tutu-is, huu the hi ititilt hugs if si-letutilic anuteties, either uc- hiturteul in hull uir ciutudetuseil, huy hENRY M PARKhLURSI, of ulse firs if Burr & Liuril, Shtiiul-luannl Wrilels ausil Lass Rehuumrhems, No 121 Nassuuuu-slteil, Ness York lIf PATENT LAWS OF THE UNITED STATES, WITH -~ SHCROFTS LOW WATER DETECTOR, FOR PRE- uthuel iuufturuuuuutiuouu 01 impturtuluice In Itus-cators, Ptutentees atod As- tX seuttitug the exhmhosiitut or biurtuitig nut ofslearus btuihi-rsBehoss tire siguil-en a less- of the bully hsiuuuilreths nuf eevliticalcs ret-eli-el settibug fiurtli thue JUST hiOthES, utneftuluiens antI cllicieuuep of tip lust Wuiter Desectitr A. st-utrk if itt-eu 1011 page-u, i ibuluuluiltug the Puitetut Lussis if the Uluilcul XYi loose laad its tuse sesirsul si-ulus al otur ssorks usitie of vutuir Lois Stuit i-n isluti alt tilt- I thu uutulti ill fntvuaislsn-tl fustiut the Puitetut Ohhicc relut- Wutter Deucetutri Thoep hutose iii tumuilup iuustuuuuees umolilieil its nuf Ituss isater, thu Iti uha bsitiit u if ut~t~ttyitig fnuu liatetits, fuitusus nit sliccifucalitatin, caseats, atid 010 otie oceuosiiuuu iuuithtuenliiiuauiuihv nosed its frito a set-lotus accinteust re-issutun, uuthiliulutuuuuh itiultrits-euiieuiin, osniguiments, & c ; the wales liii We salnue thueno highly, ausul isuatulul lutti lie ssusluiuuuu thetis okitug tintitutiutup iii cuises of ituterfereisce ibid exienniutuss, ssiils siugges- CIIAS 51 BURNEY, Bontttus Behituig Cn, litutun if iiiihttiutiuuicc regaruhitug the tights of putleusteen, mu tut muirk thacir Roxhunry, Mono lvitliiteih uuuuueluiutcs, the hieuuohty htir tieglectitog to put tubs thoc courect ulutle, sutuil ttthunu itoforussation of inaporlanee tn every iusseustor, potetatee Our ethieriebice taIls us thutit a hihiug is gutnul fitr risive thuous tisam s-earn mr ossugblee iii the (tuitevl Slates ceritliuli I atus so si-ell suuuislieul si-lilt it thuol I shuitaulil html luiohu fur ouu~ Ihui- n-turk also cimtutaiuin an ehmitoune of thue hasus of foreign cotuntries - - - ivithi ilirectinuis hots In sceutre itsseuations ahiroad - thultug else si-ere I hitittiuug its tusote boilers ISAAC HINCKLEY This huuuuuul-huoiik hias beeti careftilly larelmored by tue editous of the Suthil Sherrinsoc Shatttufactutriusg Ctmrluuuraiitun, Litisell, Sass ScueNaleuc AMenucAN, atud it is believed couttaitis tomore thuformatititi of lttuictiiuih ins~mouuauice tn itersons silso ssisls In seettuc hiatebals, or silin Ye lu-usc tus-euulv-uiutc Loss- Water Detectors tAsbertifus Puotetot), Ihiuth uusvuu lluitituhs, iii ssutrk auntler a hiccusse, thuati itbOY oilier lmutbhicatiohs of a - - like tuatutun- isluichi lion es-er beets pnubhishueth tn, utise tuti cuichi boiler We thiluak thseN are hierfecihy rellutiule Pilce, sliughe ciqiles, ty mail, 25 cents; five copies for $1; fifty copies WM BARBOUR, Pacific Shills, Law retuce, Slass fttr ~ I have huath thoetia ito tune ous on soy boilets for tocorhy tsso years, atad ant SIUNN & (0, si-elI luheaseth sailli them, auth hsase ties-el- fosiusnl Ihuent tn futil iii gire the Puthihishers of aloe Scietutific Anmericuuui, al-itait No 37 Parhu-rosv, Nets You-k - - EDWARD HARRIS, Wouttusuuekil Shuts-u We have neveus of viiuuu- Loss Water Deleclors hut tuse 010 out linihers, OUSEHOLD ARTICLE FOR EVERYDAY USE abid have evevy ettusli3heusce Pu Itelt meitug Ihue best ~ Detectuir that Isan H Pati-tit fitv saleA oehf-soahmiusg Scrubbitig Baths or Nail Bruishs heels ofiered its We liusse hituth others, bait afier a tilal, hose giseus (tutu me guI tilt chleohi; as excehhcust opportunity tn nuake unoney Patetut yours thoc pi-efet-etuce gu-tuuutedSh ap 22, 18130 Address WSI TUSCH, Box Nn 773 Ness Ytirk 0 11 PERRY, Shidilheaex Shuituug Co , Losvell, Shass Puist Otice 18 We knoss- of three dufiercuot hihaces its our city is-huere there svutuuhtl hiave beets oevete explonuouss haul II tint huecto ftur ~ouir Deteetuirs CHARLES A. SEELY, CHEMIST, NO. 424 BROADWAY, DEXTER & BROThERS, Pawtucket, Slass Ni-us YuurkAsuthyser of ores, niluterals, articles of comnocuce, & c Aulvice auld itusuraicalon Ito ehteuttical processes geuserally Advice ots I have used Asberofts Lnsv Watet Detector, at Francis & Louittello, ehuetuilcal lutitetits 20 5* No 45 Staidenhatoc, atsd fiusul it hierleetly relituble, durable atod elhicacittnun, _______________________________________________________________________________________ ata itofallible safegtuarnl lrtuns loss of hue atud lorohierty enussequietit ithiOth explosions The sleona melts the lihtig iii lifteets secotods, hirosslitly 11 AYDEN SANDERS & CO., NO. 3013 PEARL-STREET, blossitug the svluisthe Nui oxvduilious esuti uttlut hmloce 11~011 the laltug, as the IL Ness York, unanatfacture every variety of brass wotk for portable uvater sutpplyiuog the unachoine is Iroun she cutiutletised steam that reusoaltus steals etugituco, si-lilsIlco, valves, oil cups, gage coelts, & c 21 t3~ its the elsautoher I isoatid turge all luoteresteul iii give thulo volutaluhe ins provement an early impartial trial GILBERT MT SCOPEY, Nil A~TEDTWO POWER PRESSES OF MEDIUM New York, Slay, 1800 Engineer lor Fraiscis 51 Lutuotrell vv ala e, uviuhutitit hack gear PLANTS SIANFG CO, 24 330 Ness Haven, Cotun G R~e~ts CURIOSITY.PARTICULARS SENT FREE. & CLARK, - 6 240 Biduheford, Slatne AGENT, NO. 3 BOWLING GREEN, C K GODDARD, us Yutrk Outly noatonfacaurer of the Sleel Rhiog and Solid l~tickiiug B atrritug Slachuluies atid Feed Rolls for Wond Cards, the 25 213* YATES IMPROVED PATENT MACHINE FOR SAW- Shituighes hhutudluig E A JUDD, Prttprietnr, Chuiltebsango, Shutuhisoul cutiutuly, N P 3X TI YATES, Ageuli, Ruicluester, Such 25 5* TRAVELING AGENTS WANTEDTO SELL A NEW auth suilniuthile tutachiltie, out counutoissiolt itt saltily tor tertos, ad threns, uviali stulnihi, J IV HARRIS & CO, Bosiots, Stuusn 25 4* PORTABLE STEAM ENGINES6, 8 AND 10-HORSE, at 500, $625 atuth $780 For sale by S C IIILLS, No 12 PhatI- street, Nets Tituk 3 e3sv BOILER PLATE PUNCHES. RUSTS PATENT, tiutiti itfactiureul uuuid sohul my the liunpriittir of 1110 hiateist, S C IIILLS, Nut 12 Plattstreet, Ness Ynvk Price $150 1 cuts EW SHINGLE MACHINE~HAT WILL RIVE AND N Shave 24,000 Shuingies its a day, for sale by S C HILLS, No 12 Phalt-street, Ness York 1 If W OODWORTH PLANERSIRON FRAMES TO PLANE 15 in 24 hit-lies uvide, at $90 to $110 For sale by S C tIILLS Nn 12 Pltttt-streel, Ness Yoik 3 tf ~y~j AGENTS WANTEDTO SELL FIVE NEW ituvetatuotosimuic sery receust, abid of great sahate to ftuttiilies All ~uay gb-eat profits to age13ts Senth Ibtur suattuhus and get 80 pages hiarlienluirs 117 13*] EPHRAISI BROWN, Louvell, Shass IRON BAR CUTTERSNO MACHINE SHOP, C ~ or snuall, ohoutld be uvithuont aliens For cireutharn address CRESSON & HUBBARD, No 1,501 Peustssylvattia-avetsue, Philaulel- hililO 22 50 GUILD & GARRISONS STEAM PUMPS FOR ALL kitids if ituthepetodeust Steutun Piumpitig, ftmr sahe at Nos 55 atid 57 hcirotstreet, Wiiliastshiiurghi, L I, atud No 74 Beekniuuusstreet, Ness Yumrk [1 2131 GUILD, GARRISON & CO SAVE YOUR STEAMLAPHAMS STEAM TRAPS are huerfeelly rehiable for all piurpimoes atid under all degreci of pt-es sure Scuit ttm respotisible parties out trial For circauhars or traps, ad ulvuss C A DURGIN, No 335 Broadivay, Ness York 23 45 CHESTER GUILD & SONS, MANUFACTURERS OF hueltitug leathict, No 113 Bhaeksaouuustreeh, Boston, Staso 14 33* ~fASONS PATENT STORE WINDOW VENTILATOR L~I(patetsted Jots 24, 18130), totally hureveuslscosdeussatiuluu, frost, heat, auth thu restilting uhanoage to goods exposeul hut shuosv uvituiluissa Righoto, stiughe vir uhistriet futt sale hiss Ahihihy to S H SIASON, No 1,522 North Fituorthistreel, Pisihadehphoia, Pa 24 4* T RON PLANERS, ENGINE LATHES, AND OTHER Slaehtittists Tuunils, of suiperinur quality, out htautul and hitoishituig, titod hr suihe hoss also llarrisouts Grain Shills For descriptive elbeular ad hess Ness thaven Slanufacturitog Cousipany, New Haven, Cotuts 3 26* PUMPS! PUMPS!! PUMPS! ! CARYS IMPROVED Etitary Fotee Putusli, aunrivaheul fttr pibtnhmisI litot or culd hi qutids Slanuufaetuuueil and solnl by CARP & BRAINERD, Brockhilt i-IN P Alsut, sumhd hmy J C CARP, No 2 Astor Ilotise, Ness Yitrk City 11 13 $ COPYING PRESS, WITH WRITING CASE. 1 Portalile atod durable, atod copica instaustly atid ~terfeelly Price hty mail, ovuth copying hook, $127 Agents are uvanhed hut cuitovass, atoul attune are istakitig over $5 a day selling this article Address, ovills stattip, the tuiatutufioctttrer, J H ATWATER,Providebuce, R I 1 2~ 3tir ~3~nef)tuur~ tOt bCIItlCllC ~~t1uibev. 1$llh?~lCbChh, RhO) l.letfdl jolgeR ju)Ift)e ~) tCItii~ CIII bie~eIbehl. (~rjinber, 50elet)e lhiCI)t mit bet Cll~3 lileI)eH (~1tCIcI)C bef~3hhllt fIhIb, tillIhIeht iige~~lRtttI~eiIuH~3eR HI bet belltjd)eR I~~rclcI)c mcteI)C11. 1Zit~eH OMI (ItfhHbUltl3CH mit tUtICH, belItliCt) ~e- fcl)tie0chlen 58e1c()teit)1lR~eR Iselielme 3113311 IR ftbbtC~hlYhh CIII $)hulhh ~13 37 1jRrrt ~Rustv, IReOs ?)u,rt. 2tuj bcv Zifice toivb beutjcI~ iej~srohf)e1l. ZuIeIIsjt 41 ~u lytben: ~~ie ~atent-~$je~ef~e bet t~Ietei4en ~taden, hleltit ben ~te~eIn UHb bet ~5ejd~3It$0tbh31lh1u3 bet IjICItelits Zjfice BhIb 2IflIeitHlt~efl jut ~tjiflbet, Hill jilt) S~ICItChlte 311 - Pd)Ctn, 411 bell Qet. 1~t. juMi)0I)t CLI$ HI (Jh1th)~3l3. ~etoet 2(u~- ii~C Cluti bell Ilteilt (~5e~et)ehl jtembet ~l1flbet Illib bCItfIllj be ~iic~tid)e3IatI4ct~IeI33e; ebenfcdt~ nn1~Iid)e ~Ii3iute jilt I~tfin bet 1mb justd~e, tveteI~e VCItelltiten Osoll en. SIANnATTAN Gus Wontus, 34th-al Suasiots, Ness- Pork, Atugiust 5, 15130 Stesars AsucoorT 51 CoGenthetoses Aftet tluoroughohy teslitog pour Loss Wutter Deteettur, I aun fully conuitoced that it ssill iitsabiuiholy per- form jaunt us-hat pont claim liir it Atop persots of ordituaty cahiaciup uvill at onec compreheusnh its priiueiples as well as the certatusty of its aetituts A funihihe p111g. disnolviusg by the action of sleato, in all eases, is everything that can he desired had you entosirueled a device ihepetuth- ing tupon meehtatoleal, itontead of hilOihOOnphslt-al pribocilmles fot its tiethuiti, potir inueuotious enaulul have hiceti opets to alse grave choarge of itocoti- sisiency hut ohieratbots Alluiw bloc to uadd in cuiticlausiots, uduat yoiur its veushutiti possesses the linus-er an fturee itself ituto niitiee, aisul slitiuhul hue hihaceth ous ateans boilers uuushveusalhs Ponius Ittuls - I 31 J SWEET Nos 134, 1313, 138, 70 72 ANO 74 WAsOINoToNsans;sT, New Pork, Fehi 1, 18130 Sin H II AsucoorTDear Sir; It athimrds memtuehs pleasure Iii state tlsat hoavitog huad potur Loss- Water Detectors iii tine at say factory utearhy one yeah- I find tlseuoa perfectly reliable Its thiuce or ihttu ituotatuces they have given us timely ssarnlusg of hour uvaler If everybody ossusing boilers tuned Asherolts Loss Hater Detector, the it Utulos uvututhd lie safe Pours, renpecufailly, B T BABBITT Orrict-: OC TOE SIANHATTAN Gas Wona, t8Tn-sT STATIoN, New- York, Aulgust 1 15130 Slennus AsIuCooCT & CoGeusus u It is uviths pleasute I hueat lesti- notmuiv tuu the salute itf your Paicuit Ltuss Water Deteeatmr, as a sittuple oulul euslirclv reliable luodicator of a defichetoep of uvaher its steast hotlern Di- cideilly, it tn stulierior in am ohohmaratuus I base yet scetm, sulsieli has beeti hustrodateed lor a niuruilar hituloose Resjmecifumhhs, JOS A SABBATOPI, ClilefEngiuseerM G LI Co We have in use Ashierofts Loss Water Deleetor, and fliad it equal In all poll ehaitis for it Its operation is certain, itosurimig a satpp1y of ivater at all tiunes in the boiler C G HAMSIOND, Genl Stupi Chicagtu, Etirlinglon antI Qutiney H H I huave attoehued quite a usuumber of thse the Loss Water Delecions noysehf, antI Isave sects a great tutatip more itt hoe I have ahsui luisuouvut thoetos itt a toattober of tiustutusees to sase butileis, atud its tin tusatausce hose I knosss them to fail itt ease of loss uvater P B KING, Inopeetor of Steam Boiheus, Louveth, Mono, atad tuveuuty years Slasler Sleelmatihe, Bostous atud Louvell H R Ii has ohacrated to otut- salisfuaculimut, ousul hum uses-er faihetl to aulvise abs wlteut the svauev itt Iloc bother laos reached a hiohuut lutus cuonuglt to call Ihue Detector hub action WSI B SSIITIh, Sees Rusasell 51 Irssiuag SIatoufuielnmriuu~ Co, tsusts PoovuneNCun, Nov 13, 1H9 SIn H H A5bIcnOeTDeOr Sir: It gives tue great lthl-asure Iii iesitfs tui Ilme ausefauhuiess of potur Loss Water Detector, atud to say that I huavi the greatest cotofidetuce in its ntperauiouu ic toots have abutaut hut-it huatndred ahmphied ttm boilers in thoin chip-; anune loose hmeemi its tune ilmuec ~-ears, and ito ton itunlatuce lutuse failed ato glue nuttice itf loss suater Itt alsis cliv it has deteuheul lots ssateu at leant tsseumus-lise thames suhilmium Ilme last three years therefore it is tuiefiul toot itumip itt saultog liii tunilern frouss dentrumeuitita, hmutt his all probability it has hoceut Ilse smeass of sumuiiug tusamoy liven N I BARTLETT, of Steatos lluc City of Pi-tuvinleus Ihsnlmeetor Boilers for - ce, h-C I Slesors AsocoorT & Co Thue Loss Waler Deteetot atiachueth hip you to otir boiler huas putusid itself all ulsat ssas relireseuoheti, as use have mehteth seseral hihiugs hut less ulsaus half a mitonute Irosm thue iltue thu- usustet got doss-n an alue lonuitot at suhieli Ihse huodicator ssas set We maduumire its simplicity, there beitig too littluols about it rcu~nuiribug aiteuuthuustmo stumfihug boxes or othuet ciubourivuobuces tequuiriumg the atteustion oh time euuoiuueer an thoere is no heat- friiso Iseat, ciulul, runt tir sedinseust Oe eotssiultr Ilte mote it is let ahoume the helter this, uttud use also coussinlir the Delecitur a perleet sategauarnh agolumat ltmss of life amod hiroperty by exhiloShOhs, auth svinhm -such a safeguard ivan on es eu-v butilem itt hoe latod - FRANCIS 51 LOUTRELL New Pork, Jutuse 8, 18130 LouvoIt, SlAss SIatehs 25, 1810 Sleonro Asaucitora 51 Co In reply to ytiuro of the 22d tilt, I uvotuhul nay Ilsat sue huavi- ten oh your Loss Water Deleetors 010 ntur btuihers mit thin Boott Collumum Mills, ustuni alutot Ilse Imisitho luase mi-en hut Imluice fttumm ~eaun atuil thuets bees melteul his Ilse adios of tIme steasm I do that see huts uuui~ hemsgthm r~ tiumue cams elsunmite ahucir fuusihile u1uuuillutes Putuaro, 51-c, PRO F SAUTELT, Eusgiuseer it iii Bonut Cothous thille F O~c ~~AGRICUT~1RAL ~ N P Fotutudry built of aloume, 23x52 feet; usoocluhuse sloohi, usood shsuthm, sluous- rotmms ausul tulliuc are tim a nitric mimuul a huumhf sultry bnmilulitsg 39x52 feel This entuiblinhmummeuut is tooss its liectict tusumuumiog tim-tIer It has um ti-liable ustutem, rtmhlutiauh titud caumal couuunuuutuieatiouo atod is bonus ihohuig a goutil licuil butoiutess, uvhshehm is us-itlinuit cosilmetithots It is oflered at a loss- pu-ice aumul out liberal terms Address J 51 51 5 IV BALDWIN, Balduvhumsvihhe, Ousnuidaga coutoty, N P 1 R ~TEPHENS DYES FOR STAINING INFERIOR WOOD (910 hummitate black ivaltotit, mahogany, satiut uvonul, rumneusumod, or oak Speciuneuts antI plain haccituses setot to all parts of thse States nut receiltt of 15 edits C J REILLY, No 70 William-street, Ness York 1 50 THE NEW BRICK MACHINE IS GRADUALLY EX- usding oser the Utoitel Sututes atod Causada; is uvouked by one hiatt, lip horse atud his stetutti; noakes frttuuu 4,0130 to 25,000 hoticks a day; costs ft-nun $75 lit $400 Pity further hioriheuluirs Ito a pausplihet giving fuoll utustriuchituss ous lirick-setttuog otod lmnuvusitog, anldress, enelussing three atamoops, FRANCIS H SSIIfhI, Baltiussuire 1 13* A MESSIEURS LES INVENTEURSAVIS IMPORTANT. il. Leo Invototetirs toitto htusailiers avee ha latogue Anglaise et qui pm flreraicust tuous eoussmusiqnter leurs huovetohinbos en Frangais, petovetot IiOltS adreoser ulauss letuc luitugute umatale Envniyez tonius tium desaiti ci nne deseriplion cotucise piutur utotre etasoeti Tutumies eomtuuusicsmtions scunuit regibes cut cnuuliihu-uuee SIUNN 51 Co1 SeleNTurue AsutunucAN ORce, No 37 Pumrk-tow, Ness Yotk 16 Improved Sawing Machine. The unlhnited field which is open to inventors, and the boundless fertility of ideas which is constantly busy in filling this field, are both strikingly illustrated in the invention here represented. In working wood by carpenters and others, a great deal of labor is expend- ed in sawing boards lengthwise ripping them, as it is calledand this work requires not only a true eye and hand, but a certain measure of skill which is the result of long training. By this machine, the operation is performed by any boy, however inexpe- rienced, or any workman, however unskillful. The saw, A, is strained between the ends of the two levers, B B, the opposite ends of these levers being connected by the cross bands, C C, and the straining rods, B. Each lever has its fulcrum on the rocking bar, D D, and the upper cross bar, C, serves as a handle for the workman, by moving which up and down he operates the machine, giving motion to the saw. The stuff rests upon the roller, F, by the rota- tion of which it is fed along to the saw the roller re- ceiving motion from the lower rocking bar, III, through the intervention of the rod and ratchet wheel, as shown. The weight, G, rests upon the stuff to hold it down, while the guide, H, keeps it in place as it slides along. The advantages of this machine are thus stated by the inventor: It can be manipulated to good ad- vantage in shops where woodwork is carried on to any extent, where steam or water power has not been in- troduced, for ripping up plank and boards into differ- ent widths. One man will do as much work on one of these machines as three will with the ordinary hand saw in the same time, and the work is not nearly so laborious. It is self-feeding, and gages the width as it saws, and always leaves a square edge on the stnff which needs very little dressing afterwt~r~ with the plane. It occupies but a very sifiall space in a shop 8x6 feet. In ripping long stuff, there should be two trusselsone before and one behind the machinewith rollers to carry along the stuff. It cannot easily get out of order, can be worked by any person who is not a mechanic; even a boy fifteen years old will operate it. Lastly, the price brings it within reach of every mechanic who has a shop. The patent for this invention was granted, through the Scientific American Patent Agency, on Dec. 11, 1860; and further information in relation to it may he obtained by addressing the inventor, D. B. BarthoL omew, at Lancaster, Pa. Since the above description of Mr. Bartholomews Sawing Machine was in type, we received the an- nexed letter from the inventor, which we take the liberty of appending: MEssRs. MURN & Co.This morning I came into possession of my Letters Patent for the Hand-sawing Ma- chine, for which you will please accept my thanks. You have been very successful in prosecuting my case before the Patent Office, and bringing it to a satisfactory termina- tion by giving me ingenious claims that are not likely to be nvaded. Your ingenuity and skill in executing drawings and drawing up specifications is a model piece of work, in my judgment, not to be equalled by any other attorneys in the country. I feel proud in saying that we have such an institution as Muna & Co.s Patent Agency, through whom inventors can always receive justice at the Patent Office. This is the second patent I have received through your agency. Should I be so fortunate in the future as to invent anything worthy of a patent, I shall procure your services in preference to any other. I re main, yours truly D. B. BAErHOLOMEw. Lancaster, Pa., Dec. 13, 1860. Stanards Window Sash Pulleys. The annexed engraving represents a novel device for raising and lowering window sashes, and holding them in any desired position. A cord, b, is fastened with one end to the top of the lower sash, and the other end to the middle of the up- per sash at one time, this cord passing over a hanging pulley, c. The pulley, c, is supported by a cord, d, which passes over the fixed pulleys, g and e, and is joined to the cord, d, which supports the hanging pul- ley, c, similar to the pulley, c, but on the opposite side of the window. The cord, 6, which passes over the pulley, c, is similar to the cord, 6, and is fastened to the sashes in the same manner, but on the opposite side. The cord, d, supports in its bight the pulley, f, so that, by drawing down this pulley, both ends of the cord, d, are raised, carrying up the two hanging pul- leys, c and c, to which they are fastened. To the pul- ley, f, is attached the cord, i, which passes down and around the spool, k. Now, to raise the lower sash the spool, k, is turned to draw down the pulley, f; while turning the spool in the opposite direction lowers the upper sash. A ratchet and pawl hold the spool from turning back to drop the upper sash, which, of course, tends to fall by its own weight. A cord, i, is fastened to the pawi to draw it away from the ratchet when the upper sash is to be lowered. By leaving the pawl in the ratchet, so as to hold the hanging pulleys stationary, and taking hold of the lower sash, the window may be opened at the top and bottom at the same time; the upper sash falling just as much as the lower one rises. It will be seen that the middle stop between the sashes must extend upward only about half the hight of the upper sash, in order not to interfere with the movements of the pulleys. Application for a patent for this ingenious invention has been made through the Scientific American Patent Agency, and further information in relation to it may be obtained by addressing the inventor, H. T. Stanard, Wayne, Mich. SOME samples of very fine Persian cotton have lately been received in Belgium from Trebisonde, which have been found well adapted for making lace. SCIENTIFIC_AMERICAN. THE BEST MECHANICAL PAPER IN THE WORLD. SEVENTEENTH YEAR h VOLUME IV.NEW SERIES. A new volume of this widely circulated paper commences about the 1st of January and 1st of July each year. Every number contains six- teen pages of useful information, and from five to ten original engrav- ings of new inventions and discoveries, all of which are prepared ex- pecooly for its columns. The SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN is devoted to the interests of Popular Science, tie Mechanic Arts, Manufaciures, Inventions, Agriculture Commerce and the Industrial Pursuits generally, and is valuable and instructive not only in the Workshop and Manufactory, but also in the Household, the Library and the Reading Room. The SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN has the reputation, at home and abroad, of being the best weekly publication devoted to mechanical and industrial pursuits nosy published, and the publishers are determined to keep up the reputation they have earned during the SIXTEEN YEARS they have been connected with its publication. To the Istrentor! The SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN is indispensable to every inventor, it not only contains illustrated descriptions of nearly all the best inven- tions as they come out, but each number contains an Official List of the Claims of all the Pateols issued from the United Slates Patent Office during the week previous; thus giving a correct history of the progress of inventions in this country. We are also receiving, every week, the best scientific journals of Great Britain, France, and Germany ; thus placing in our possession all that is transpiring in mechanical science and art in those old countries. We shall continue to transfer to our columns copious extracts from these journals of whatever we may deem of interest to our readers. To Ute Mechanic and Manufacturer? No person engaged in any of the mechanical pursuits should think ot doitsg without the ScIENTiFIc AMERiCAN. It costs but four cents per week; every number contains from six to ten engravings of new ma- chines and inventions, which cannot be found its any other publication. It is an established rule of the publishers to insert none but original eli- gravings, and those of the first-class in the art, drawn and engraved by expericisced persoiss under their own supervision. Ghemists, Arcltitects, Millwrights and Farm s! The SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN will be found a nlost useful journal to them. All the new discoveries in the science of chemistry are given its its columns, and the interests of the architect and carpenter ate not overlooked ; all the new inventions and discoveries appertaining to these pursi4jts being published from week to week. Useful and practi- cal information appertaining to the interests of millwrights and mill- owners will bd found published in the SCIENTIFIC AlEERICAN, which in- formation they cannot possibly obtain from any other source. Sublecis in which planters and farmers are interested will be found discussed in this ScIENTIFIc AM RIcAN; moot of the improvemelits in agricultural implemeists beingillustrated in its columns. Terms. To mail subocribers:Tsvo Dollars per annum, or One Dollar for six ruotiths. One Dollar pays for one complete volume of 416 pages; two volumes comprise one year. Club Rates. Five Copies, for Six Months -- .. - Teti Copies, for Six Mouttis Ten Ctpies, for Twelve Thtnths .. ~15 Fifleets Copies, for Twelve Months Twenty Copies, for Twelve Months S28 For all chubs of Twenty and over, the yearly subscription is only $1.40. Names can be sent in at different times and from different Post-offices. Specimen copies will be sent gratis to any part of the country. Southern, Western and Canadian money or Post-office stamps taken at par for subscriptions. Canadian subscribers will please to remit 26 cenis extra on each years stitiws ~ptiou to pie pa, postage. MUNN & CC., Publishers, No 37 Psi k-i-ow, New York. BARTHOLOMEWS IMPROVED SAWING MACHIKE.

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Scientific American. / New Series, Volume 4, Issue 2 Scientific American, inc. etc. New York Jan 12, 1861 1004 002
Scientific American. / New Series, Volume 4, Issue 2 17-32

C A JOURNAL OF PRACTICAL INFORMATION IN ART, SCiENCE, MECHANICS, AGRICULTURE, ChEMISTRY, AND MANUFACTURES. VOL. IV.---NO. 2. NEW YORK, JANUARY 12, 1861. NEW SERIES. Improved Rice Mill. Fig. 1 is a porspective view of the machine; Fig. 2 lice has been called the universal food of man, is a vertical section Fig. 3 is a view of the revolving and with much propriety, as it is more generally used attrition screw, with refrigerating scoops on it~ shaft, as an article of diet than any other vegetable product. and Fig. 4 is a perspective view of the screw hub in an Some very interesting statistics respecting the rice crop of various coun- tries, and the modes of using it, will be found on the succeeding page.] As rice is mostly the product of tropical and intertropi cal countries, nature has provided the kernel of it with a very tenacious coat of husks, which afford it protection against the attacks of various insects that abound in those re- gions. These coatings also serve the benign l)U~l)O5~ of preventing the rice from becoming unduly heated when transported (lry in bulk to distant countries. It is, therefore, now gener- ally shipped in husk, but, in order to prepare it for marketable plirl)08e5, the husk or coating has first to be remove(l frem the clean, beautiful kernels or grains. The mechanism which has hitherto been usually employed is very ru(le, an(l far from being efficient for the purpose. In its rough state, rice is called paddy, and the coarse outer husks are removed by careful rubbing between stones which leave the inner coat or cuticle still adhering with great tenacity, and its removal requiring very peculiar modes of operation. It is custonsary to do this by a beetling process, pestles hem0 elevated and allowed to drop successively into the rice, which is (leposited in a mortar, until the cuticle is separated. This process is very slow, and involves much waste by breaking the grains. Experience has demonstrated that the best way to remove the inner cuticle of rice is by attrition or the rubbing of the grains against one another. By this process, however, the rice is liable to become so heated by the friction generated by the rapid movement of the kernels against one another as to become quite brittle, in which condition much of it is liable to be broken ; thus greatly diminishing its marketable value, besides no inconsiderable portion of it is carried off in the chaff. The improved rice cleaning machine represented by the accompanying engravings is entirely different in its construction and operation from the rice beetling ma- chines; it operates upon the rice by attrition, through the instrumentality of a revolving section screw and a fh~ring lamb, amimle provision being made for keeping the rice from becoming overheated by introducing cold water between the inner and outer casings of the pct, so that the operation may be performed rapidly, and the scouring of the rice effected in a superior manner, with very little waste, as may be inferred from the fol- lowing description of the machine. inverted position, to show the minute channels on its under edge to admit air in from below to the center of the mass. Similar letters refer to like parts on all the figures. A represents a strong frame for supporting the mechanism; B is a metal oblong pot of an egg- shape, which contains the rice. It is formed with double sides, having a water space, L, between them for the purpose of receiving a stream of water to keep the pot and contents cool. The bottom, b, is secured by a hinge to the pot at one side, and held by a suita- ble lever catch, r, at the other. A nozzle IRis in- serted into the center of the bottom for air to pass freely up into the mass ; a is a vertical shaft mounted in suitable bearings in the frame, and extending down through the center of the pot to its bottom; C is a hub secured upon its lower part. There are three sec- tional screw blades, c c c, secured on the hub, and it is of a trumpet or flaring shape. On its under edge are a series of narrow air channels, c, inclined in a direction contrary to the rotation of the shaft. The hub rotates close to the bottom of the pot, and neither rice nor chaff can 0et under it. (~peretien. - The p ot being filled with the rice, the shaft, a, is set in mo- tion and made to rotate rapidly. The rice is sub- jected to a complete rub- bing and scouring action, and a constant circulation of all the grains is carried on from the top down at the center, and upward at the sides. It is drawn into the center, and passes through the spaces be- tween the blades, c, and is rubbed between them and the smooth bottom; thence it is forced outward toward the circumference, and is driven upward to the top along the sides. By this mode of attrition, the inner cuticle of the rice is rapidly removed and a complete scouring action effected, so as to produce beautiful, clean and smooth kernels. It will be ob- served that, by the curvature or flare of the hub and smooth bottom of the pot, the circulation of the rice and the effectual rubbing of the grains upon one an- other are secured. A very great pressure is exerted by the superincumbent column of rice upon the bottom and yet it is evident that a complete circulation, with a powerful rubbing action, are combined in the opera- tion. When this operation is effected, the shaft is stopped, and the bottom opened by unfastening the catch, r, as shown by the dotted lines, when the rice drops below into a receptacle provided for it. This mode of cooling the pot will generally be suffi- cient, but as some kinds of ricesuch as that of Cuba and the Indiesare more difficult to clean than that of South Carolina, it may be sometimes necessary to drive the mill with a very high velocity, thus causing increased friction and heat among the grains of rice. Other refrigerating appliances are also represented, which may be employed or thrown out of gear by a clutch on shaft, a, according to circumstances. These appliances consist of an arrangement for carrying up the rice regularly while being rubbed, and exposing it to the air to cool; then conveying it down again in a stream to the center of the pot, so as to secure a complete cooling and attrition circulation at the same KASES IMPROVED RICE MILL. 18 tune. A flange, b, encircles the inner side of the post, near its top the scoops, d, on the cross arms, D, on the shaft, e, ~s they rcvolve, catch the rice as it rises to the to1) at tlit sides, nis1 sweep it into the inclined trouTh F, through the opening, c. An elevator, E, then carries the rice up to a cooling tub, F, which has (l(oll)le l)ottom, forming a space through which a stream of water circulates. A vertical shaft, G, in the tuh, I, has a serIes of spreaders or rakes on it, which scatter the rice, and, as they revolve, the grains are car- ried gradually from the sides to the center in a spiral (nurSe and expose(1 to the air. After this, they (Irop down by the tuls or h~pper 1)0!!. H, into the center of the pot to go through the scouring process again and so on, until the rice is p(rf(-ctly cleaned. The water for cooling l)111poses is first con(lucte(l from the cistern, T, around the lIottoin of the cooling tuh, F an(l from thence it (lcsccn(ls through pipe, K, to the water silace, L, and then it passes out by a waste pipe, ~ The same water may 1)e caught in a cistern, cooled with ice, and pumped up through, pipe, Z, to perform duty over again. Coiled pipes, containing water, may also 1)0 use,l, an(l either an elevate(l cistern or force pump may be c)nl)loye(l to maintain the circulation of the water in the cooling spaces. We bace (leseril)e(1 the openition and working of this machine so that it will he un(lerstoo(l by all. The sani~ mechanism is claimed by the inventor to be (fud lv applical Ic to the scouring of wheat, barley, (oboe & c. A patent was granted for this inyention on the 20th of Noveml)er last, to Simon P. 1{ase, of ISanville, Pa., hOt who has an office at No. 61 Annstreet, this city, wheu he may be addresse(l. Statistics of Rice. Rice, as an article of food and commerce, hol(ls an important 1)15cc among the staple products of the soil, an(l, in view of the enormous annual production (esti- mate(l by the best authorities at over 100,000,000 bushels), it is not a little remarkable that, up to the Plesemit time, mi~ ilnploVenlOmlt whatever has l)een made upon the rll(le and ilnlsrfect rice-cleaning mnaclunery in use lumndreds of years ago. A striking yiew of the ric( lmsiness of the world, an(l the necessity of rapid- ty, e(onomy and thoroughness in preparing it for market. an(l a few statistics on its l)lo(luction and con sumnj)tion, will h) of interest here an(l, in view of the great dependen(c sO gcmierallv hnd among those (East- ern) nations upon ice as food, the quantity consumed has not been estimated less than 3 oz. per head per (layor, in round munullers, 70 lbs. per head l)(r an- mon. ~1he latest returns of the numbers in those countries giye li11,343,916 souls, and the rice crops are estimated at 62.b0,002,000 lbsabout ~0 per cent greater than the Indian corn crop of the United States. The following are the mimber of persons in the East whose food is chiefly rice, either grown on their own and tile Black Sea; Austria grew, imi 1841, 105,000,000 lbs., chiefly on the coast of tile Adriatic. In Egypt aild on the island of Borneo, rice is grown in large quantities. The Cape Verde and Jonian Islands, Euro- pean amld Asiatic Turkey, Greece and the States of Brazil, New Grenada, Veuzuela, La Plata, Paraguay, Uruguay and the Guineas, in South America, produce riceand, in some portions of their territories, in con- siderable quantities. Tile crop of the United States, according to tile na- tiomlal censmms, was, in 1840 and 1550, as follows: mue~ caoa OF THE UNITED STATES. 1840. Alahammma, Ills 149,019 Arkansas 544 Georgia 12,384,732 Illinois 400 Kentucky 10,370 Lommisiana 3004,534 Mississippi 777,1911 Missouri 51) North Carolina 2,820,388 South Carolina 011,590,801 Tennessee 7077 Texas Virginia 2,980 Florida 481,420 Total 80,841,422 The surplus of the United States, one year with an- other, exported, ranges from $2,000,000 to $2,500,000 in value ; and its uses in Germany have much increased simlee the reductioml of the duty in 1838. In years of short crops in Europe, the rice of Asia comes in freely, and at rates cheaper than the United States article can 1(0 sold. It is. of course, tile case that, in those years when the grain crops of Europe fail and food iS (lear the rice is drawn in greater qinmamitities from those Easterml countries. Tile followimg table sIlows the usual qimmltities wllich annually find their way to Eu- rope RICE EXPORTED FROM LEADING PROmhl-cING coI-NTRsEs. Manilla, lbs 18,340,000 Sumatra 90,000,000 Ceylon 70,000,000 Malabar 210,000,000 Akyab 181,440,000 Maulmaiml 157,500,000 Calcutta 734,900,0(10 Java 122,000,000 Sardinia 24,100,000 United States 45,000,000 Total 1,059,340,000 A very considerable portion of this rice fimlds its way to Emmrope, and the quantities imported into the lead- ing countries were as follows: Great Britain, ills Holland France Switzerland Denmark Greece Bremen Eruhec Ilanuhumug 413,090,900 110,511,201 70,000,000 00.799,191 12,547,311 7,788,452 1.387,144 15,101,000 1,191 104 3,500,000 Total. 090,021,403 These figures give some idea of the immense impor- tance of the rice crop to the human race. If we con- template the details of the trade, we are struck with the fact that, in the preparation of an article of such prinle importance for the market, no advancenot even in the middle of the nineteenth centuryhas been made above barbarism. The Chinese mode of cleansing is to work the rude pestle by hand or water. The water power is a wooden beam, fashioned in the shape of a spoon. This is sup- ported near the bowl on an upright (If about two feet. From the long end depends the pestle, which drops into the rice held in a wooden basin; a little stream of water is led into the bowl of the spoon, which, ________ when full, weighs down, and, by so doing, lifts the pestle at the other end ; the water then spills out of These countries produce other grains and articles of the spoon, and allows the pestle to fall into the rice. food to some extent ; but rice is the chief fare, and There are some other equally curious applications of when flesh is linsed, it is ininsually cooked with rice. The power to the cleaning of the rice. In Sumatra, the consumption of the ailove countries ileitlg about 62,- hunches of paddy are spread on mats and the grain rub- 176,000,000 lbs., there memains for export a considera- bed out by the action of the feet, the operator sup- ide quantity, which finds its way to the countries of porting his hands by a bamboo placed horizontally over Eturope to a greater or less extent, according to the his headthe xvhole suggestive of a sailors hornpipe. rates of freight or the dearness of food in Europe. In Java, the cleaning is performed by equally dexter- In additioml to tile rice-producing countries mention- ous movements of the feet, but, to some extent, ed in the above tai(le, we may state that the Italian wooden pestles and mortars are used by the women. States grow rice iamgeiv, exporting, on an average, an In Japan, the mode of cleaning is equal to that of any amount valued at ailout 8,000,OOOf. Portugal grew, other country, not excepting the United States. Ami in 1851, 11,000,000 lbs. ; Spain grows it extensively on undershot water wheel turns a shaft, to which are the coast of the Mediterranean; Rmmssia produces a affixed short arms ; these, as they move, work a row hardy variety of rice on tIle coast of time Sea of Azof of wooden pommuders dropping into mortarsthe same as may be seen, less artistically made, working for tlae same purpose in New York to-day, as follows: the rice is first run through a pair of heavy millstones about six feet in diameter, at the rate of 100 bushels per iaour, which grinds off the hull ; thence into lamge wooden mortars, which hold about 2~ bushels each, in wilich it is polluded by large iron-shod pestles, weigh- ing from 300 to 400 lbs., for the space of some two hours. Tile pounded rice is then elevated and passes through a vertical larusililIg screen revolving rapidly. which polishes tile flimaty grain ; from thence it de- scends through a molling screen to sepamate whole grains from tile lookemi, ammml flomur from botil, and (IC- livers it fully llrellare(l imato tile l(arrel or tiemee whicim is to convey it to market. Tilis is flue presemlt lI~ ocess in the United States, wilere, upon the whole, it is clone better thama any Ilart (If the world. The loss by this mode (If cleaning is over 30 per cent, of which omae-half is incurred lay breakimag ainad ~Illlverizing the rice. All tile rice imal- ported into the United States from other countries re- quire to lIe recleaned before it ilecomnes marketable. WHITE GUNPOWDERA letter from London says: luave imeaud in this city of a curiomus invention, which con- cerns alike sportsmemm, riflemneul amad time scientific. it is time nlamlufactllre of a imite gmlmlpolvder. It is made mao mystery of, being comaIllosed of yellow ilotass, cilloride of ilotassa, loaf sugar, crystallized sugar and bmimstone. It possesses smmperiom qualities over the Idack ilowder, being quicker and more lIowemfinmi ill its a(tion, ammd not foulimlg the gun. For the delicate in time olfactory nerves, it may be added that it is without inmulaleasant smell. It imas just beeml pat- ented.~~ [The above lass l(eema going tile roIlmids of tile laress, and we ucatice it for the purpose of statimlg that white llowder is miot newit is old and well knowmi. Tile same powder essentially was described on page 228. Vol. V. (old series) of tile SCIENTIFIC AIIERIcAN, ten years ago; amid from the recipe given for making it. Mr. John Caruthers, of Savannah, Ga., manufactured sonie, as described on page 261 of tIme same volunie. At that time he sent u~ some samples of it, with whicim we made a few experiments. Gui oi~e occasion, abomut tavo ounces of it exploded while his l(oy was muixing the separate ingredients in a maiomtar, as it is a powder which is exIllelsive by percussioma as well as Ily igmiltioll. It is easily manufactrmred. but not suitable for fire- arms, as it ce(rr(l(les steel amad wrommght iron rapidly. There is no necessity for usimag sinmilhhlur in the conapo- sition, as descriiaed alaoye.Ens. IDENTITY OF Pxasoxs.In a trial for mnmmrder, wlaicim recemitly took place at Calaibridge, Mass., the counsel B. F. Binintler, Esq.for Hacket, tile accused, intro duced a person as witness who counterfeited haim so closely that it avas difficinmit to tell avherein consisted the difference. When questioned wiaether ile was ima tile street where tue niurder was committed on the maight of its commission, tiais witness refused to answer on the ground that Ile might criminate himself. To a subsequent question he made the same reply, and Mr. Butler sustained his refusal, intimating that he had put this witness in great peril to save an inno- cent part. The success of this ingenious expedient is sllch that several of the witnesses have conclnmeled that this persomi is the guilty party, THE POLYTECHNIC ASSOCIATION OF THE AMERI- CAN INSTITUTE. [Repainted for the 5c(enhifmc Amer(eaml.j The usual weekly meeting of the Polytechnic Asso- ciation was Ileld, at its room iii the Cooper Institute, this city, on Thursday evening, Dec. 20, 1860. 5EWINO hlAcumlxmis. Mr. WooD replied to the statements of the last evemi- lug with referemace to the shuttle stitch, and continmied imis remarks 1111011 the sewing machine, exilibiting mamay specimens of work in illustration. The sewing ma- chine, he said, has revolutionized 37 branches of manu- facture. The saving to the commntry from the lise of the sewing machine is very great. In New York alone $20,000,000 anullally are saved upon mns and boys clothing; upon shirt bosoms and trimmings nearly a million ; upon boots amid shoes in Massachusetts, sevemi and a half millions ; upon shirts in the United States more than fourteen millions. Tile importance of this invention to the mammfacturing interests of the United States is estimated at $342,000,000 annually. Not only is the coarser work done upon these machines driven by steam power, bmlt there are large factories doing fine work mupon machines driven by power. Mr. Wood here exhibited a board, representing the variolls stil or pluchase(l from each other: IIICE coeNTlilEs. huiua 11 n(loston leylon Xllanritius. lIlIan Smunat a. Phihliphie Java (ochin thins Siam Bmmah A maccan. hleloochuistan Malabar Malay Assam Popolo/ioo. 1.14,101,000 1,7111,000 192000 501100,000 :111(1(1,000 4.21)0,01)0 0 .000,t)0() 150011,001) :1,000,000 500,000 3,000,000 1 ,140,olo 300,000 35,1)00,000 Total 091,343,916 lbs. (uoseoued J)C( 00000). 40,5011,0011,1100 12000,1100,000 153,100,000 17,280,000 4,500,000,000 270,000,000 :ioi ,ooo,ooo 540,000,000 1350,000,000 270,000,000 8011,1)00,000 45,01)0,000 270,000,000 102,082,000 27,000,000 1,350,000,000 62,170,062,000 isSO. 2,312,252 03,179 39,950,071 001 .5,088 4,425,349 2,719,850 OO 5,405,808 159,930,013 258,854 88,203 17,154 1,075,090 215,213,497 stitches, au(l also a (liagraul representing thorn, awl also the effect in each of (lropj)ing a stitch. Mr. Howe had foumi that the ordinary hand stitches could not l)e made I)y machinery, (11(1 set to work to devise a stitch which coulol he ]aa(le iw machinery. No stitch had been trieol which Mr. 1-lowe liaol not experimented upon bitt the onig stitch which commended itself to his favo was the shuttle stitch. lie might have t.ie(l a knot witere the threa(Is cross. The Wheeler & Wilson machine can very Tea(lily 1)0 arrange(l to tie a knot there, an(l the process has been l)atente(l. Whemo the shuttle stitch is l)ioperly ma(le, the seam is as elastic iLs any fahric that it is placed upon. It has heen used h)r 14 years upon all kinds of work, Thomn the heaviest harness to the lightest gossamer, nuil the seam has prove(l to 1)0 sufticiently elastic for all practied pur PO5o5. ~mo peculiarity of this stitch is that it is drawn slightly below the surface of the cloth, so tleot it canni)t he i roneol ott. ti reat stress has 1 )een laid upon the raveling qualities of some of the stitches. Ihe shuttle stitch can he so made that it can he raveled out. it is only necessary to regulate the tension so that~ the lower thire:i(l shall not lie (Irawn into the (10th. It can then he (brawn (iuit. This may l)e serviceable in making temporary seams, such as tucking (iresses, which are afterwards to he let down. But that is not proper such as the muoune Sowimi C is desione(l to ~c. The single thread stitch is as 0101 as the hillsit is the odd knitting or crotchet stitch. lInt it was never useol for sewing until it was found that Mr. Howe had the monopoly of other stitches, anil then the country was t1 ioileil with cheap machones, wlnise only recoin menilation was tIme low price at which tIme people were gulleil. himese machines mna(le a stitch which would not onhe novel, limit rip that is, the work could lie pulled apart, leavimog tIme stitches perfect. An important diftPremwe between the olifferent stitches is shoiwn in the result of olropping a stitch. With tIme machine in proper oroler, millions of stitches mnight lie made without ilmo~s~sing i)iie lint if it is omit of oroler, a stitch may be obropped occasiomdly. If it is, the shuttle stitch is merely ma(le of diumble lengths, limit the chain stitch is left so tlmt it may be raveleol 50) that it is isecessary ~vith the chain stitch to booik river the work anol tack down every lililce where a stitch is ulro~)ped. An ol~ection to the Grover & Baker stitch is, that it forms a riobre upon the cloth which cams lie irosneol itt. With this stitch alsoin, if a stitch is olroppeil, the work may lie raveled froimn that hiuuimmt. the ans(iummmt of thmead omse(l us so mimehi greater t.lmt, in so single large factory, the difference may amoumnt to $200 a lay. For the clothing required in the ITiuiteil States there would hie a differ once of $40,000,000 in the article of thread alone. As to the elasticity of the stitch, if prisperly seweol, it is equal to the elasticity of the cloth hut the stitch may be seweil so as not to lie 8(1 elastic. In tIme specimens of work which were exhibiteil time othur evening, the stitches were mnasle to bireak, as Pinihars razors were made to sell. us actual use, the seam is never exposed to the straimo to which that work sewed oin a hinias was subjected. Again, if tIme stitch is so elastic one way it mnuist lie the other, so i05 to cause a gaping of time seam. For this reason, a great elasticity is an evil rather than an nolvantage. Mi-. LANSINO eximihiited mnooleis of all the stitches umaile either li mnaciminery or liv haisil, shsoiwing their ersmnparative value anol the relationshi1s of tIme thmreaol to time elotim imionol hsackstitchsimsg being tIme biest stitels maui, citlmer hiy macu inery i)r liv Imamul, for tIme reason that time thireol smirrommnols time Imartieles of cloth between each hole made liv time umeedle, tlterehiy getting its elas- ticity tim romuiglm ciiitthiressiiiul or reduction. Hence time volume of time Grover & Baker stitch, tIme relation osf the thireaul tim tIme elotlt hieiusg tIme smomue as in hsanrl hack stito-hmimig. ~Ihtis lines not apply tii the shuttle rir losek stitch. With time imanil stitch time hearing is mipomn the o-hiitht , limit with the shm uuttle stiteim it is muisomi thse tltreaol at the p(uint wisere it is interlockeol unil tIme fimmer anol itmonhir the timreaol, tioe moore hittlile it is to emit itself off. Niusetetuthms of time thneail miseil hieimsg cotton rim lumen, witii-hm ittos little or no elasticity us itsehf, eithmer the thmreaol ummuist lie stroug enrimighs to imoilrl tIme gmorment (ii. tIme stitch must lie sumeim as tom toftor(l the eisosticity me oimuirerl mommol timat eltosticity imm rhomihile tluread muacimine sewimmg is rmnlv friumusrl in time Gm-over & Bokes stitrh. lime PImESuDENT inoinireol wimethier tIme ridge did not i)econme immilmortant in heavy woolen work. MR. LANSuNriNot tot toil. Ilpoims heivy womk it (tout be draxun imst.o the goons on linen rim cotton work time 19 riolge can be made so small that it wihl not wear or iron off. In the experience of four yeas-s with the Grover & Baker stitch, I have never known of its either wear- immg or being ironed off when properly made. TIme PRESIDENT (interposing) inquired of Mrs. B (time Itody present referred to by Mr. Wood) whether the stitch could be so construmeteol by a good seamstress i05 noit to break. Mrs. B The Wheeler & Wilson stitch? Yes, sir. TIme PREsmuiNTIf it is true that, with the several macimines, a skillful hand managing the thread can make a seam that will not rip or break, it seems to me thsat that covers the whole ground. Mr. LAxsFxeI think not. Yosm can get operators to work well with almost any machine. Bust when you come riown to the practical wants of the family, there are few who can olo it. What the pumblic want is a machine, simple, easy and natural in its operations, so thmat they cannot hmelp making a good stitch. For that reasrin, time Grover & Baker stitch is superior to the shuttle stitch it cannot go astray. Bust time tension c:mn lie puirpossely mtorle so tight as to cormugmote the woim-k, aisri then, if it is upon a buns, it may be easily liroken. With the shuttle stitch, thse cloth must be seweol in a stietelmerl condition, to gain that elasticity. Time PREsIDENTIs it as true of hand woik as of ma- chine work timat but few can do it well Mr. LANsiNGYes, sir; more tlsan of machine work; for if the machine is in order, an ordinary hand can make good work; bust good hand sewing requires years of exl)erience. Mr. L. commented upon the ammuoumut rif thsremmd usseol, stating that tise difference had been greatly over-estimated; for, in fiumily work, no more threaol was consumed with the Grover & Baker than with the Wheeler & Wilson machine, because the amommnt wasted in fastening off the work and from the ends made in rewinding with the latter, is equal to the excess used in the stitch of time former. The stitch hieimmg self-fastening, it is unnecessary either to fasten off time ends of the seammus om- to ttock dowim stitches which issay lie rlroppeol. Mr. Woou resumed Isis icimmarks. Thse tissse required us rewinding the tlmmead for the Wheeler & Wilson usacltimme is but five minutes a day. The lower spool of tIme Gm-over & lItoker machine must be replaced about as oinften tins the bobbin of the Wlmeeler & Wilson must lie filled; tummol replacing the lower spool, re-threading tIme lower crooked needle, would take as much time as filling tIme liobbin. Mr. GARS-EY suggested that so far as time thread is stretcheol in the tension which imbeds it in the cloth its eluosticity is reducerl. Mrs. B (in reply to olumestions asked by the presi- olent) stated thitot she had usserl all three kinols of stitchscs; Isad worked umpon sewing machines for five yeas-s Imaving used the lock stitch nearly three years and the Grover & Baker stitels for two years for all kinds of fainihy sewingumpon cotton, sihk, woolen, flannel, & c. She Imad not worked upon anything as heavy as heaver cloth, bust had worlred upon cloth Iseavier than thoat used for a gentlemans coat. With either the lock stitch or time Grover & Baker stitch, a well in- strumeted person can do good work that will not break. Titere is a greater tendency in the Grover & Baker machine to drop stitches. It is almost impossible to ruin the machine more than one rir two months without its dropping stitelmes; and tisen there is a tendency to rmovel. The olserator osight to notice it when it begins to drop stitches, limit it is very difficuilt to get her to notice it. A girl with the Wheeler & Wilson machine can olo more ann luetter work in a day than with the Grover & Baker machine. Machine sewing is neater tonni strongem-, and thmerefore prefes-red by customers to hanoi work. Hand work is not now done so well as it was hiefore the introdusetion of the sewing machine, for there is less attention paid to it. All kinds of sewing for time family can be done by the machine, excepting ~ustting on buttons and making button holes. Girls who Istod beconme so umnlsealthy that they were com- pehled to give ump Imand sewing had mused time machine for several years withmout injury. Time machine does not requmire so musels stooping as hand work, anol requmires less application of the eyes. - She had used the umacimimme 18 lmousrs out osf the 24 withomst being so tired as mu sewing five hours by hand. The time spent in threading the lower needle of the Grover & Baker ma- chine, passing the thread through three or fosur loops, is much more than in winding the under thread upon the bobbin of the Wheeler & Wihson machine. Dr. GARDNER stated the result of extensive investi- gations he made for the last two or tlsree years uspon the influence of the sewing nuachine, in a hygienic point of view. In economy of woirln, the sewing ma- chine is a great boon to mankind; but if, as soume Isave thought, it kills one woman in ten, or maims one woman in five, or makes womrmen sickly and feelule, it is a Isad machine. Professional men have sometimes said that the working of the sewing maclsine pro(lusceol rheummatisma of the knees. This mwht lue if theme was a predisposition to it ; especially when the operator is beginning to learn, when she exerts strength enough to drive five or six sewing machines. One lady said it pro- duced neusralgia; but uspon covering the treadle so a.s to prevent the cold from affecting her feet, the nemuralgia ceased. Others have asserted that it tends to produsce or to aggravate the class of diseases known as female diseases. He had made extensive inqusiries to ascem-taims whether this assertion had any fousudation hi fact. At one place he found that they had introdusced compressed air to drive the machine. They were Singer machsines, doing heavy work. They had fosmnd no bad effect frnins driving the machines without the aid of power ; bust the work was so Isaud that the gim-Is huad not the strength requsisite to nlrive the machines fast enouglm to pay. To get up a paying speed it was necessary to introduce power. Yet, while these girls were driving these machines as fast. as they cousid, no suds diseases were produceol. On the contrary, the universal testi- mony of the large manufacturers was that the working of the maclsines benefited the lmealth of the operatives. To explain this, it is only necessary to consider tIme general physiological law, that use strengthens and the want of use enfeebles. Not only are the particumlar muscles in use strengthened by the exercise, limit the adjacent mussehes. Thuss the blacksmith not only strengthens his arm by his labor, but his elsest is en- larged; the pectoral muscles are strengthened. In one of these large establishments, employing 100 girls, the average daily absence fi-om all causes was but three so that it could not be that femuahe diseases are ordimi- arily either caused or aggravateol by the use of the sewing machine. On the contrary, line Isad come to the conclusion that it would be a valuable curative agent in many cases. In the Europeami water cure establish- ments, the great remedies are air and exercise, walking up mountains and down declivities. And in Sweden, thsere is a new pathiy, called the movement cure. He had no doubt that the prescription of a sewing machine would be better than that of a great many of the pills now 0iven in many cases of debility. Another objec- tion to the sewing machine was that it led to the injusry to the retina called Aniaurosis. There is this temidency in hand sewing, from the constant apphi~ation of the eyes requmired, especially in fine, siice work; but upon the sewing machine thse work is co niecluanical, and the required action of the eye so gemiemal, that, sunless there is a predisposition to Amaurosis, the use of time sewing umachine woumld not cause that disease. He had coms- suslted every distinguisheri ocushist in the northem-mi States, and the uniform reply corresponded to this con- chusion. Nor is there, as is sometimes im~gineol, lint flying about in the use of the sewing machine to irmj mmmc the eyes. After a prolonged examination of five om- six months, lie had come to the conclusion tisat the sewing machine was the greatest blessing to the comusumnity, in a mere hygienic point of view, that ever was given. Mr. Youzo feared that women wosuld be obhiged to work as masiy hnsusrs in the olay tni ennui the sanse amommnt of food and clothing with the sewing machimme that they formerly olid with the needle. The PRESIDENT staterl that it had been ascem-tained in England, by a censuss taloen in a certaimi disti-ict embrar-- ing all classes of seciety, that the average length of womans life is jiust in proportion to tIme asnomunt sIte has to do ; being the longest where no servammt is kept. decreasing with those keeping one servant, nusol ole- creasing with each additional servant On the con- trary, the life of men is longest when huelonging to tlte class of professional men, merchants, & c. Fime pht~-si- cians, upon consultation, ascribed it to thme fact that women do not take vigorniuss pxercise in the open air, and that the work whichs compels them to usse thmeir hamids and feet tends to suspply time want. The smubject for next sneeting will be the Feonomny of Motive Power for Farms, Buildings, Suisall Manufac- tories and Sewing Machines. After the transaction of some private bussinmess, the society adjosurned. 20 ELECTRICITY AND SOME OF ITS PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS. ARTICLE II. For measuring the quantity of electricity developed by the voltaic circle, an instrument was invented by Mr. Fara(lay; but before describing it, we shall allude briefly to the principle upon which its operation is based. When the electrodes are tipped with platinum, and immersed in dilute sulphuric acid, the water con- tained in it is decomposed into its elementsoxygen and hydrogenand the quantity of these gases is al- ways in (lirect Proportion to the amount of electricity which has 1)assed it. Upon this principle, an instru- ment called the voltameter, is con- structe(l. There are several forms of the - voltaineter, one of which is represented in the cut. A represents a glass jar contain- ing the dilute acid, and inverted over a __ trough containing the same fluid. B B K are the two platinum electrodes. The jar J is usually graduated into cubic inches and -~ tenths of an inch. If a certain battery gives off a definite amount ot gas per minute in the voltameter, and an- other produces twice as much in the same period, then the second battery is twice as powerful as the first, as far as quantity is concerned. This instrument is not a good measurer of the intensity of the current. Pro- fessor Daniell found that a battery of ten alternations produced in a given time nearly as much of the gases as one consisting of seventy alternations of the same size(l battery. This shows that time instrument should be used with certain precautions, and its indications should not be too implicitly relied upon for, although it measures all the electricity which passes through it, yet a current might not have the power to decompose water very energetically, and yet be able to produce powerful magnetic ciThets. The surest way of ascer- taining the power of any voltaic arrangement is by actual exl)eriment with regard to time application which is to be made of it. When a strong current, either of intensity or quan- tity, is caused to pass through a fine iron or platinum wire, the wire will be heated to a red heat, and some- times will fuse. Advantage is taken of this fact in sub- marine l)lasting and in gas lighting, as well as in some delicate surgical operations. For l)n)ducing this heating effect, if the circuit to be traversed is short, a current of quantity may be used; but if it is long and irregu- lar, as in the lighting of a large building, a current of intensity is better. The science of telegraphy, as far as it relates to inland lines a~d their working, has attained a degree of perfection ; but the art of successfully operating the submarine telegraphespecially where it occurs in long linesis,, as yet, in its infancy. This was made painfully evident by the failure of the Atlantic Cable; and if Americami inventors do not deserve any of the (liscredit of its failure, they have not, as yet, brought forward a better cable. The chief defect of the Atlantic Cable seems to have been the faulty insulation of the conducting core; and this (lefect appears to have been due to the selection of ~utta-percha as the insulating material. This sub- stance is a very good insulator while solid, but it softens and melts at a heat considerably below that of boiling water, and a number of miles of the cable were ruined by the heat of the sun while lying in the yard of the manufactory. Although gutta-percha is very plastic while warm, yet at common temperatures it is as inflexible and toughs as the stiffest sole leather, al- though much more easily cut when spread over a hard surface. To the other defects of gutta-percha must be added its comparative inelasticity, and, when broken, it snaps (lireetly off, like so much hemp. What, then, must be the effect of a tensile strain which is greater than the strength of the gutta-percha, but not sufficient to rup- ture the outside covering of iron? Some portions of the cable, which have been taken up from deep water, have been found to have the wires of the outside covering (Irawn nearly straight; thus involving an enormous strain upon the gutta-percha interior, and, as much of the cable now laid must be in this condi- tion, it is I)robable that defects exist all along the line. The Atlantic Cable, however, does not seem to work well even in shallow water, for two trials were made of it in one of our inland riversthe Mississippiand in both cases it stopped working in a few days from the time of its laying. A plan has recently been patented by Mr. Hughes, in which the insulating material is to be of such a nature as to maintain a semi-fluid condition until it comes in contact with water, when it is to immediate- ly become solid. A cable constructed upon this plan would fill all its own leaksa great desideratum to be gained; but we are not yet aware that there is any substance which will answer that purpose. The Effect of Steam Navigation on Commerce. We are indebted to Messrs. Baileys, Davis & Co, Coin- mission Merchants of Rio Janeiro, Brazil, for the fol- lowing extract from a recent debate in the Chamber of Deputies of Brazil. Senor Franco de Almeida said: That the Honorable Deputies may appreciate the immensely valuable interests which steam communica- tion must create and increase, let it suffice to enumerate some of the principal products of which North Amen- ca stands in need, and those which Brazil requires. We would furnish sugar, honey, drugs, fruits, coffee, cotton, tobacco, rice, hides, cocoa, sarsaparilla, preci- ous woods, precious stones, dyestuffs, tapioca, cloves, isinglass, saffron, gum, copal, vanilla, copaiva, broom reed, ~pmassava), crude metals, & c., & c. North America could not find a nearer market than Brazil, nor could she procure these productions with greater facility or so cheaply ; Rio de Janeiro would necessarily becomue a great Amnenican depot. On the other hand, we could supply ourselves with the productions of the United States with greater advantage and at a much cheaper rate. We would import wheat, flour, meats, butter, lar(l, horses, machinery, all articles of hardxvare, im- plements of trade and agriculture, furniture, woolen, and cottoncloths, sailing vessels, steamers, and further- more, all the imitative works ef art, which in the United States are extraordimmrily cheap compared with Europe. To convince the minds of honorable deputies, I will remind them of a fact. The commerce of England with us from 1840 to 1850, was nearly always station- ary, averaging 2,000,000 sterling, according to the Blue Book and MeCulloch; during that samne period our commerce with the United States was greater. And why? Because there was no steam communica- tion then between the empire and Great Britain; the American clippers had an advantage over English barks; binmt the honorable deputies xviii remark that as soon as a line of English steamners was established, these wonderful results were produced. The insportation from Brazil, into England in 1853, three years after the inauguration of the line, increased 150 per cent, over that of 1848. In 1855 it had increased 300 per cent; England, which in 1852 imported 3,000,000 pounds of coffee, imported in 1853, 52,000,000 pounds; in 1854, 59,000,000, land in 1855, 112,000,000. A Nzw DIscovERy IN WINE MAKINGA new discovery made by a wine grower near Bordeaux, France, has just been made public, and has somewhat startled the old and steady wine factors, makers, and doctors of that place. The discoverer of the natural phenomenon by which wines are rendered at once fit for bottling, without the long probation they have hitherto been made to undergo has been for some years living in the mountains. In the various qualities of wine grown by himn he was struck with the difference of develop- ment of maturity which took place, according to the temuperature of the cellar in which the barrels were stored. The higher up the niountain the sooner did time wine arrive at perfection. The reason of this dif- ference soon became clearatmospheric pressure di- mninishes gradually as the region rises above the level of the sea. This discovery induced the experiment of raising and diminishing at will the atmospheric pres- sure upon the barrels and with the most perfect suc- cess, it is said, so as to make old wine in as many days as it formerly took months. DEATH OF AN EDITORWe learn that Mr. Alexander Mann, formerly editor of the Rochester (N. Y.) Ameri- can, afterwards of the Albany Statesman, and subse- quently engaged on the New York Times, and first editor of the Railway Review, died suddenly of apo- plexy, on the 6th nit., at St. Augustine, Florida, to which place he had removed on account of his health, and had intended to make it his future house. He was an able political writer, and his geniality of disposi- tion and integrity gained him a host of warm friends. Coating Iron with Zinc. By Malletts English process, iron is coated with zinc as folloxvs :First immerse the iron to be coated in a cleansing bath forused of equal parts of hydro- chloric and sulphuric acids in xvarm water. The taste of this bath should be quite sourabout a pint of acid to five gallons of water is sufficient. The metal is scrubbed with sand and emery, to remove the oxyd and render the surface perfectly clean. It is then washed in soft xvater and insmersed in the preparing bath, which is made of a saturated solution of hydrochlo- rate of zinc and sulphate of ammonia, from which it is transferred to the metallic bath. This is composed of 202 parts, by weight, of mercury and 1,292 parts of zinc, and to every tun weight of this amalgam one pound of sodium is added. Any less quantity than a tun may be melted, according to the amount of work to be done. This amalgam is melted in a cast iron vessel, and the prepared metal is dipped into it. As sooms as the iron has attained a temssperature of 6S0~ Fah. in this bath it is removed, because if it is contin- ued longer it xviii be eaten into holes. Great watch- fulness must be exercised in dipping the iron, so as not to allow of its being dissolved, as the affinity of the amal0am for the iron at 680~ is very great. Small articles of iron may be galvanized without the aid of quicksilver, by cleansiimg them well as described, dipping them in a stromsg solution of salammoniac timen transferring themn at once ~o a bath of molten zinc containing some pieces of salammoniac and some ground glass placed upon time surface. By this method of zincing iron its surface is liable to be rough, but by runnimsg it between rollers or hammering it on a plan- ishing anvil, it can be nsade quite smooth. By using a bath of hydrochloride of tims (tin dissolved in unuria- tic acid), as a substitute for the preparatory bath of sal- ammoniac, a rather superior coat of zinc will be ob- tained. OINTMENT FOR TILE SKIN. That able xvriter, Dr. Erasmus Wilson, on cutaneous diseases, says : The beuzoated oxyd of zinc ointment, properly prepared, is the most perfect local application for all chsronic in- flammations of the skims that is knowms. It is cleanly and agreeable, and imas a tendency to concrete upon the skin and form an artificial cuticle to an irritated and broken surface. This ointment is made by selecting the best and most fragrant guma benzoin in tears; this, when commuinuted, is added to good fresh lard, in the proportion of ten grains to the ounce, an(l the whole digested in a water bath for about forty-eight hours; this, subsequently strained, is mixed thoroughly with ten grains of the xvhite oxyd of zinc. Guns benjamims is now very generally used in ointments by London apothecaries for preventing their deconsposition; ten grains added to an ounce of lard effect this object. It has an agreeable odor and nsay be used as a substitute for gum benzoin. 1)vzsxe MoTnEn-oF-PEARLBlack mother-of-pearl, which is so much used for buttons, may be dyed from time white material in the following mamsner When the mother-of-pearl is cut out into buttons, they are steeped for twelve hours in a strong solution of nitrate of silver, contained in a glass vessel of a blue color to prevemit decomposition by the light. They are then allowed to drain, and washed several times in distilled water, after which they are placed in chloride of so- dium, in which they remain for an hour and a half. They are then washed in rain water, drained and washed over with a very weak solution of nitrate of silver, and exposed to the rays of the sun for several hours. Ammoniacal solutions of chloride of silver and of nitrate of silver may also be used for the pur- pose of dyeing this simbstance black ; but the effects of these salts are less satisfactory. CLARIFIED GALLThe Druggist, published in Cincin- nati, contains the following recipe : Ox gall is pre- pared for the use of artists in the following manner: To one pint of fresh ox gall, boiled and skimmed, add one ounce of finely powdered alum; leave it on the fire till the aluni is dissolved, then let it cool, put it into a bottle, and cork it loosely. Treat another pint in the same way, with one ounce of salt, instead of alum. After standing more than three months, care- fully decant from each bottle the clear portion, and mix them together. The coloring niatter is precipi- tated, and a clear, colorless liquid is obtained by fil- tration. It is used for mixin,, artists colors, and to prepare ivory, oiled paper, & c., to receive the colors. ROMANCE OF THE STEAM ENGINE. ARTICLE V. IIAUTEFECILLE. In the middle of the seventeenth century, Jean Hautefenille, the son of a l)aker in Orleans, France gave great i11(lications of mechanical g~ius, when a boy, and the Duchess (le Bouillon, having heard of this, sent for and took him into her family, where he l)ecame a great favorite and received an excellent edu- cation, lie l)ecalne one of the most celcbratc(l me- chanics of that age, although he had adopted the Church as his regular profession. In 1678, lie pro- pounded several novel applications of heat as a moving power, and suggeste(l the employment of the val)or of alcohol instead of water. He proposed that it should he evaporated and act as the motive agent, then he con(lensed in a close vessel and used over and over again for the same purpose. He also proposed ignited charges of gunpowder for the l)uipose of nioving ma- chinery, as a substitute for steam. I-Ic also descrihed how a motive engine could he coristructe(l to operate a piston hy using the vapor of water and a vacuum al- ternately in a cylinder. The alcohol engine was simi- lar in its nature to the ether engine lately in use in France, and the gunpowder engine has been frequently proposed in our own day. PAPINTiTE SAFETY VALVE. One of the most ingenious mechanics that ever lived was Dr. Denys Papin, of France. He (liscovered the mode of reducing hones to a pulp by inclosing them in a tight vessel aii(l suhmnitting them to the ac- tion of high pressure steam. He came from Paris to Lon(lon amid published an account of his invention in 1781. The pumping of the water from the mines in England being then a subject of unusual interest, he proposed to operate the l)li~P5 hy compressed air, and to convey it from a considerable distance for this pur- pose. For example, where there was a mine distant about a mile from a water wheel, he proposed that two cylinders containing pistons should be placed at the wheel, and two other cylinders at the minethe whole to be connected hy a pipe. The pistons at the wheel were to force compressed air to work the pistons at the mine, and these were to operate the lifting pumps and draw imp the water. This plan was correct in theory, bit when tried it failed of success. Although the reason of the failure is miot given, we hehieve it was eause(l through (lefective aml leaky pipes. For several years a eolnpresse(h air engine has been in use in a coal mine near Glasgoxv, Scotland, an(l although the air is forced through a pipe one mile long, no difficulty has been experienced in working it. Papin did not receiv~~e patronage due to his genius in England, and he was worse treated in France, his native land, for, being a protestant, he was exiled by the revocation of the edict of Nantes, when lie mufter- wards went to Marpumrg, in Germany. When residing there, he applied his comuipresse(l mmii machinery to (irain mu mine, but it mulso failed, mis it had (lone in En~- land; then he tried time converse system, l)y exhuaumst- ing the tube, l)umt this fmuiled mulso; an(l we are confi(lent that it must have heen through leaks in the pipes. Papin was ahout two centuries ahead of his age in the employment of compressed and exhaust muir machinery. Both of his plans have been used with more or less success for railways, within the past twenty years; and the employment of compressed air to (Irive raihroa(l cars and sewing machines is frequently discussed with great plaumsibihity, as feasible methods, at time present (lay. Papin also proposed the hot air and vapor engine il- lustrated by time accompanying Fig. 1, for pumping mines ; c is a cylinder, in which there is a tightly-fit- ting piston, d, with a ~)aeking ring on it; a is a grate with a flue on it, muid 4 shows how tIme heat passes into the cylinder, having a small (Iraft pipe, ,f. The stem of the piston goes throumgh the cover of the cylinder; n is a lever turning on a hinge, and is fastened on the top; a spring acts to press it into a notch in the piston rod, when it comes above the covem. A small pipe, e, inserted through the cover of the cylinder and also through the j)lstoii, is firmly chose(l at time upper en(l. The stopper (if the pipe being taken omit, the piston is easily moved to the bottom, when a small qumantity of water is huassed down under the piston and the pipe is closed. The heat from the fire soon con- verts the water into vapor and the piston is forced up to the top, where it is held by time notch of the lever. The fire was then withdrawn, the cylinder cooled, and a vacuum was produced under the piston which then descended by the pressure of the atmosphere. The lever, n, was then withdrawn from the notch, to permit it to descend. Fig. 3 shows how a vibratory motion may be given by the up-and-down movement of the piston, e, through the rack, b, on the piston rod and the pinion, a. This steam and vacumium engine is umn doumhutedly impracticable, but it is certainly very similar to hot air engines in the mode of generating the vapor by admitting a single charge of water for every stroke. There is no danger of explosions by this method. The crowning feat of Denys Papin was his invention of the safety valve illustrated by Fig. 2. A small tumbe, e, is fitted into an opening, a, in the cover of a boiler, and in this is placed a valve ground to exactly suit the orifice. A rod is pumt into an iron staple, r, at one end; its other end is kept down by the weight, o, which is hung nearer to or further from the valve, to resist the pressure within, as may be desired, in the same manner, said Papin, as a weight is hung upon the Roman balance or steelyard. This invention is employed upon every steam boiler at the present day. It was devised for Papins bone digester, but no boiler whatever would be safe without it. THE MAGNESIUM LIGHT-- A NEW FIELD FOR INVENTION. Not many months since, Chevalier Bunsen drew pub- lic attention to the researches which he had made with magnesium as a source of light. This metal readily takes fire in the flame of a common spirit lamp, and gives out a most brilliant light. Compared with an ordinary candle, a wire of magnesium, only 0.0117 of an inch in diameter, produced as much light, according to Bunsen, as 74 sperm candles, at the rate of five to the pound. In order to support this light for one minute, a piece of wire 39 inches long, weighing 1.85 grains, was required. About 2~ ounces of magnesium therefore, woul(l be required in order to maintain a light for ten hours equmal to 74 stearine candles, con- summing 320 ounces of stearine. Magnesium wire is made by forcing the metal through a hot steel die, by means of a steel piston. Bunsens arrangement for bumming the wire was made by connecting spools of it with rollers moved by clockwork, so that the wire should be unrolled like the ribbon of paper in Morses telegraph; the end of the wire thus gradually pushed forward passed into the flame of an ordinary alcohol lamp, where it took fire. It is evident that a magnesian lamp of this sort must be more simple than any of the existing arrangements of the electrical or of Drum- monds light, for lighthouses, & c. Where an extra- ordinary amount of light is needed it could readily be produced by burning large wires, or several thin ones at the same time. The photographical effect of the magnesian light is said to be unrivalled by any other artificial flame, and with it photographic artists may be able to take pie- tumres buy night nearly as well as by daylight. The present high price of the metal magnesiuma, however, precludes its uise for common purposes, but could it b)e obtained at a moderate cost, miniature suns might b)e used for illumination in every house with common spirit lamps and a winding off arrangement of the 21 wire, which would cost but a few shillings. Here is a new field for chemical experiment; magnesian forma- tions are numerous in America, and economical pro- cesses may be discovered for the reduction of the metal from its ores. A few years since, the metal alumi- num was almost unknown, and its price was higher than that of gold, but now it has become compara- tively cheap, owing to the improvements which have been made in tIme chemical processes for treating aluminous earths. It will undoubtedly be the same with magnesium, and in a few yemrs, and perhaps months, we should not be surprised if the magnesian light would take the place of gas, coal oil, sperm candles, or any of the illuminating materials used in our houses. Sanitary Science. In New York there is a Sanitary Association, but although its objects are benevolent and deserve the support of all classes, we believe it has as yet been unable to effect much good. A meeting of its mem- bers was held at the Home for the Friendless on the evening of the 27th nIt., at which a resolu- tion was passed recommending the formation of a female sanitary missionary association for the city. On the occasion, several speeches were made. Dr. Harris spoke particularly of the importance of a pub- lic knowledge of the practical science of ventilation, light, economy and correctness in the formation of personal habits. The Rev. H. W. Bellows stated that there was great difficulty in gaining popular at- tention to sanitary reform, as it was a question involv- ing many details. There was an unwillingness on the part of those who considered themselves very chari- table persons, to stoop to the real work which charity requires. Hygiene is almost as little understood by the higher as by the lower classes. Rooms were not well ventilated and ladies clothing was not worn in accordance with the laws of health. James T. Brady, Esq., spoke of the defective styles of public houses. He stated that there were no cities in Europe where the places of refreshment were kept under ground, as in American cities. Several speakers, such as Dr. Muhlenberg and Dr. Griscom, gave it as their deliberate opinioum that most of the degradation of the lower classes was directly traceable to evil habits, such as the drinking of ardent spirits and the chewing of tobacco. Edwin Chadwick, Esq., of London, recently deliv- ered an address on this subject, in which he stated that in several districts known to him, by a proper drain- age within the houses and the use of water led into them by pipes, the death rate had been reduced one-third annually. He said I know one instance, in an agri- cultural district, and with laborers alone, where the death rate has been reduced to less than one-half, and within twelve in a thousand. From common lodging- houses, tIme enforcement, through the police, of sani- tary regulations, typhus and diarrhea, as epidemics (whilst prevalent among the houses of the laboring classes), are banished. In our well-regulated district institutions for pauper children, those epidemic visit- ations which ravage the children of the families of working men, are almost unknown, and the death rate is reduced to one-third that prevailing amongst their children. The death rate among British soldiers used to be 17.5 per 1,000 annually; now, by sanitary re- forms, it is reduced to 4.7 per 1,000. The city of Liverpool, in England, used to be one of the most sickly in the world, but owing to the scientific sanitary measures which have been carried out in it during the last few years it has become one of the most healthy. During the past ten years there has been a reduction of 30 per cent in the mortality bills. This, certainly, is a very important subject, and yet it is very difficult to excite the public mind to give it proper attention. STEAM FIRE ENGINEThe Portland Co. in Portland, Maine, are now building five steam fire engines, of J. B. Johnsons patent, viz: one of the largest class for Portland, two of the third-class for New York, and one second-class for Philadelphia. The third-class are light engines weighing only 3,100 pounds, and having very large wheels are drawn by hand more rapidly than a first-class car hand tub. The engine built for the United States Co., Philadelphia, third-class, has play- ed at one fire no less than five hours consecutively without stopping. 22 Reply of Professor Silliman to Mr. Jos. W. Spragues Inquiry, What is Momentum l MEssus. EDITORS -In the issue of your journal for Dcc. 15, 1860, Mr. Sprague has propounded an inquiry under the above head, an(l has seen fit to employ a section from the first edition of my Natural Philos- ophy to show that the (lefinition of Momentum there given is wroflg I all wrong, from l)eginniug to end. As Mr. Sprague proposes to follow up the subject in your issue 0 f this week, I have waited for his conclud- lug article but, as it has not appeared, I have to re- quest you to 11l11)iish my reply to this writers confident denunciation. Some confusion (loubtiess exists, even in high au- thorities, in the (listinctions to be observed bet~veen lnomodum and ni viva. I think, however, there is no reason why this subject should not be made plain and ns it is one in which all mechanics feel an interest, you will perhaps confer a furor on your readers by publish- ing the following paragraphs from the second edition of my Natural Philosophy. Jloueidein.1he momentum of a moving body is its amount of motion, or its tendency to continue in mo- tion. The momentum of a body is equal to its mass multiplied by its velocity. When a force acts upon a holly free to move, it produces its efbict as soon as 1110- til)Il is (litlused among all tile molecules, and the force is thci transferred into the substance of the moving body. In consequence of the inertia of matter, if the moving body should meet no resistance, it would con- tinue to move with the same velocity. an(l in the same direction, forever. ihe expression Mv rellresents the intensity of the force which ha5 set the body in motion, and 31l~ rep- resents the munount of force that is at any time accu- mulated and retained by the inertia of the moving body. In either case, the moving body is supposed to encounter no resistance from any other object.0 When a luovilIg 110(1 encoiniters resistance, depend- ing not olIly 1111(111 inertia, but also upon other ploper ties of ]natter, the effects l)roduced depend upon tile rnl)idi ty with which the force, expressed by momen- tumn, is ilrought to act upon the opposing i)ody. This clasi of efibets are, tiler fore, proportioned to momnen- tum lflioltiplied by velocity. This product H f2 is called ni Vi VII, tile application of which, to practical mechanics, will lIe explained hereafter. By the pnin- (iple that action amid reaction are equal, we know that when a mnusket is discharged tile force of the explosion reacts upon the musket with the same intensity as it projects the bali. According to the principles of mo- lllelitllm, the weight of the gmni, multiplied by tile ye- locity (If tile recoil, must be equal to the weight of the bali, multiplied ily till velocity of its projection yet tile reellil of tile gun is received by the sl)oltsIllan with perfect impunity, while the uloving ball deals death or (lestructioll to opposing objects. ISi Vile, 01 Livilly ibnce, is tile power of a mnovmn~ body to overcome resistance, or the measure of work which can be performed before the body is brougilt to a state of rest. The vim viva of a body is represented by 31 Vt, ~ the mass of tile body multiplied by the square of its velocity. Wileml n body is projected verticlilly upward, tile hight to which it will ascend is proportional to the 51111mm of its velocity. If W represent the weight of time body, and h the hight to wIlicil it is elevated by a given imupulse, tIme amnoumit of work performed will be represemmte{l by Wh, but }V=lfg and hY2 2g, sub- mititutiilg these values of W and h, we have the work l)erfornled=~ NFl. Hence, the work which can be performed by the accumulated power of a moving body is equal to one-half the mass multiplied hythe velocity.~ lake time case of a pile-driver, in which a heavy mass of iron is elevated to a hight of 30 or 40 feet, and is then suddemlly allowed to fall the resistailce over- come in raising the driver is exactly proportional to the elevation to which it is raised, and the accumulated power of the stroke increases in the same ratio: hence it is evident that the ~i viva, or power of overcoming resistance, must be truly represented by NFl. Again: in the case of a railway train moving with a velocity F, the greatest velocity attainable by a given power of steam; let v be the acceleration of velocity imparted to the train by the locomotive during the first second of its action, amid 31 the mass of the meviug train. micllldilmg the ilCOmlll)tive. If the move- ment of the train were not retarded by friction, or some other opposing force, we should have V=nt, or the velocity, v; would go on constantly increasing i)imt such we know is not the case, for the train soon attains a maximiumm velocity, when the emitire force of tue loeomiiotive is every instant expended in overcom- ulg frictioll, amid the train mnoves omi with a ilinunemitum expressed by 3fF, but its vis vine is expressed by MV2.t If the force of steamn were sud- denly discontinued, the power of the moving train to ascend a grade, to overcome any obstacle, or to deal destructiomi to itself, or to any object with whiclm it comnes imi collisiomi, would still be proportional to vis ella or 31V2. Now, suppose tlle velocity of the train to l)e doubled. so that V9 V It is evident that in any given interval of time the train will pass over twice as many points of resistance as before, amid, as it passes each point at twice the previous velocity, it will encounter at every point twice as much resistamice to mu(ltion mis before. Hence, to impart to the traimi a doumble velocity, a fourfold force is required ; and the poiver of the train to overcome resistance will be pro- portiomial to its vis viva, MV2. This will be the true measure of the force which has imparted the velocity V, and which is now constantly expended in over- comiiimlg the resistance encountered by the moving trmiin. The same primiciples deterimmimme the power expend- e(I or work actimally l)erforuie(I, resistamice included, by ally kind of umachimiery. It may be necessary to explaimi lmll)re fully the dis- timiction between llloIllvllllllll and (25 Vi VII, 50 that it may be readily umiderstood when time omie or the other is to be taken as tIme measure of force. Momentuni, MV, expresses the relation of force to inertia, or the amnount of niotion in a mnoving body. Vis ViVIl, NV?, is the measure of twice the amoumit of work which a moving body can performn before it is brought to rest. Vis viva is the nmeasure of force re- qmmired to mimaintain a comistamlt umotiomi, NV, against tlme resistance caused by the positive properties of bodies, as attraction, cohesion and repimlsion. Momentum is tile niensiure of the force required, without regard to timne, to set a body imi motion with a velocity, V wimemi no otller body interferes with its Iliotion, as in time ease of a body falling freely in a vacuumll. Imi the case of the railway train, the mass of the traimi, lilultiphed by its velocity, is the nleasure of vIseflIl work perforuied imi a unit of time, but it is not tIme measure of resistance overcome, or actual work performed, or of the force which ilas been expemided in performing timat work. The latter is mneasured by one-hmdf the (is vim, or 3112. lUast rations of Vis VivaSuppose a batterimmg 111111, weighing 4,000 lbs., to be impelled witlm a velocity of 30 feet per second, its vis viva, 31V2=4,000x 30x 30 ~3,600,000; yet a cannon ball weighing 64 lbs., fly- ing with a velocity of 1,000 feet per second, will have a power of dealing destruction more than sevemmteen tinies as great, for its nis viva equals 64,000,000 lbs. Calculations of this sort explain the origin of the ter- ribly destructive power of the engines of modern war- fare. A railway train movimig 50 miles an hour will pos- sess more than six times the vis viva that it would have when going 20 miles an hour; and, therefore, it will possess more than six times the power of dealing de- struction, either to itself or to an obstacle, at time for- mer than at the latter rate. Thus, the well-kmiowmm relatiomi between speed amid amount of (lamage, iii case of accident, is readily aecoumited for, as also the enor- nious comparative cost of fuel and wear and teumi of trains of high speed. Time destructive power of hurricanes, which mnove from 60 to 100 miles an hour, is readily understood when we know that the power of dealing destruction increases in proportion to the sqimare of the velocity. I might add further illustratiolls on this subject, but I feel confidemit flint mm careful study of these extracts will satisfy all who xxiii take the trormblc to examuine the subject, that there is more in it tlman Mr. Spnagme has yet clearly comprehended, and that it will meqimire more than his triumphant denial to disprove it. I am, however, much obliged to Mr. Sprague for affording me this introduction to your readers, and remain, respect fully yours, B. SILLIMAN, Ja. New Haven, Dec. 21, 1860. * In (his discussion, Mrepremenim the mass of the moving body; v re- preseimis lhe itteresse of velocity acqttired its a unit or hole, Ilild V re- presents ihe vemocimy acqumned am any period of lime conoidered. i-p represenlo the velocity acquired lv a body Va iotettIIt (IV (1111 senood. . . lung freely during line r IOiit~fItr lIt little lQIloInvI II I1C(I1OIV . velci ty, V Telegraph Magnets. Massas. EDiToRs. On page 264, Vol. 111, fl11 series) of your most valuable paper, 1 fimld a cut amid description of an Imnprovememit in Electro-lnmmgimcts. For telegraphimig, I must say I do not tlmimik it will be an advantage. What is needed for telegraphing is a steady cumrrent, but that is very rarelyin fact, miever obtained on long circuits. The curremit is at times very strong, amid will freqimemitly ehmamige in mili illstan amid the power of tue magnet be dimlilmilshmed, perhaps one-half, frequently niore. That is mi gremit source (f trouble to operators, for wiiemi the emmrremit is immereased or decre~msed, the counteracting tensiomi on tile mmrmtmtmmrc of the relay mmiust lIe el)rresponllingly ilmlretssed u de. creased, or tile writing will be indistinct, if it is heard at all. Now the table referred to 5av5 Power front Excess of combittd Batteix- steel Potter litttu botls mltttser tsen tot It itover. ttsgttel. cotubitteti. oemtsnaic. 1 20 30 01 again: - 24 20 62 18 wIliell von can easily see would be hicreasimig tile dub- culty now experienced. If some omie would invemit all mippartitus thitit tilt It Ill coumiteract the effects of a changeable curremit, it wlltll(l be a real bemiefit and one that would 110 tippreciated I all operators. Having had some experience as an operator, I, of course, give you my own practical exh)eriellee. I do not wish to disparage the inurentom., but 1111 ollject ito writing is to sllggest to loins or sommie other illgemliour persomi time idea (If gettimig up an instnumlmlemit that would obviate the difficulty I have slIokell of. I have thought and experimented mumclm 011 it, but as yet 1 amim unsuccessful. But I do not despair of success. As a case in point, I am writimog in a telegraph office on time New York and Bufihilo route. Before me is relay imiagnet (not conmiected with the local cireumib connected with the through wire frommi Bumlhldo to New Yorkit is, say, fifty umiles fromn time Bumfhdo balt rv Oti which those two offices work dimeet without the mild of a rei)eater. Just mmoxv I linear Btrffaho calling New York; it soumids loud timid distimiet ----qudte loud emloughi to do busimmess ily. Now Nen- York amiswers; it is very faimitthe pow-er of the mimagmmet is very mmmcli mhimnhm ishmed. I may be wrommg in mmmy expltmnation as to thin cause of the dinilinmished power of time mmmagmiet, 1)1st 1 cami think of mio other cause, as the eurremit frommi time Bufthlo battery has to mneet the curremit from tIme New- York battery at time New York key, mmmakismg it elmarge the four hsmndred mniles of wire within very little assist- tmmmee from the New York 1 oattery. So umumeim so that I have to get very mmear the relay to hmellr it, and timemi it is immiperfect amid indistinct; arid to get it perfectly 1 mnumst lessemi time tension omi tue am-ninature, nor else time writinw cannot be relied umpon, as somime of time dots would be lost. Yomm see the disadvantage labored umi- dci- now, amid withi time additiomi of a l)erlnalient mliimg- net, acting as the table aboore referred to) shows, time lhisadvantagc would be very niuch increased. One timing more which umay cover the wlmole gm-oummd. Permnanent magnetism has beemin pm-oved to be amiytiiinmg but an advantage to a relay niagnet. A relay pretty strongly charged with permanent muagnetisnithiev till are somewhat if in mmsesc-ill not orork scitli ~l (ely neck current, and we cannot always ham-c a strong one, on account of atmospheric electricity, which, imi certtlili states of the atmosphere, micutralizes time elcctrh-itv of our batteries. I have frequemitly beemi very muimnim annoyed by pcrmnammcnt magnetisni, mimakinig it ilmipos- cible to adjumst; to get rinl of it we mimumst meverse time current tlmrougii the coils. W. J. Il Lockport, N. Y., dcii. 2, 1861. Novan SCREW PROPELLERA sumall steamer of novel constructiomi has lately been plyimig en time Serpt-ntine, Lomidomi. It is non the primiciple of time nloubld- dYOiVt?. This twili-iloat is, in fact, raisenl omit of time water and sumppom-tcnl uposm tw-o pomitoomis of a n-viimmnb-ical forum o)f two feet in diammicter, audI 18 tot 011g. louse pomi toono of tumbes arc emclm fitted with a colid conical spim-el screw at the stem, driven by a nhirst center shaft ivorkenl in the ulsumal manlier. The propellero are made to act together, or in opposite directions, in such a ovay that the vessel is driven by one or boths, and ninny be tsmrned in a sweep of little more than liner on-mi lcmmgth. This boat ivas built imi Bristol, amid in its passage to London it towed tuvo barges laden with 90 tuna of stone in shallow water at the rate of three miles an hour, withi 20 lb. steama pressmmrc imin the boiler. It is only tillt2C tUtill dil%Zitl. Practical Directions to Engineers. We continue our extracts froni Kings work on the Steam Engine, published by F. A. Bra(ly, No. 24 Ann- street, New York: SWEEPINO lanEs. One of the most (lisagreeal)le lurts of the duties is that of cleaning lines from the fact of its dirtvinn everything round aliout or hi the vicinity of the boil cis tile slightest draft being sufficient to waft the light dry ashes in every (lirection. A littic watcr sprinkled on theni before they are lianleil out of thc conucetions or smoke-boxes will Irevent this in a measure, the damper aul ashlit aol turietee (hours being closed, to prevent the men fuon icing otfibeated who go inside. The lower lines, particularly, are aJ)t to leak a little, and the salt water, inixiun with the ashes, fornis a solid mass, which can only be removed by being cut out, the tine brush being of no avail. Flu hanuner and chisel, awl long, sliarp-})ointed i)ars, and sledge, are best adapted to the purp~e. In the use of these in- struments, care should be taken that they l)e not driv- en through the metal or under the senus. ASh mrs. Ihe ash pits should l)e cleaned out every watch, and the ashes thrown overloanl, picking out first any luml)s of coal that in ty have fallen among the aslus. When not running at full speed, a l)ortuui of the cm- ders may be thrown upon the fires again, ufter damp- ing them with a little water. So also should tine bituminous coal be (lunpeileci beb ire being supplied to the furnaces, the arguments to the contrary not withstamiing for though it (loes take a little heat from the fire to evaporate the water mixed with the coal, a saving is effected, by ~)l(vefltii)g the iod from icing drawnparticularly- in boilers withi strong draft through the tines and lodged in the connections, or out of the smoke-pipe. No inure water, however, should e pitt on the coal tiunt just sufficient to (latupen it. Require to be iooked to occasionally, when made of rope, as they grow a little slack omn time to time. These should always be teijusted while the ~iime is hot otherwise, if they lie set up while the pipe is cool, the expansion after it i)eeolhtes heated will, in dl l)toi)a bihity, carry either the stays themselves away, or the band securing them to the pipe. hn a gale of wind, wheii the ship is rohihig luuvilv, these stays should be looked to, in order P tighiten lily (if them that may have liecomite slack, so as to throw the strain alike on all. Hemp rope is a very inferior article f(ir such purpose as stays for sutoke pipes. timid we cami see no good result, unless it i)e lieJilhice, which is always a good reasomi to those under smelt infineitee, ) why it has been so long retained. (bud wire rope looks bet ter, is clietper. and will list a gi et deal hongem and requires mueb less attention. en ire nans, & . When titted ite iv, are usually ahiowed ilentv of ~ihay, both fire amid alt and sideways, to allow for ex- pansion after they beeonie heated. [lie spaces at the cud of the bars, lonvever, becomne chi{ikeil up with ashes, which 1 ecome, ho timid lii. so minI as to tormit almost a siil iih Inass, defeating the ii jects for which they wire lift. Ihtese spa~ therefore, in port should be cleaned omit oceasiucilix Ash pits, in port shiomihi also be ivell (leaned tmd painted, to prevent oxydation. At sea, no water should be thrown imttu tltemit ill)Oti thte ashes, hiimt they should be kelit a5 (Iry as pissil Ic. With these precattions, they will last ii5 long its other harts (if tie holler. Boilers unused fir any considerabhe time should be kept dry of water, amid have flies muade iiccasionahlv in the alt pits, to evaporate a hh interior deposit of danip ness the neglect f this iietitiomi is the sole cause of the oxydation and deterioration of all boilers when net iii iNs. litiKEN AIR PUMP. Khotlch tIm air pcmmp become hr ken itt in it tepar- able iminner. and the engine b~ a single one, there is l)ist one thmmig that ciii be done, and that is to work mion-condensing. If there hie two engines, we have three resorts : to work the broken engine non- conden- sing, to discumineet from thin crank Pitt and proceed with one engine, or, if there be facilities on hoard, to ~oin the exhauct of both engines with a pipe, and use one air-~mmp and onc eciadenser for hiuth engines. This latter plan was tried very successfully for a short run on board the I. S. Steam Frigate Pee Scion. oms the China station, in the summmem of 1855. Peculiar facilities were, however, offered in this case, as the cx- haust side pipe of each engine had a man-hole its it, to which the cominecting pipe was joimse(l. Its runmilug under such circumstances, (ire sliiubl lie taken not to overloel the air-pump. BROKEN CYLINDER HEAD. Water may be worked over into the cylinder sstd- dlettly, from boilems foaming badly, or otherwise, faster tlmams it cats escape through the wi tie valves, and beitig liearlv ison-compressible, somethimig must give way, the cylimuler head or bottotss being the mmsost likely thing to go. Its such itt event, if there be a spare osse on board, pitt it ots if isot. while the old one is being re- paired, if it be reparable, the following plan can ha resorted to : Disconnect the steamn and exhaust vnlves fruits the datisaged emid of the cylinder, if the emigine lie fitted with pOpliet valves, and let tlse atmospheric pressure force the pistoms its oise direction, the steam hieing used for tise opposite directioms. Shill thse en- gine be fitted with a slide valve, close stp the opening into the dansaged end of the cylinder by fittimig in, steam-tight and ill a sitbstamstial manner, a block of soft wood. This should not however, be resorted to, except in cases of great citiergeticy. Cylinder heads should Isave man-Isole plates of less strength thin the heads this would lirevemit the tlestruction of heads in till cases. TIlE SELECTION OF COAL. The kinds and qualities of coals are so varied that 110 gemseral rules cami be given for their selection, but there is otie poitit, hoivever, which we think will not lie dispitted, asid that one is, whenever there is a choice, the omily sore h)han is to select the hiest for, fhsoimghs its first cost may hi a little more, it ivill hirove to lie thse elseapest in the etid. Whit economisy is there its purchasing one coal because it eati be obtained 10 or 15 per cent cheaper titan another, whiemi there will be burmied, to prodim the SItII5C eftiet, front 20 to 2.3 per cemst muore theits would be hiutriech by the lietter kind ? Yet this is it thsing of (haily uccurretsee. Bit, regardh esS of the money view, there are other disad- vaistages attetidimig the use of the inferior coal. From the fact of there licimig niore burned, the firemeis have more to supply to the furnaces, titid it requires, on their part, greater care and attention to keep the fires in goid order thus imposimig extra duty on a portion of thin ship s crew whose energies are usually overtaxed. Besides, to comivey the 1-eSsel a giveti distance, ais extra quaiitity lists to lie tuhmmi on board, which, in thin case of merelsamit ships, dinsinishies their freight CapaChty, or, in war shtihis, lumliers the dhecid with a siselest nulni her of tags. Soisie hollers are lest adapted to bitiisiiitiiiiis coils, fliers to anthracite, and the omie or the other of these coals which should he selecteul, depends upon the cir- iutisstatices, therefore, for which they are inteiided. Iii flit selection of coals, it is nit oluject to obtaiti those free as possille from earthy impurities. Slate, stti(l such like mnatter, is to be avoidedh. Sulphur in bitutusinous coals niikes them the more liable to spon- tanet)us coisihiustiots. So also receiving thema on board wet will disulaliger spontamicusis ignition. Coals which leive hiddim exhiosedi a long while to the rays of t lie sun hiarticuharhy in trohilcal tiusiates, utidhergo a gradual (lecay. redimeimig their evaporative qualities. SAFETY vALvE. Sfeamii, whiess otice commencing to bloxv off, will siot cease whieti the pressutre Isas fallen to the pressure die to thsat for which the safety valve is loaded, but will comitinuin to blow off until the presiure lists fallen some poitntls hinelow this. This is owing to the increased area which the steam has to act upon when thin valve is opti over what it has wlteis thse s-nh e is closed, oc east itil ho thse bevel of the s-au-c face. In a heavy sea. lb stifety vahs-e max- lie forced OhiCit for a short tiiiie. ii ci svhett the pressume is hielow that for which the valve is loaded, by the oseillatiosi of the ship. WATER ON STOCK FARMSMr. Strawn, the great Ihhinok farsuer, gives the following method in the Forms ..4dvocate for keeping water on a stock faym Dig a basin five or ten rods squstre and ten feet deep, upoti a high kmsolh. Feed corn in the hiasin to your hogs amid cattle utntil it is well puddled by thse trsitnp- hug of their feet, which will make it ahsiswt ii ater- tight. He says the raitis of a uitighe winter sufficed to accommodate several hundred head of cattle, and that it hstd licen dry hut once in twelve years. 23 ~1nrnn Lt~f ~ade~ie~. Professor Boettget states that gummi cottois is a sisost excellent fihteriiig medium for chiesnials. A susall tuft of it lilaced hoosely imito f lie thirst of a fusumiel euswers fur moth alkalies anti acids. The exusbution of gusm fruits certain ti ecs. such as tIme plum. peach, cherry, alniouul, ft., is tim result of disease arising froni various causses. sill if which lace the effect of aecuniulsitimig lb Nil at one hsiuhist. arises froni excessise nutril ion d)f stew tissues. I lie trsuiishsareiit gums which we ohitain tuna trees mu ix be truly culled the tesirs dif the vegef il wurhil. It svouslch appear, trutmi isususrouts uiliservaticims, Ibsut soldiers are hit clusrimig bat f he aecorclitsg to fit color of their dress, its the fohiwisig order: Red is time itust fatul color time least fatal, Ausitriams gray. Jise r~- porthoiss sirered, 12 rifle-green, 7 : brown, 6; An- trian blusishi-gray, 5. Respectimig ths~ nsef:d trutile of Emiglasid, tIme Losidiult Engineer says:-.. Ihere was a dliliiiIiishsed exhiortatiumi of timi plates to Imidisi sttmcl thin Visited States dusrisig the list nine snosiths, lust the exhorts to till other iisarhmfs have increased. Sustiderlasid, Emsglsisiii, utscd to be the lteadqussirter~ fur busilding timber shi1ss ; isusi- smiust of the Shihl)hiitildiers are engaged iti cosistrusetisig iross vessels, mmii great Ire- hiaratiomis are nosy msikitsg by thucum sill fur extetidimig this bussiness. There arc 1,700 svorksiseis engsuged at present in busildimig iron ships in this hilsice. There has-c beesl souse excititig seeties sit time meet- ings of the Acadcmx- uf Sciences, isi Psiris, lsitelv. M. Leverrier and M. Dehaussix- has-c lisud souse tiemesidouts liitdhied encouimiters al oust different ismudes of calculating planetary movememits. All Psuris has b~eti 055 tiptoe to hear the scientific comulitirits, and the meetimigs hiave been erasussied. At Attleburuighi, Msiss.. isurge jtsumitities of the best ~uuahities of lass amid gilt laittmus sil sivinutfactutred by Evans & Co. Ihseir faetoiv lists heems in olermitiosm fos thmirty years, and seversd hsuitilrei styles of humttomss sire snade oms tIme hireissises. Most of these buttomis are now ussed for military ussifirsims, buys jalekets, & c. A trial wets receistly inside sit Lyomis, Framice, of a nesv sliecies of locusiiutive. ill svhichi steasts is mehihaed by ether. Thin esigisicer itsi~rusdetitly contimiuted stauking his cigar svhsihe getting the esigine ready ; a spark from thin cigar fell info thin cliasuhier svhiichm contaimied thin ethmer, osi which the latter hiccasne instantatteoussly ii taass of fisissie. ihse eugisicer wsis seiiouisly hijusred, atid thie trisul svas neceissirihy- liOStl)Oliedl. Sonic of thin grsuiid peohile of Paris have had their gardesis roofed os-er svith glass, and converted, with thie aid of hot air anil extensive importations of flosvers, imito tIme most chiarnsisig of syinter hiaradises, svhere they s(ceis-c thmcis sisitoss atid give elegant little ff Ins rlempffres, to thin gleaf adimmiratiosi of those svhso are in- sbtel and flue (filially great deshlair ruf tim use who nrc isot. rI~hse borisig of artesiams wells seelmis to hinue beemi car- ried out svith great success in the provisice of Constsisi- tisse, in Algerisi; 50 svehls hase been opened since 1850, svlsich yield, altogether, subout P3,000.000 gallons in tIme course of 24 hoirs. These boritugs hinie linen executed with three sets of losing aphialatus only-, at aui cx- pesise, exelussise of thin cost of thin ahipamattis, of ahiout 110 for eachi of the 50 svells. In France, the Acclimation Society offers a medal svorth $200 fos the coniplete duniesticatiuss of the huianga vsdusibln beast of husrdnn, ~of gre it swiftmiess, syhsich hinhongs to Thihet. Thin isilme sitedhal fur tIme do- mestication of a large species of thin ketisgaruohiut whether to be skiden, driveti or esiten, it dues hot say six ihiediniens are to be prodiseed, asid if tIme second genematiomi, liredI ly- thue svimirmer, tOO is offerel fir thin iritroduietiuts atid dusssesfiatiuts of tlsc Africass cAiili, and the Australian emus, to lie hiatehindl ill the susan isv as barnyard fosvls, and of thin second unneri Ciii A P tent his lately been taken cut by C. Co usper, ef London, for a mmiv and heauf it ii Lame coles. It consists. of soluhihe Prussian blue and cesraimec of indigo mixed together, according to their cusnhiining proportions. He has found that these two blue coloring substances dissolve one asiother atud cosishine to forms a new blue of deflusite cosi-iposition, whichi possneses the property of being applied to fabrics made of baths vegetable and animal substances, either with or svithout mondants. This blue is a clear color, and does not vary in artificial or solar light. 24 Improved Stave Machine. The American lumber trade, in relation to staves, is of vast extent. It gives employment to many thousands in almost every section of the country, and a very large capital is invested in the machinery used for the several operations connected with it. Staves must be obtained folT all the l)arrels and hogsheads made at home; besides, we export most of the staves require(l for making hogsheads in England. These facts will at once render apparent the importance of any improvement, however small, that may be made in any of the machines used for riving or splitting staves from the rough blocks. The accom- panying engraving is a perspec- tive view of an improved machine for cutting out the staves from bolts. There arc various kinds of stave cutters. This one belongs to that class in which a reciprocating knife is used and made to give a curvili- near cut, passing through the bolt of wood, until it comes (Iowa against the bed plate or the feed table which holds the bolt. The objects of the im- provements are to preserve the cdgc of the knife from becoming dull by pressing against the feed plate; also providing a roller, set in elastic bearings in the knife gate, to afford a yielding pressure against the staves to prevent them from splintering while being cut. In the figure the framework is represented as formcd of timber, but it is de signed to construct such machines of iron, and they will be very compact and strong. A represents the two sides which constitute the framing of the machine. B is a feed table extending across the framing. The bolts are placed upon it and fed into the cutter. C C are two short steel axes on which the cutter gate is hung and swings. A plate of metal is secured in a recess on the feed table along its front edge, so as to present a firm bed to the cutter. This bed would soon render the edge of the knife dull by its coming (lown frequently against it. To obviate this evil, strips of compressed india-rubber, D, are laid over the metal plate, so that, when the cutter descends through the block and cuts out a stave, it comes against a firm, instead of a hard suhstance. E is the swing gate of the knife. Its two knives are hung hy the axes, C C, to the side supports. F is an under cross bar which unites the sides of the gate at the foot. G is the cutter head, consisting of a hroad plate extending across the gate. H is the knife or cutter which extends across the gate, and is secured in a plate on the inner side of the head, G. Another plate, I, on the gate, extends across the frame. It has a series of rib ~uides secured to it, which pass up and down in guide recesses, J J, formed by adjusting pieces fastened on the front edge of the table, B, in advance of the strip, D, which can he compressed in its recess by the screws represented. ZR is a roller secured in recesses formed in the sides of the knife gate. It is situated behind the knife and opposite its lower edge. The axes of this roller have elastic spring blocks, a, of india-rubber, or other suit- able substance, set in the recesses of the sides of the gate, and S S are screws for adjusting these, so as to set the roller ~ proper relationship with the cutter. Tbe compressed rubber prevents the knife from cutting it. The gate is now shown as raised to cut, and a bolt of wood supposed to be placed on the feed table, B. It is pushed forward so tbat the thickness of the stave to be cut is regulated by the guide ribs. Tbe gate now (lescends, and the knife, Ii, cuts through the bolt, (Ic scribing part of a circle in its descent ; and when it comes against the strip, I), the cut stave falls (Iowa from the bolt. The soft nature of the india-rubber strip, D, prevents the cutting ed~e of the knife from becoming (lull by coming in contact with the hard bed under it, and at the same time it gives a firm bed to the downward action of the cutter. The spring bear- ings of the roller, I, admit of a graduated resisting pressure on the staves, which tends to prevent them from splintering, and thus a greater number of sound ~tayes are produced than would otherwise be obtained. The stave machine is the invention of Mr. W. H. the handle turned, when the clothes are carried be- Doane, who has made application for a patent, and tween them, and the water is squeezed out: a a are from whom further information may be obtained by the upright standards of the iron frame, which are addressing him at Box 4,396, Chicago, Ill, held fast to the side of the tub, b, by india-rubber spring pieces at their lower ends. These press opposite Improved Clothes-wringer, to one another on each side of the tub, and thus they Although a great deal has been done in the way of retain the frame in position. The standards are united inventing labor-saving machinery for household pur- together by the bar, c, at the top: d d are the two poses, we believe there are still great opportunities left pressure rolls, and d is a back roller, over which the for further advancement in this direction. Most of pressed clothes are guided into the basket. The upper the hand-washing machines we have examined are pressure roller is secured between two curved swing arms, e, and from the nature of the material of which the rolls are composed, as well as the arrangement of the upper with the lower one, they accommo- date themselves to the inequali- ties of the clothes, and maintain a regular pressure upon them. It will also be observed that the pressure of the rolls upon the clothes operates to make the lower ends of the standards hug fast to the sides of the tub, so as to keep them in position. The partial dryin~ of clothes by this simple and convenient apparatus can be performed far more rapidly and with greater ease than by the common method of wringing. It is a labor-saving machine, adapted for use in all families, and it ___ appears to us that, while it saves labor, its action will not tend to wear and tear linen like that DOANES IMPROVED STAVE MACHINE. of wringing. A patent was granted, through made so heavy and are so difficult to operate that they the Scientific American Patent Agency, for this im- rather increase than diminish the labor of washing. provement to George I. Colby, of Waterbury, Vt,., This is the reason, we think, why washing machines on Dec. 4, 1860; and further information respecting have been so comparatively limited in their introduc- it may be obtained by addressing Howden, Colby & tion, although the number which has been hrounht be- Co., as above. fore the public, from first to last, is legion. To render labor more light and pleasant should be the aim of every inventor, and this is the design of the clothes- wringing machine represented by the accompanying engraving. Ike object of it is to press the water out of washed clothes and obviate the labor of wringing, which is the hardest part of the work. This invention consists of a very simple attachment to a common xvashing tub, or it may be attached to a washing machine, with which, by turning a crank handle, and running the clothes between a pair of pressure rollers, the water is pressed out, and they drop into a basket underneath ready for drying. Fig. 1 is a perspective, and Fig. 2 is a side section of the invention. A pair of india-rubber rolls are hung on a neat frame of galvanized iron, which is clamped to the wash tub in the manner clearly shown in Fig. 2; the washed clothes are placed between the rolls apd Coloring Matter of Flowers. Seine interesting researches on vegetable coloring matters have lately been concluded by M. Filbol, of Paris. He has extracted the coloring matter from white flowers, and finds it to possess the following qualities It is a clear yellow solid, soluble in water, alcohol and ether, and furnishes very beautiful lake colors with metallic oxyds, and can be used for paint- ing and dyeing fabrics of a bright and very durable yellow. It has been named xanthogene. The colors of red and blue flowers are found to be due to a similar proximate principle, which will be blue in flowers with a neutral juice, and red or rose colored in those where the juice is acid. The name of this coloring matter is cyanine, a solid uncrystallizable body, soluble in water, and capable of being applied to many uses in painting. In yellow flowers two distinct coloring substances have been found, named respectively xanthine and xanthene. Another body, named crocoxanthine, is also met with in all the species of the genus crocus. It is a solid, uncrystallizable body, of a beautiful golden yellow color, which is neither altered l)y aci(ls nor alkalies; it is solul)le in water and alcohol, but insoluble in ether; it produces, with same metallic oxyds, beautiful lake colors; and can be fixed upon fabrics, where its tine- tonal power is remarkable. M. Filbol, in a memoir read before the Academy of Sciences, gives some valu- able hints on the preservation of fresh flowers. We may preserve many flowers for a long time in a fresh state by enclosing them in sealed tubes. At the end of some days all the oxygen of the air confined in the tubes will have disappeared, and xviii have become re- placed by carbonic aei(l. If we introduce into the tubes a little quicklime it removes from the flow& rs some of their humidity, which facilitates their preservation. Lime also takes up the carbonic acid, nd the flower thus becomes placed in pure nitrogen. All flowers are not preserved alike by this process ; yellow flowers are those which are altered the least. LIGHTING STEAMERS wirn GAsThe Birkenlicad Commissioners are trying the experiment of lighting the cabins of their river steamers with gas, a quantity of which will be carried on board each steamer daily, thus following the example set by American steanxboats~ COLBYS IMPROVED CLOTHES-WRINGER MUNN & COMPANY, Editors and Proprietors. PUBLISHED WEEKLY At No. 37 Park-row (Park Building), New York. 0. D. MUNN, S. II. WALES, A. K ]3EACII. TERM5Tivo Dollavo pcr annumOne Dollar in advance, and the rctnain(lcr in six months. Single copies of the paper are no sale at the ollice of poblication, and at all the teriodical stores in the United States aol Canada. Sampson Loc, Son & (Jo., the American Booksellers, No. 47 Ludgate lull, London, EngIsnil, are the British A~e for tie SCIENTIFIC AMscAN. Is to receive sobseriplions See Irospcets on last lage. No traveling Agents employed. VOL. IV. NO. 2 [NEW SERIES.].... Seventeenth Year. NEW YORK, SATURDAY, JANUARY 12, 1860. SIX GOOD REASONS WHY EVERY MANUFAC- TURER, MECHANIC, INVENTOR AND ART- IZAN SHOULD BECOME A PATRON OF THE SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN. I. It is a publication tlevotetl especially to their several interests. Every number contains 16 pages of useful matter pertaining to mechanism, new (liseoveries and inventions, themes interesting and tlseful to all persons engaged or interested in Inechani- cal or manufactturing pitrsuits of whatever kind. II. It is a cheap publicationfurnished so low, in fact, that no mechanic, manufacturer, or inventor can plead inability to spare from his earnings or business the small sum charged for a years subscription. III. It is printed on the finest quality of paper, in a form for binding, every number being embellished with original engravings of new machinery and inven- tions, all of which are prepared expressly for this pub- lication. IV. No other pitpcr (hr ltcliotlicttl l)thiiljSlaed in this cotlrttry contains the list of patents and claims issued from the United States Patent Office; hence the ScwN- TIFIC A~lEarcAN is in(lispensttltlc to every mechanic, manufacturer, or inventor who is desirous of keeping advised as to what new machines or novelties are be- ing patented. V. In subscribing for the ScIENTIFIc AMERICAN, the reader receives the latest foreign as well as home in- telligence on all subjects pertaining to the industrial pltrsllit.s of the world. All the best scientific or mecisani- cal periodicals publishetl in England, Frtsnce or Ger- many are receiveti at this office, affording us facilities for presenting to our readers the very latest news re- lating to science or mechanics in the old world. VI. Subscribers wiso preserve their numbers have, at the end of the year, two handsome volumes of 416 pages each, containing several hunflred engravings, worth, as a work of reference, many ti~nes the price of suliscription. NEW WAR STEAMERS. We recently directed attention to this subject in an trticlc on page 361, Vol. III. ~new series), of the Sct- ENTIFIC AMERICAN, btut the great importltllce attached to it warrtmts us in recurring agitin to tlse question. We have a most inefficient navy at present in compari- son with other powers, anti one altogether inferior to what it shoulti lie considering the vast commerce of the lTnited States. Our g(ivernment has not been unmind- fiul of tisis fttct, a board of distiltgihishcd olhicers having beela ltpl)tiihltctl last year by the Secretary of the Navy to cXtthuuiue the sailing 1111)5 of tluc navy for the put pose of determining the cx~)c(liel7lcy of c(tnvcrting them into war steamers. This board has visited all our dockyards, made the reqttisite examinatiofts, and re- ported the resutits to Secretary Toucey, who has given them briefly in his late published report. It is thereig stated that it is not expedient to introduce steam power into any of the brigs, sioops or frigates, but that it is expedient to introduce it into all our ships of the line except the Delaware, which is too defective. Our steam frigates have cost each $725,000, and the cost of con- verting a line-of-battle ship in the navy into a steam fri,,ate of the same class would be only $383,000. On the ground of economy, therefore, it is recommended, that the eight line-of-battle ships, now almost useless in our navy, be converted into war steamers at a cost of $3,064,000. As this recommendation will be acted upon in some manner by Congress, it demands a thor- ough investigation, so that the most reliable concin- stons for securing a more efficient and enlarged navy may be arrived at. The French and British naval authorities have already gone through the very same experience that we are just about undurgoing. Not many years ago, they had a very large number of sailing ships of the line ; and when it became necessary to form a steam navy, it was believed that these old ships could be converted into good steam frigates at less expense than would be incurred in building new vessels. But what has been the result? In a report of a committee appointed by the British Treasury to inquire into the navy estimates in 1858, it is stated that there is but a very small saving effected in the materials, while old ships never can be made so efficient as new ones built expressly for steam. Donald McKay, of Boston, who is now in LoMon, states that the 0eneral stud well established opinion of all the dockyard officers is, that a very trifling saving, if any, is effected by the reconstruction of old sailing ships ; and then, even with a considerably improved shape, such a ship will not last one-third as long or prove as efficient as a new ship of the same class. Our government is told to beware of being seduced into the scheme of converting our old sailing war ships into steamers. Without expending any money upon them, they will answer very well for harbor defense, as block ships, but not for efficient war steamers The necessity of increasing the navy is felt and pointed out by Secretary Toucey. He says: WIsile we laave a population of thirty millions of souls, a sea cost of vast extent on tlse Atlantic and Pacific oceans; a navi0atung interest of five millions of tuns; an annual export and import trade of six or seven hundred millions of dollars, and a home trade not less valnable, it would be strange and unaccotsntable in any one to suppose that tlse federal government, in providing and maintaining its present navy, has discharged its constitutional obligation. The constant appeal of American citizens, coming to us from all quarters of the world, asking for Security and protection beyond what the government, with its present aseans, can afford them, speaks a language to which we are not at liberty to turn a deaf ear. ~ ~ * ~ S I cannot permit the present occasion to pass without most earnestly recommending the policy of a gradual, substan- tial and permanent increase of the navy, accompanied by the universal introduction into it of the usotive power of steam. Such policy is essential to the protection of our coasts and commerce, and of American citizens and their property on the ocean and in distant countries, to the preservation of peace, the efficiency of ne0otiation, the general advance- bent of our commercial interests, the maintenance of our appropriate position amon_ nations and the prompt vindi- cation of our rights and of the honor of the country, and should be subject to none of the ordinary vacillations arising from the varied success of political parties. Here we have it asserted that, owing to our ineffi- cient navy, we cannot afford sufficient protection to American citizens engaged in commerce in various parts of the world. They are continually appeal- sng for security and protection, and we cannot grant their requests. Is not this a disgrace to Amer- ica? The great question is, how shall we best remodel and increase our navy? A new era has dawned upon the world ; our old sailing war vessels, that struck terror into the Algerines and British during the days gone by, are now numbered with the relics of past ages. Steam is king of the ocean, and the nation which possesses the most powerful steam ships must be mistress of the seas. There are no two sides to this story ; it can only bear one construction. At present we have not a sin~ le first class war steamerone that can compete with tine most recently built French and British ones, and we regret that the Secretary of the Navy has not paid sufficient attention to these -~ve mean the iron- cased war wolves. Instead of frittering away ideas or money ott old and effete ships, uneasures should at ounce be taken to construct several new steamers, embracing all the latest im- provements. In another article attention shall be directed to the construction and terrific power of the new iron-cased frigates building by France and Eng- land, 25 WHERE DOES WEALTH COME FROM? If a dealer in dry goods takes an account of his stock of property, a portion of it will be set down as a num- ber of yards of cloth. Let us examine a piece of this say a piece of sheetingand see where the wealth in it comes from. In the first place, the cotton was raised on a Southern plantation. The seed was planted in the ground, and when the plant came up it was plowed and hoed till the cotton was ripe, when it was picked, baled and sent to market. By this process no new matter was created. It is regarded by chemists and philosophers as settled, that matter cannot be pro- duced by man. The elements which form the cotton were previously floating in the air or resting in the earth. All that the planter did was to bring them together in new combinations, by which process he gave them value. It will be found that all production of wealth consists in changing the relation, or form, or location of some portion of matter in a way to im- part to it valne. After the bale of cotton reached the shipping port, it was placed on board of a vessel and sent over sea to the manufacturer. By this change of location additional value was given to it. The mer- chant is snot only just as really a producer of wealth as the farmer, but he produces wealth in the same way. Both of them give value to matter by changing its location. The manufacturer draws the cotton out into long slender threads, and weaves it into a web of cloth; by this change of its formof its several parts in rela- tion to each othergiving it additional value. It then passes into the hands of the trader; who separates the large quantity into small parcels convenient for use, and transports it into the neighborhoods where it is wanted. By thus changing its location, and the rela- tion of its several parts to each other, he imparts to it additional value. The trader is a producer of wealth in the same sense as is the farmer or the manufac- turer. There was a time when there was no wealth in the world: it is now to be reckoned by millions of mil- lions, and if we examine each item of it, we shall find that all of this wealth has been produced by making changes in the form, or the relation of the parts, or the location, of the several articles of which wealth consists. Let us take one snore casethat of a ship. A certain value is given to the logs by cutting them down anti transporting them to the saw unillchanging tlncir location. They receive additional value by being sawn into plank or timberremoving the surplus, changing the relation of their several parts to each other. The transportation to the shipyard gives them additional valuechanging their location. Then, cutting away the portions which are not wanted, and placing the materials together in the ship, gives them another installment of value. The ship constitutes $50,000 worth, or $500,000 of the wealtln of the world, and all this wealth has beets produteed by changing the form of some material substance, or the relation of its several parts to each other, or its location, in such a way as to impart value to it. It will be observed that the reason why these changes give value to the material is that they advance it a step in the process of adapting it to gratify some human want. If labor is bestowed upon an article in a way not to have this effect, such labor adds nothing to its value, and of course does snot increase the wealtln either of the laborer or of the world. If a farmer works the whole season to raise a crop which will satisfy no want, his seasons labor adds nothing to his own wealth or the wealth of mankind. If a manufac- turer makes such changes in the forms of his articles as not to increase their usefulness, he does not, by such changes, add anything to their value or to his own wealth. . If a merchant buys hides in New Yosk and transports them to Buenos Ayres, where they are worth less than they are in New York, he snot only loses his own money, but diminishes the wealth of tlse world by the operation. MOMENTIJM,JOSCph W. Spragues article on the Power of Bodies in Motion is necessarily deferred until next week. We have received a large number of articles on the subject of Momentusm, in reply to Mr. Spragues communication, some of which have not yet been examined; and we cannot say what disposition we shall consider it necessary to make of them. In the meantime, we publish a reply from Professor Silliman, whiCh will be found in another colump. 26 Fire Silverplating. Although silverplating by means of the galvanic bat- tery has bccoi~e a great and most beautiful art, and now lorins a large branch of manufacturing industry, there are various articles which still require to be pre- pare(l by the old method of fire ~)lating. Having re- cently had several inquiries regarding these processes, ~xe give the following information on the subject. SILvEaLNO BILASS A ND cOPPEn. A very thiu coat of silver can lIe 1)Llt llf)0l1 brass or copper xxitl a mixturc of chloridc of silver, chalk and carlash, in equal l)roportions. The surface of the brass is first ula(le pcrfcctly clean, after which this mixture is slightly moistened with water and rubbed on with a cleats rag. Of course it is not very durable, but it answers very well for some ISlirPoses. Another method consists us a~)~)lying, in the same manner, a moist mixture of 1 psrt of silver powder, 2 of cream of tartar, an(l the same (fliantity of com- mon salt. When the surface of the brass is entirely levered with siler, it is washed in tepi(l water contain- ing a small quantity of pearlash, then washed again in warni soft water, then finally wipe(I asid lined l)efore a fire. A third muethod consists in taking 2 ounces of chlo- ride of silver, mixed with 1 ounce of corrosive subli- mate, 8 l)ounds of comnnioss salt and a like quantity of sulphate of zinc, all made into a paste with water. The l)rass being cleaned perfectly, it is covered with this paste, then dried slowly and heated very gradually up to a red heat, so as to expel the mercury which is formed by the reaction of the chloride of silver and. corrosive sublimate. The brass now acquires a silvery surface, which is hightened by burnishing. The French mnetho(l of sil verplating with silver leaf is as follows: The article to 1)0 plated is first raised to a red heat, then lmluliged into (lililte nitric acid until it becossues bright and clean. After this its surface is rubbed with umasice stosse and hot water. It is now agaiss heated to such a degree as to snake a slight hissing sound whets it touches water, in which state it is (lipped again into dilute aquafortis, which bites its surface and makes it a little rough, so as to retain the silver leaf when applied. The as tide is now heated on a warm iron plate, called a maandria, until it acquires a bluish shade, when the workman lays on two leaves of silver and rubs them (howls with a steel burnisher. After these two leaves are thins fastened on, the article is again placed on the mosaicist and heated as before; then four additional leaves are laid on and burniseed dowis in the sasise manner. Thssse operations are called charging, and mis misally as thirty, forty, fifty, or sixty leaves are thiuss laid on, according to the solidity of silverplating desired. The whole surface is finally burnished with great psessure. Articles of copper and iron can be silvered in the same manner, only the iron is miot subusitted to the iuitrie acid actionits surface ms first thorougisly clemnsed, then roughened with a file for tlse reception of thse silver. [lie following is a method of silvering iron for which a patent was taken out in England, a few years since. A mnixtisre of 12 parts, by weight, of Inercury, 2 of smmlphate of iron, 2 of murisitie acid, I of zinc, and 12 of water are heated ill an open vessel to almout 2000 Fall. TIme iron is immimnersed in this and risimbed with it until the sumrface is coated with muercury. Molten silver is now kept at hand in a crucible, and into this the asmialgamnated article is (hih)ped, whien it sooms becomes coated with the silver. Articles formed of alloys of silver and copper are whitened by removing a portion of the copper near the surface, by heating them nearly red hot, then dip- ping them into ssmlphusric acid, which eats out some of the copper and imhiarts a blanched, dead silver ap- pearance to the smmrface Articles of alloys composed of copper asid gold, when treated in the sanie mmsanner, but using nitric instead of sulphuric acid, acquire a beaustiful color, resemblislg whsi t is termned Tussean work. The solder which is employed by silver- platens is consposed of 2 parts silver and 1 of brass. The brass is a compound of 233 parts of copper and 100 of zinc fused togetherthe copper melted first in the crucible, then the zinc added, and the alloy thus made east into ingots. Silver solder melts freely in a clear charcoal fire for whidll a blast is employed. TILE great underground railway in London, to con- nect all the railways of that metropolis, is being con- structed with umiflagging energy. The Earths Orbit- Climate Changes. to be invented. There is certalub gresit roomn for in) A pamphlet has beems lately published by Mr. J. 11. provement in all agricultusral imuphemmuesits of a coum- Hind, the well-known astronomer in London, on the pound character. qumestioss of secumlar chamige in the issehination of the Wind Make the Sidewalks Wet earthss orbit. According to Mr. Hind the greatest de- Why Does a South viation of the plane of the orbit frosms the position Without Rain l Yesterday the weather was cool and clear, but thsis it occupied in 1800 is 40 50, and thuit this se- smmlt is not liable to an umneertainty of more thami five morning there is a warns sousthierly wind, ami(l tIle side- walks are covered with moisture, thioughs there has or six maimustes. He states thsst there is apparently h)een no rain. As oumr citizens commue oust to their (1tihv miothing to prevent tIle earthss orbit frosa beconilsig tasks, they all miotice the fact ; bust how vanioums sir for a timise sensibly circular, bust those geologists who suttribumte the ebsimiges of chisusute, which have taken the imlinressions thssit it produsces umposs thicir usiuls The little sagged girl shivers ii5 the naked sole (of her place iii different sections of the globe, to a variatioms 515 the obliqumity of the ecliptic are iii error. A ebsimige foot presses the dampsuess, and she anticipites ths of sumehs nsagnitumde as wouuld lead t(o a subversioss of lusxusry of st:undisug presesutly usposs si warns gratisig, the present order of thin~ cams never arise, according through which the steam is escapisug frons sosue solo terranean steamn engisse ; the dealers in overshoes soil to his calcullations. usunbiellas look forward to a good days trade, simid thi Fossils of plants sind aninsals suow foumud in troPical shipping liserchant wouiders whether it will rsdss and cousutries ossly are obtaissed ims thie frozen regiosis of prevent his vessel frossi disehiargimig the remmsainder of the Northm, thins showing that a waruser climate at osse time, iii the rensote past, prevailed sit the North. ~ her cargo. Bust to tIne student of sciessee, the phessom- aecoumist for this somne geologists have suspposed that enoms sumggests the idea o)f its causse, simid leads his sninol variations in the obliquity of the ecliptic hsave pro- unto a traits of thought which ramnifies into ever oh - duced gresit variatiomis of clinsate on the entime surface partmnent of Nature. of the earth. Mr. Hind evidently believes in no sumels The deposit of susoistumre from warm air upoms ii colol theory. Other geologists, agaiss, believe thsat the stone is owing to a property of the atmisosphiere which earths was once a mass of fire, and that its surface produces a large isumisber of phenomnena. After siir hsis hsis goise through various degrees of tesnperature in received a certain quasstity of musoisture, it will take coohisig, suifficient to give a trolnical cliossite to those no more, bust warns air will hold niore water thsass cold psirts of our globe which are now covered with eternal air. Now, when air whiich has been s:stusruited with inoistumre by resting over soustlsern seas, misoves to the snows. This theory is also destitute of cossiplete re- North and conies ims contact )vithl a cold flag stosse, ii liance, as fossils are now found in Scotland (according portion of its moisture is comidonseol upon the stosse. to Humghs Miller) of shell-fish which arc only foussid in the Arctic seas, thsus showing that, instead omf a warm- The proportion of water hi the air has a very hnpor it had omice mu mususehi colder clinsate. It limos also f tant isiflumessee upon its properties, especially ims rehsi- er, tion to the skin, lmmngs and other viscerms o)f the systemus. sils of tropical plants and animals, as well as those of Probably the injurious effects of furnaces hi (bvellings the frigid zosses, thus showing that it has gone through are principally owing to the capacity of thie air for 1550)55- changes of ditferelit climisates in the ages of the past. Neither the plustossie Isos thie astromioussical thicories sic- tumre, sissol thiuss caussisig it to d5.y the lusmigs sisid skims. cousmut for these thisugs. There is a boumndless field stilh With opess fires the Ileat is rsi(lisiteol thsrousgh the miii open for origimial discovery iii the msatumral sciences, directly to the bodies of people in the roons, assol it is tiserefore miot miecessary to heat the air mis hsuot mis furissi ces: hessee, it will absorb snoistumre II5O)~C rapiolly. 1st Farm Implements and Machinery, other words, it is less dryimsg. We copy the following excellent aolvice on this sub- COTTON SEED CAKE FOR FEEDING CATTRRThie iluosk ject fromis the coosatsy Gesotleaoea : I)smring the more heisure season of winter. farmuers will Lane (London) Ex1~se.uo has ass editorial commendiss~ fisid mt advasitageous to examine, repair and improve all the best samples of this article mis a valuable aco~uisi- their implements and nuachsines. It is in these that agricul- tion to the present catalogume of grazing substances, tural progress has been niost strikingly masked within the and concludes by quotisig the following observmitions past twenty years; and the cultivator who does slot keep pace with the improvements made is wastissg a valuable of Professor Woeleker on thie result of a recent missaly- elensemit of success. There is less danger of isuposition in sis of thisi decorticated Americams cotton seed cake this direction than in some others, for a years usse will es- tablish the character of any machsimme. A kuowledge of the lately imisported: 1st. 1he proportion of oil isi all primiciphes of niechiassisma, added to the experience which the specimens is higher than the linest linseed cake, ili every observing farmer should possess, will emiable bliss, in which it is rarely more thams twelve per cesit, and asost cases, to hudge with a good deal of certainty before- hand on the value of a new invention. ten per cemit nsay hoe takess as art average. As a sup- There are two points that should always be kept before the farusers eye when niaking any provismosi of this kind. phier of food, cottoss cake is therefore simperior to lims- The first is, simplicity of strimeture. A simple machine is seed cake. 2d. The amisoummit of oil ims the several cheaply bosmghst, easily nianaged, not easily derangeot, and specimisemis difters to the extemit of five amid a half per quickly mestored to repair. Other thsisings being isearly eqimal, always buy tIme sissiphest macblue. The crowbar is a fine cent. 3d. Cake comitains a )ery highs and much larger illustrationsitnple, efficiesit, used by every osse, valuable per centage of flesh-forming niatter thams linseed cake, for many punimoses, and sieves out of joint. The great diffi and it is therefore proper to give to young stock amid culty iii replacing tIme 1)10w with any other cultivating nsa- chine is its great siusphicity. Cosmplex hushdng snaclsimmes snilch cows. 4th. Iii consparison with linseed, there have all given place to the old-fashiosmed aplinliance of thussib is niusehi less mnumcilage asid other respiratory usitter his and finger, arnied, somusetisnes, with huskiming thimble or peg, cottoms emike. This is comnpemisated by the larger but oftener without. TIme greatest advantage des~ived frons machsineryis where ansoussit of oil. Sthm. The proportioss of indige,~tiblo the powerful msmscles of horses are amade to accomphishs what before was done by the weaker force of usiaas in woody fiber in decorticated cottoss cake is vet-v snuall the mowing or threshing machine; or where the slow man- and not larger than in the best linseed cake. titis. Thue ipulation of fingers, with no expenditure of strengths, 15 ash of cotton cake is rich ims bony niaterial, and changed to a greatly increased rapidity of the same work by niechianical combinations, instances of which occur in amounts to about the same quamitity as is cositaineol iso the garden drill and the sewing niachine. Souse conmplex- other oily cakes. ity is here miecessary, and is admissible when great speed _______ __________ is gained; but when a muachine works but little faster than the unassisted hands, it may be discarded, as a universal rule, unless extremely simple. The second point to observe in providing fartus machinemy is to select such as each farmer can work with his owis un- borrowed forces. A threshing nuachine, for exaniple, that requires six or eight horses to drive, one-half of which must be hired or borrowed for time occasionor six o)r eight hands to misass it, one-half of whosis nmust be collected thsrousghs the sseighborhmood before a sheaf cast 1)0 thsieohsed is aim inconvenient msmachtismetrousblesoimsc, amid not I economical. If the farnier has but two horses asmd two hands, he should procure a thresher which they can work. He has then coniplete conusnand of his own operations, and can, on any occasion, for a day, half day, or less, set his umachine to work when he wishes a supply of grain for seed or for bread, or straw for his cattle. Many spare or stormy days may be advantageously occupied where such a con- venience as this is always at hand. The farmers wife will not complain of being relieved of boarding a nussiber of hands required to man a ponderous ten-horse thresher, nor will he himself get the fidgets so often in seeing all his col. lection of men standing idle while a broken cog is under- going repairs. tmii~ Y~0aKImoa or MINEsMr. Cocklinurn, a distin gusisiseul enol has submitted to the ~ neer, recently Brit ish School of Mines a papes of muds interest mininl valimo. He recossinsemids rousid wise ropes as f lie best for draw imig coal frosmis pits where thie (le1otht is less thuams two hsummndr~d ysords amid fimit wire ropes where it exceeds thu.. fIn hems esigisse, his comlsequscsioe of its simosphi city aisd economy, he prefers for the punspimig nisehi nery. The pumps, too, should be of a mixed chasac ter, plunges as well as dips. The slsssft of a pit ought to be round, not less than seven or eight feet in diame- ter, and well walled throughout. Then, too, all shafts should have uvood guides and be provioled with signals. Cages should have movable covers, and when the cage is at the top there should be an arrangement for the ventilation of the ehaft. Mr. C. also thinks I that the furnace is the best arrangessiont for nudes More simple husking machines and automatic gates ground ventilation, and gives it as his opinion that than any heretofore brought before the public are yet the air rooms should be of larger area than the shaft. 27 THE SCIENCE OF COMMON THINGS. NUMBER II. TILE ChEMISTRY OF TILE BREAKFAST TABLEWATER. To-day we are to examine the constitution of water. rrhis is not, like the metals, a simple substance, but is coInl)ose(l of two elements, which, though generally liquid or solid when combined with other elemcnts, are, wlieim scilarated from each other and everything else, only known in the forllm of gas. One ol tlLcsc is oxygcn aIl(1 thc other is hydrogen. Oxygen forums about one-fourtiL part of time air we breathe. Hydrogen is the lightest substance known, and is therefore used to fill balloons with, to float up through time air. But, father, why can we not see these substances as well after they- are separated from each other iL5 we (111 when they are joined together 1 (1(1 not 1(110w. Nobody knows why we can see thirongim a plate of glass wheim we cannot through a phite of iron. All gases are transparent, but why they are so we (10 not know. Is it known why tiLey are lighter when they arc SellariLteil rliey are not any lighter. One pound of hydrogen colnbilled with eight pounds of oxygen makes nine 1)olmImds of water. lIme elmelnical combination of water 18 exceedingly simple, and if you will give me a couhple of little balls I will exl)lailI it to you. Let ums have OhiL of thmeum mIma(le of 1)ith t(I represent an atomn of hydrogen, aIld tIme other Ina(le (If 50~C wood, so that it will be eight tillmes heavier though only half tile size, to rel)resent oxygen. Now, if we fasten with a thlre:ud one atollm of oxygen to one atom of hydrogen, we 5111(11 have of an atom of water, thusOo. The oxygen atomu, you relnelaber, is one half as large as the mitolhi of hydrogen, and (ighit times heavier. it is, in fact, eight and tihirteell one-thiousanilth timnes heavier, hut we will lay miside the fractions for the sake of silhi- phicity. Why are these hot still gases after they are cola- billed togetimer ? How easy it is for aimy iloy t(I ask a question that 110 Philosol)lmcr can answer. Professors Farmulay, Liebig amid Henry will all tell you that they (10 not know whiny time combination of hydrogen and oxygen should pro(luce a new sumbstance with properties so different fromn ci timer of tIme elemnents wlmen uhic(ImmmbilIe(l. However, by applyhmg heat to water, it may l)e mnadc to take tIme forum of gas (I~ vapor. If we take a Imulllmber of these atomas and scatter themlm apart imm tlmis way (Jo (Jo Oo (Jo (Jo Oo On 01) 0o 0(1 (Jo (Jo (Jo (Jo (Jo we shall have an idea (If thmcir conditioli as steaul. They mire still coumbined together thoulghm chemically considered, they are water. But if we blow them into a retort full of very hot charcoal, thmey will be separ- ated ill other words, the steamn or water will be de- composed. Watcr may also be (lecomImlIosed by elec- tricity. If we arralige tIme p01(5 of a galvamlic battery ~)r~perly, we can (leconipos( water, naIl carry mull tIme (lxyg(n into OIlC jar and all the hydrogen into another, when the atoms will b( separated thus o o o o o 0 0 0 0 0 0 o o 0 0 0 0 o o (~ 1) 0 () 0 0 0 0 Ihe hylirogemi conmihlg IroImi Imine l)olhhi(ls of water )Veighs one l)0(ni(l, ali(l tIme oxygehm eight potmIlds but the hydrogen fills twice as large a jar as the oxygen. is the shape of these atomns? They are so small that thmev cannot be seen with th( roost l)owerf ml microscope, bit ther( are so many facts which point to flmel r existence that they are ~enerally believed in. Ihe afoul of hydrogen is tIme v iv 1 ighitest atolhi known, and is therefore takeim uS stalidard tO ounmi~are mill ofimers ~vith. Its weight ms tilled ouc, alal as the mitoam of oxygen weighs cighIt tunes as mliii time atonmic ~xcighmt ot oxgcim is eight. In works on chemmiistrv fh~ 62 simple elelnents arc memationed so frequently that it is usual hot to write oult the name iii full, buit to use merely the initial tlmmis, H stands for hyilnogen mmd 0 for oxygen. As the two combined forln water whuenever ~0ll ace (HO) in chemical books you mnay know that it nicans an mmtomu of wmmtcr. You mmow understand that joke you saw as 1imaiti, Ibr. WImot one I hunt riiuember. rime Chienmistry of the Bible HO, every one that thimsteth They would have time HO to drink, would they? Taking Photographs by Night. English photographers are conducting with great learning and ingenuity a series of experiments with tIme view of obtaining mm artificial light for taking photographs. We find in the Londomm P1iotogm~phic Noel the following account of some preliminary exiler ilnents whmicli were Inadle 1w Mr. (rookes ill 1856, at the expemise of the governument. It will be remneniber- ed that the cliemnical or actinic rays of the sunbeaum which llrodumee the chmmnges ot shade in the photograph are entirely differeimt from those which affect the eye, hence an artificial light might be very brilliant to the eye and still cxert very little power upon the sensitized phute or paper. The two great sources of artificial light, electricity and chmeimmical action, were successively tried, tIme forlner, however, not being comisidemed so promising mm field as the latter. owing to time great expense and difficulty muttending its use, and for the fmmrtlmer reason that the requirements of the case rendered port- mibihity a great consideration. Trial was mnade of the electric egg, or the lumminous glow which is pro- duced when the secondary current, from a powerful indumetiomi coil, is passed throumghm highly attenimated gaseous media enclosed in glass tubes. But althouohm a a spectral mmnalvsis of this light showed that time photo- graphic rays of light were presemmt imm emmormnous qualm- titles in proportion to time visible rays, they were in- smmfficient to atfect a sensitive collodion plate when re- flected froni an object, removed to any considerable distance. The light produced when voltaic contact is broken between umereury poles (time progenitor of Ways mer- cuinial ligimt) was founid to be very imitense anhi to comi- tahi mmmumch Imighier and stronger actinic rays thmaim evcmm sumnlight mmmoreover, it was not open to the samne oh- jectioli as was time carbon electric light, as the battery po~ver requircl woumid be less, and the umotive arrallge- lhmehit at the poimmt of light might easily be rendered aultomlmatie. Mr. Crookes was perfectly successful imi tmmking good i)lmotographs by tlmis light, but a sit was probable that greater success might be obtained at a less expeimsc 1w directing attentiomi to sonic otimer chemminical source of light, the experiments in the above (lirectiomi were dllseomitintled. TIme light evolved from the comnbustion of sumlphur, carbon, mihidi phuosphorus imm oxygemm gas was next cx- penilnemitedl on, buit with time exception of time latter mmo goodi resumlt conid be obtained with either. Phosphorus burning 1mm oxygen produced such a brilliant photo- graphic light, that if it were possible to devise a safe and convenient apparatus for its production it nmight doumbtless be made available for photographic pmmrposes. Phmotographs were likewise taken by Mr. Crookes with this light. An attenmpt was then made to combine botlm the comlhustible body mind the source of oxygen together, and so produmce a light analogous to those employed for pyrotechnic pumrposes. Mr. Southmby, the invell- klmown artist in fireworks, was employed to mnake several intense highuts of different colors, and in conve- nient forms for experimenting with. These experi- mnelmts were, however, discontinued, as although the light might perhimips have beems obtained sufficiently strong for the purpose, yet the volunmes of smoke arising fronm the conmbustiomm proved an llssurulOunta- ble difficulty; and even could this have been obviated, time results of combustion, such as sulphurous acid, and in some cases even coumpounds of arsenic and an- tilliony, would serioimsly endanger the health of the operator. The bcd~ ilyhi, obtainedi by employing an onlinary argand gas blmrner within Oxvgdn, insteadi of muir, was experilnentedl withi, maul fotmini not to yield auftuiemmt mictinic light. By the thie immost promisimig limit of iusemoh was that upon the liglst cm olvA whemm some of the earths, lime, IlmigueslIl, or zirconia were rendered intensely mean- dscemmt by heat. TIme ordimmary lime highint, in which a a cyhimider of iimmme is heated by means of the exhydro- gen blowpipe is an example. The ordinary apparmltus was found to be quite insufflciemmt for the purpose besides being attemmded with considerable danger. Mr. Crookes, however, succeeded after some time in forming an ar- rangememmt for the evolution of light from an earthy comn~)ounddiffering from and far superior to linme- wimich. whmilst niore immtemmse fimni the lime light, was entirely- uimmattemmded within dammge i. limis was the lbme of rescarcim wlmicim was ufitinmatehy (lecide(l ilpoim, miImdl wlmichi Mr. Crookes stromigly umrged slmotmld be follow-ed um~), mis beimmg likely to prove sumccessful ims its minpphiemitiomi to photograpimic puirposes. The spectruni oh tudned frommm an incandescent eartim wuis foummld miot to contmmiim sumek highs rays as those frommi electric sources, mInt heimmg more extemided timan timat frommi sumilighst, but timey weic seemi to be tohermibly ihitehise, milal lm~ni the advuimitmige dIver the n~crcury spark, ill flint timey were comtiImilouhs thmroumghmoumt time whiole leimgtlm of time spectrummim. By takimmg plmotograpims ill time ordilmmmny way, illtIllii- mmmmtimmg the object by nmeamms of thine immeandescelit earths light, olme difficulty was met within of time simmidlows being very hard amid slmarp ; this wmts got rid of by incremising time diamneter of the immcammdescent earth by imiterposimig groumlmd qccrtz (hot groumi(l glass, as timat imintcrcepts mnnmmy of tIme valumable ray5) betweemm the ligist mimal tIm object, close to the fonimmer, or by elmmployimlg rethectois. Ultimmmately, hmomvem-er, thmis difficufity was easily mhlm(l simmmply overcommme by mmmom-immg the source of lighmt ili (hf- feremint dhirectiomms (lulrimmg time tumme the pictusre was 1 ming takems ; by that meamins a roumndmmess amid tremlsparehiev was obtained in time simmodows, simmmilar to flint broiluced by- dhttused dlayhight. It was also shmoumin flint it w mis possible to emmtirely get rid of mdi time simadows iii this mmmanmmer by so mirrarigiming time sumecessive foci of light, ami(l time timime dumrilmg which enchi acted, timmit every able of time promminimment parts of time object woumld 1)0 equmdly ihlummmimlnted. It was llroved imi thmis ~mmammmmer flint mi imard simnep oumthimme was by mmo nicamis miecessmmry to an object illumimmated ily light issuing fromn a poimit. We do umot hnow the iletails of time hight-produmeing lmma- elnimmery contemmiplated by the Lime Light or the Fitz- ninaumnice Light Conspany, bumt we should immmagimme thmat a eminrefull sttmolv of sense of tIme poimits expenimhiemited umpon hy Mr. Crookes wouldi prove of considlermible mind valitage, mis we mire missumned by conhlletemit autimoritie. flint the lighint produmled by thmmit genthenmons has a VI been surl)misse(l. INvExTORs.Iime Lomailomm Aawriccc says . X\liibs ~mmaimy mimi ilmvcmmtor hmis lived and died in mm garret, mm fortum- nate few emid timeir days miminmid the bommteouls fruits of timeir labor. As there is no class un time commmnmummity to which the worid is so munch inilebted, so timere is no class more generous with their wealth. Ili Amimeni- ca, perhaps, more timams in Emlrope, time invehmtors are likely to reap a fortumume, as the rapid developilmehst of tIme sources of wealthm amid time scarcity and commiparmitive- ly high price of linmalmual labor, minecessitate tIme allliost imnimmiediate introduictioms of ninny really umsefuml labor-sav- ing machhme. Ilmis is especially true of ngricumlturmmh immmplemelmts, alind often hal-ge fortumnes are realised omi silmmple articles (If this description. A gentlenmams by the ~manme of Mr. Peeler, who is said to have realised $400,000 (80,000) frormi time sale of a patent plow, hmms recently proved time profitablemmess of bmis immvemmtiomm and time goodness of his heart by giviming $200,000, or 40,000, of this 5inilhin to the Methodist Chmumrchi (If time lJnited States. A ROYAL RiNGA remarkable m-ing has lately been picked up imi tIme Champs-Elysdes, Paris, mind comminminmitted to the safe keeping of the police. This ring, whiels is qumite miew amind very magnificent, lmns a royal crown in diamonds, within time cyphmer V. A. in diamonds. Umider time bezel is a tiny stereoscope, time eye-glasses of whichi are scarcely larger thmalm the hemid of mm pims, the dimmmehmsiomm of time two tubes being less than that of a ver~ snmahl crow-feather. Holding this ring between the eye and the light, the portraits of the Prince Consort mmmd time Prince of Wales become visible. This ring belonged to a box of jewelry destined for tine Eminglish domlrt, bumt was stoleim from time house wimichi hind received the order. IRAnE.- 21lmc Bostomi Cbaoacrciel Belief o sma s that the general temmilemicy of thmiungs is for the bettem Eibt weeks ago, prosperity in trade and comnmeite wan never more bright or minmore general. rhere han been no overdoing in business there ImnEe been no financial corruptions; there has been no sudden breaking up of unsound concerns, as in 1857, to banish this prospect. We have simply given way for the moment to our fears, and magnified our weakness when we should have taken courage in our strength. THE King of Prussias strength is visibly declining, and isis momminen ts of lucidity are mnore amid more rare. 28 AMERICAN NAVAL ARCHITECTURE. [Reported for the Scientific American.j TIlE CALORIC PROPELLER ~PIhIMERA. The hull of this vessel was constructed by Messrs. Sneeden & Co,, of Greenpoint, L. I. 1-Icr owners are Messrs. Pesant, Brothers & Co., of this city, and the route of her intdn(le(l service is the coast of the island of Cuba. As the introduction of Captain Ericssons hot air engine into this vessel is regarded as perfectly successful, we give the annexed minute details of her hull and machinery. Length between perpendiculars, 135 feet; extreme length on spar deck, 144 feet; breadth of beam, 22 feet; breadth over guards, 34 feet; depth of hold, 9 feet; draft of water at load line, 6 feet 3 inches; dis- placement of vessel at load line, 10,800 pounds to the inch; tunnage, 330 tuns. Her frames are of angle iron 3x3x~ inches, spaced 18 inches from center to center, every alternate frame having a vertical floor plate, 9 inches deep and 5-lfiths of an inch wide, se- curely riveted thereto. There are five fore-and-aft keelsons, viz: one center, 12 inches tlecp; two sister, 10 inches (leep, and two bilge, which are 8 inches in depth; these keelsons are made of iron 5-l6ths of an inch in thickness, and are thoroughly fastened to the shell of the vessel, and strengthened on their top edges by bars of angle iron 3~ x31x7-1Gth inches. The deck beams are of angle iron 6x~ inches, and ate rivcted to tile head of every alternate frame; they are also secured by plate iron knees, ~ of an inch in 4 thickness at each end, and have scantling beams at- tached, extending out 6 feet beyond the hull, forming a guard all around the vessel; the ends of the above beams are flanged, and receive a stringer iron 6x~ inches around their extremities. The guards are (liagonally braced with iron rods fastened to the deck beams and to the sides of the ves- sel. There is a stringer plate 15 inches wide and 5-l6ths of an inch in thickness, extending entirely around the hull and fastened to every deck beam, and also to the shell of the vessel, by a bar of angle iron 3x3x~ inches. The plating is of various thicknesses, as follows: thickness of keel, 9-lOths of an inch; do. of garl)oard streak, luch, (10. from garboard streak 5 to turn of bilge, 5-1(iths of an inch; (10. of wale streaks, ~ inch; the rivets in her keel are ~ inch dia- 4 meter, and those in the plating are ~ inch in (ha- meter. The Priotera is fitted With a (loulde-aeting, condens- ing, pressure, calorie engine (Ericssons patent) ; (ha- meter of cylinders, 40 inches; length of stroke of pis- ton, 24 inches; diameter of propeller, 8 feet; pitch, 16 feet; length of same, 19 inches; length of blades, 30 inches; weight of the engine, propeller, & c., 70,000 pounds; length of engine in the vessel, 14 feet; length of engine room, 8 feet. She is also supplied with two heaters, which keep tile pressure of air at 85 pounds per square inch; the consumption of coal (anthracite) per hour is 85 pounds; the heaters are located in the hold. In addition to these essential features, site Itas 2 smoke pipes; independent ru(lder post, and 2 athwart- ships watertight bulkheads made of ?~ and 3-l6ths of an inch iron; the whole is vertically stiffened by bars of angle iron 2Ix2~x5-16ths inches, placed 3 feet apart. Said bulkheads are perforated with suitable holes, which are provided with valves to shut watertight. Her rig is that of a schooner. The machinery was con- structed by Mr. C. H. Delamater, foot of Thirteenth- street, East river, this city. Recent American Inventions. tujun WAITER. Irt one of our recent numl)ers, we had occasion to publish tite claims of tite second patent whielt was ~ranted Dcc. 4, 18(10, to Andrew Murtaugh, on dumb waiters. By his untiring efforts for more than four years, this inventor has succeeded in bringing his ma- chines to heretofore unattainable perfection. They can be used with equal advantage in dwelling houses and in stores. Their action is safe and steady, and so per- fectly (hire(t thtat nothing can get out of order; they are moot liable to jar, sl)ill or break the articles con veye(I (In tltem. Their m(sht of coutotructiort gives pur (Itase for heavy articlessuch its trunks, coal, & c. they are so arranged that coals can he hoisted or ashes lowered on them without soiling the waiters. They Can be used as a fire escape if the communication with the stairs is cut off, as a person can ~tarid on the top and hoist or lower himself with ease; they require less head room than other dumb waiters, and they can be fastened in any story and left without danger of their falling; and, finally, they can be made cheaper than others, considering their durability and the advanta- ges gaine(l. We can speak of the utility of this inven- tion, from having used one of the dumb waiters for some time in our dwelling, with great satisfaction. The inventor, Andrew Murtaugh, No. 1,272 Broadway, corner of Thirty-fourth street, this city, will be pleased to give further information in regard to his invention. SEWING NEEDLES. This invention, by Henry Essex, of Haverstraw, N. Y., is adapted to needles for all ordinary kinds of sew- ing by hand. It consists in giving to needles a trian- gomlar form in the body or wider portion, but retaining the usual round fomm at and near the eye and point. The object of this invention is to give them greater strength without giving them greater substance. What is Wealth h The wealth of the world, of the country, or of indi- viduals consists, to a very small extent, of money. If all the money in the world were instantly annihilated, there would still be very rich nations and rich people. The wealth of a farmer consists in acres of land, in houses and barns, in droves of cattle, in stacks of hay, in bins of grain, & c. The wealth of a manufacturer consists in his manufactory, his machinery, his stock of raw material and of manufactured goods ; the wealth of a merchant, in his ships and merchandise. It is not the circumstance that these articles will exchange for money that makes them wealth. It would be much more proper to say that a bank bill is wealth because it will buy a barrel of flour, than it would to say that a barrel of flour is wealth because it will exchange for a bauk bill. Two things are requl- smte to make any material substance an article of wealth ; one is that it should be desirable, and the other that it should be difficult to obtain. Air is as necessary to our existence as any substance whatever, but from the fact that nature has provided it in bound- less abundance, it constitutes no part of our wealth. The same is usually the case with water; but wherever water is difficult to obtain it becomes wealth. There are large cities in which all the water used is broomght on mules backs or mens heads, and sold like any other commodhity. Any article, in order to be property, must not only be (hifilcult to obtain, but it must satisfy some human want. It makes no difference, in this respect, whether the thing wanted is good for people or in- jurious, provided only that they desire it; therefore rum, arsenic and faro checks are just as really wealth as bread or Bibles, or volumes of tloe SCIENTIFIC AMER- ICAN. In another article we have pointed out just what re- lati6n mnoney does bear to the whole wealth of noan- kind; we desire hoere merely to call attention to the fact that it is no more wealth than any other kind of property, and that it constitutes a very small part of the wealth of the world. There were many rich men before there was any money. THE NEw FACTORIES AT LAWEEFCEThe work on the Pacific Mill in Lawrence is progressing as fast as possible. A large portion of the machinery for the extension on this onill will not be due until next April. As fast as it arrives, it is put in working order, but the company has never contemplated getting the ex- tension in operation before early Spring. The new Pemberton Mill is in the same position. Machinery is daily arriving, and being put in running order, and the work, notwithstanding monetary ups and downs is h)eing hurried along to completion as heartily as ever. But the mill will not get fairly started before Spring. A PHOTOGRAPHIC QUIETESTThe following novel and effectual method of keeping sitters quiet while their pictures are being taken is from the fooonal of P/tote- grcep/ty:We have read a story of an artist way down Soumth in Dixie, who adopted a imovel expedient to keep his sitter quiet. He Itad tried all sorts of snasioums without suc- cess, when it occurred tu himo titat the strongest of all fin- noan motives is fear. As soon as he had comupleted his ad- justments, he suddenly draws a revolver, and leveling it at the sitters head, he exclaims in a voice and with a look suggestive of head and gunpowder : Dare te move a muscle, and Ill blow your brains out. ISSUED FROM THE UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE FOR THE WEEK ENDING DECEMBER 18, 1860. Reported Officially for the Scientejic American. [There oere too patents issued on Christmas week, and (lie annexed is a conlinnolion of the Liot tooned on the 05th nit., which were omitted from our last number, owing Ia the official copy not reaching us at the time of going to preos.] 10,956.h. H. Bowman, of Norristown, Pa., for an Im- provemnent in Operating the Valves of Steam Engines: I clams, firstly, The reciprocaliiag box, C, ils spriog sliding bars, E atad H, cacti hias-ing an tiiclisied l)rojeclion, the arms, F and F, witta their isiclisasliono, iii cornbissatio,, s-ills liar s-sire irs-era, K and K, and their rolleis, q, time ashole being arranged and sper,ssiiag asibstantiahty as set fonts. 5econuhlx-, I el-aim time opring sliding bars, H atad H, earls having a projectiota, na, its combiliation as-ills Ihe bell craisk lesers, G aiid G, atad the oli(tisag block, I, lime Imosimiosa of Ihe latter being regishateil ha the gos-ernor, saul the sa-Isole incising arnaisged for joint aclion sethotanlimdly as amist fcmr the umasetmose set fos-tis. Tiasedly, Time siluratitig sent, Q, sa-iths its segmesal, b, asad adjatotahale emirs-t-cl tubmeko, r. asad rtm, isa commit,imialimmi-i avitis elan exhaust ssha-e levers, N amid N, time aclmol. beisag aerusiaged smith speramisag esthotantiathy as specitied. 30,957.B. F. Campbell, of Iloxhury, Mass., for an Im- lororeel Steam Boiler: I claim lime combissed as-rauagement of taso sa-ings, H, contatnisag tlse lashes, I, as-ills a sitagle Ire box; as-hen the said avuags project equally finns ciulser simle of lime fire chasnaber os-er the grate, as and for than pur- poses set foella. 5ecossd, I claim Ihue laceforated plate, L, for bridging lime crosvn sheet, F, omitnotasattilly so set fos-Ila. l0,958.J. A. Cltapman, of Pequetanuck, Coun., for an Imuprovenoent in Machines for Winding Woolen Rovings: I claim, final, Than arrangeaneame of (hue ached, L, bar, Q, sliding frame, D, sucisuging flame, D, guide bar, 1, said slidisag bar, 5, opePated as ahansa-sa, uur iii amuy- eqamis-milent avas-, for ilse piarpose of shuiftisag the frame, D, said haresesahing the empty spools conoecualivehy before the guide, N, to receive the rovimug, v. Secosad, Operalisig, for the purpose specified, the bar, Q, throasgla the mediasm of thse shinring, a, ratchet, N, antIs pits, w, attached, and the than-h, v, arrosaged as described. Third, The eanpinyniene of a series of spools, F, sinheas placed on a commosa shssft, H, and filled or avoasud esnoectatively by a continuous incising, sesbataiuhishly as set forth. 10,959.Elisha Clark, of New York City, for an Improve- ment in Copying Presses: I claim, The arrasugement of Ilse anti-presastre bridge, C, studs, a, ocresv, 5, asid rest, F, acith thae h)haIeo, B B, rouls, f, ouch olanings, s, sn lIme mosasser and Our the purpose herein shuoscas stud deocrubed. [This invention consists its Ihse combinatiois of the screac or hand scheel asad adjusolable or assli-pressuste bridge and its four rehievisag studs, avith the ttppes- or suhjaistatale bed tahate. TIme said avlseel asad bridge being arranged beloac tIme primary bed plate, avhsereby the top of the machine is etulirely ussnbstrsscled by screacs or levers sin ether equiva- hesmia achicha occai~ty that tansiltausm ita ilse otahismary letter presses, such cots- ocatasesutly it sunsy be used as a shelf or table upon svhsieh tlse book may be talusceat faur inapeetioss, Ac.] 30,960.Jud (hissey, of Clsatfield, Minn., for an Improve- noent in Water Wlteels: I claim, hint, Time emlaloymesut sun sane acilta one or snore as-heels, D H, of a series of causm-euleic gates or cylinders, camnatraicted as described, and arrangeut relatively sciths the besekets, d, to otmeruste as asach for Ilme late- pose set forth. Seensad, Time arrangement of lava salsecho, D H, fitted in a flame tar box, B, sta a Ionic, or pesmolock, A, achess puocided sun osie asad the sasne shaft, ID, aciab ensasecumise cvlsndera or gates cosasmected as shoavn, so Ihal the gates of boIls scheelascill be spes-aled by adjustisag this outer osse of the ethapem- aviseel easesitisily as asad for the pesrpdae set forth. [This isacesation hiss for its object the regulating of lbs capacity of Ihe ached according to the poscer required, so that any gia-oss poaver less than the moximusin may be obtained saith an ecossonmical expenditure of scaler; that is to say, a greater or hens poss-er may be obtained from otis sisal the some sclaeeh by a ssspphy of scaler larsportionate In thas posrer reqtsirech, a resaslt as-lucIa is tint attaissed saitla this ordismary salseels ashich dehaciad solely osa ass otdinsry gaste In regsslate tIme ssspphy of saster to them. In lIsts cusse limo aclsceha shasays reqasire pruaportiossatehy a greater volume of scaler achess giving out a panscer less Itauts the maximisna.] 30,961.J. C. Dunhuano, of Raritan, N. J., for an Improve- ment in Mowing Machines: I claim, first, the csnmbinstion of a finger beans, D, or its equsivalent avitha the hinged piece, F, ito projectiosa, If, adjisatable piece, F, and its shuosshdes-, K for the pelinhaimas setfortha. - 5ecosmd, I claim the cnmbinatinn of slune, H, trains rod, G, and Isiece, II, avilh finger beam, D, asad parts, F ga anal G, arranged in relalion to each nilmer asmul Ilse main frame, subalasslially as stanacs and described. Thuirul, I clusim, ins mnavissg machine, lIme cnmbissatisn of the faulloas-ing elements, namely, a malts flame, taco indetmendesat driving stud osapport- tug acheeha, a esstsr acha-el, a hisageat fohahisag Isager beam asad a knife reel, said paris taeissg arranged isa rehatioss In eacha olhser asad aupesating asabstanlially as described. Fosartha, I claim tIme mechassaism fuar Iharnas-liag the chatles- osst of actioss, suabstanhially as descritaed and shmsacta its Fig. I. Fifths, I claim tise comlaisasutauss aviths lbs main frame and ssspporling u-heels sf a slalinnary metallic axle sin jntsrssal Piece, cossotraseled stab. staulishly sa ulescnibed said as sboacs isa Fsgs. 1 asad 4, for this psarposes set fort ha. Sixths, I claim Ilse combinalioss acills the main frams of a sisoaving sna- chine of a knife reel and a hisaged fohdssag fissger beam. 30,962.J. D. Forrey, of Lena-iston, Pa., for an Improve- ment in Maclames for Hulling Clover: I claim, tirsi, The cnsubissatinn caf Ilse lineculisely shasped cauncace acith the pecuhtat-l~ shaspeat lacalers or spikes, hut else plietinainses asmal stibsiassi- tially as described. Second, I chusiso, TIme arrangenuent of the sieves, as, the apron, a, asad the rescable roller, H, octausted simashlaneoussly by tlse susasna of the eccesatnic, g, all construemed anal ohinersied as asad for hIss ptsrpose set forth. Third, The ainrasagement of this peculiarly shaped concave and beaters, avitla the endless apron for the pmsinpose stud substsntialhy as described. 30,961.J. B. Geisinger and D. H. S. Williams, of Mont- ville, Ohio, for an Improvement in Cultivators: we claim, The arrangement of the curved bars, ID, slotted laracco, H H, hinged to tinsel, slsnulanats, N N, shares, Q Q, eye bolts, 5 5, tusks, H H, bar, If, bainti, I., beans, A, and huisadies, H H, lbs achohe Imessag u-onsurascuu-nl suslasianliatty as described. 30,9l]4.Cltas-les Grahalso, of Scranton, Pa., for ass im- provement in Spring Balances for Safety Valves of Boilers: I datsun, first, The employment in combination acith the spring of a spring balance for safety calves ol an eccentric. e, and lever, F, applied In operate substanlially as herein specified for she patr~aose set foetta. Second. the arrangement of lbs eccentnus- slasfi, H, spring, G, levers, B B, cross bar, D, and lbs pressure bar, H, avitla its screws and nuts, g g, substanhiathy as tasrein descrilined, in combination asith each other and wjih a bed plate, A, or other eqanivalent base or support. 30,965.J. S. Gray, of New York City, for an Improve- ment in Vapor Lamps: I claim, The combinatir)n of the wick tithe, C, bracket, P (oo(lortors E, and heater cap, F, when arranged ho joint operation, substantially in the manner described for the itorpose set forth. 30,966.Josepli Gum and St. Clair Gum, of Marseilles, Ill., for an Improvement in Cultivators We claim, The litrer, En combination with the levers, IL L, the ui~tett slot stamlards, S 5, atid the slots ott the lower cross Ito-ce, II, by which to control the morettietits of the plosro, when arratiged as set Itotti itid substantially as is descritted. We clttito, rite drivers sest, ID, itt conittititittoit with the sesertil ele- ments of lIt,, lirecedig chum, when arritiged its Oct Itotit itid stttstatt- litilly as tlescrittetl. 30,967-Jacob Haege, of 51111011, Ill., for an Improvement in Gaun Plows: I clttint, fit-st Tue entlttos-ntemmt or toe ef vertical Itisots, a, lttssittg through tite ceitter el the axle in cetotittamien icith chains, c timid I, its and fiti the Ititr~tose descritted. Secocid, The arrattgeitteitt. of the Ititiged slotted st;tttlttrds, J, its rout- bimiatittit isith the octew rmtds, K, gitartis, it, aitil ttttts, itt, timid with the ttdjitstabhe hthtiw shiari,s, ID, till constructed ittil elter~ttittg iii the ittitittier antI fttt- the umimutuse set forth. Titird, Tite ai-raitgetocttt of the ssvtitgittg oils, f, iii coitthitnattiom ssitht the icier, F, ammul beammis, C, comtstt-itctcd amid iultctituiitg is amid for thic putt~uOse Ohiecitteul. Foiti-thi, Time at-t-atmgcimietmt of thte hucihy strait, I, iii comtmtutmm~mttumm si-tilt tlte hes-em-, F, tt-e~tdhe, 11, ttmmd be~tuits, C, commstritcted auth olietatimig sub- slmaittiahhy iii the titittitict attil Itim- thie ~tnrpose ihescribed. [TIme object of this imms-emmtiomt is Its comtstritct a gtsmmg 11)55- siltichm is-ill work easy auth is-ills c(tmnlitr~ttis-ely little hisser ausul snitch allis-s ef reg- uthatiuig time depilt to shuts- time deptit tus isimichm mime shares cut imito time gitiuttiul, em Its thtross time luhoir out of the gutitmimul tiltogetlier, timid lit keeht thens there isithsoust extra exertiuuti of time drisci.] 30,968.C. E. Ilaskins, of Providehuce, 11. I., for an Just- provenscuit in Sluit-t Stllds I claint ut iuuihutoseul shut stumul, couistruicteil mutt ututhy with its shuamik tumiummiam- ittul tet-esseti is expt~tiuteh, hut si-tuhm a hes-em- apphietl atid ami-atiged isithi teotteet tis such simmuik is uleset-iteui, ittul humuusitied isitit a spin-mug aurauigeil iii limit shmamik auth ui]ui-mthtmtg so is to mttuimut~timm the inset- at tight atigies isitht time shiatik umumilet circumtttstaumi-es is suit lot-tb. 30,969.A. H. Hews, of Cambuidgepout, Mass., for an Im- provemuent in Slides for Watch Itihitons I eltiuti, The slide, A, cud iii, in, tipumihimig stmhotutmtiahhy as lescuibel. 30,970.Jasper Johuison, of Genesee, N. V., for nit im- proved Butt hinge I ritimis thin cuuttuiuiititiuiui iii hots-cs, A B, tapititmig hmuadeul tutu giosseti pits, P senusutul liii, i, st utul, s, tutul nutty, hi, comisttumctcuh, smiatigeui smith uipia-tittig its smith lii time huttuhuuses sct hotthm. 30,971.Nelson Johnson, of Jasper, N. V., fou- an Imlil-ove- ment in Water Wheels: I chattli mimi, ittehimmeil buckets, 1 liettig iii cuuticase tuuiuut iii zuimmial seutiumi, stul if grauiuuahi~- uieiteusiuig isiuluhm itiummi tilt hi buttomim, iii coomiectiout isimli time itichimmeti iii minted huusict- titti, I, essnittisily iii thin inaitmiem- ammul itt the lititiuuuse set fiurtht [This ittietitiumi i-elates tus limit nh~sss if siatem- ishmeels sihmichm uhiscimusm-ge the ismitem- itt the ceittet-, attil ire cititimicutihy called cetiteisemit sulmeels. Time object tuf time immsemmtiomm is to ohitaims both the imisluset amiul time i-c- acting fuurce if the siatem iii a susy thist isihl gts-e it bettni- result hiatt atty hitherto devised.] 30,972.Solomon Kepuer, of Noutli Coventu-y, Pa., fou- an Improvement ill iletacliltug Horses from Cau-u-iages: I chaiumi lute utotitbitmattiuti if tue itt- ttgtmte, 9, amid time mestihsiui stuwle li-ce isimim its lust htuoks tutu gumiuhi-, autumigeul us hescuibel him time huuttutuuse suit fuirlhm. 30,973.Moses Kleenuan, of Coltuinbus, Ohio, for nut Jun provement ill Glass Cuattems: I cluitn time cuumsibimmutiumu of thin suunket auth emit, stmiistmmmtisllv as cud for lime pumrposu-s set itrili 30,974.J. H. Kiulgiut, of Newbumypout, Mass., oh- faut Im- proveunent in Situe Tacks: I elsiums a sitoc itek commstrumu-teui isimli sit niomugited immehimmel head, B, as Isemeiti shuossum smith descritteui. [Tisis immsemttiomt i-elites tuu time tuuspmisemmemst iii tsutks sihmichi sun limit phutyni fuir set-immimug thtut imummum- stile smid time umututem to tite last si-lithe time hallem parts are uniting secutreth liugethier Titu~ object of time imiseustion is to presemit time thread from cutehmimug thin ticks dcmrtmug time cipemattius ef sess-imsg, a cotut.imugemscy is-limIt occurs with time om-hitmaty tacks, ettuisimme either lime thread to bretk cur thin tucks to lie ulmussis itt fm-otis tite last. Tise imssemtiiomu comusists iii huasitug time licks pruusiuheil mint timeti- tilts ivimhs list itmips sihtinhs firm imuchimued huhaties sshun~re time tanks ate iris-ems tub the last, amid itiluuss thin thmiesi to sitie os-em- time tteks 30,975.F. W. Ku-oeher, of Pouhestown, Cal., for an Im- proved Wreuichi: I ciuiuci time ahuiinhiciinttuttt of time hesni situ time nuirsed istehm to time atljuist- nmemut of time isis of thin ssmemsnhm, ss descritunui. 30,976 .G. W. Lathroiu, of Weedspom-t, N. V., for an Im- provement in Exhaust Pipes euf Locomotive Engines: I chains, itrsl, Time commsbimmatiomt of sit adjutstuluhe bu~su-led giutuhe tiatinge ni- lug, (I, ammul suljuistimug muds, I I, si-itch u~xtemmut tuuit luevommul mite imiummi if the smoke smelt, A, iviths lhsut seat, E, titul stttiuummums uuesuteul gumiuhe huig, F, of lhu~ exhaust huiPes, ID ID, aitut tite shut, J, that eurmiu~s the sartintinte exluaumstimcg nuzzles, M M, sutbstaintttinhhy it5 tutu hor time utuirpuuses set lit-lit. Secomud, Its contiuinatioti isithm exhusuust pipes, ID ID, ishuteit hum-auteht out tossaruls tiuu~ sides oh time snsuuke smelt, tutu lermuutmmtuu~ iii a shiuiu~ seut, E, that i-mitts tuni-oss time ucunit, I chinitut tiuu~ nuummuuutmmu~ul uru-ummgu~usuu~uut inuf in shuttleul itmuk, K, that make-s lutuhul if tine meummuitust euud of time muzzle shiuhe J ii sertinuul mimI, ii, tins hmuumizuummiuuh cruttink units, itt, suit tint t-tgimt usmughes tut cutue smututluem titul a luortzuumutul hduttgittmdhitttmh mint, IL, sutbstuitmiahiy ii5 cmiii htur thte u~mmruuooes set forib. 30,977.William Mahlerd, of Buidgeport, Couuui., for an Juts- proved Gas Burner Jiegiulatnur: I chutimis moukimug tIme imuiset itulue, C, sertinuuhy tinuljutstaiuhe itt tts suunket, A, sutbstamuiniuuhiy as slutusso smith desnmiluutul, sit thtint timt~ Ihoir if gas thioneis the tutittens if suiul lumliut muucy lie immutmeusutul it uliumutmmisiunul stud thus meguthutteul at ishusummut, uty ruisimug em huussutm-iuug hue susiul tuthue sit as tic brimug a giestet ot iu~so munmuchem if time oritteuts utisose thin hmnuti intl thin socket, ahi itS set fuirthm. I shout chum tise arrumugemusemut tuf hunt utsnsuue turitteuts of suith tumuse, C, ncr vsryimsg horizomutsi litmus, as smith for uhun usutritussut set uiurtut. I also chusim tIme exhutritur grutlumstiuumu if smith humitut, C, its shuoss-mi atcd uhescribed, sit that time tuumumutity if guss silmithm issutes tisrutuughs time otifines is-hems thin tutuce is suit lit itty gisemi luigiut, isihi use immulinuhutdl to hue eye, ahi as set fermhm. 30,978.fl. C. Mauck, of Hammisonhuu-g, Va., for an Im- provement in Machines for Cleaning Gialum: I cituuino, lhrst, Thin emmmmmhutmmchimumu of time imuettmteul cyitmtuler, A, andI rittaty lomcgihumdimuui buckets mum- seutuchus, N N, eutmustrumemnul mmml tuputrthimtg its cots- mmnctioms isihim a lists biust suibstumutiushhy iii tIme mumuimmuem set fmuitit tic subject time gisin lit s sumnnnssimumm uuf Itils itt its ~tassugut lit hunt hisser emud of use cyuimiuluti summul expel the higiutni uutfumse at timut imluimem emuui Seciutmul lime mi~hmt aisul lu-ft liutigus, ID ID, itt mutt uiusemihuttul comuuiutiuutiuums ivitim hue reuth, B C N, tumid imuehimueui inylittmiet, A, hum tiuut utummuuusses ex piusliseul. fluimui, Time Irtumussem-sut mhsenits, j, itt time ties~utritt-il eummuulutmuutiucms is-thu time imsnhimmed homugimumultmuui icumekets, N N, smith unit, E, fot time ucorhumuse set fiurtim. Futmirthm, The guusmul, 0, aluislinul huetivenit the fain, E, stud spouml, IL, sib- uutsiutiahhy as amid fur lime ututruutuses exhuhuimucul. 30,979 P F Millie-in, nuf Baltimore, Md., fou- an Improve- ment in JIailwa~t Sigmuals: I claim thin euummuicinmsutmummm tutu uumrumugtmnemut if the situ-ins of isimeels, A B C D, situ hutmuiuumus, lm c I, muxhut, a, imuumus mm chumutmus, x y, attachsnul tic spaiss, mutt, lumps mm sigamuis, E (I, lithe, P, isilhi rutniunt rsck, S, stud spilmig, in, smith sumitumluhut frututimug, limit suhutulut nmumustmmmnteui stud cupem-tutimig anbalantimihy as smith loin time umummumose simenifinctl. 30,980.J. B. Murray, of New York City, for an Jusprove- ment iii Etuvelopes: I datum time mucemummugs, A, ins muse or botis emids uuf thin emuseholce, sinubstams thahis as uiuserticeni smith fur time utturumose set fotthi. 30,981.fl. C. Nasll, of Sonuervihle, Teusn., for an lunpuove- uluemat in Cottous Seed Planteus: I uhutnum thut comusbtusssimums tutu arrsmsgement of the isiusgemi mirth tmmouhi C, mmmi tiristum- suhueni B iii bitt seemhimig muhunni, N, suitis multemuiute litmus, t mmmi chides o s, until shumuth, I, sitthm olbermuste obliutuce ucimis, t t b, subsuam- tiully as umuui fur hue tuturucuises susecitini. 30,982.-M. F. Noraconk and D. Hoats, of Milton, Pa., fom ama Imniprovemnent in Machines for Hulling Clover Seed: In cluuut tm ~t tin. m uctabimug amid statiouscry lutmlhimug tusks, a d f, ins cmummmmneuiusim us miii mime octets, (I, anti fats, E, ammausgeth lor joimut oisematinmmm, us mmmii hum tine ucummuuuuse st-b hiuutin Sutmummuui t h-tn-tutu hum musiunmuiel screcs, (5, cmi tise shucft, It, fist the ucuum use uuf gus mmmc thin lii item time double stbrctimsg nuovemasemut as deonribusd Thuts mu emutmoum numuususts iii lime enaphum niemit ot use of a umutatimug ausnl tuso statiummam s hmumhlmmuo husks amid a fits amid scnutemi, sc-hereby tIme desireul ivork, to ss it the onum cm stumug if chuuver seed frons ihs luohhs nisy be expe- ulittotishy amsd item Incths utcu fuumusseni] 30,983. & W Puttock, of Umulon Mills, N. V., assignor to hinuself and Met-chant Perrige, of Saratoga, N. V., for aum huimpiovensent in Coal Sifters: I ehutmut thin emumusluimmatiouu if scress shmmsft, d, resols-imug sieve, B, hever, a~, mmmii hmmuusumer, ID, isimutum time ssiummhe sissil ice comistructed and arraisged, stub otauutimuthy tO mmmi liur time ussurisuuse miescuibed. 30,984.I. C. Pu-att (assignor to huinuself and Thomas Parkeu-), of Mouton, 111., for an Junprovement in Bee hives: I elutun butt mitsumi hit-n, A, frauuse, B, amid shtmlimsg bucxes, E smsd F, si-hems nucuuubimued iii bite mauuuuer stud for the purpose set forth amid thescribed. 30,985.T. L. Pye, of New York City, for Improved Brack- ets for Curtalum Couds: I ehuimus bite uitsiuled tic suclit ustpc, f, amid tapertnc socket, g, conabitmed isithi time rod e nurrytut mime roiher, d sttbstaitbiahiy as specihied. 30,986. John Reynolds, of New York City, for an Im- provement un Steam Plows: I etutmus tim ot, The -tim suseenseush amid nucnsbiusatioms ucf mime phoss franse, A, ivitim ichoss At set hunsi slusthed stamudauds, c, husk, ml, rock shaft, e f, gm-mimi-ni husk eramuk ~ hiuck, d, nhmaimus mit eucrds, J Jt, amid isumudlass sisaft K, smutmolcucim uhi~ mum mime umuaumumem mud fmim thut usumusmuse miutocuibeul Sutecuuuui fine -tm-uumunnsemut amid cmcoshmimuamimums of time hast summit isiseni, N, stuitmug inc em clutch V t b amid loose si-hunch, C is is s c, substamsliahiv as smith hum thin hidit uss~u 5 tiescitbeti Thu-mi, fiit- air umuemnemub if thue phucis frammue, A, si-thin ltlOii5, A, boiler, ID, umugiuse ci hmuuhem ID is ousul reenhstmunhe, F hil 12, sister luimuk, E, sumeni- tim-mi mmmc hum-ms imur bimmuuss mug mime nungiume inn nmnuummecttummm si-ibm bite eamutinge, B, mmmd time mmcen-lmsmumsmsc ohcecthtutdl fist sumpumuumlimug mmmcd tdjttsuttmg time huhoss fm-minim mmiii huhutiss, time inhuole cotistructed auth ouscrautinug together its the mumummummein described 30,987.Ezun Ripley, of Tuoy, N. V., for an Improved Wuench: I ehaimmm time mumusmumuem tub ahjlmshtmsg hmmclmuimug annul relnasimug bite shidtmugjuss-, C, my mumutamus of time set screus, N, tint comusiciuuabimuus cstmiu bIte shtciiuug muss, C, umumi iumnitmmnmi uclummn, ID, coumuisimmnd smith umpeunbimug iii time umuamummem stubstams- tially annul fmcr thin ummurunose as described amid shuossut. 30,988Johun Russell, of Troy, N. V., for an Improvenuent inn Stove Coveus: I damn a smuts-n covet emusucussed of an np~snr supporting smith nookimug Ishuhe, A, auth a imuscer usructec-himug hutabe, B, mite hisser phate iceiusg musade istuim muss, e, tutu its uuimusutin stde, ant senummed tim, smut spusut ft-out the umimumem imimut hu~ umunumus it itt immheu-s-nmmtmug bhmmtk mum ucmoineuiucus, C, mmmcd s colt om- mitch, F, - getier at or insemur lIce muddle of time plates, as oluucis-um ninth simecutmeul 30,989 J R~ deu W. Cam-pemater and H. fi. Johley, of Clin- toms I a foh mum Jumuprovehament in Cotton Cleaners: tmuYe ci mmmci lime cumumuiminmusbioum nsf lime nimambers, A B C ml e f g, mec-ohs-ing simafi, It is uthi It u ml kmuuuekero,ii, audI faint shades, jj, stud thue uluust iitmn, ft hise ci icoim comusum nuetcuh smith muruamuged ausmi operating stubstatuttaihy its time umustmmmem mmmd hint thin. umunmumoons described 30,990 Hum ace Smuthi and D. B. Wesson, of Springfield, Mass., 101 an Jlnprovement lint Revolveus: Nut dittos tnt oh Time cmmmssbiuuntiomm of a recuchituig nyhitidnin- lhuactmsg its ehuamusicers extemmciumug numnurehy tiurmmnughm time bhusckl isibis an ummultrokems recusil simiuthini linac mining s projectuous omn its face ss desnuibed hum time purpose set tisrbim Senusnuth, Tisut nomulmiusatioum of time barrel isiuugeti to tIme hock phste scith a o~srimmg einstein, b, arrammgnh ssithn enud ltrojedbiiiuus 10 grasp Ihe barrel amid Icithe sumhsstaustiahhy as dnsnribed fom the purpose as set forlls. 30,991 John Solan, of Fredericksburg, Va., for Improved Shuotter Operator: I chains tise am-runungnmnemst of thin lnsnrs N hmasimsg a shutting and silcus timing nuotimmum Oti tineir ftuhermuns itt cmmmnshmimsauiuumn snilim time shuclbed atad mucutclunul islusbe, hi, fur Oumninuitig 55iOdlOii Ohiuilters smith senuuuimug thcenm is-hints mmumnmm suiucsustubiahhy as ottecifund. 30,992.Samuel Solhiday, of Sumneytown, Pa., for an Im- proved Steam Boilem-: I nlsins time armamugnmnsemut of blue ehevahed lire Icox, mlescemsdiusg flue hums, ninth smmrumstmmumiimmg si-titer sumace its cmmmssicimsatioms scith thin aruange usuemut iou blue tin tibietal thu aft anti blue exit ucassages, silmemn located sitthuin a mighut n-hurter shunit or ackeb, time siiuole bniusg comustructed stibstantially so until fot blue putt usose set forth. 30,993 H D Stover, of New York City, for Improvements inn Wood Plenmn~ Maclilacs: I nlusiuus bite noumuisuim ubuous muf dobbiung cylitidnin, 0, amid cross head, N, si-thin bis mu mini mmcmii n scuess s, N, fur maising stud hossem-imsg thin emubtimug nyhimi- thin es-ninth -snul pun mimi to tine fane if One phatemin. I inhoit di incici so usockeuumug or imunasimug the raisiung stud hoiverimig snrnsvs, N, lint Ii ii mu tints ( lii it lust amsd shscimsgs sc-lit be effectually nxnhumdnd isisebinem nine unsudittmmn us mum umumnuatimmn Ot instit I unhoum ni minis sum in cmmustin umebtung the dlmblimig cyliuider, 0, as tic meneise fotmin uur mum enuttmuug blummins, P, ends imsspsrliuug a shiest-tiny or draining stroke om numb, stud ot lime anon timnse tor ccumscnusiemmcn itt nomustrodtion, mud ease iii simmm~uemnmum~ stud sneumminmug time blade tint thin head I shout cinmmmn fmmin mimic thin puurtimumn of thin cutter head immediatel1 back nsf bite emles mini tint u-unttmmng chatles, sum aisgue sainyitig from ~c bus 45 hinom tise fuce nil tin numbinmiug blatins, to nomnshittmte a sohitihy sarisbie smmul elub- cinmut d515 to time emuttmmuc chums I also el nuns so cummustin unIting, nomsmunctimsg amid arrangimug time shidimsg jusmunmuni immuxes V si-ills cross head, N, mmmii narries blue dnlliusg cylinder 0, buy um - umus ml in ods U blunt silsemm time nuttier heath is maised or lossered biuutsn mutnin mmml icoxes ci mil musoce so us to austin rebaims ~ Itredisely etlttal mitotmmuce icebsi enun blue thu ins-n huninhinys antI lIme drinemm ustiniheys, omn the dtntler Imutnul, liii ut ut-ut mnmusummum of time beibo. I ulsum ehammns feemhmmug blue umlatemi Isack amid forth by frintiusms slide, A, smith si-imnel ID amid in ick, B amid ucimmious, C, for blue pumucoses set forth I aismm chaumus reversumug thin ussoventeist if ushaleus by uneaums of screin N annul sihseni 0 fit fmnicubly emigmuging time rank by ito puusioms, ott thin fric bioum slide b~ its is hunch I also elamuns shudumn~ nuocimug amid attaching tIme cross hesd, M, carrying cumitiung e~ lumudem 0 ott anml Its time umutriglmt, C, iii and by adjttsbabhe gib sliuhes, I mulsum chains 1susohinmsc tIne jousninmal box, Nt, fur the friction feed shaft amid givumuc it a vnrbunai auljumsimeust to both suing amid raise or fall snith tine feeth shalt I mitsui ismmn sec em al dusgs, ouserated imndepemnuhenthy of each othuem-, to etnetusahhs hold sec em al pieces firnuhy to time pisbems, hiur dressluig at the sauce tunse comusum umcteth stuicsuamsbiaihy as described. I shso cl-situ siutlumig time feed rolls into posilioms for use, amid removumig linens It outs bite mumachumune by omeamus of gib slides, so that these rolls are alununys uncut nil fin muse amid its pcusibions otut of tinse by gib slitles shone, and yet nulimuss of s linen unsos emn~utt, amid to require no additional seconmtn. I also ci mmmii stuxpetidinty amid usovimug cross head for nutting cylinder inn semis s I cm mmcli ame snuspemuded iii uninersal bearin5s stud by cmi- sum-sal numbs bus muhimucs ol a tree, sumnlramnmnhed monninuent br adjusiuneust auth eunse tint ouseratiuus, ammul bcc secture lime ctmtlnr isnsd pamahint to lchatems at amy nlutvmnuioum from its surface I also chaimum a comuduntiung spout or trough, A4, so commnecind mills cross lunad nmr otinutr usart as bus rennime auad condtuct time shsasiusgs luoums the numb timing cylinder amid time nuaclmine to amy poimit desired by mnesus of the cur mist muf air 5 t lint. musohioms by time great sehutnity of thin cutting cyiiuuder I ilso chains aim elastic itresonure roll, C4, so combined snith a migid in- sushniung roil, ID4, amid scuapem, 14, thst either can be mused at pheasusre, snitim the elastic pressnure roll, to plane straight and not of mind I also elsim the iroum uptight, C, consirmetetl snith cavity or pocket for receptioms of ehesatimug scm-ens, when combined smith bed piece of snood plamnimug nuachuine, ail slibs mmtiahiy in time nsanner cii them mechanical cqcmisaheinml, for lime ustumposes flully set fointhi aumml deocin-ibel. 29 30,994.Robert Thompson, of East Davenport, Iowa, fom an Improvement in Smaut Machines: I claimis thun arrangememmt of blue distuhed scouriusg cliatasber beaters, a, siuats, IL, fain, N, ease, H amid ohuouut, din, smiths bite spomutni, cluammutsnr, I, tinnicle cinch screemmnti suite, C, gm-ntis ~masoagn, ID, lsop1cer, C, amid susoust, r; all as slumusnus amsd described [Thsn object of thslo iuuceustiosm is to effect a usome lhuorouughs snuusmnbtoum, thusmm nustuct by screnmuimug, of thin large fornigum iusmucmritins its blue grsium, ausni bins musmume tumototingluly seusarabe oats frouss silsect, time hattem graimi fin- qnmeusly nmsuutauumlmng munich of blue former, bus thin great debriuneust of blue ilonur uusamsmnfcctumrntt froms lt Thin imuc-eustious also has fur its otinject a ussusre thmorominghm seisarabtinsins thuams tinstuat tiny a hclasb of blue light fomnigus im ucturiules mnhuicli blse gratis ussay comstain, ausd also a nsorn bluoroungin cuesiss- ~t5e, by onousriusg, of sinsitit amcd obhsem insicusritins crhuieht ninay adlmnme to thin gin-aiim amid reuhusiun to hse lebachmnd stud brokeun om- ustulserized] 30,995.B. P. Tripp, of Moravia, N. V., for an Improved Device for Guidin0 Diamonds for I)ressing Millstones: I claim bun bar or straight nd0e, ID, attached to the bed piece, A, icy parallel amiss, g, susd actunsteul tur adjuinsted by tise ratchet svhenh, b, gearimug, c N, smith s~crtmsg, F, tins ceususnettoms snithm blue slide, C, provided ivitis time diammound nuubtem, N; all hinnimme arrausgeth stinbstsusblshhy iii susd for the porpose set forth [This imaveustlom nousoists itt abtachmimug a bar or straight edge by parallel au-ms to a suitable bed susd sdiumstiusg the bar or straight edge by means of esring sc-hereby the dismuond snay be made to cut in parallel line5 and adjusted to any part of bIte face of the stomue cs-ibis the greatest lhciL ity] 30,996.J. J. Watsomt, William Hardiker and Thomas Toye, of Bufiblo, N. V., fot sit Improved Apparatus for Ven- tilating and Warming Railroad Cars: We ehatuns thin emnu~mlmuyuscnmmt of blue funucs, ID ID, pluses, E and II, filues, P P registers, 1 F, thaususnus, d amid n, together snitin fum-musce, C, and air sissne, J, aummuumud saith husrunne, arramuged as set forth, for time Imumpose of sninusphying heat stud iou snmntilubing lice cam, stibotattlially as is fuilly de- scribed 30,997.A. E. Wemzel, of New You-k City, for an Improved Automatic Lathe Dog: I claims the conubiusabimsus of lime latise dog, A, smad cam, B, subobsusbually as tinscribeul amid mum thin isnur icon set timubim 30,998.Lysamuder Wuighat, of Newark, N. J., for an Im~ proved Circular Saw Gage: I elsiumm thin sm-u-ummgttmmsutmmt muf time shIn, B, sniny, A, dhanip, N, plate, F, lutmuge, N, mumuti plate, IL, noummmncteci tin thin umusmmmuer amid hor tIme usummicumon set mortim. 30,999.MeChiuttock Young, Ji., of Fredemick, Md., for an Iusmprovenuemtt ut Harvesting Maclmiumes: I ehaimmm, tirsi, Shunkimug a hunger bar of a umarsestimug ussacimimme otut of tiso iscro of uttummut thin saute size anti stmeuuguiu, smith pinned at stutlicinmub dis- tuumce sumart to alluss tine colts himat fasunms hue iiusgers thereto to pass bhumuuuglu tlue susace betmnnems them, situ blunts sue time bmcmummg, dlmihliusg aims hithimug nsf bolt unties, sunbsbmnmmniuhhs no ti8scm-tbntl I atso datum mice couuublmsautomm if bite yin Itiimig uciate, F, Imiusged fiusgem bum, C, stud lunged buack chearem-, J, hut- blue ucummusmuse of ahhosmiusg bite mimi- gmtr ham mmmii tumek clearer, to be sivunmug arcutmusci, holded tip and cammied mumusmus time uussclstmme, smubsusmutmaihy as dnscrthcnd I also datum tise nommbtmmaliomu of time bat-, N, plate, F, lever, IL, amid brace, N, fusm lsolulumsg tine tiusgen icar iii a isusmizonshal positious om ahhoss-umsg it ho rise at either cud ittdnpeusdnttthy of time otimer cud, subsisinstially as described. I also elsimss a guard composed nuf the pineco, j k 1, muade and united to a Ituuger beant snuchm as mhnonrihcnth Icy a simsghe boit ucassimug through ihe space betminnum inline tsvo bars of cvlutclm said linger ham is noummuosed, as set hortlin amid described. 31,000.Hemuy Essex, of Haverstmaw, N. V., assignor to T. H. Bates, of New Voik City, for an improvenuent in Sewing Needles: I claims a secrimug umendie harming a cylindrical head amid isoimst smsd a body of trianguham- or three-sided horinsi, as shosnum amsd desemibed 31,001.Warren Gale (assignor to himself and B. B. Bel- cher), of Cluicopee Falls, Mass., for an Improvement in Machines for Cutting Straw: I datum time cmmmssblmssttoms of thin stud, ID, thse carrier, C, amsd time munouutlupicen, A, snitls thin slobs for lateral and singular adjumobment of the dlihuer uur kumile, ma mc, bus thin statiomusmy edges, a a mu, of thin muslith piece, A A, substanbiahhly as deseribed. 30,002.Feidinand Wuterich (assignor to ltimself and J. M. Hathasvay), of New York City, for an Improvement in Machines for Making Cigars: I datum,, lirot, Its cigar-uumakiusg machines, blue comusbiusslioms of a con- ease cyhimutler to crhsicin time tiso nmsds of thse helt are fastened, amid lime sm-clued forussimug rohhers and comuical belt ulmeldimemo, subotainslially as amad for the pumummuse described. I also chatuui making the arched fusunsumug relict-s of a oem-ins of seg- memmus or sleeves that damn msove tuctinpemudemut muf each olber, sun as to ad- cummumuoduche tusnlf to lice chitfernunt ucresouure out diliemeinut paints of lIme belt, snmisslainslially as deserticed. I also claim the poimsbiusg amid fiusioluiung mechanisms, S T, sc-hems oputma- beth substamutially as desem-ibed I aLso claims time comical guides amid rohis i, stud o, for the purpose of keeping the belt its puoper posiblous at its cuiges, amid for adjusting time sausse snhnn usecessamy, snubstausinishhy so described I also niuliun fotming a ciunumber tint snitch s cigar of oudiusary shape may be rolled up imito hbmma by meamus of a bag iii atm elastic belt ausd tim arciund mollems, smmicstamubislly as describedmuot nmcamsimsg to hay stay claim to time melt om thin big fomusseth blunt-elms, sc-Incus tused separately from thin au-cued rollers. 31,003.John Not-tIm, of Middletown Conn., for an Improved Padlock: I chains the counbimattous as constructed; the hook case amid the at tadimimig lime bomugnme or catch to tine bunsbler, as a univ article of mussism hluntmmme as in blue umamnem above described 31,004.D. P. Sltope, of Milesburg, Pa., for an Improved Washing Maclame: I claims the arraungement of perforated soip box, C, svuth rubbers, I stud K, elbouc- brakes or levers, v U B stud B is, and spiral springs, us slussnm amid described, for ulue put-poses set forlhm NE-ISSUES. Spencer Moore, of Central Bridge, N. V., for an Improve- ment in Tharesluing Machines. Patented Oct. 3, 1854: I claims, hirsi, TIme scc-tisgimig bhiuud, C, fitted iii thin throat of the ma- chine, to operate as speciuted. Second, Thin guamd beam, x, conobmntebed as descuibed, placed in front of the cyhiuuder, and arraisged mehatinehy llmnmesvibh, for lime pmmmpose de- scribed Third, Thin combummatious of the guard isoard, II, and smningung blind, C Fotmmth, The sivimuging blind, C, guard board, H, amid gunaud beam, x, arranged foujoimit operation as set horthi [The objedl of this imuvemlioum is to pmnvemt grain and dust from passing upsxard in the face of thin attendant or feeder minim feeding thin gralit into the threshing machine.] William Van Anden, of Pouglukeepsie, N. V., for an Im- provement in Portable Copying Apparatus. Patented Sept. 7, 1858: I claim a scroll-shaped back om- huoldem, comistructed amsd opemated as described, in combination snilis a book, substantially as descuibed. J. B. Wickersham, of Brooklyn, N. V., for an Improvement in Folding Bedsteads. Patented June 2, 1857: I claims dnbemmsimsimsiusg time mehative position of thue head or foot gumards smith the side rails, svlsems the bedstead is in sins unfolded position, by meamns nsf a stop or support, substantially as specified. And I claim the pius, 5 5, inserted as set horbis, its comicinabion smiths time stops or supports, as smmncified J. B. Wickershiam, of Brooklyn, N. V., for an improved Folding Bedstead. Patented June 2, 1857: I claim connectimug the sm-ire or unetallic smork, 6 6, forming lbs head or foot gumards to tise cross bar, 2, upon ic-huich Ihe parts turn, as set forib. 30 P. .1. Mearclaer, of New York City, acaignee of J. 8. Barber, of boston, Mass., for an Improved Machine for Cutting Irregular forms. Patented May 15, 1855: ibri iii I ii iii oitiiiiii tt(iii if a table, or equivalent, fin ot-itiiig the frame to 1 cci it, otitiota olin Ily no uiescrihed, a toitterti of ito geocial I.e mime to tic Oi~iile niiit I tr(i totating otiafto, cacti carrying it a oil not tcio, ooe of Ii saul otoifto iii ig ocif-antapting to lit ia 01 tli(ii tier to the inner pcitt itiery of p~nttero, onbotantialty [a torn tat in tie ennplovnneiit if too onto of iiitteio on tiniattet stiafto, ii a it nit t tint the nttstntice loltreeti lii two shafts shalt lie self tnt oiitrotanittalti ti~ tint liii Inn liitntnnt oeo opecitteit tin conttntttn~ iii ti ii loittetti aiiit iinncto, nit p timnienit tniintnr. tic utntetttiitiitig it ic iii aim liii geinerat finctin, rio set hunt. nit tints i taut, as the iticeuittoin at I tie saint Ira 5. Bartier, arranging iii iii en tutu I rae ci ~titifts iii nntilnunotti otilen it tie iota if lie runigli inn rio, a nil tue oii ti ciii itotile ntiit lie iittier iii the iiioiite if ouch fraunie, lii itS ii in train ii in ut liii t li( liii iliiioi ticc itteil. V. II. Seymour, 1). 8. iMlttrgatt, 8. (4. Williams and A. iner, of lltoekport, N. Y., assignees through mesne assigiuments of .1. A. St. John, of .Janesville, Wis., for Ott Itliprovement it) I4akittg Attachment to Harvesters. Itatntited May 25, 1858: tat iii tue toe nut t ito pittincin otirt a otirte ititeitnoseut tietirieti tie tunis tilt trig gent nut lie take slinnik a shalt lure lie inuitonse lit ratio too in iii in tie unuhe iii iii tie utriciog tonic ointioinititlitls no Ic it (r:lt.ltuuu Neonnan, mnf Birmingham, Pa., for an Improvetuetat itt Preserve tans Patented I)ee. 20, 1559: Let it mi tie inuniiuugeuninnut of ttie llrniitig ll~ntngc oii Itie tint, aunt a itn ire a giiiritn iii Inn inch nit Itunja i nit nut, stIneut inseil liii tiirtrt ii it nanlutnug ulnorte Intiunul iii tIne ttrl nit ineik at tin a tint etuit, ainit it liii innoitig it in gnu a inst Iniesoni inn I tie haunt to Inn nit inn its inlet tIm in I tin iii lube nut tieuiunetunalto -ititiog it unit nontitilitug tIne ntr no sit At)tttTtONAg. IMIIIOYJPuLENT5. it tIlts Satldlinr, (if Eguetnnotnt, Mass., for an Iniprovemeut in rutipling for Iltills to Axles. Patented ,JuI~ 2-f 1550: I tutu lInt stitnstttinttinti lit nIne unotn toelt liii lie Ininnntttnnot limIt, us I urn, tni tint niitgtuntnt Street tintuttunun, tue tiuspo euntituuntnnl suitli lii run tug ill it~ tttnn4 us nun uleotgnuiiI inn tin tittailneil. tIi~tntns utuniung nustis suitli tin tinuni 1 annul iliIt tuuul hull uiiittinaitlo titltuotienl tin thu tote. I, I . .1 oliuson, of llrooklytn, N. V., for an Iniproved Coot- tmnsitton to Prevent 1)epredatioos of Insects. Patetated March 27, 1 Still: ii turn tint gut unIt tug ot Iiiitnnuiztnuut, to nun itanlunttntutute tush mu Iunnusnlnr, it in ii niutniustttnuun tin un nut lilt nun Itutiuttus nut tutoeclo, iuunnuurnut unit it lit nute, us it ttutiotttnt. sittnnittiuuttnlta it lie uutautuier unit tint iso nlisnttlnenl nESIfINs. 1-U II. Piown, of Nuuuv Yfntk (iit~ fot- a 1)esign for lion Shut- tels. E. I, Ney, if lowell, Mass., assignor to the Lowell Mann- tuctituing C ounJiany, fur ut l)esigo for a (tmar}uet (7 eases). b. Sintitit utnil H. Iirovn (assignots to Lihraudt & MeDow- ill), ot Philadel1titia, Pa., tuu a 1)esign fot a Stove: Jactula Stetfe, of Pldhtdeilultia, Pa., assignor to F. and (4. 1-lauck, of Mechanieshnig, Pa., fur a l)esign for a (i~f)~jj~~g Stove. N. S. Vedder aind Ezra Bi~iley (assignots to Potter & Co.), if Tioy, N. Y., for a I)esign for Stove Plates. N. S. Vedder anil W. 1~. Sanderson (assiginor to Puutter & (in.), of lutny, N. V., for a Design for a Stove late. K. M., of OhioWe have itot illustrated the Aneroid Bat-- - uuusetet to tuttin-ht tutu ri-fet-. Flue tnuiuueitntn nuf its otneuuattnnuu us the leut- utetnee nuf a ciursent lithe to eunuutu-tseu aunt ~ ~l ss itt utttyung tnueosuuues if tue aluiniuslutneres. We tins-n secut I nose tint sseu-e equtatto as gununul its a turen-euut-utal htuutiuiintet-. .1. W. II., of Iou-tm The spef-irnehl of minet-al with-li von maui snunt its is nuf nut salute ssImntes-et I is lit-i ticitnailt COuuilnoseul if uunieti, Xoit ss-ill futiut tilt the ittfmnuumtuahiout tint tout usuttut teolun-et tug nut tinutas nutul exIt-aching sits-er frotut tine ore iii Oseruottuts Mutuattitt-gt-, H. W. - of Pa:--lhet-e is no htolver gaited hy a hevet-; it is siutilult nut ageunt fmnt Iununouuniutiuug tumuss et. V. M., of N. VMba is conaposed of silica, 45.3 aharnina, hems; tumutnolt 92; tn n-u-un ot-ut of iuatu, 4-5: htutniric acint, 0,7; us-nuer, 1,5, There are roniny sarietues if Ihuto stuhustatuce, The dOennuuitnooilioun if a iuugle gutniun of ziune it ti guilsattie lnttttn iT soilt Iuunnuluuce a hut-ighut etecti-ic slit-k, tIne ssiueo uuf a gats-tuuuie curenuji otuonulut hue eultuet smIth un-nt at input uhnuschu seeuureul hut sereuss tin tue mIles of I tue hiatteut, A seit tutu mite quituuntity of neunt is snilticin-uth hut a hiatheut-, XV. E., of (. E.The etchings on at-tides of cittlery at-e esecutteut situ It autumn tnt-I is, If tutu ssu-it e a umutnue ut~nsnui tIme lutttuhi if a kiui ii usitlm ulituule uintittuitut-tts, tIme uuuetnut si-ill tue nlnIuiut, Flue acunt is on asluc-ut muff ssittu so-at-rn sststet, Blumek settlutug sono, uliosnulsent iii thrum- Itoh is m-nutstunt-ent to iuittit eIchuent rhtartueteu-s out cuuttu-ut-, TIme kuui fi inn-it also hue coseted isithi sstto un es-ert tuart Cocetut tIme ntestguu ; ilteum utitutun-ut unto ulititIe aquuttfunt-tis, The so-ax ovith tnunuteet tIne tsouuiouus that arm hum lie keith onnunotti aunt turighut, .1. P. L., of N. V.~~~iXVe itave always sttpposed thtat stereo- clue so-as lIme sante as coutmunnuin Ittue naeltit, T. H. K., of N. V.We can recommend no otiter way to ucmmuniunuite fuel scihti colic stint-h lmnuitet- tItan tnt cat-etuth fut-iuig anut hum- muon- utf a utaunutiet iii I lie ounuuuke tile, sun its lii euniut hue heat fat- a htutuger Iunuimnnt uuuuutcu tIme lunitet-. A. XX. 1-f., of N. VAn assigometat of a patent must spe- cift a stututalnhm- couusintcratioun, else it so-itt unit lie legal, If tout lake outh latent as nut aduliliounal impros-ernetul, the tantetut so-itt omIt nut fistic- tueui t etuis It-nun hue ot-igiumat utuohe, If toit nuhtniut a selnat-ate Inatetul fur I tue itmutri-os enteunt ochuteht ose nuto-ise, ihui- tualcuat so-itt nun fnnuurheeun tears froiut lie nltsl i-nut the issue, E. U. N., of 111.We see no teasonwity you shtotild ahamndon omit- clmuiunus, It is out- otatuntusun that tout soouuint suieceent lit gmniung ituto imutn-ufuun-uueo tottin the shIm-c patty, Ynuit html huettet- tiot gise it tip if tunti salute liii juts ittliniti, N. (1., of N. (Thie Afot/ieoiotico/ 2VEontIilq is ptthhished Ity Sever & Fuatucis, at (-ambriulge, Mass,, at $2 tner atutuuton, it is a sect- unahtuernatietut stunt-k, aunut fiutty tutu Inn Itte scietutifuc olatnutarut. Ynsut haut tattler sorile to youuu nuen-iluer of (oungreos to intl at ah otuc Branch Ottice itt Washington, atud get advice ahuouti your case, Nothitug can he dotue tutthit the montet is prepared; html is the firsi ihuteg necessary L. H., of TexasWe Itave taken all tue required steps to seduce tour Eunghishi patetti, ninth in tIme rout-se of a feso- ntuos son hope 1mm seunrh tout time certifietmte if tnt-ins isunnutat ttriitection,9 C. A. C., of Miss-We have writteta yott by tunail its tegat-d hum tiumum etniumbtmtuih Biki utumut Ouitciifutt,k There seeumns to toe uuoseths un time hit-mit, auth ose so-otutul nutmise s-mitt ho setaut its $1, atuit huose a puetinui- tuaty eonmiuuatuoua nuante ah this Pahetut Office, A. M., of MoWe have carefully exannined tue sketeit and dnsn-ritntiouu of your atiegeut imtncovemnenh in Faucets for measuiritug hiquuimto, tummul so-c hunk it is nun itigetuiouts aund eocehtenh utes-ice fur line tontuhmtise, suit, umo uhinnutut, tnatcumhuilnte, Scunil mitt tutu- niodut atunt totuheuut fee, nun so-C ssitt lit-oct-ed os-jilt lIme cnse. Voti so-itt fiumml mouut- ses-ecat qiun stunts tuhnouui trath-umlo futtit- auissoSred tin 11mm- mm Puuleumi Lass-s nuud In Itni-tunnhtoin, ostuieht soc- seunut s-out hut muanit, P. ii., of Ohtio.We have seen the statement somewitete I urutittotun-nI hhutut mime Dutch chumiuna time uimsetntiouu if time untici-miocuipe fot Dim-tm-It, tune if Itneit coiitmtutnaeit, Time qiueotinotn is yo-t a diotoutteul one aunt Im-unit mutt n tutat toe hnuase tenth 0mm time stulseet, so-c hiuituk tine- niiocinomts- minim hum tint unite peusoun, C. (U, of PaWe think your apprehetasion in neference to tine tilt innate stihume if patetuto ate tinit so-u-It fmnuuunmhmmt. Its case nuf a his if time lituiumut, lieu-c is ito titmuttaimitity hunt tIme femlem-al gos-ci-ti, tim-nut tutu hum lmtokeun tutu, aunt its juurtauiicttuiuu so-itt at least molcuint oset alt time Sr tiles tutu thin mmml seem-tie. Sumiopmnsitug your ssmiuoi aptit-cimeun sinnmintut lie tetutizemi aunmt tine Not-thin-i-mn aunni Siniuituci-in Stalco otmmrumlut 5ittiuiiuhn, iii hun-hem-n mull tutuleunlo gutututemi huefrure setmtimunttuiuu sominutul hue estuent nut tin hum iso sem-tioumo, lit iSlit, Cs-c tmutumuhi-eth ninth fufto--ses-eun imutunuto si-u-u-n- gi-ummnun-ml to citizi-mus of time Sumuuttuci-um States, exetnusise if thin Dtohitit if (nntumnniuitm, mu mmml it ssuatutii hoe time ~tunhim-y of thuosm States hum ten-muguuizi time hm-gatity if mutt isateumlo issumeut hi, liii it-ihet-ni gmuomtia- nucuut, iii mum let hunt time tights muf tutu- nutuzi-ins uottgtii hue uesinm-etenh un alt time tmurttmn-uum States, We uhisemusoeut this unatnitem- tin omit issue of time tItii tilt. B. (4. U., of MissAs soon as your intodel comes to hand use sutil inn-cecil soiuhm tIme tnuepau-ahiotu nut tine mutton-us al omnue, We humutre alt mmiii uintinmuuat uhtlhteuutties aunt toe om-titent hmm-fmnue umutnutems guoss ummuucin si-mit-am- J. C., of VIaWe are not in thie hiossession of amy statistics regam-nitung lime fruetuoun of met-emits- iii naotuon, S. K., of MassIf yotn hint a madame into ol)et-atiolt before time museum mr tins nialuhim ml fuut- his tanteot, hue lass ssouhnh aitoso tout to misc hunt oureetfic numucimiume a flec time issue of tine tituteuut, Et piacutriung a chat of time Push-mi Lass-s just lauthutisimeut hit its, yott soill base full ounce out time onminject, 0. B. V., maf OhuhoVon wihl find on anaother page an artteie oun suuset--inuahuung at-tides of icota smut hum-ass, .1. (i~, of Tenn., and P. M., of VaWe itave received your emuuumuasuuuuieattomss ott -u inomeumhuiuuu, tumit time autuhoc sstao soas ecituciseut Inns mlefu-uumhmut iniumaseif, as tmstt ssitl see hay mis conantlunicuahiota sum nimatiot hung-. M. H. S., of lowaThie mincilage to which yomn refer is simile of Buthisit gutiun ot- taski ml ottaceim dissois-euh un sOnhec tiny hhmototugit C. II. .1., of TexasThie crank has ii dead points, bunt tao evil ucouuito ihuet-efrom, huecautoe tao steam is laiten ml 11mm-se points, and a tuatainee oshmeet atitiruas a nosh inecfecl smnd siuuniate reguuimutot- of tusmuhiout, B. S. F., of PaA solution of india-rubber in tmurpentine mimics soitht heal diuhietuiut- and soouutnt unot ansssmu- your putchuose for huonuks, Wi- hiuimik that you cats olahaims line jet lutack glossy itak ovhnicia mutt mlcoire lit mixing conansoti soitin inuhia tuak, .1. C. P., of AlaIf yoin pint some dry potasit in a saucer in tie tiusinte tuf tin nut salt, it soul atmumot-in time nammishiut,- lund lnuesm-umh tutu mmmii ks Im-outs isceousnitug uuituhult, ilulouiute if enim-inutun Is setter hiatt tine i~ttusim, mutt ynnnt utunlumituty caimnot get it so-mete s-out meshle, A. T., of N. V.XVood luas been frequently treateul with otmumna inured to coagulate Is segetalnie attuuunneut amnmt fit it fuir semasuuuuiuug unhuimhtt, schuems extaosent afuem-so-am-da to time atmosisimece. .1. B. & U. S. T., of N. VGood clean copal varnish is used fmuc time usonnmiema tuamuuites of tine torus tin so tub-it you cm-let-, As oil is em- lit nn~ u-ni its its nnmmtnuifacunume, it is lime moot suuitainte fom- mum-mim-tes tinal ace exponoemi ho tIme ssenuimeu. S. M., of At-icWe do not know witere yoin can obtain a dhucain aunt smiuall oummn tint sumitahnie to am latitude. Money Received At thue Scientific American Office on aceount of Patent Office huuisitiess, for the sceek ending Sahumi-day, Dec. 29, 181111; .1. B. (i,, of N. V., $15; I. H. P., muf N. V., $50; Co. W. B., of Mass,, $25; W. II., muf Cat,, $21; lo. S. 11., of N. V. $10; M. H.P., muf N. T., $t5: A. 11., if N. V., $10: I. [I, S., of N. V., $55; S. R. B., of Pa,, $25; D W. S., of H. I., $10: A. (5., of N. V., $60: M. B., of N. V., $25: N. F,, if Mis.. $10; P. L. W., of Pa., $25; L. & 0., nI Iii., $25; A. B. it P. Z., unfN. V., $100; W. H. D., of Ill., $10; L. A. B., if N. V., $10; W. N. & C. W, 11., of Muuine $21; W. B., of N. I., $20; S. ut B. W. C., if (timio, $10; (I. & S., nuf Micin,, $125; 1-. 5., of N. V., $25; I. L. it- I. R. P., cuf Minim., $10; I. H. H., of Pa., $21; N. it- A. T. C., of Micit., $10; We. it B., nsf Cat,, $12; C. it L., of N. V., S25; It. N. DeCo., of N. V., $10; C. H. D., if Iii,, $25; I. L. V., if N. V., $10; W. B. H., muf I~a,, $55; F. & I. S. N., of Mass., $27. Specifications, drawings and models belonging to parties ovitim mite fohtouvimug initials mace Ineen forsvsrded ho time Pahemut Office diuc- imug liii- so cu-k cumutimug Dec. 29, 5n60; E. & T. S. N., of Muiss.; C. S., of N. V.; C. H. D., of Iii,; IX. B., of N, I.; T. S. W., maf Pa.; iS. W. B., of Mass.; I. 11. H., of Pa,; W. N. & H. W. II., of Maine; I. J. C. S. of Pa.; W H. D. of Iii.; N. B. muf N, H P of NT.; Cut Sof N.Y. New Books and Periodicals Received. Couti, PETROLEUM AND OTHER DIsTILlED Omns; by A. Ges- inter M. D. Neov York; Baihiere Bi-olhuers No, 440 Brmnnutosay. Di-. Om-stuet- is a pi-acuicat cimensisi aunt has itevunlenh a gi-emut heal nf at- temumunami Ins coat oils amid tins gis-eta lime name if -- Keroom-mue km omit-lu produmems. 1-te ohutaimued three isaments fot makimag oil fuunna the Neim B rummusos-ic k caiumue I coat, sohicta hue cmniasidems a otuahe, atad scas tIne fist inn enummence us maisutfaciutre, os-s hetiese in itmis section mmfcouututry. He Inas givema its the hest ihhmistated and most practical ssork yeh piubtissed on the suttaject, and at some fiutumue time we shah refer to ii at more temagltn. rve~4en~e. Sewing Machine Controversy at the Polytechnic Institute. MarsoRs. EntToos;We ask heave to extuinimn the fotinuss-ing otnuemnmm-usm nande my ama ensisiotfu muf tine XVtueeter it Wilsman lhauutuftmeiitutnug Curium- pany Mc. Wnnod) on time evemaing of tIme 58th inst., at a delasuimug ooetemi catleul Ihe I-nstytecttumic Asotudinitomi aunt time donimago of sstmlctn vmnit mm-hum-n: it Of line 46,243 macmines u ehuim ned to Mc. Hosce as stud tin 1959, menu-It 40,000 mache time lock slilclm siutiss-imug lime merutict of time pumlulic itt tints nualtec, Exisianahion From Octoinem-, 1856, to Sephemluec 10, iSfO lit-. boys auth lime Cocos-er it Baker Sescimug Muicimiute Ctimuspamt- ssero tsuuntmihultn-mh froun ticensimig ninny paruy to nanke amid sell seoviung mnaciuimnes nmakiuug mime (Iris-er taunt Baker stitch hyn comutruach imumsnhseutemmtly nuade to sstmiehu tIne Wineeter it Wilsusma Mammitltuehitriutg (-ominamas aunt 1. N. Siuugec it Co. osere maclies ninth frntm sohielt dutmimug hiatt - limuse, they rcfuuseut nit me- tease though trequmemuhic mequmesim-ut hiutim tins lit, Htnosm- smith omursels-es, Dusrimag all minis lime Iisecefome ilneme umeilimec so-as muor coumint toe. minus mumum-ty hicemased mu musake or sell nmaclmimnes makimug tine Cortuvum it Baket slilelt mutter Mr. iloso-es hutalemut except tIne Coruicer it Baker Suns mug Macinitue (onspnmmt, schuume, at time sanne time, there ssere uuevec less hinnum 5i1 licenses to as untumut ulmllimemat mmsnnumfnehumm-m-m-s ho nsakm amunt sell simuttute stitch or hock stihehm mmsaehnlmsn-s tinnier Mm, Itmaso-es isatemut grutumlm-tI hnm-fmamn (teuculser 18fm6. (If 11mm 46,243 machninus cetuicined to lit, Hosse its t559 time Corovem- .t Bakem Sesciuug Machuimue Cmnnupamns- attune, namatte anui soint iO,577, si-mile lime 50 mum umnumma shuttle sin tunuk stitch ticemucees onniut nit umogetimum- tine imatmumuci- ol time musuncimimues mehmumneml In die, Ilium e. Sluice time o~nmimmg if 1858 time mlemummumnut of time isumbhic fuic nmni-iuities nsaktuug time Coremmer ~ Biu/er tithe/n lmnslenut if time stutuhtie om- ioctc outichm so tilt sotmlchm thicy haul seemi so hoittutituihlv mmml in, sax- -- etnalnot-outoly -, Oittsinltm-mi. laecnmsme so irolseratise timmut ma tauge mumummmtuem nuf tuntttumtftmn-tusm-u-ms cmiii nuemuceni the nannumfumelutra- uuf tine Cot-os-eu- it Bakmr ohm-h munmuehuluses soluhn- unit lien-muon lumnmma Xii. Housse mum ouuron-Is-es, utmnmuugli at ilam- tumult nuf tim-os mmmi- tunmmn. Ill0 muss ascem-unimneul funoni time slateitum-muts stunt metmum-mus tml hineume l.ssu-mumemmuiutmseuh nununumfacuuurers, matte sluice Mr. Hmnso-es cotemuslmuma liutun - ihummimug the seam- 1859, mumnut sluice, 11mm nttmnlnmm- cml munactuimums umutanie smith smmlut lii time [miihuth Stumles nsaklimg hum- Gnus-cc it Baker suilchm tins Ineemi nmnmn-hm lam-gm-u- Ilnuuus tine mmumnnlueu- tulsimiuthim om luck studs msstndimines sold its time saute timnue sntt that tine umummumtnem- oh Ginas-em & Btmkem- stitch nmactuimnes niemunammntn-nt ammul sotul fumm /itamn tIm, lion lutas lneemu at least Iso-tee as tunmge .10 time nhennmummnt fuut siuumihie sm- tnuc-i~ stitch minnachiimies lint- ulue statute moutumiuuse uhuirlung mlii Ouliumm tim-, Sirs, B, so-hose stahm-uuuemuis ame glum-mn tin s-tier memnort, tins hmeemn a homing lime emnutmtnut-eul isv time Wimeelem it Wilsmnut lfmumnuufmneuuurmmmg Cimuisiutumna - GROVER it BAKER SEWING IIACI-IINE (-t)MPANY, Important Hints to Our Readers. BACK NLMeRRs AND VOLUMES OF THE SCiENTIFIC AMERI- CAN.Ynmhuumes I. II. ammni III. (isouumid or umnhouumsui) mat tine mart at this ebee smad fm-on-u all tsatintIldtit deumiers. Pciee mound, $1.50 muir cuuhnunse; tiny mail, $2sshuicim immntuudm-s postage. Pmmce iii sineets $1. Esem mint- cimamnic, imus-emutor or antisaun us tine Utiitect Stnues attotittt isase a comma- Inleme set of this iauuimhieatirams fiuc mufecence. Snmhnsccitaecs simommini mmmii faii ho pnesecs-e (tunic maummuisers for huinchimag. PATENT (tmiitnms.Persons desiring the claim of any imivema- seunhioma mvtiieiu hiss (uncut mantenteni usittuin timicty years cats muhutamum a copy by anhdreosimug a mote to hinis stilce stahimug thus naminne if tine pat- emutee amnut hale of muatent scimema kusmuso mm stud indtosling $1 as fee fom- copi-itig. We cam also fumummioht s skeucia of amuv hantemsuemi nunt-Iniume issumeut simuce 1853 to acconapamay line cininy mitt receiph of $2. Address lmhNN ut CO. Patemut Smmhicilnsns No, 17 Pumrk Rosy Ness- York. BINDINGWe are preparemi to hind voluntes, in hnandsonae coo-ems us-lums iliumnaimnaheut sides smuth ho fumnimists coo-ens finn otimet- tuimnmt- ens. Price for himudimag 50 cenhs Puice fom covers hay nanit 10 cemuts by express or utehiveceut at tine office 40 cents RATES OF ADVERTISING. Thirty Cents muec tine fur escim amath every imusem-hioms payntuim lit ads-snce, To emamuhie nil to ummadershamad hmosv to calculate tIne ammmiummh 11mev must senul soisemn 11mev soishn ants echuseummemuts puilatuotmed sue so ill exhahalum hiash 1cm us-ocis as-ecage tumue timne. Emugmas-imags us-itt mmmii inn- nuhmsmiuted mmmii suit atlsemtisimng totutiasns; nmnd as imeuetmufom-e tine puttulisimems mesem-om mum thuamoets-es utue m glut to u eject nuts a its echit, u-tutu- mu semi Cot- mmuulatleat mmmi, IMPORTANT TO INVENTORS. THE GREAT AMERICAN AND FOREIGN PATENT ACoENCYMesocs IiUNN it CO. Puoturietocs of line Scmtancrmrtc- AMERICaN imufnsrnu helm- mutatcouss that tinny sue smith emagaged mum msre~unm-lmsg smueciilcstinuuss amid ult-mamo-imags snut aitm-mmmtimsg Inn inline usammus ol imnoemminums mu every dm-partment before time Palm-itt Otlice, suds as Exhemasinmmus, Apiuemmis, Inherferemuces, cou-m-ecluuug imluertedh papems suibmimlent to time Pinto-nt Olhtim by iuacompelemal tuersomus examiusimug hub hise tuooeitv of lmssemstmomsa, augliumug rejected cases itc. The humming experience Messrs. MUNN uk iii, hase imaut itt pmetnau-iuug shuedil5cumiiomus smad nlm-usso-imugs exim-mmulimug os-em- mu penioul of sixteemi years tins reusuherent ilmem perfectly cmmuasersauth scithi time monme of doling lausiusess at line Umuiment States Patemst Ollice 5usd soittm time grematet pautmuf time ittoenlinmuss soisicti tumase meets patemnient. Imnlustnua- human comuceumuing the isaletulataihihy of immoenmiomss is freely gicen, scilisoumi charge nun semadimug a nnodei or ulcaso-imug sod descripliomn to utmis muflice, Cmumnsumimatiusmn mac he hani suitim lime fiurn huetoseen NtNm.; smant rouma cuciuuck umaity. at himeir PomEcte-AL OemmcE No. 37 PARK-ROW Nusuc YORK. We huive also a BRANCH (leFtcms in the (tea- OF WAsOtNoTON out time CORNER OF F ANO SEvENTH-5TRPET5 opposite tine Unileth Stales tat- emni Ottice. Tisis olhice is ummader line gemueral smmperinuemutim-muee muf mime inC the firm smnd is itt daily cnsmomummsicslinuus so-ills itue Pniusm-ipst ilthlce iii Ness York amid isersonsi aitemihioms so-itt hoe gis-eum mat thus Pumuemit elilice to all such cases as nmsy uenuummme it. Imui-emOnums amaul mulimera us-tim mmsas s-iou Wasimimiguon tins-lung linuisimness at thu to call at limeim ollice. e Palemat ilhilee ann countintlo imas-itel Messrs. MUNN it CO. ace vet-v eotensivetyemsgaged lit time pcemanmnmioum and secusm-imag of Pumli-muts its than- sam-inmums Euuciupeumut coumntm-ics, Not- lime tumumusacuiunmm if minis luuusiumess htsm,- huts-c (tilices am Nuns, 66 (isaneero Lummue Lmumadon; 29 Boumles-ard St. ltmaruin Pummus; miamI 26 atmie duo Etueriimsiuim-t Brumossets, We itmimuk moe- may sumlelt stat thimint ausems-eigiuulms muf alt hhmm Emuruutmeams Patemais secured to Anuem-icaum citizens ace munnueuured tlmmnuumgtu omun Agemucy. Imas-emutors so-itt tho usuti ho hear us mimad thai time Englisim ass utuoes mmcmi tinsil lbs issue of mualemuls to insemmtou-s. Amax sine caum take omut ma munuemum in Great Brilaims, A panshutet of iuufcmnmauton comacennimag the mnnolser coimroc to hue pumnoumeti in oluhaimaiuig manlemmis tluroumgim hhmeim Ageumey tIme meqnmmrenaemsus of the Pateusi Oflice, Ac. nuat line saul gratis um~uomm ahutatientinnmm at the Puimmeitual Oflice mum elulsuc if mime Braumelses. Tine, maisum Itirtilsin a (it-cuitac nut Inintum-roalioma atuomut Fuurm-igma Pumlemats, Time aumnexeui tethers Im-nuns 11mm- tuash lisnee (-onamaiis.iomsen of Patemnus, sos cumnameuatm ins time mue-ulmoal if mull pet-sums imutern-sleut its otmimmimmimug Pal- emats liesors. liuNN it Co. I take tat ensutne tin stalling that, so-tithe I hehut Ihe olhuce of Cnnmaauasussmmmmuen nut tateunis, MORE THiN ONE-FOURTH OF iLl. THE BU5tNtI55 OF THin OFFtCE CAMO THitOUOtt YOUR HANOO, I have mo dmuumtit that line isuttutim cunmulmuheuuce limits iummlit-atmut humus beets fimhhy utesems-eut, as I tanum sius-as s uulusem semi mn ill chum iuutnmc-mmummsm- so-luht (hum- Oltice a marked umegmee nit tm uuummuimmess skull smith fintehihy Iii tIne imatereslo of s-mimic enspiminyers. Vomits very trimly - CHAS. IIASON. Inamediamety altem 11mm mphiommutmemih of Mc. both to thue office of Post- inasien-Getaenai nut mime I. mnitaut -st-ales hum- umuhutressoent is mum the sumbjnumuaeut sery grattftitmg lesiumnomiusi Messrs. MUEN it Co It affords nac much pleasumme to bear teshimmasmac to lime slate smut elhucuemut its ammnem mum sohicim s-out hmame utisdiusuged snumum utmmties of Sohicitmum a cuf I sictais so title I 1usd iha~ tmnnusunu of ismuldimag the niftice of Cnnmnmussmoneu, I naum suismmsess svss veiny immuge stud yen sumalsimued (amid I dmuumbi mmmii, j molt, utn-semmenht time nemsumtahinumu muf emnengv, umusuked shmitiuc stud itumemmoumuumsmmmislmug fiuiehily iii muamfoumnimug loinut mumusfeasucumuai eumgsgememuls. Xii, reshiecifiutlc Your ohuediemul senvant, J. HOLT. MEssRs. MUNE it Co. Coentiemama; II gives me mum-hi pleasure to say that dumning the time of mamy tashihing lIme office of Commoissionem- of Psi- ettto, a very to it. protoirtion 01 the hosiorso of toveolors before th~ Pat- rot Ottlee ovos trittotet (it ugh toot iOeorv, atot that I hare ever 1000(1 VOlt tottlil oh and devoted to the otet rots of yost elirots, ao well its etoioeotts lii tub it to tot lotttt he dot ti-S oh Potettt Attoriteys trith skill o tid or s- Itittir otti otieitiettt sert-ittt WM. 1). BIShOP. Messrs. itch N & (0 (ott hi liv tttvile t)(toiitt vtsitittg the ritv, or vest trots to toll -it t la-tv otrit-ititis ittit-to No 37 P ivkt-otv, a itt extitititie tie iiaii(tets tvtitt-ti itro ii exti t iii ot titer to the wtirtts ot reterettee (Ott- ttaiiie(t iii ttieiv lit)r-trv ----5 to tt ut Ii r in t)e toil tit ott tours. liiseittors etit i-ottittttitiii- itt- iti ttertn-i ii Frettt-tt, Sitottisti, or tteartv any ottter hiti-si-it- ttt otuttt-ttttu- tilortat-ittutit tt-ttna this tIller. Citetitaro of ttifutrutiuitoti t--xit-ltti- Ito- prttrttritt- ot titetuts, turittltut itt (tertosit, Conitttttititt,iitio titot vettitltstit t sti told toe oddiesot to MUNN & Co., Pittitistit-ro, Nit. 37 Park-rotv Neir Yoi-k. SEMI-STEEL. ~ F MI IEEE LOCOMOTIVE TIRES, FIRE-BOX AND J I itti ilie~ts, suit Butler Pta leo. Pu iii ituli-it Ii liv tie reetit sti-tioget- itoh mire ditratite tiata ttte best I iii Miii t titotittesof 11111 s totted, tilorkeut attit iveluteut to It ott guru itiatoeter oh I L 3. tI 5Riutteut tttiit i-itt it attv toil let-ti a itt size ot-itet-ed. Itolleit -titit liii iii iii- ti-ut lIsts, Axles intl Forgiogs 01 same metat. Xoo liii i hit-i- iii lit-ti ittlitit trotted stilt Ito fitroistieth, auth ott ordi-ro 3tttitt it u-u-ut iv COIININC, WINSLOW & Co., Attoutty Iritti Wiurks, Troy, N. Y. J)OPTFRS IM ItR lvii) GO XrERNOR. 1 i~it it~tttiitt it I hit-si, iii euttuuts is sit-it rotatttistirit. Putt-ties -ittitutut ivitli tuitoli-tuti- tuottut titti v si-itt I liii- thietit itt ettlire cuittlitteutee. (hit t ii, sit flue tiuiuot-t-uuuts stilt-es iii toe ate tilt ethittittr goitit, if soelt matte; the ii itt the ii~tt- tiutto to tituiiuuiut-t-itil. flit giuviut-itiuts ut-ut ovuirt-tuuiteit tit truth hit-i. It-el lv si-tilt it iii- tuttit tilt vuilt-is, tvltieht titus-c (reels autut etose out-It- to - ext ii o ti i huititith is si-titet-ss-htetts, to sstiit-tt lIter st-itt huts t ito liii- us tilt itiuitliltitut its- etustittiurts tot cet-tititoatis - hut titus otuijuut-tis itt Iii- Stilt-i itt hit Tuttutti. I trill ut- itt ti t-ottttuiut- Iii our u-t-sttuuuusiithtu titatty liii- tituit. If it lutes tutit ittit-itite tue i-lit-itt- it uiuuiv lie ii- tiutoeth. A lit tutu 1 uhist-tuttut liii I hit- ittithi-, irtitise otuteus st-itt abs-ax-s tue tittim~ttty Illeth. (IIARLES T. PORTER, No. 233 West Ttuirttt-uittt-streei, eutruter tif Nituttu-uusenute 113 Ness Yutu-k City. (10A15 OILSA I0RACTJCAL TREATISE ON COAL, tsuutttt-uutuu, tututh tuttuet- uhislittitut oils. Bo A fully iliiusIt-ali-ih -liii, ~ - tut-tihuato (testiet-. Svo. ENCINEEIIINt}. Euugitit-eriuig Pit-i- euhetuts lit- Suetutut Muiehiittet-v, riotut-uteitig the Iter- tuf SIt-uiittoiittts Ex t- rittuetuis is-tilt t tuu~tt thing tuuottuuuuat-uats outuht tust t u Itititeis. 3.-u-. Tutu suutitunes, Si-ti fully ittitolt-ateth uttuthi, 3 Th itt ill., tit-tulitug itt Sleutuut tuteki-is, to iii mutt-se of trettat-tutuitui. Seuui I i-ic its uttuiti tutu uteethit iii thur tutoitutuut. BALLIERE BROTHERS, 9~ 4 - Nut. 441) Butututhsray, Nesr York. G ~ ARl)S BOILER INJECTORFOR SUPPLYING sit let- iii tutuiteus iv bite et lureosutue if otruim ss-ithuouut thur ituleus-eus flout itt ui~ nutiehuitteur. rite tutteututiuti if eutoittetro ututul tuthuets ituutresurut us its it eut lit I itese itt-is-to- tutor strut tuuotuuuunu-uuts, tutu tutu extuthuitittit uttud s-itt- liv ChARLES Pu- COPELAND, No. 122 Brtttothsvtoy, Nesv Yutrk. 24 13~ G ROX ER & JIAKERS SEWING MACHINES DO ALL kuttubotuf st-us-tutu is-tilt lint spuoubo ssiltuuuuut ucis-ituutitug ausut ss-ittu the tutit~ ft uuustuuuh utiut ut-iou ii- hut tutu, tuuutosttietu sshuiutu taututtut tue hatarmeul tsr ottituiuti -utuit ii tutu ii Xii- lu-use tuutut tutu, if (titus-itt & Buiketo nuuiutuiuuu,o iii tim iii tutu- luttuuts- tutu oututut- tinuut ItOh, auth it is euttusidurtut thu tuuuusi tusetuit itt tete iii liii tuittist iii xi iii the eu-suIte, tutu no less ittitisluttuiosuute Itt-itt itt-ut ~cuo NTtrti AMIttucAN. No. 493 Buotittss-ar, Nutty Ytirk. Seuuit liii i etteuuhut 22 6 lIT \RI FN S TURBINE WATER WHEEL (XVARBEN & Vy it ututuiti utututtut, uuuuuuuuufuietuuuuuh lit Ituut Anuetietuti Wuitet Wheel ittittouuus hltusiutut it sututfuet tutu-u-s ut utul all thutuse syhuut titus-c tututus stubby itt t tututi tutu nh iii uslut-uts its bustetutuug lit tite etuuuu-mtuug sutuag ut tight l~et- reutla 1 t liii ii taut us tutu utuhutiti ushteets hut si-itt gise bite lust tuttle itt--it ut-stilt us lit-it lu-sI iii his thu stuituulte usuuth hums, stilt Itt stilt to tutu-us ii guile hits tutu lute Ahutttul Itut re huutututteul biurtuittus tire itoss- pu-uqu etieth his uhaust- us titets iii liii f tutluil Stuttits, suuu~uuussuuug, to reoustums , rout tuhueture ututut ettit-ti-uuty, tuuttutly lieu- retul si turbo too ruitleuhl, -tutul -iii si-lit-cbs us-tuieht ii- htuto taken hue lutusee ot Thu-se httiutuotuteuti tstlstuut-uues tire aektuiiss-hi-uigt-ut tuy the butututitug unotuutfit I lit et o tut the eutututurs- tti-tuil tutu- lOauuihuhulu-I 144 hoes), tittittitttttti ettirtis-itigo & e euttuttotuIt- Ituetuuse Isis stuuuuu~us AuhuIreos AL()NZO Pu ARREN, 53.i it, Nut 311- xii, -treut, Bostutti, Muiss. 3 ftui MACHINE BELTING, STEAM PACKIYC FNGINE 1 111 (SEThur suuimuu-iuuu-iuy oh these -it tries, uauuuuuuui-uu-Iuuremh of stub- rususizet rutiutuut, is esimututiotuetl. Ls et belt stilt lie us at t ututeul outtuet-iuut- its teutuluem, it uuutuihturmh less lot-tee Thur the-tm I aekitti us tut tuhe tut is-ety sauteus-, mutuul ssutuu-tusuuuh iii olututut 319) legs tub teat liii- [hmuse utusut tuetuis utthitug, intuit is uuuuuuuuuuteuh lit slutusul tuty t eututit eth Iiteosutue ; husgi-utuet- st-tIlt all sututeututs if tutiutmut usutahuteui 10mm ehustute it hut uses But retutiuss ~ittees, & r., eutut ise mitt ututeul ii n I itt uuthueu-uu-uoe at tutu uuuuuetuouuse. NEW YORK BEt IINO AND lACKINfI COM1ANY JOhN II CHEEVER, Treasutrer, 1 130 Nos 37 ausul 38 Puork-rumur, Nest Vuirk IL! OIL OIL FOR RAILROADS, STEAMERS, AND .1 fuit 31 it hutuut t out uutuugPt-uuses Iuuutuuuoueul iMtiehtiuuet-s- ututul Bututuitug (tub stilt 5 use bulls lieu- nut, uttuml st-itt hut guitut This Oil too sessesi tiumituttus sit-slIt roortuitat liii huuituieustiuug ututul bturuuiuug, stud hiuittuut iii nut umuhuet- miii Ii us muiti-urul tint thuit huuutubie uu~ummuu tise tuttust tutitustute, thou- otughi uutuui it uttut it let Otur nuost okiltftul utusgituecus mutuul untuehutusists uu-uuoouuuuu-u it xut~tet tutu tint attil rhuetiliut- Iluati auth tutu-u, atuth the uttuty mit that is iti ii r - s t cit ibie taut si-itt tutu gututs Ttt~t SyttuNTuruc AsusuouraN situ-u- set-eu-tub tests lit oustiuitit ro it suuputuiuut lit tuuu~ uutiurt Gtr~ hate uturt utoutut (mit- utumuetututet u 1-mit s ute tuttb lty the Itusetutmut- ututul 3tatiitftuctiureu-, F S. PEASE, Nut Ill Maitustrutet, Buttlisbo, N V N BEciiatote orders titled blur uuuty hurt hf blue Utuiteth Stuituts tututh Europe 18 13 SAVE YOUR STEAMHOARD & WIGGINS IM- lit-itt-ed Stutuunu Tutult lutist- fur relies-tug stuttum tu~tcs, rytutumlers, & r., oh euutumluttuseti utuituti By ito lust, thuit lutuilur hutessuute is ketut uu~u, hhuit built turat uuuuuiuutaineul, mutiul a hutuge 5tittttg iuu hurt utumumle Severtul tluuuuusuuuads iii these truth stulses titit iii suuueessfuut use, ausul sue tufter them us-tilt cuttiuc rutustiuheture ihiuti hues ut-itt uuu-utumusatuhtohu alt ttutut us-c chuuttit for ihuena Emit tutu ihhuustuuitcd riucuiisi- iii- a iritut nitit-Itiuui, aduhuess I Pu BOARD, ~ Puumvimlcnee R. I. 14 15 - lIEu). B WIGIIIN, 3 - -, SOLID EMERY VULCANITEWE ARE NOW MANU- fuietututuog ushurebs if huts tentuirkuubte suttustatuer liii euthhing, grituth- tog usutul 1uuitishtiitg nactuits, thutut stilt uuuutsscau luitututueuls if thur kitud runt- utaittuty used, tutu si-itt mlii ii ututurla gretitri tuuuutiuuiut if us-turk iti the saune time tutath ii umuvi-. utibieteuthts- Alt tutiruestutut eutut seut uhuena iii tilteratioti at at out us-at-etutuuuse, iii niteuutturs thesututtuitug thetis soul tutu fuuuuuishueuh lix mail NEW YORK BELTING AND PACKING CO, 1 13 Nuts 37 auth 38 Puirk-tosy, Nets Vuirk TOVER MACHINE COMPANY, No.13 PLATT-STREET, Nest- Yuuukhtuuuauufuueuuuurru uuf Stutters Patutuit Eagle Stumlultuag Ma chute, hr utuututiug ututul uttututuig iturguuhuit tiututus tub cony dcsruilsuiuuuuih huustututed itt No 25, Viii I, Scutto-TuFuc AMuuuuuyIttusuaul euf lie Stutter & Cittliti Puutu-uuu (tuumbiuuauiuuuu Pluutuitug 3tuurluiuscitiuustu-aicd itt Nut 19, VumI. It, ScusoaTurur AMosuraN Also all kitads of Wood ausul trout tabuur- suivitig tuuseluituery, Eatlusad Suttutoites, Ac, & e 1 pATENT LAWS OF THE UNITED STATES, WITH tuthurt uuuluuuuuuatuon oh importatace ho luarcuators, Pateustees and As- suguuces JttOT ISSUtOIt, 3. trust-k of out-v 100 ti-toes utumuahuutiutog thur Pulciut Lasso of thur Uutited Sututus, is-tutu alt hut- tutiumutut- limit futruutotteth Ivont thur Puihetut Oflice teta- list, hit the ouuouhi iii -ilihubsitug fuui tutututtuts, tiuuu~s tuf speciiiruuhiuuuus, umus-ruits te-Issutus - sutuhusummut it tutu it uttunettus, uussiguuuuueuuus, Au, thur u-titus fou iuukitug iushuuuamuuuv iii eases tuf tutuevhluveutre tttid exheussiutius, suithu suigges- tiumuus if tutu umiut-sutee uro- - ug thur tights if huaheustees, huous- tim uuusuk slant- huuuteuuleut ruutuehutuies thur tutttuitty liii tuegleettiug to tout tin thur eouuret uttute, tutu mutt-v uuuhumvmahuuuuu of iuuutooutuuuuee to cu-cry iuau-euuuov, patutuatute or assignee its thur Coiled States- Tbuu, ut-turk tuismo emututauuts mitt ehmitoutue tuf thur hats-s of fuoucioul cotututriro usutha uttuevhummuts litmus to ut-elite ituscotiotus tittutmusul flits lumiutut tumuuuk lt-t tim-rut eatefuihto tuurto-sued tox thur etlittius tint thur SylsuNTurut A-its ouvas ausul ut us huehues ml nmmuut.atuus totore iuufmuuuoushimuua of littielicut tittlitOt tatter tint met oumuas is baum us usIa to oem-tutu patriots, tiny subs muss-ut touiteutus mr us--mu-h uutuitti a huerusor tluutu -itax- uttluer puutotteahion of a bike utah tire uvtutt-tu huts es-ur turets litutuhishued Pric mm-lu umhuueo liv intuit 9~ rents lute copies for $1: fifty espies fur $8 MtsN & CO t uuimhustuet s of time teteuttufie Amerhettut, 7mm ot Pith tutu Nest Vms-k T HFNFWYORVOBSFRVFR A RELIGIOUS AND Imuthuet site hut rot oa~ou-u iii thur suumutul Putt- tushmi I us eu-his-, aunt uhusmutmul ho rututouus biter-si-u, atout reuuhat uuuiehiigt,uuee mini u-ut-vs sit uris - Ito uuosuuuuntmuhu sheet us out it-taut teul as to cuousouituuie tot ii eumnuuhutu it test stoalmes s thur site u uhumuotus tusul thur tither oreuuttut each iii us much us hut ci lb so a ituajuut its mint its cumusuruohuot trues It is utot sin t I iii iii itt tutumuota mmmi uu tusuut itt humututues butt uhusututeul tutu a pirutoitug suit tush lucIus e emnnulouuuuuouu its usury eutuometucat ( hut tout-itt tanutix It hut tiuouuuuu-imts c umuuseu silts r - 3 unhuluosemi ttm iii thur thisimrn-sutuetni u - us cut the thus A litre ututuistuet- mint thur hurst us utters of thur age itO olnucuat couutuituuu- humus -ututh uumvueslunuuuuieuuto, its iii thac pi iiucututh cuuuutatrurs oh thac to-itt-id, au-c tututuiul stilts a built emlutuut huh cortus ot lotte rxltetuetace, to gus r utuirrest atud salute hut hue pushier Thur Rehttouus Delt-uu-uuutctat luesudes its editorial artuetes auth eimrvroloimusihttucr, coustaitus a osumutoturs- if the utuost impuoruatut usuouruocusto tuf iii Chat tout its thcuuonaunauuouss Thur Sectuhat- Sturet, in adulitimuti itt itue fort-uti tunul uluuutuestuc tins u luau delosrumeuuuo of- agrieuut- litre, of seuruice, auth ol cummuuset cc the I ittet runuuractuog full ausul accut- rate urtutut ix oh utumoutes pi mutter, cattle -stud mIlieu utuat-kutto, tuto to the tiutut- tuf gumutug hut toreso Thur pu ice ot thar Oluseruet- is $250 a u-eat- its aulsautee Tint es et v tuet -otti setuthtto its thue toutuies if flue uteut siuhuscrits- eu-s so-tilt ouse tears huasmetut in acts tuare 1 12 3111, use us-ill gise the stuns if $3, ushutelt m o toe e ed ft mutt thue suuuti ihmroouuvdrul Ito its Adducos SIDNEY F MORSE ho, ft (TO, 1 3 liii 37 Puurk-ross, Ness York HO~i~~I2~ D ARTICLE FOR EVERYDAY USE soaputug Sri tthibin Bath ot Nail Hi-tush (Titus hue got situ clii ap ata excellent oppunt luutauts- bs make huosutex- Patent grauttumiM as 22, 18uu0 Aulthtuss Wit TUSCH, Buox Nut 773 Nest- Vuurk Pumot Otlie 18 HARLES A. SEELY, CHEMIST, NO. 424 BROADWAY, Nein VorkAtuatyser of ores, miturrabs, articles tuf commerce, & r Advire atud tiusirocuiota itt chuetnicat proersors generally Advice ous chemical patetuis 20 ft0 SANDERS & CO., NO. 306 PEARL-STREET, York, uuuauuuufusctuurc cs-erx- sarietx- of hurtuos suturk fur poriahute steaiou etugiutes, urtuistiro, stubses, tub chills, gage cocko, sIc 21 13 (~1 EGODDARD, AGENT, NO. I BOWLING GREEN, ~l. Nutur Vuirk Outs manuifuictutrer of thur Steel Etuog atud Sotiut Pusekiusm Euuititug Marbutuies and Feed HulLs fur Wool Cards, Ac 25 26 VATFS IMPROVED PATENT MACHINE FOR SAW- Liuug Olutuimutes ot Headutag H A JUDD, Puolmuictor, Cluittensusgo, 3tadtsoii euuuututs, N 1 33 H YATES, Agent, Rutcheslet-, Mich 25 55 T RAVFI INC A( Fm TS WANTEDTO SELL A NEW aunt situ tithe mictiuute out coi~nuissiott or sabatx- Fot trims, ad- ulvess, urithi stausap 1 33 IIARRIS & CO, Boshuuo, 3ttuss 25 4 NEW SHINGLF M ~CHINETHAT WILL RIVE AND Slsas r 24 01)1) Shuutugies itt a ulay, for sate by S IT 1-tILLS, Nut 12 Ptuuit-street Nets huh 1 tf PLANERSIRON FRAMES TO PLANE MITOODWORTH to 24 tututhouto tuttle, at - IlO Ito 8110 For sate by S (T HILLS, Ntu 12 Ibuutt-shunutu, Ness- You-h 1 if 5 0 ~ ~ AGENTS WANTEDTO SELL FIVE NEW 7 iJ utus entuonocutue terx- receust, ataul of great salute to families All iotuy- great liriufits to agriuls Setad hour slanups atud get 80 hales hiusrhtuuuhars 117 13 1 EPHRAI3I BR(IMTN, Looveth, Mass IRON BAR CUTTERSNO MACHINE SHOP, C O~2~ e mur susoalt, should lie tuittuosut thurm For circuibars adulres CRESSON It HUBBARD Nut 1 305 Puuuuuou Ithuta -- ,. - - toauuiusas-euuuue, Pluibsulet 22 5 (I2UILD & GARRISONS STEAM PUMPS FOR ALL ~Y-kiuu its of tustlepnuamlruot Steam Pitioupiog, fur sate at Nuns 55 atod 57 First-street, 33iihttumsbtirglu, L I, and Nun 74 Beu-kmuuui-otu-reh Neur York It 261 GUILD, (hARRISON & Co ASONS PATENT STORE WINDOW VENTILATOR 1,~ (patented Ian 24, 18001, tuihalt lorereolseouudeuuoautnmuu finish, heat, auth thut, reoutiuiog dusmage to gutouho extuoseul in shuous sutusulcusys Righats, outugie mr ulisiutti, for sahit limit A1mpty- ho S E MASON, Ncu 1,522 Nunrtls Ftiuirtht-street, Ptuituodetluhsia, Pa 1 5* IRON PLANERS, ENGINE LATHES, AND OTHER 3tuuchuiuutsto Tmmots, of suipet tot qutatuts on haunt situ fluatolutuag, auth lint suite humus: utisut Huirtisttits u tutu Mutt I mu uleocuiptise ciuctutat 3d tress Neur Ilaurti Matutuftuctuututug I muuou~oaos- Ness lIsseus, Ciuuan 1 26 PUMPS! PUMPS!! PUMPS t I CARYS IMPROVED Rotaty Forcut Puunulo, norus ahrul tutu puumpto, luot mr multI tiuluutcho iMuuuuuutiucuuurcd stunt smutul toy CARY K BR AINERD, Brockhnmurs N V Also, stud by J C CARY, Nun 2 Yshot 1-Isutur Neur Vuirk City it 13 ~ COPYING PRESS WITH WRITING CASE. $1 Punt tattle auth dturabbr utaul cotmurs tuistuitttty and luerfeehby- Pu urn ity tusuit, it uths cut~ty utug bomuk $1 97 Aetuis arc us-ausird Inn cano-aos suaml suitor are tatuikitig toter $5 a buy sehtita, this atuiebe Aclutress, us-tilt sttuunlo, thur uouuttuuufactutrcr, J H ATXlATER,Ptovidcnce, R I 1 2 ~3iiv - ad~tun~ IE betit~cfw ~5rfinbev. ~ie Unter~eid~iteten tndueti cute Eu(eitflu6, bie (u.~vfiuberu bslci Qiert) cdten Tttl6iLut, But fin) ilge 1~.Ictteute ~u flti)elTII, tiers ~tu~e~ett eu, tttib tuevcd4ot~)eu futd)e ~ tottj~ thu biefeltueu. (vfuutter, ttietdt~e hhilTl)t mit bet ~ttjT3 Iiftfteu l~plTftd)e tiefuTthlut fiub, tuituueu it~ve ~)Mittt)eufuu0eu ill bet tueutfd)eu ~~irctti~e fd)tuebeueu ~3e1tf)teht5lttt6efl Itetietue IIICIR ~H citubteffiren ctu ~)Runtu & ~o., bet Zifice ttirb betttfd~ i~ei~ru,4teu. ettuft ifl 111 ttcdtett ~ie 9~ateuf-~eFef~e ber 2jereiui~fen ~faaten, tietuft ben ~itel3etn ttltb bet t~3e tft~uitbHtll1t3 bet ~.Ictteuto Sf fice Hub Euteitltu6en fOr t~tflubet, urn fi4, ~uTtteute ~u flct)eru, ill bet Qler. t~t. fuuoiut)L at~ in t~ltro~ct. ~eruer 2I~~s ~iigeau~ belt ~11 Ttteuts~3 efetlen frember t)ctuber nub bctrctnf belii6(icl~e ~1cttt~d~tdge; ebeufaU~ uu~tud~e 5& 3iu~e fur t~rftHs bet nub fotct~e, ~vet4ie ~atentiren ~io lien. ~Irei~ 20 ~ ~et ~oft 2.5 ~ 31 THE GRAEFENBERG THEORY AND PRACTICE OF 7uleulucuuue Oto 11am fit-st day of Stax-, 1860, tlam Guanfetuhteug Crim- patays Satest oouou, Cotuouututuag Oflices suod Medical Institute sri-re vi- moseut truouuu No 44 Psuk row to 7o0 2 BOND-STREET, NEW YORK, thirst ulcutut trumust Brosuhsuss-), its tither tin atlorul gursict- fuictbltIus utiuth a nunure cetult ul hmuc atuuous denuuuuuulmd by- thur rapiul tuacucase of cotufutietuce its thur Cruirfetutnnre Thunors- auth Putuctice Thur Graefruuhocrg Thuntity ausul Practice, autch than use oh their numutictuars, togctbucr svtth ctumptmue syiuult touns oh all uluxesuco utuciticuat hum shuts couututrx- and cbtouste, thur best. utoetluod fuot tlarur horcu-euuuuouu antI cure, st-itt ton found its lIar GRARFEN- BERG MYNL II OP HEALTH Tiulut raluutiste fumibs unechteuth usork, cootatustuog 300 pagcs, lass huemo ur- susetl auth tuuuturos-ed stud clegataths tibuusirated us itla hoetututifiuttx- cotnurmul miugrarituno ol lIme haiins-itu s stem Set is nusul to usy part of thur coutusuty- ous ureetlit of 2 crusts It us -s etumptete guide loath diseasro mud Iluelt din Addrmos JOSHUA I BRIDGE St B, Resudetut atud Conouultutag 31st sucuan Giachetuberg Cs, 2 Botod otreul Nest- York Our oh thur heamhtuag joiui tab OOtt 01 thur Giumfenbeug Itatutuat cmi Health u Titus us the otats meuhucat bosh fot fatuous tiud gu userat use ever puutubusheut It us itt theta its pisuit hausouhage free frouit scientihir urvutus, atuul rounuleusses mitre tot aciucat nummbucut ututmut matummus itasus can be cntmiusiuumut us us hurt e mbsm utuuheso ii regular eouuu cm tnt medic-si euliucatiota to uumumheu-gouue flue liiihitut-ttits ut titus achosut -tithe ituth emmuohonuuduumuus stork to uveth shoot us bus duo hmeuta thur Tutu tult hunt th s dutuon It cotaustuas us taunt- tier of cumtmuurd stuatonuicat plates utid us s cmsmoptehe ismuts phsstetan It is at once simple lOOtOihtat hiatus stud exlohucti , auth liar motlaut-, to-tilt suds ama ado usnm us lii etost ed iii onee Inn shuts than propem u inanities ut caur itt stuuiden suekuaros in sham I snuits Ito thur coutniux-, a coloy of the Musuutuat nut He tuba us uuumhus uumuouhuie - u-ti-s humus- shouutul possess omue It us mit s-toe a htuuuudi ed tummo its cmmut in thuictors lottbo, soil sulust is far tocitnm , stilt hue the meauss of tot ineu situ nuamuy satumatote lit-es to tlueiu fanaitics ususul iut-utuscu , heoss-uf jJ~ I GEON S PORTABI L HYDRAULIC JACKSFOR lie-ivy- suemhato, huumuiem u boctumoutyms, cars, otouse, stossiog cumitout, lmtutttiug uLe 1-u sines amuml tot uteuss lou siatiunusary- lorcosimug of mIt f- tereuut sizes, uriade to tither Dutmimouss luortatibe hy-thratutir Punches fmmi ltiutudiuiut om sliest utog it tutu mime sutukius stud ouhuer tuiuupmmoms ushum-um suith a timututed mutt mioteuti rruut hmnmusur us vemiuuired Setud tot- a ciucuuhar DL DGFON & LYON Nun 466 (Iramud-strems, Nnsv York 8 ll5coss GOOD CHANCE FOR MANUFACTURING THE A ouutmocrutoers lu-tue for sate a ser~ suttuabte protocuis, cinostom usutug shout 13 act mu, ouutuabte icur Cmmitous Papet or sits umuhuet msnuthscuittuut pttrpooe 1 huere -ire ueversh tsrin x~irutago if pun staler on thur hititas isms Than Hitiiclito us tumuur stories hots 50x100 ft et the biseccuetit stalls are 27 feet thick 11am sub ohm biutiduta us limit 0th its 11am ustoot ouutustamutust mamamuer Its suldutuon thuem rho, us ama odtagota us html bottom tutu shot hr-i huigha, 34x36 heel umusisuuiung a tat gm muon os mu oluot 33 ahem 33luueh tumult bs Ham-limo, tub Tros Autactuad tnt thur puuipet iv sue It gooth Bus elliot-s ausul a Store The sututatumon of thai-i prolierhi tO tiOttit Itasoed fist smut uuasmaut facttuuuusg huutrhumssu- mma site Slate itud us us uhhoun 13 mumuuutuo rule ot thur Huidosus utter soul unite mute ol 11am I, mis Vmirk atunl Erie Hi studs R tutrutiit If uuot osid b-i the flu st ot lauuti ors it us ult hue hut nutol This lii unbind u Is ix usout in ctitus~otmtm murder umad reads lou otoem auuon Emit lou them lush bunt tars, imuu~uuum e ot thur stuhuset it us ut Cot tutu uth (3m -inn counts 18 55i-oss (IRR WISS DRAWINC INSTRUMFNTS.CATALOGUE (7TH kJ editusut), comut-tutatia os er 250 uiiuuotratumuuus of Mattuetnatical, Ottlicat smith Phaihoso stuuc it b-3m mists us this sit uchnumuat mint a barge shunet umpri- orusting that geuuuutmue Stuiso Inisit utuotetuts its sisutim actual size smith slustss syiht hue thetis-eyed ous uholoiue-utummus ins alt paulo tuf liii, Uuuitrul Stats-s Iguatist, huy C I AMSLFB 7mm 635 1 hursimuuut ohm ret, Piuibachrthsluia, Pa, eshaum- tislumul mugrors fuir thur Sot moo Du ssu tutu has anus stuoce 1848 20 6 u-inst ~/[ACHINERY C S. HILLS, sO. 12 PLATT-STREET. hi cut Vouk destet its Steam Euugumurs, Butiteri, Litumuers, Lathums Chucks, Drills Piimlus - Mtirtusin Tetuiutoing aunt Sasha Stachitams 3300i155ttt tbs auth B stateN Piatuem s Bueks Puuuuuuhrs, Pucsoes autul Shears; Cob -intl Cot mu Iluhto- Harruonmuas C - ot Stilts; imulutasouss Shimagie StilLs; Huttutug Out & r 2 mIss TH~i TIN, SHEET IRON AND COPPERSMITHS PRAC- CAL (TOSIPANIIIN trill tue tent tiny mail, hi-em if postage, to auuy hoturt of hue Umuiteul States, out thur receihit uuf 75 cents Circular of ecutaumots snmut gusuts Adtlrmss BLINN sI BATTLE, Brunmuit, Shich 2 45 ACcIDENT~ MECHANICS COURT PLASTER seuy ilturauuie u murry family shuotuld bosom it Setut tiny- nuatiouse sheet fur tiurre neil suauuttos, or bite sheets for memo reul stamhus C I 33ILLIASIS, P 0 Lock Box Nun 588, I Prunrushemuce, E I WIRE CLOTH COMPANY MANUFACTUR- CLINTON if Poster Looni 33tre ITtuitha, ftmr thare aIim uuuuc-tuuuuus faint nuilts gruutma tussonteus, nint- motutto buoemonummiioe ohoath annstirs, mumad all olber uses, of a stilteriot qumality- Coishisets mtumle os-tilt the tuade smaul large romuouuusoers, unto stuchu mints blush thumy us-ill tutud it ho that it muahem inst to take tiumir suu~mptx- fuoni ous Omit- trademark Poster Lummmun 33 tur Cloths C B 33tATERS Agent atud Tuetusuit-er, 2 140 (humutous, Shaso L UBlUC41TING COAL OIL, 32~ CRUDE OIL AND BICKEY, Ohms manuufactuuuu-u- of Luibi idutuus Cmuat Out tuec fnumni tudmut- tututh ctumusamests usutul tiaitatuhuth ii do s us ebb as bard out tint alt cmmitmnum and usooten ni-tm lututeus I musts ouuti- lilt Intuit rautmoads us-ills thus oil Pride 50 cents oem stbcumu bi lb ut tart-u-i -Ito 32 u utile Oil us hutch os-ill yieiuh 75 h~it cinuat oh suit muitau tub Stsek- hit eso I ii aihune iii stu~tmt tot qumahuty OH0 \ NEM \RTICLE, PATENTEI) IN GFRMANY, toe hint muduiced it 5 dust of $201) ho $3 pet 100 ilso svhich is tan muuufie rxprt-itouintuto gare exceibemut resutito ol tItus usess- ciotoulsosi equist its iso mOrel -uo thu sumuse qitataitty tint imitlitait 5 5ii5~t cootuti, 8 cut- buoma ml it us a huamudsousue tune stud st-lathe appesuatuem tint uhus-igrecable ummil itith cmuotauns usoihummug drleu.eriouus Thur tuasematnur 01 hhuto tins- Soshi mr hums summit so mit gus e iii tIme requisite tusfuormotahutoui uhaubs It inns q ho 10 -I 33 suumh hunt 2 hum 4 P 33 t A H(IRRStANNS 7-mit 4 North 33iittanu- stuert 7-mess huh JI~ OR SALEAN AGRICUTURAL IMPLEMENT MANU- I. litehory, sittustind ut 11am sittage of Batmhsotuosu-titm, Omuomodags counts NY Fuomunulvy butilt of stuumur, 25x52 feet; machaute stunop, suuomomh shutilt, ohusus- rosuass timid ohhice arc iii a thrcr autO a huaif shusry huuuibding 39x52 feel This estustutishanuruit is tusos iii toerfect nususuuuuug orchem- It huas a relitubte ovater, ratirumaul stud camast conamtumsirattous, suad is uaouu thinning a good local butoimueso, urhaicha is usithanutut citnolottttioo It is usfiereut at a itmos lirice ausci on tituutush terms Address 3 St & S W BALD33IN, Bahdsstuassihlin, Ousomuthaga comumuty, N V 1 2 STEPHENS DYES FOR STAINING INFERIOR WOOD tino imusitate tuback ssatnuut, malsogausy, satima si-sod, u-insets-sod, cut oak Sprcimemus stud pt-sthoccltuoes sent to sit pam-is of thue States out umeiniph of 15 cemats IT .1 REILLY, No 70 Wittisno-street, Neur York 1 8 UT ANTEDTWO POWER PRESSES OF MEDIUM VY size, sutttuouut back gear PLANTS StANEG Cl), 24 15 Ness- Haveus, Csuan GREAT CURIOSITYPARTICULARS SENT FREE. Ageusts rauuted SIJAW & CLARK, 6 24- Hiddeford, Maine T ~O NEW BRICK MACHINE IS GRADUALLY EX- ding oser the PuttIed States and Canada; is usorked huy one nian, by hmorse amud by otmam; makcs fruim 4,000 tins 25,000 bricks a day; costs from $75 tint $400 Fuor fuuu-thmr pauttetuhars in a pamphlet giving foll unstruortiumuss out bnick-ictuing stud toturuuitag, amidreso, etuetmnsing mharee stamps, FRANCIS H SSIITII, Batttmtnur 1 65 A MESSIEURS LES INVENTEURSAVIS IMPORTANT. Lcs Inrentenro non famitiers avue ha hamugute Anglaise et quit prft- fftreratent nons rommutniqoer heturs imuvematiomus en Fratagais, pesuscot flouts aduNoser dans tetur hausgute mastate Enroyez notus tin desoin et tune deurription concise pour nolue examma Tuuuitmo commonications seront rmgues en confidence MPNN & Co, ScurNTurur AsinnucaN Office, No 37 Park-row New York. C LENTIFIC REPORTINGPA TENT SUITS, INVOLV I) mug muinucohiummus of sciutoce mu meebanics, reportmd rerhualim: set- ~ntifuc tectuutus, mu the puoceeditags of scietutifir societies, utitber re portnul itt futti mr nnundcuusemh, by- HENRY St PARKHURST, of thur firm of Burr & Lord, Short-hand 33riters and Law Reporters, No 121 ~ssouuuustuccl, Neor York. itt 32 Lenoirs Gas Engine. In former numbers of the SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN, we have endeavored to correct the numerous statements which have recently been published respecting the explosive gas engine of M. Lenoir which has lately been on exhibition in Paris. It was given out that this was a new motive power superior to steam, and that it would, in all probability, supersede it. We stated that it was, in almost every feature, the iden- tical invention of Dr. Drake, of Philadelphia, which had been on exhibition in the Crystal Palace in this city. Our opinions thus expressed have been verificd by the accompanying illustrations of Lenoir 5 engine, published in a late issue of the London Engineer. The motive agent employed in this engine is explosive gas. If one volume of the common gas which we use for illumination be mixed with eight volumes of at- inospheric air it becomes saturated with oxygen and as highly explosive as gunpowder; and if a spark of electricity is passed through it an explosion will imme- (liately ensue. The engine here represented is similar in most of its features to a common horizontal one lint it has no boiler, and, instead of steam, charges of gas mixed with air are admitted and ignited alter- nately behind tile piston to give it a reciprocating motion by the expansion which results. Fig. 1 is a side elevation; Fig. 2 is a vertical longitudinal sec- tion, and Fig. 8 is a transverse section. C is the cyl- iu(ler, and P tIle l)istOn. The cylinder is double leaving a space around it for a stream of water to keep tile metal from becoming too highly heated by the frequent explosions. Two slide valves, T T, are used, and if are the positive and negative wires of a gal- vanic circuit. TIle gas is admitted to tIle feed box of tile valves by the pipe, C, and the air by the pipe, A. In tIme front part of the engine fralne are iron rods, c d, witlm circuit breakers and closers on them. The ends of the wires, f.f, are of platinum, and pass into the cylinder, wimere tiley become highly heated when the current of electricity is sent through them. The gal- vanic circuit is broken and closed alternately for igniting the charges of gas behind the piston by pins on tIle rods, c d, which are operated by a slide on the piston rod. The wires, f f, are insulated from the cylinder where they pass through it by means of glass tubes. In Dr. Drakes engine tIme gas was ignited by heated platinuul cups without tile use of a galvanic battery, and tilis was a more silnple method than that adopted by Lenoir. Explosive gas engines are not affairs of yesterday in Anmerica, for a patent was granted for one on October 7 1846, to Stewart Parry, which Ilad a water chamber surrounding the cylinder, exactly like that represented in tile above figures, and for tIme same purpose. It is stated that the above engine has been reglliarly at work for several months at No. 85 Rue Rousselet, Paris, but we deny the correctness of this statement, for the mechanism in the interior of the cylinder must soon become foul with hard lamp black the residium of the gas. Such an engine requires to I stopped frequently and its interior scoured out. Economy of Fuel in Xron Works. Mr. John Player, blast furnace manager, commumn- cates the following interesting information to the London Engineer, regarding the use of the gases formed by the combustion of fuel, either alone or in conjunc- tion with the fuel itself, for cases where a high heat is needed. He says: About tile year 1840, Mr. Farler de Four took out a patent for puddling with time gas taken from time top of a blast furnace. I saw one of his furnaces at work mmm Wurtemburg, in 1843; it worked very well occasionally, but not regularly; it was like a common puddling furnace, with a stack about 5 feet imigim. TIme gas was conveyed to the fire bridge in tubes, and, being met by jets of imot blast (about 400 feet per minute at l.Ib pressure), a welding Imeat was produced. Many furnaces of tIme same construction Imave been since used at various iron works in Germany, Russia, & c., time ~as being gemmerated from wood, coal, peat, & c., in a small cupola, from wilence it is forced into time puddling or other furnace, as above described and, I believe, in every instance with great economy. In Bavaria, wimere ligmmite is used, time form of the corn- momm puddlin~ furnace is retained, but witim a very large fire place ; blast is supplied tImrouglm the ashpit, part of wimich passes througil the bridge and unites witlm the gas or fiamne generated by time fimel, and produces time desired effect. 1mm America, imowever, I tlmink tIme greatest effect is pro- duced by time proper combustion of the gas or smoke in a welding furnace. I visited the Readin,,, Steam Forge, in Peunsylvammia, in 1857, at wimicim place time main shaft lbr the Adriatic had just been made; my informant stated it weighed 32 tuns. Time furnace in wimicim tlmis mass of iron Imad been welded was, when I saw it, imeating an immense crank. Blast was supplied to the fire by a large fan, and time bars and fire bridge so arranged Ilmat a sufficiency of air to consume time smoke was forced timrouglm time fuel at time bridge and timus, being imigimly Imeated, preduced time desired effect. Most of time steel melting works in Anmem-ica use blast immstead of time draugimt of a stack. Anotimer very excellent plan for time econonmy of fuel, patented by a Frencimnman, imas beemm used for a lommg tinme imm France at a factory of steel springs. It commsists of two fire places, witim a imearth between limem, on whicim time steel to be muelted or imeated is placed; time arrangement is such timat time gas or sumoke from time fires must descend througim time incammdescent fuel, wimeroby it becomes imigimly Imeated previomas to its comubustion imm time heartim. Ilaving built and worked one of tlmese furnaces, I can speak to time intense Imeat pmoduced. Anotimer very neat metimod of economiz- ing fuel I saw at a glassworks in Saxommy, for time manufac- ture of simeet glass. Time coal was consumed in a small sqamare furnace, witim five bars at time bottomotimerwise, like a cupola witim a closed top ; time smoke or gas was con- veyed tlmrouglm simeet iron tubes under the floor of time blow- ing imouse, and into time bottom of time cone, in wimich stood smx open top molting pots; sufficient air was admitted througim small tubes to mingle with time gas to produce tlme me- quired Imeat; the air and gas tubes were supplied with tlmrottle valves. Time imeat was extremely regular; time fur. nace Imad been at work about six years at time time I saw it, and, altimounh a colliery belongimag to the same proprietor was worked witlmin a few yam-ds of time same premises, yet line told me he had found great econom adopted. y by the metimod line IT iS a noticeable fact that New York has a greater proportion of female artists than any other city in the world. Many of them are very good; some of them rank with the best. OF THE SCIENTIFIC_AMERICAN. THE BEST MECHANICAL PAPER IN THE WORLD. SEVENTEENTH YEAR? VOLUME P/NEW SERIES. A new vommmme of minus widemy circumated paper comumences about the lot of January and lot of Jsmly each yeam-. Evemy number containm six- teen pageo of umoeful information, ammd from Ove to ten ori,,iimal engrav- i~mgs of new inventions and diocoverieo, amm of which are prepared ex- preooly for ito colmmmno. The SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN is devoted to the interesto of Popular Sciemmee, the Mechaminic Arms, Manufacanres, Inventiono, Agricumtmmre Commerce and the ludnoirial Purommits generally, and is vamuable and iustrtmctive not only in the Workohop amod Matamufactary, btmt alma in lime Household, the Library and the Reading Room. The SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN has the reputation, at home and abroad, of being the heat weekly publicamiosm devoted to mechanical and iudtmstrial pursamits nosy Imblished, mmmd the psml)lisherm are determined to keep up the reputatioim they have earned dmmring the SIXTEEN YEARS Immey have been connected svith its pubiicalion. To the iateotor! The SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN is mmindispensable to every invemmtor, ma ml not only coimlains imamastramed descriptions of nearly alm mmmc best iminven- tious as they come stint, hut each number contains an Ofitetal List at due Claims of all the Patemmts issued fronin tmine Ummimed Samates Patent Office duriming the week previatas thus giving a correct history at Iline progress of ilmvemmtions in this country. We are also receivimug, every week, the best sciemintifte journals of Great attain, France, amad Germany Ihams placing us our posoessiama all tlsat is tralmspiriling in mechalsical science and art in Ilsose old cotaniries. We sluall continue to transfer 10 our columams copious extracts from tlseoe ourainals of svhmatever we may deema of interest to our readers. To the Mechanic and Mancefactuin-ein-! No persosin engaged in amy of tIne meelsanical pursuits shoumd think am dotting without tIme SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN. 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Scientific American. / New Series, Volume 4, Issue 3 Scientific American, inc. etc. New York Jan 19, 1861 1004 003
Scientific American. / New Series, Volume 4, Issue 3 33-48

VOL. IV.---NO. 8. NEW YORK, JANUARY 19, 1861. NEW SERIES. Improved Spoke Machine. If there is one thing more than another which sur- prises Europeans when they CO~C to the United States, it is the great ninuber of elegant pleasure carriages which they behold wherever they go. This is n6 donbt princi~ally (inc to the more general (listril)ntion of wealth among onr peOl)le, l)y which they are enabled to obtain ami use such vehicles; but, at the same time, it is also due, in a great measure, to the more general application of impro~& d machinery for cxecnting various kinds of work, the manufacture of which in other countries, is performed by haml labor. Thus in making the parts of wheels for carriages, alone, we cm- ploy one machine for fabricating the hubs, another for the felloes, and still another for the making of the spokes. Every improvement, however small, in this (lepartment of American in(lustry is of much import- ance from the fact of there liemg such an endless num- ber of wheeled vehicles em- ploye(l. The accompanying en- braving is a Imerspective view of a machine for tmun- lag the spokes of wheels, for which a patent was grante(l to John Gilchrist, of Berlin, Wis., on the 8d of October, 1860. 13 is the rotating cutter shaft, on which are secured two or a n y desired number of blades. Each blade is as long as the s1)oke to 1)0 cut, so that its whole length is operated upon as the cutter shaft rotates. The cutting edge of each blade is slight- ly curve(l where it is inten(l- ed to cut the thicker end of the spoke, so as to l)rodlice the slightly curved outline upon it. 13 is a pulley which (Irives the pulley on the emit- ter shaft by a belt L ; powei is communicated i)y the belt, X, to drive the main shaft, 5, of the machine, as represente(l. The piece of wood, W, to be formed into a spoke is held in the car- riage, I, between the center- iug screw, an(l the sharp e(lge of the pattern, C, which is fastened to the inner end of a short shaft which has its hearings in the car- riage, I, and has on its outer end the worm wheel, 0. The latter wheel takes into the thread of a long screw, D, supported in bearings, a a. The screw shaft re- ceives motion from and is connected by the pulleys and belt, J, with, the main shaft, S. The stick, W, is secured for cutting by the screw, as shown. A guar(l, E, is fastened to the main frame at one end of the cutters, and it is arrange(i in line with the pattern,. C. The feed carriage, I, slides on ways, N N, and it is guided at the en(l of the center screw by a pivot, P, projecting from the bottom of the carria(re underneath the screw into a groove cut into the way, N. It will be observed that while the feed carriage, I, shi(les in the ways, N N, it can also swing around the pivot, P. One end of a strong spiral spring, G, is fastened to the middle portion of the lever, H, which is pivoted to the main frame at A. The other end of this lever is confined with a pin, IR. As represented, the spiral spriu~, G, bears against the back of the feed carriage, I, and pushes it forward to the cutter until the pivot, P rests against the for- ward end of the groove in the ways, and the pattern, C, against the guar(l, E. As the driving shaft revolves, the cutter shaft and that of the screw rotate at the same time. The cutter revolves with a high velocity, l)ut the screw, D, rotates very slowly, thus causing tIme worm wheel, 0, the shaft of the pattern, and the stick, XV, to revolve with a like slow speed. The whole circmnference of the stick, XV, as it rotates, is gradual- ly exposcd to the action of the cutters until it is formed according to the pattern in the machine. When the pivot, P comes against the forward end of the groove and a spoke is completed, the feed pressure of the spring, G, on the back of the carriage, I, is re- lieved by releasing the lever, H. The carriage is then (lrawn back from the cutter, B, the centerina screw turned hack, an(l the finished spoke, W, removed, to make way for another stick, to be cut in the same man- ner. TIme pattern, C, in its rotation, always bears against the guard, E, and the pivot, P rests uniformly against the end of the slot in the bearing, N. The pattern end of the feed carriage, I, is therefore made to recede from or approach the revolving cutter, as the diameter of that portion of the pattern which is in contact with the guard, E, increases or diminishes. The pivot, P, serves as the center of this motion. As the pattern corresponds with the shape of the thicker end of the spoke, the stick of wood is cut accordingly and with a tapering, cylindrical form towards the end that is held hy the centering screw. A perfect spoke is thus produced during one revolution of the piece of wood fed forward to the revolving cutters. The patent for this improved spoke machine was ob- tained through the Scientific American Patent Agency. More information may be obtained by addressing the patentee, Post Office Box No. 1,838, Chicago, Ill. Reproducing Ancient Manuscripts. The following useful information on this subject is taken from the able Paris correspondent of the Lon- don Photographic Aews:One of the earliest applications of photography consisted in the reproduction of an- cient manuscripts; but this application has never taken the development expected of it. By the em- ployment of Colonel Sir Henry James method of zinco-photography, a sphere of the greatest interest and usefulness is opened up, which we hope to see ex- tensively utilized. There are numerous rare historical manuscripts, fac-sirniles of which would be desirable additions to public libraries in all parts of the world. These copies could be produced by the process of zinco- phuotography, at an almost insignificant cost. A very curious fact has been recently brought to light, which touches the question of photography of the invisi- ble, viz., that the effaced or faded portion of the writing of old manumscripts is restored in the pho- tographic reproduction. Thus, the copy becomes more legible and perfect than the original. M. Vin- cent, one of the members of the Acad6mie des Inscriptions et Belles Let- tres, recently presented to that body the firstfec -simile of a manuscript repro- duced photographically by M. Silvy. It was the Sforza manuscript, the original of which is in the possession of the Marquis dAzehio. It is scarcely necessary to remark that all the designs and ornaments of this pre- cious work are reproduced with marvellous fidelity. But the circumstance that deserves particular men- tion is, that certain pass- ages which could not be de- ciphered in the original old parchment have actually been revived. This is par- ticumlarly striking on the last page, where a note, written in German, under the signature, has not only become visible, but legible, while not the slightest trace of it can be discovered in the original. This remarkable circumstance is thus explained by M. Figuier On old parchments the ink, under the influence of time, assumes a yellowish tint, which often becomes undistinguishable from that of the parchment, so that it cannot be read without the greatest difficulty. But, during the photographic pro- cess, the brilliant and polished parts of the parchment reflect light much better than those where the ink has been deposited. However colorless it may appear, the ink has not lost its anti-photogenic qualities, opposed to the photographic ones of the parchment, and, thanks to this opposition, black characters may be ob- tained on the sensitive collodion in exchange for the much paler ones of the original. IN the London Eagiaeer, a correspondent states that the opinion is erroneous, which was first broached by Professor Faraday, that a drop of water contains as much electricity as an intense flash of lightning. A JOURNAL OF PRA1CTICAL INFORMATION IN ART, SCIENCE, MECHANICS, AGRICULTURE, ChEMISTRY, AND MANUFACTURES. GILCHRISTS IMPROVED SPOKE MACHINE. ~r1~e ~dentifh etvati. POWER OF BODIES IN MOTION. BY JOSEPh W. SPRAGUE. It is a wellrecognized principle in mechanics that whatever amount of power has been expended upon a bO(ly in changing it from a state of rest to one of mo- lion, the same amount of power will be yielded up by the body to whatever Inings it back to a state of rest. When, therefore, we (letermine the amount of power necessary to impart to any body at rest the velocity v, we also determine the amount of power necessary to stop the same body when it is moving with the velo- city v, for tli~ two amounts are equal. All our knowledge of force and the work which it accomplishes, or l)Ower, is derived from experiment. Let us therefore take some well-known instance of force at work, and (lednee from it a general law-. The most familiar of all forces is grenity; the intensity with which it nets upon any body is measure(l lv the weight of that l)ody. Experiment shows that a body abandoned to the sole action of gravity aequir~s, at the en(l of one second, a velocity of 82.2 feet per second; at the end of two seconds, a velocity of 64.4 feet per second at the end of three seconds, a velocity of 96.6 feet per s(cO]lil; at the en(l of four seeon(ls, a velocity of 128.8 feet per second. If then v represent the velocity in feet per second; /, the number of seconds (hiring which the body has been abandoned to the sole action of gravity; and g, the experimental number 32.2, we have r =g. 1)uring the first second, the body falls through a space of 16.1 feet; in two seconds, through 64.4 feet; in three seconds, through 144.9 feet: in four seconds, 257.6 feet. If then s represents the space, in feet, pass((l over 1w the body, we have s equal the l)ro(luet of the time and the mean velocity, or s=[ (oIi) +2 ] X t=vt~yP+ 2. Suppose an iron ball weighing 1,440 lbs. to rest upon the piston of a vertical cylinder having an area of one square foot. Consider the piston itself devoid of weight, an(l moving without friction. Admit below the piston steam having a tension of ten pounds per square inch, or 1,440 lbs. per square foot. The pies- sure of the steam (1,440 lbs.) upon the under side of the piston just ihalances the weight of the body, and there is no motion; that is, the expansive force of I lie steam just equals the force of gravity acting upon I lie boily, an(l the two neutralize each other. Next double the tension of the steam, making it twenty pounds per square inch, or 2,880 lbs. per square foot. We now have a downward force of 1,440 lbs., auiil an upward force of 2,880 lbs. The resultant is an upward force of 1,440 lbs.; that is, under the com- lined action of stcam an(l gravity, the ball has the same tenilency to rise that it would have to fall under the sole influence of gravity. We know, then, that tli( 1)istOn and ball will, in one second, rise 16.1 feet, an(l acquire a velocity of 32.2 feet per second; in two secon(ls, rise 64.4 feet and acquire a velocity of 64.4 feet per second; in three seconds, rise 144.9 feet and ac(phire a velocity of 96.6 feet per second; in four seconds, rise 257.6 feet and acquire a velocity of 128.8 feet per second; and in I seconds, rise s=g122 and acquire a velocity v=gt. We have for the cubic feet of steam consumed, the area of the piston multiplied by the hight it rises, in the first second, 16.1 cubic feet; in two seconds, 64.4 =4X 16.1 cubic feet; in three seconds, l44.O=l6.1X9 cubic feet; in four seconds, 257.6=16.1 X16 cubic feet; in / seeon(ls, 16.lx,2 cul)ic feet. Thus it will be seen that while the velocity increases as the numiters 1, 2, 3, 4, & c., the power expended (steam consumed) varies as the numbers 1, 4, 9, 16, & e.; that is, the power expended in producing any velocity varies as the sqeare of that velocity. In de- termining the ab.tolete quantity of steam used in pro- (lucing velocity, it must be remembered that one-half of the above quantity is consumed in overcoming the resisting force of gravity, the other half alone pro- ulucing motion. This would not, however, affect the tv/a/oe quantities used. For deducing a general rule, let W represent the weight of the ball in pounds; a, the area of the piston in squnre feet; an(l b, the tension, in pounds, per shuare foot of the steam. Making, as before, the pres- sure on the piston twice the weight of the body, we have eXb=2W. The quantity of steam consuimeth, while the piston and ball rise through .o feet in / seeon(ls. acquiring a velocity of v feet per second, is aXs=ex(g/i+2) aX (g2)x(vg)2=ax(vi-i-2g). As half of this is consumed in resisting the force of gravity, we have for the steam actually employed ho producing the velocity, (e2) X (ri2g). Time introduction beneath the piston of 10 cubic feet of steam, having a tension of 20 lbs. per square foot, is equivalent to raising 20 lbs. 10 feet high, or 40 lbs. 5 feet high, or is equal to 20X10=200 feet-pounds, whatever be the size of the piston. Hence, if we mul- tiply the cubic feet of steam used by time pressure (b) of the steamn per square foot. we shall have a correct measure of the mechanical effect, or power, expended in producing the velocity v. Representing this me- chanical effect by B, we have B=bx(a2)x(vo2q) (ab+2)X(ei+2g)Wx (vi+2g) =~ [(W-i-g)Xv2]. This last expression measures the power required to produce the velocity v in a body whose weight is W, an(l consequently measures the power stored up in this body, when moving with the velocity v. This power the body will yield up when it is forced to come to rest. In (letermining the unit of mass of a body, physicists have taken as the unit that body whose weight is 32.2 lbs (or g). This choice was an arbitrary one, as any other might have been made just as well; the ob- ject oC taking this peculiar value was to simplify the very result we have just obtained. If M represents the mass of a body, then M=W+g. Substituting this above, we have B=~Mv2. The product Mci is called by physicists vis viva or living force. Hence we say the power stored up in a moving body is equal to one-half its vis viva. AMERICAN ENGINEERS ASSOCIATION. [Reported for the Scientific Ameuicmum.l On Wednesday evening, Dec. 26th, tIme regular weekly meeting of this association wns held at its room, No. 24 Cooper Institute, this city John. C. Merriam, Esq., President, pro tern.; Benj. Garvey, Esq., Secretary. MIScERLANEOUS BuSmxzss. Cares Low Water DefectorMr. A. Carr, of Jersey City, submitted to the association, for its opinion thereon, his patent low water (letector. In its opera- tion no alloys are used, and a new mode for the dis- placement of water is claimed. These points are con- sidered by the inventor as very important ones. Mr. Carr, imy the aid of a drawing, proceeded to explain the manner of its construction and the principles in- volved in its operation. His remarks were listened to with considerable attention by the members present, after which his invention was referred to tIme Committee on Science and New Inventions. This conunittee, through its chairman, Mr. Louis Koch, then presented tIme suib- joined report Your committee having before it Roosevelts Anti-Emic- tion Axle~ and Wests Double-Acting, Anti-Freezing, Lifting and Forcing Pomp, would respectftmlly submit their report on said inventions, based on a fmmll and careful inspection and consideration, as follow-s 1. That in regard to Mr. Roosevelts Anti-Friction Axle, it is found that the principle being to insert an axis between a series of small rollers working between two plates, forming tIme sides and the rhu of the w~hmeel, your conm~ mittemo find that the area of friction presented by time grooved and tongued rollers, togetimer with time bearing of time side plates, is greater titan a common bearing would h)rvsent, amid that time stability of time wheel is less when de- lmeudeumt ~n such narrow limits as tIme model indicates would be allowed, titan in a proportioned sized 1mb in a common bearing, and that iui consequemmee of time friction rollers presenting so small a surface of bearing to time axis every tendency of side motion will necessarily increase time wear and tear of time small bearing of tIme side plates. In consequence of the above stated reasons, your comniittee are enabled to find hiroperties in this imivention, timat would make it as valuable as a commoum axle bearing has been found to he. 2. That in relation to Wests improved pump, it is found that, in regard to time claim consistluog in a vemot-imole over time suctioum hhisthum, so timat time water remaining in time pump immediately after use will flow away, it is time opinion of your committee that, though there is umecessarily a small loss of water during time act of pumping titrough timis imole, this inconvenience may be regarded of little consequence, time main object of non-freezing being secured, w-imich is particularly of importance wimenever time pump is of diffi- cult access. Your committee also think the arrangement of two suction valves in time air chmaumber and in time bottoum of time lower cylinder, respectively, is good, insuring a greater guarantee against choking. Time coummittee have also been favorably impressed within time arrangement of time combined piston, working at time same time in an upper and lower cylinder, timis hatter being twice the size of the former, thie quantity of water or liquid discharged being dependent on the diameter of the upper smaller cyhinder and tIme lengthm of time stroke, eachm piston being packed with overlapped expansion leather rings, the friction is alu-ays in proportion to the amount of work done, time suc- tion piston being always umder water when working, and the upper piston receiving a constant pressure from Imelow-, time action of time atmosphieric pressure is counterbalanced; timis is insured furtimer by extending time exhaust pipes over amid above the upper portion of time upper piston, wimereby time cimamber between time two pistons is kept full of liquid during time working of time ~munmp. Timerefore your coumumittee wuould respectfully recommend timis punmp to time favorable comisideratien of the society. That part of tIme above report relating to Roosevelts Anti-Friction Axle was, on motion, postponed to a suibsequment meeting, to give an opportunity to mem- hers of discuissimog the principles claimed for it by time inventor. The portion referring to Wests pummup was then considered by the society. The inventor imaving kindly sent one of his Pi5iiiP5 to time room (mf time Asso- ciation, it was takemi apart and tIme principles involved in its construction, together with time manner of its operation, were very clearly shown by Messrs. Kocim, Simpson, Garvey and others. Time discuission that ensuied did not present aumy moew features ; it only more strongly imodorsed time mump in its adaptability to railroads, deep wehis, decks of ves- sels, & c., & c., than did time report. A vote tlmen iteing takeim upon time acceptance el time meport, it was umnan- imouisly ad(mpted as the opinhmn of tIme society. At this juncture, Mr. Garvey imotrodmiced to thme notice of the umembers presemot. time pumump styled time Hv(lropumit. By time old of a (hawing uipomm time biackimoard, hoe very fsmllv exholmmined its construmetioui and the principle upon which it operates. Altlmoumghm there was no extended (liscuission upon its merits, time sense of time meeting was adverse to its practicalmihity. It was considered that the power required to work it was purely an exhiaumstimog one, in other words, it was a dead pull. Tue amount of friction it preveute(h wouuld compare nuftuvorably within time douilmhe-aeting single cylinder puimp. They thought it quite ums(fuml imo washing windows, watering gardens, and even qumencimimog small fires, buit whmeme umumeb water or heavy work was requuired it colml(l not be of efficient service. Time conomuittee on accidemints and timeir causes pie- semoted thromugh timeir elmairimoan, Mr. Mermimmimi, lime mmmi- nexed report Time chinairman, in compammy w-ithm Mr. (I. F. Beach, a mem- ber of timis committee, visited time steanmer (omitmmmoimoeo//h at imer lmier on time afternoon of time 11th, reported as imaving coihapsed a flume at Heilgate. We found timat shine humid ohoened a imole some twelve imichmes long almove a mow- of rivets imm her steammo cimiumney or donie. On exanmining time lulates we Icuumid timem corroded at time seamim so as to lie hut 4 of an inch timick. We accoumut for this corrosion as fol- lows The plates instead of being lapped so as to shied water are on time contrary so rIveted as to arrest tIme hoarti- des of water at time seam, thins creating a constmmnt mustlimig at that point. Tunis is appareuit frormo time fact that time iroum 4 of an inch above is as soumud as possible. Again, thie cimairman of time comimmuittee was upon a traiuo comimog from Pimiladehimlmia on Momomlay imighit last. Said traimi was deha~-ed this side of Newark hiy time 1 muirstmitg Of a tire on time umaimo driver. Most fortunmately time time caugimt iii such a nianmoer as moot to throw time engine off. 0mm examin- ing time break lie fouummd that time iroum was very faulty, con- taining a flaw transversely of at least one-half tIme sectionah area of time flange amid tire. This report was, on nootion, accepted and hohaced upon file. Letters ito relation to late lomusimoess before time society were read from Messrs. Ashmemoft and Mead; they were referred to tioe appropriate comiiiittee. SUBJECTS FOR FUTURE MEET5~0S. Mr. I(ocmo proposed for discussion omo the evemming of Janumary 9th, Scale upon Boilers. Mr. GARt-FY l)roptmsed for the evemuing of the l6thm, Thie Consideration of Cuit-offs. rime noceting thmen adjourned. Sugar. Tioe fohlowiuog, from hoe Cqmeaiiral News, is aim extract from a recent lecture on this interestiuog suibjeet lty Professor Laukester, of London, Emogland We find sugar more generally contaimied in time jumices or tIme sap of plants than in any other form. Sugar has tIme remarkable property of fermemitation, and it is duiring the process of timis cimange of suigar that alcohinol is produced, therefore you see we can moonke aloehord frono starch, lout we moist first convert tIme starch into sugar, and I now call your attention to th( chemical composition of suigar as imeing of the sanoc kind as starch. I have here some sugar, amid I wihi submit it to the actiomo of a suibstance that will draw away the water, and leave the carbon to act freely. I first dissolve it in warm water, and will timemo pomur umpon it some suulphuiric acid, amid this will withdraw a sufficient qumantity ofwaterfor you to see thoat time sugar contains a large qumantity of charcoal. You see, now, what a large quantity of charcoal is developed from this 34 sugar-there it is black, boiling, and hard from the action of the sulphuric acid. It is thus that we can demonstrate the presence of the charcoal, and in this way that very useful material which we call blacking is manufactured. A quantity of sugar is taken and sul- phuric aci(l is added, and you see in what a shining state the carbon is left when it has been submitte(l to this l)rocess. In this way you see we can prove that the starch contains the same material. Let me now call your attention to the history of the l)lant in relation to the sugar. During the germination of l)lants sugar occurs in great quantities. If we throw these seeds into the ground, the little embryo in the interior grows, and that process is called germination. There is a large quantity of starch surrounding this little embryo, and as it grows the starch is converted into sugar, an(l this starch is as necessary for young plants as it is for Young children. Now this is the case on a very large scale, in the process of malting. The nialtster takes his barley, immerses it in water, causes the seed to germinate, and then he roasts the young plant, seizing the sugar which it has just made, and converts it into beer. Ilieu again we find the stems of ilauts in cert:iin seasons of the year contain large quan- tities of sugar thus, the whole of the grasses, wheat, barley, oats, rye, rice, and maize, contain sugar in their sterns when they are about to flower; and it is just at this season of it~ development that the sugar-cane is nse(l by inai~ as an article of diet. We need not, how- ever, confine ourselves at all to the sugar-cane. The only reason why we get sugar from nothing else arises out of our fiscal system, revenue being obtained from it, an(l sugar not being allowed to be grown in this coun- try. InCh ma they obtain sugar from the Sorglosuisecchar- c/urn, which, like the sugar-cane, belongs to the family of grasses, and is cultivated in the North of China for the sugar it contains. Then the maize has been culti- vate(l in America and Mexico for the purpose of obtain- ing sugar. When Cortes conquered Mexico he found the natives cultivating the maize and crushing it for sugar. r1~hIe cocoa-nut tree of the island of Ceylon is a principal source of sugar, and there are a class of men whose occupation it is to ascend these trees and put on the blossoms of the tree a calabasli to catch the exuding juice, which is an article of (liet known in Ceylon as tod- ily, the men being called toddy-drawers. Again, at the h)1l(lding season, the sap of plants contains sugar. The common osier has it. The birch, too, in England and Scotlan(l is tapped for its sugar, and is converted in Sc ithancl into an effervescing wine, exactly like cham- pagne. In America there is a plant which contains so large a quantity of sugar that I think a third of the sugar consumed in the United States is obtained from it. It is the maple. Then the beet-root, the carrot, and the turnip contain sugar. When Napoleon Bona- parte excluded cane sugar from the French markets, they set to work to supply the loss, ami adopted a German process, which resulted in the production of a very successful sugar from the beet-root and now, after years of production, sugar manufacturers are enabled to compete with the manufacturers of sugar from the sugar-cane- There is also another source of sugar in tIn fruit which we eatthe fig, the pear, the apple and the orange, would be unpalatable but for their sugar. I will now (iraw your attention to the different kinds of sugar. Although sugar is always sweet, and we call everything that is sweet sugar, yet there are various kinds of sugar. Sugar is obtained from milk ; and we can, by taking the livers of animals an(l digesting them in water, obtain large quantities of sugar called liver- sugar, showing that animals have the power of pro- (lucing or secreting sugar. Thins we have several kinds an(l I would just call your attention to the four princi- pal Sources. rule cane sugar is found in the stems of plants, and in all those cases where it is procured before the flower- ing of plants, and in the roots of plants; so that the beet-root sugar an(l the or(linary sugar that we eat from (lay to day is cane sugar. But we obtain another sugar from fruit, which is uncrystalhizable ; an(l that fruit sugar is almost i(lentical with another, which is called starch sugar ; and fruit sugar and starch sugar are both known to chemists hy the name of Glucose. The cane sugar is called Sucrose, and the sugar obtained from milk is called Lad use, while liver sugar is called Hepa- tose. Those are the four sugars. I told you just now that the liver contains? quantity of sugar; I may say that I hiehieve it has beu n (lemonstrated that the liver ihoes not contain sugar itself, but a matter which is easily converted into sugar; so that the instant you expose it to the air it becomes converted into sugar. We have in glucose a substance much more easily de- composed than the other forums cf sugar ; and I will finish by stating that this cane sugar is con- verteci into this form of sugar, and then we have either glucose, lactose, or hepatose in the system. It is in that manner that the starch is converted into sugar, so that it becomes a heat-giving substance capa- ble of maintaining heat in the animal body. The Needle Women of London. A correspondent of the London Times, describing one of the great mautna-making establishments in that city, communicates the following facts: Work is commenced every mom-ning at 7 oclock and con- tinued till 11 at night-a period of sixteen hems, the only imitervais allowed being about ten muinutes for each meal; the total amount of tinme allowed foreating their food, 1 was going to say, but, surely, bolthmg it is the more ap- prolmi-eate phiraseheing forty miimutes per day; tlums leav- ing fifteen hioumrs and twenty mimimmutes as the period devoted to work. And this, be it remembered, is not merely diurimmo- the hussy season, as at the West End, but for all the year round, from January to h)ecember; for you mimst under- stand that, at time establishment to which I refer, time great- er part of thie sewing is given oumt to slop-workers in the biusy season, and all that is done immdoors is tIme original cut- ting out an(h ultinmate fitting together of tIme separate pieces bimt whemm the slache season eomnes, timere is always as nmuch sewimig me served as will keep time girls of time estabhishmemit employed imp to tIme fumhl pitchso that there is, in fact. mine slack season~~ at all for them. And yet, for this con- timmumeil and unrelenting pressure of sixteen hmomurs work per day, from years end to years emud, this firm assume to themmiselves time greatest possible cu-edit. They thank God that they are not as other firms are at time West Emindop- luessoms amid destroyers of yotung women. They never-- not even for a few weeks iii time biusy seasonmuake their licople sit ump till d cm 4 oclock iii tIme morning! Ohm, no their gas m~ alum m~ tumumed off in time workicom by 11 oclock. ~\ hmy sir time W est End system, with its few u eeks of sevem-it~ I olloim emi is it is by nuontims of comparative leisume, is mneucy itself when viewed alongside of this un- mimitigated, muever enduw, still-beginning slavery to which I am mefer TIme only day of lemuu e which tIme gh-hs of this establish- ummemit have us Sunday. From iltommday umoummiug to Saturday insight, they sue as commuplete puisormers as ammy iii Newgate. They know not whmethmem time ummum shines or time rmuin falls at that time lucy ame not allowed to cuoss time thireshihmold even to piurchiase a hinair ot slices or a mmew gown for timem- selves, ammul nmumst employ their friends outside to do this for them. Nor is time accomummodatioum imidoors such as in any way to reconcile them to thus close confiumememint. TIme woikucom, in which ten or twelve of them are employed, is omuly about twelve feet squame, and is emitirely- devoid of am-rangements for vemutilatiomi, which is time more t(i be deplored as. during time evening, they have to encounter time heat and foul air of three flaunmirug gas huirmuers might over their heads, every door amid window being shut by which a breath of pure air could l)csSibly euuter. Time bedrooms are equally umneom- fortible, no fewer than six persons being huddled into one umn(l four into anothici. It is impcssih)le to contemplate the condition of this class of wcrkwomen, as disclosed by time facts qumoted, withoumt Iteenly sympathizing with it, and wishing timat somnetimiming might be done to mitigate its evils an(l misery. A DasjxKAnums Bnxmx.Hyrti, by far time greatest anatc)mist of the age, used to say that line could distin guislin in the (larkest room, imy one stroke of the scalpel, time brain of the inebriate from timat of the person who lived soberly. Now and timen he would cengratulate his class upon tIme possession of a drunkards brain, admirably litted, from its hardness and more complete preservatioum, for tIme purpose of deninonstration. When time anatomist wishes to preserve a unman brain for any lengtlm of time, lie effects timat object by keeping that organ in a vessel of alcohol. Froun a soft, pulpy smmb- stance, it timen becomes comlinaratively hard; but the inebriate, anticipating time anatomist, begins the induinra- ting process before deathbegins it while the brain re- mains time consecrated temple of the sculinvhile its delicate and gossamer-like tissues still throb with time pumise of heaven-born life. Strange infatuation, timmus to desecrate the god-like! Terrible enchantment, that clinics up all time fountains cf generous feelings, petrifies all the tender humanities and sweet elmarities of life, leaving only a brain of lead and a imeart of stone. To Caxnurv Gsa ron PmsraE Gu:x LocucsFihl a phial three pasts with almond oil, timesin fill imp time remain- der within clean lead chips. Keep the phial in a warm room and shake it now and then for a months, at time end of whmicim time most of time mucilage and acid mint- urally in the oil will have combined with time lead, and thus line clarified and fit for humbricating gumn locks amind otliner similar work. The lead is easily procured in chips hmy cutting up within a knife a couple of elon- gated binuhhets. 35 FOREIGN SCIENTIFIC INTELLIGENCE. [Trans5ated fur tue Scientific AnmericanI COAL OinL ron PASxTSNO. Tine products of the distillation of coal, and espe- cially of coal tar, seem destined to rival india-rumhmimer in time variety of timeir applications. LIuurention deseribes an invention of Mr. Mallet for readlering time Imeavy oils deruin-eci from coal applicable to paintising. TIme inveri- tiomm consists in dissol vising resinosms or gsum-resummomss smmbstances in time oils. Time oil is imeated iii a imoiler and resins are added in various proportioums from 50 to 100 per cent of the oil. The solution is filtered tluroumghm a woolen strainer to separate all solid ninatters, amind is citimer employed directly as a coating for uvood, metal aumd other surfaces, or ordinary coloring matters arc grossuind ism it in time usual manner. These oils of coal tar have, in time cnmsde state a very deep brown tint, which wominhd injure time tone of minmost colors. This iminconvenience is, however, remedied to a considerable extent, my pumuify- lag time oils by any kumown process. TIme qssahitv of time resimus also iminfiumeminces time find of the paintimings, amid it is necessamy for certain tones to esmiploy time qumahities of whmiclin time simades are time least deep. These paintings, or thue resimmosus solmutioums alomme. may line ussed not cushy on invood, lost also cnn stones, ems tIme coatings of mortar and plaster, and especially cmi tiles, fiouver pots, minietais, and articles of hmasket work. Detached objects may be covered by ininmumersing thucun. Timese reshinoinms solutions may also lie applied to uc-uder linen ininpermeahile. In this case time qumamitity of mesiuin shousich lie small ; a tuventiethm part umeiming scuinietiumues sumificient. To give mimore ssshinpleness to time sohistiomin a small qusantity of inchia-rsmhmber may line aided it reumhil u dissolves is-i the oil. Tivo or thins-ce coats of tinese linaint- ings leave a vas-nisum 05i tine sssrfimces coin-c-red mx ith them. BLEAC555Nfi or PATEn PiTs. The Aasmeles des Mines states that 1\h-ssrs. Fim-minuium- Didot and Barrumel, imin their experiments cii tIme umleachin- ing of paper pinulp hmy- tIme cinloride of lime, Imave leansied that tunis bleaclinisig sin ay be effected my means of car- bonic acid. The carimonic acid gas is intuodumeed isito time hiqusid whichin contains time chloride and tIme minmatter to be bleached; it displaces tine imypochloric acid. Thine generator of carbonic acid niay be a fusrnace; tIme gas imi this case hieing pusrified. It passes tuurosugim three uvashming reservoirs ium part filled with water, a reim-ig- em-ator, and a purifier provided interiorly within a lattice work of osier com-ered with wool and with damp moss to arrest all the dust. Beyond this pummifier is arm air pump, whicim, after havising drawn time gas thinrosughin tine preceding apparatus sends it timrough a last washmer imito a smmpply tube. Pipes, fumrnmishmed within stop-cocks, leach from this tumbe, eaclin of thineumi cosimmunicating ivitim a worm pierced within Inches auid placed at tIme inottorci of time bleacumisig tumbs. The carbosmic acidi is timuss dist rum- uted as needed, in the same manner as steaun is (his- tributed. THE PRESERVATION OF MEAT HY MOLASSES. In many receipts for preserving hams, molasses is one of the principal ingredients, but Mr. Marguseritte, in an article in LIumveafion, asserts that sneat may be preserved by molasses alosie in ti-ic most perfect maim- ncr, and with tine folloimising important advantages: It has an agreeable flavor, it produces no scurvy or otliner disorders whinich result from time use of salt food, and it may be prepared at a moderate price. The process consists simply in custting tine uneat imito pieces of ninoderate size and dropping them into mo- lasses, such as is obtained from time sugar nmaruinfac- tories or refineries. By a natusral process of osmiose the higinter juices of the meat pass oust, amid time heavies- molasses penetrates inward to every part of the meat. When the external niolasses Inns acqssiu-ed a certain degree of liquidity froun time mixture of tl~.. juices of the nmeat, it is a sure sign that time mimemit is thorossghly impregnated. It is nomv takesm oust cif tIme molasses. thorossghly uvashied. and Iniung is-i a ciumnemit of air to dry. After it is completely div it may be packed in boxes amid sesit all over tine invorid wilimosut expemiencing any change wimatever. NEW ALLOY FOR SOFT SOLDER. We find in LIchen/ion directions for prelinarimig an alloy for a very soft solder, uvumich timat journal says has time following very valuable properties. It attacimes itself very strongly, not only to metahihe siubstances, bust also to glass and pcrceiain; at a temperature em 700~ Fah. it is as soft as mu-ax, bust in ten or twelve huotsrs it hinecounes so hinam-di as to take a polish like 36 silver; and it imites metals so firmly that they may be worked in any manner whatever. As its bulk is not altere(l by its hardening, it fills perfectly any channels, crevices or joints into which it may be introduced. It is prepared as follows: Perfectly pure copper is procure(l, either by reducing the oxyd of copper by means of hydrogen or by preeij)itating the metal from the sulphate of copper with zinc turnings. Either 20, 80 or 36 parts of this pure copper, according to the llar(lness of the alloy (lesiredthe more the copper the harder the alloy is moistened thoroughly in a cast iron or porcelain mortar with concentrated sulphuric aci(l (at 1.85 (lensity); then to this metallic paste is a(l(kd 70 parts, l)y weight, of mercury; the mixture being constantly stiITe(l (hiring the addition of the mercury. When the copper is completely amalgam- ate(l, the composition is washed with an al)un(lance of h)oiling water to remove the sulphuric aci(l. The com- position, at first soft, becomes in ten or twelve hours so hard as to take a fine polish, and to scratch gold or tin. It may at any time be made as soft as wax by heating it to about 700~ Fali. or by triturating it in a mortar at a teml)erature of 260g. If, in this state it is l)laced between metallic surfaces free from oxygen, it ~vill unite theni so firmly that they may be wrought in any way without separating. SPIDERs. A learned entomologist, who has made a special stu(ly of the structure and habits of spiders, states that there is not a single authentic case on record of a person being killed, or seriously injured, by the bite of a spider; all the stories about the fatal bite of the famous tarentula being simply fables. These insects are, however, exceedingly ferocious in their fights with each other; their (luels invariably ending in the (leath of one of the combatants. In some species, the first step of the young as soon as they are hatched is to eat up their mother. ELECTRICITY AND SOME OF ITS PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS. ARTIcLE III. The construction of the electro-magnet, and its ap- plication to the telegraph, are fully treate(l in a number of works, but of late the application of clectro-magnetisni to the l)roduction of rotary motion or, indeed, of any useful mechanical effecthas re- ceived hut little attention, and we know of no ~vork which treats the subject in a thorough manner. A great number of magnetic motors have been in- vented, none of which have ever come into practical use in this country, although it is reporte(l thnt in France a few are in use for purposes requiring certain motions. All, or nearly all, the electro-magnetic machines constructed have made use of one or more of the fol- loxving powers: 1. The attraction of a coil or helix. 2. The alternate attraction and repulsion of opposite anul like poles. 3d. The attraction of an electro-ma~net for soft iron. Probably the first engine operated by the attraction of a coil was that of I)r. Page. The principle of this engine is as follows: A coil of insulated wire possesses powerful magnetic properties when a current passes through it, and if a coil be made in the shape of a tube or with a hollow cone, it will communicate mag- netic properties to a bar of soft iron placed within it, an(l if the current be sufficiently strong, the bar will be suspended without any material support. The cut ~ 2 represents a section of such an arrange- R meat. C C represents the coil, and B the suspended bar. If, while the bar is in this c ~ position, the current be stopped, the bar will instantly fidl out, and, when entirely without the coil, no attraction will take l)lace ; but if it be inserted part way, and the current then passed, it will be drawn wholly within. Thus, will be seen that, l)y alternately breaking time current and al lowing it to pass a reciprocating motion can be given to the bar, and, by means of a crank, a rotary motion may be conimnhmnicated to any appropriate machinery. Smmch a device, however, wommld only exert its power through half of the stroke; but by using two coils (Irawing alternately in opposite directions, a constant power may be exerted throughout the stroke. The cut represents a section of an imuproved device ~ invented by Dr. Page, in which a numn- her of coils are used, piled upon each other, and so arranged that, as soon as one coil has attracted the bar to its full extent, the current shall be transferred to the one next to it; and so on for half the stroke, when the current is to be transferred to the otimer side of the bar, when it will be attmacte(l in the opposite direction through the re- turn stroke. This beautiful device has as yet failed to come into general prac- tical use. The invention of machines which are operated by the alternate attraction and repulsion of opposite and like poles has cost an immense amount of time and money, but such machines are liable to difficulties which render them impracticable upon a large scale. Engines which are operated by the direct attraction of an electro-magnet for iron may be divided into two classesreciprocating and rotary. Reciprocating en- gines are entirely imiupracticable upon a large scale, for various reasons, the principal of which are: 1. The extremely small distance through which mna~netic attraction is exerted. 2. The waste of power by such an arrangement; and, 3. The large amount of friction to be overcome at each stroke. These objections refer chiefly to engines in which only two magnets are used. Such machines form a part of every well-appointed philosophical apparatus. IMPROVEMENTS IN PLATING SHIPS OF WAR WITH IRON. As the great interest in protecting naval vessels with shot-proof plates, which now prevails in Eng- land and France, is doubtless destined to be also felt in this country, we present the accompanying illus- tration from the London JJJechonicl ]Wigazome, as an in- dication of the present state of the art in England. These improvements have been invented by T. W. Plum, Esq., of Bk navon Iron Works, Monmouth, England, and of which the following is a description: For shielding ships and batteries on land or floating with thick metal armour plates, metal ribs are used with a flange or flanges through which they are to be bolted to the ship, battery, or other structure, and a dovetailed or Thead rib for holding the plates. The flang and dovetailed ribs a a b may be of the forms shown in the en~raving or of any similar form, so that there be a flang or flanges for bolting through, and a transverse head having more or less of dovetail shape, in order that when the plates, which are to be prepar- ed to fit the ribs, are inserted between two of such ribs, they will be securely held in their intended position; that the plates when fixed shall cover the bolt holes, and that the joint or joints of junction between the plates and ribs shall have a tendency to tighten when strpck. In preparing the ribs, except the first, to be fixed to any structiure, the bolt holes on one side of the flanges of the ribs are to be made longer, i.e., oval in form in the transverse direction of the rib, so as to admit of the second and successively fixed ribs being in the first place bolted through the elongated bolt holes far enough from the rib previously fixed, to al- low the plates to be inserted between theun without difficulty; and the rib to be then drawn by cramps or other known means tightly to the plate; the row of bolts on the other side of the rib are then put in and made fast. The upper and lower and vertical end ribs are made with one side only prepared to receive or hold plates. the other being rounded, moulded, or beveled off in any suitable shape, as at h. The space between the back of the plates and the face of the ship or other structure shown at c c c may line more or less according to the dimensions determined for the ribs and plates, and m& y be filled with any material that may be found most suitable. The Joint Action of Labor and Capital in Producing Wealth. If a man is cultivating corn with a hoe, the hoe is capital. It is the saving of previous labor, and it fa- cilitates his industrial operations, and these are the characteristics of capital. Nearly all active capital may be properly regarded as /0011 to work with. There is a regular gradation in implements from the simplest knife or ax up to the most complicated machine or the largest manufactory. There is no place in the ascend- ing scale where a line of distinction can be drawn, amid these imuplements are, in fact, essentially of the same characterthey are all tools in the hands of industry. There is capital, however, which cannot be regarded as of the nature of tools. Besides his hoes, plows, wagons, & c., a farmer must have food to eat and clothes to wear while raising his crops, and this food and clothing have been accumulated from previous la- bor, and are therefore capital ; thmey aid the operations of labor, and are therefore active capital. Men everywhere work with tools; consequently all wealth is the product of the joint operations of labor and capital. When Eve detemmined to sew some fig- leaves together, her first step was to procure a thorn or some other implement to work with, and that thorn was just as really capital as a Grever & Baker sewing machine, or the manuufactory in which those machines are muade. It is a curious fact that in the very first industrial operation of the human race, the first step was to procure the necessary capital. Shoeing of Cavalry Horses. The following circular has just been issued from the Horse Guards by the Adjutant General of the Britishu army. Sta It being very desirable that a uniform system (uf shociub should be established in the cavalry, and the whole of that important subject having been re- cently referred to the consideration of a Board compos- ed of officers of great experience in that branch of the service, assisted by two old and experienced professional men, the General Commanding in Chief has been pleased to direct that the following instructions, ex- tracted from their Report, and which embody the whole of their recommendations, be circulated throughout the cavalry, accompanied by duplicates of the pattern shoes, which have been sealed and de- posited at the office of Military Boards for general reference and guidance. 1. The shoe is to be beveled off, so as to leave a space and prevent pressure to the sole. 2. It is not to be grooved or fettered ; butt simply punched and the nails counter-sunk. 3. Calkin is to be applied to the hind shoe only, and is to be confined to the outside heel. The inside heel is to be thickened in proportion. 4. The weight of the shoes is to be from twelve to fifteen ounces, according to the size of the horse. 5. As a general principle, horses are to be shod with not less than six nails in the fore and seven in the hind shoe; nor is this shoe to be attached with not fewer than three nails out either side. 6. In preparing the foot for the shoe, as little as possible should be pared otut, and the operation should be confined to the removal of the exfoliatin~ parts of the sole only. 7. Both the fore and hind shoes are to be unade with a single clip at the toes. THE SCIENCE OF COMMON THINGS. NUMBER III. The food of all animals, with the exception of the small (luantity of COmnien salt which they cat, consists of organic l)roclllcts; that is, of matter which terms a l)art, or which has fornied a l)art, of either animals or vegetables. Organic substances are l)rincipally com- posed of four elementsoxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen anti carbon. A mans body, which weighs 150 lbs., contains about 7 lbs. of earthy matter, and the other 143 lbs. consist of the four Organic elements which I have named. Two of theseoxgen and hydrogenI have already (lescribed to you nitrogen forms about three-fourths of the air we breathe and with carbon you are familiar under several forms. Charcoal is almost wire carl)on, so is the diamoml black lead or ~dumbago is carbon with a little iron in it. Is there carbon in this piece of bread, father Yes. If you hold the bread very close to the fire, so as to scorch it, you will see the carbon all over the surface looking like charcoal. Why could we not see it before? You could but it had a different appearance. One of the most wonderful things in nature is the change which is wrought in the properties of substances by combining them together chemically. The air which we breathe is composed of oxygen and nitrogen mixed together mechanically. Let us have anothu ball to represent nitrogen an(l we can un(lerstand this matter perfectly. It must be made of some wood not quite as heavy as that which we used for the oxygen atom, for, though the nitrogen atom weighs fourteen times more than the atom of hydrogen, and the oxygen weighs only eight times more, the nitrogen atom is twice as huge as the oxygen, being of just the same size as the hydrogen. Let us make the nitrogen atom of a difterent shape so as to distinguish it readily. Now, the little round balls stand for the oxygen atoms, and the large triangular ones for the nitrogemi, and they are disposed thus in the air. A A A 0 0 7 V V A A A 0 0 0 V V V But if we combine them together chemically, thus one atom of nitrogen with live of oxygen (N. 05), how totally are their properties changed When mechani- cally mixed, they are in the gaseous form, invisible to the eye and impalpable to tIme touch except when in rapid motion. But when combined as represented, the atoms immediately come close together, they assume the liquid state, an(l become nitric acid. As atmo- spheric air, it is neessary tlmt we should be constantly passing fresh supl)hies through our lungs or we perish as nitric acid, a single teaspoonful taken into the bings would l)moduce instant death. lIme astonishing variety of substances produced by (liliererA chemical combina- tiomis of the four organic eleimments are illus~rated in the articles before you on time table. Comnbined in one way they produce the sugar, in another the butter, in others the tea, the coffee, the bread, the meat, the eggs, the milk, the l)el)I)er, & c. Tlmere are a few things, such as l)otash, that are not composed of the organic elements but with these few exceptions, everything derived from eltimer the animal or vegetable kingdom is formed by the combination of two or more of the sub- stancesoxygen, hydrogen nitrogen and earbon. They form oil, india-rubber, strychnine, chocolate, cider, wine, alcohol, lard, and the principal part of our clothes, shoes, hats, books, tables, floors, slmips and, in short, everything that is derived from eithmer animal or vege- table growth. Tmmz American Eagiaeer is the title of a journal lomb- lished in this city, devoted to the interests of locomo- tive, marine and stationary engineers, and edited by John C. Merriam, Secretary of the American Engineers Association. It is the only journal of the kind pub- lished in tlmis city, and is well edited. We wish our cotemporary much success. IN France every steam boiler is required by law to be furnished with a safety plug of fusible metal. It is composed of tin, 3 parts, lead, 2, bismuth, 4. A plug of this composition melts at a comparatively low heat. LESLIES IMPROVEMENTS IN IRON SHIPS. We find the following (lescription of this important invemation in the London illecheaies JJleyazome Mr. Andrew Leslie, of Hebburn Quay, Gateshead, iron shipbuilder, has patented an invention entitled, Improvements in the construction of iron ships or vessels, and for strengthening the same. Mr. Leslie thus descril)es his invention. My said invention relates to time construction of iron ships or vessels and to the strengthening of tIme same at those parts where time straimm is most felt by means of wroughmt iron, steel, em otimer metal box girder stringers or tubes, sucim box gimder stringel-s being placed on the top of time main spar or lower deck beams at time sides of time vessel, om placed under or between the main spar or lower deck beams at or near the center line of the vessel, or at time sides of tIme imatchmways. Time wlmole or any of these stringems may be continued tlmroughout tlme entire length of time vessel or extended along any part tlmereof, as nmay be de- sired. According to one mode of carrying out timis inven- tion, I l)~Ol)O5C first to secure a I)late, A, as shown in the engraving (wimiclm relireseusts part of a transvemse section of aim iron ship constructed according to my invention), on to time top of time beanms, B, of time vessel, this plate extending entirely round the vessel and serving as a base or foot plate upon whicim the wroughmt-iron box girder, C, is constructed. Timis box girder stringer extends along each side of time upper and lower decks, D and E (when two decks are used), and runs from stem to stern of time vessel or along any part of time length thereof. These box girder stringers, C C, are composed of wrought iron, steel, or other metal plates bolted, riveted, or welded together, and connected to each other and to time base plate by flanged plates or angle iron as simown. The base plate, A, may be made con- siderably wider timan the stringers so as to project inward toward time deck for time purpose of having the water-way bolted thereon, and the oustide plates of the stringers may be carried up some distance above time top of the same, as shown at F F, for time purpose of securing the stanchions tlmereto. G G are time middle or intermediate box stringers om- tubes also composed of wrought iron, steel, or other plates, and extending from stem to stern of time vessel or over any part of time lengtlm thereof, being secured to time beams, B. If found desirable these box girder stringers may be provided with suitable air valves in the top, hot- tomn, or side plates fom the purpose of ventilating the hold of the vessel, as it is found that time extension of the box girder stringers round time vessel admits of the gases, pro- duced by somne cam-gos, being readily collected and carried off. In Isis patent-specificatioms Mr. Leslie claims the application and use to and in the construction of iron ships and vessels of hollow box girders composed of wrought iron, steel, or other metal plates, for the pur- pose of strengthening the same, in the manner herein before described. - Fortunately for Mr. Leslie, his patent is dated 14th December 1859, abont two months pm-jar to the delivery at Liverpool of Mr. Fair- bairns lecture on iron ships, in which the distinguish- ed author strongly recommended the adoption of just such girders as Mr. Leslie has patented. 37 War Frigates and Gunboats. Russia, the third naval power of Europe, says an English exchange, intends not to be behindhand lint putting on her armnor, now that England has her lYe,-- Tiara and France her (Jlaimes. The Russian Admiral, Count Putiatine, left London recently for St. Peters- burg, taking within him, for imperial approval and rati- fication, the drawings and contract for an iron plated vessel of war, which is to be built forthwith on the Thames. The Paris correspondent of the London Times says that a gunboat of a new niodel passed through Toul- ouse a short time since on her passage from Bordeaux to Toulon, where she is to be prepared for sea. This boat is constructed on an entirely new model, of which the plan is said to have been given by time Emperor. She is composed of steel plates, and ~vill be propelled hy two screws set in motion by a mnaclmine of 14-horse power. She will carry but one piece of cannon. The boat is shaped like a tortoise. The mouth of the can- non will pass just over the back of the fish, which will present an imachined plane to the enemy, over which the balls will slide. The crew will be completely sheltered under this roof, of which the force of resistance is so well calculated that the heaviest shot or shell cannot injure it. It is said that several gunboats constructed on the same model will pass from Toulouse to Toulon. The first gunboat ready for sea is to go round to Havre, and thence up the Seine to Paris. NEW MODE OF YuLcANszmitG IKDmA-mujnazml.The Paris correspondent of the Photographic News states that india-rubber may be easily vulcanized by mixing it with sulphur and linypochiorite of lime. He says when flowers of sulphur and bleaching powder (hypochiorite of lime) are shaken together, a very strong odor of chloride of sulphur is immediately developed. If the mixture be somnewhat forcibly rubbed in a mom-tam-, ele- vation of temperature ensues, the sulphur softens, and the mixture becomes solid, while abundant vapors are evolved. When a much larger amount of sulphur than of the hypochiorite is used, and friction is avoid- ed when the two are blended, a mixture is obtained, which being added to india-rubber paste, either with or without the addition of chalk or oxyd of zinc, which serve to give body to the compound, vulcanization is effected either at the ordinary temperatures or by a mnoderate heat. By this means objects of any thick- ness may be vulcanized. ATamospinmEame FEmcrmamzzmss.M. Barral, of Pam-is, has lately made the discovery that main water contaimma minute quantities of phosphorus. He believes that it exists in the atmosphere in the form of phosphorated hydrogen, which escapes from decaying aninmal sub- stances. As phosphorus is necessary to the fertility of soils, we have in this discovery a key which unlocks the secret of summer fallowed lands becoming fer- tile. The anciemit Hebrews were accustomed to allow the land to rest without cultivation every few years. This was, no doubt, for the purpose of restoring it from comparative barrenness by cropping, to renewed fertility. It is now well known that ammonia also exists in rain water, and this is held to be the chief of fertilizing agents. Any worn out lands may be re- stored to fertility by allowing them seasons for repose, in the same manner that Moses provided for the per- petual fertility of the land of Israel. UsEs OF SOAPSTONETn Germany, soapstone or steatite is cut into pieces of any desired form, then placed in a crucible, heated to redness, and afterwards allowed to cool in a very gradual manner. Steatite, without having become hard or brittle by this opera- tion, has acquired sufficient consistency to permit of its being worked without any difficulty; and such is the facility of manufacturing it that it has found numer- ous applicationssuach as in the making of buttons, cameos and gas-burners. To give solidity and dura- bihity to articles made from steatite, in the manlier we have described, it is only necessary to expose them to a red heat for a few hours, when they become very hard. Articles made of steatite may be polished by the employment of emery, tripoli or oxyd of tin; and when impregnated within a solution of silver, and then subjected to ~ high temperature, they acquire a me- tallic lustem-. THE POLYTECHNIC ASSOCIATION OF THE A~ERI- Mr. VEDDEIt said that where farming is done upon a large scale, as upon the Western prairies, it is self- CAN INSTITUTE. evident that other than horse power will he demanded Reported for the Scientific American.] Portable steam engines are used which are carried from Ihe usual weekly meeting of the Polytechnic Asso- farm to farm, to thrash, or to do any other work ejation was held, at its room in the Cooper Institute, which may be desired, by the job. Horses are required this city, on Jhurs(lay evening, Dee. 27, 1860. The for farm work; but they have enough to do, and President being absent, Mr. Bruce was called to the would he injured by being used for power ; so that chair. farmei s who own teams generally prefer to employ IiurroN-ILoaE SEWING MAchINES. Mr. Rowl;I.h exhibited a specimen of work executed with Vogels ltitton-hcde sewing machine. The stitch is foritid ~vithi three threads, nn(l c:ennot be unraveled. Titrue tue two u~)rigllt needles, one working over the etige of the cloth aoiol the other through it, and ttn utder tlirea(l. A fair operator can make 100 button holes an Ito tnt with it. By removing one of the uprigltt needles, it is transforuted into ttn or(linary sewing inteehine, horitaing the Grover & Baker stitch. Mr. l)ttniEN stateol that so locog ago tos the first Crystal Palace exhibition in New York, tt tttacltine was exhibited which made a button-Itole stitch as good as this ; but it rlitl not itrove to be a practical machine. The great difficulty is in keeping the edges of the sev- eral thicknesses of cloth all even. A SMALL MOTIVE POWER. Ilte sllceittl oroler of the evening, being the economy of utotive power for ftrnl btnlrhings, small manufac tories ttiiol sewing ma& hines, was taken up. Mr. J)IiIUEN l)resente(1 some csthnates upon the basis of a one-horse power, as the maximum probably in- tehl(leol to he enusidered. A steam engine of oneltorse power wonlol cost ttt lettst $300. The fuel would a ittomimit to lOIbs of eoil p~r Itoon, or 25 cents per dtiy. rile wear and tear and interest would amount to 7 cents per day. The steam engine being a dangerous macitille reoluires the attendance of a man of superior intelligence to a etoulinon laborer ; estimating his time at ~1. 50 IIOF clay. atni tlett one-sixtht of it would be coisumed in temmohing the engine, the cost of attend- thee ~votmlol boo 25 cents ier day. The total cost, there- h)re, is 57 ((hIts tt dtty ; wltich is very much less thlan the test of oloing the same work by manpower. In very mnatiy eases where work is done by hand, the steamot engine could be lisedi at a great profit, if it were not for the capital required in procuring tile engine. The first cost of tile air engine would be about double thttt of tie steam emigine. The itttcrest will therefore be doubled. For wetor amid tettr ttll(l itoterest Ite would ttlbow 12 cents a day. For fuel he woltl(l be liberal and allow the same as before, 25 cents a day. The cost of attemodatoce would be very much less, say one-twenti- eth part of to mans time, or 7 cents per clay. So that a safer and more easily muanaged power can be obtained from the ealuorie engine fo)r 44 cetlts per day. Another imower commonly used for agricultural purposes ts horse-power. The apparatus for applying the pour will cost about SIsO. Mr. YEI)nat saiol thlat the orolinary endless chain to~)ptoratus wouhol only cost $30. Mr. DIunEx It is not safi to use a good horse upon sotch a machine. The cost of keeping a horse is mitch loss than is mmsmmahhy supposed. A fammer can keep a Ittorse for less than 20 cents ier tIny in this vicinity. The cost of attenriance wouhol hoe but 15 or 20 cents per oltoy for a boy, anol for muany rposes no attendance woulol hoe retlttireol, for hoe horse cait boo trained to stop and start boy a boil. A gooti Imorse can hoe ohotaineth for SiSO, auth it will always hoe misofoil on the farm. Wear 0101 tear anti imlterest woulol boo about 5 cents per olay muakimig tite cost of the horse-prower 40 cents per olay. The horse power is elteaper, therefore, titan the power frotn tue steahil engimle or toii engine, witen nlaking fotli timne ; amiol the todvamitage is still gretoter when, as is usutdhy the case, the power is not required all the tihime, for tIme horse alt he mmsed for eAboer nork, v:hemets the emmgimmes caminot. Mr. STETSON mom ott 11001 f hoof o into of the ereat utiqoc toons too htoorso~ pewet is ifs ext essi Xe mttmsteaohiness. It ro mimes etontinotal attoiltiell, tommol titere is no regulator wholelt tan Ito eoomivemt iemhthy htlol)iicth. hoor titis measomo, Ito Stetomml eugilte auth air emogine tore theofinheittly solo stitottool for the Itoorse l)o)wtr. Mt. llowmtta tttorrateol lois oowmo experience witho Itorse itis ilt)rse being so foomool rof sojering tilat it loecamne necessary to put a ring upon the central shaft with an attacitulemit by which he could be reminded of ills ditty at any ptort of the revolution. This apparatus tltey considered a perfect success. etilers to do their heavy work. Mr. BAncoen said that tile expense of horse power hlad been underrated boy Mr. Dibben. A horse will tiot host upon thle city cars more thlaml six or seven years. Besides, a nomnintol Ilorse power catluot be obtained from a horse either upbn the city cars or upon the farm for ten hours a day. Mr. IDmunEx It can from a horse lyhiell weighs 1,400 pommuds. Mr. BAneocIc proceeded to give estimates for the air engine, taking that of Wilcox as the basis. A 12-inch cylineler caloric engine now running in Westerly, II. I., crostiug $350, of at least four-fifths of a horse power, consumes only about 50 pounds of coal per dtoy, which would be but l2~ cents. And as it supersedes the stove before employed in heating the room, the actual cost for fuel is even less tItan this. Another simuilar engine, with an 18-inch cylinder, at Pawtucket, B. I., is doing more u-ork than two Itorses can do, at a cost not exceeding 15 cents per day for fuel. The wear amId tear will inlet probably exceed the same amount. Mr. FIShIER said that, according to Tredgold, horses cannot usually do muore thoon two-thirdls the work of a nomninal horse power for ten bmours a day. Stage pro- prietors say that they areobbiged to keep spare horses and to renew one-third of the whole number every year. The cost of a horse for interest and deteriora- tion nould be at least 20 cents per day. This will hring time animal horse power nearly up to the cost of tIle mechanical ilorse power. For the farmer who wants only a power for a week or two in the season, the Ilorse power would be more economical; but for mechanical purposes the horses must he taken care of, amid this is more disagreeable than to take care of a steam engine. In many shops no engineer is required to take care of the emlgine. As to safety, the low pressure emlgine, with a large safety valve, he consid- ered as safe as a caloric engine. A low pressure engimme wotuld cost more than a high pressure engine of the same power, perhaps 15 per cent more. Mr. STETSON remarked that the low pressure engines would be excluded from consideration for farm pur- poses on account of tile large amotmut of water required for condensing the steam. Mr. FISHER alluded to the success of agricultural steatu engines in England, there being twelve or thir- teen manumfactutrers of suell engines, with an inereas- lining demand. Mr. (mhuncmuuL considered tble comparison in Eng- hanoI between steam and horse power no criterion for thois country. Machinery there is cheap, and the cost of teen is much greater than here. Engines of about eight-horse power can be diril-etl about from farm to farm, ann do the work reqimirerl with economy and sitecess, and h)eyoud all competition. Mt. STETSON cousiolered the wear arod tear arod in- tem-ost utminderrtoteel by Mr. iDibben ill all his estimates. Time itintem-est alone noitlol amnoutnot to nearly as mucim as Ito hatl allolved for wear amool tear and interest. Another consitberatioro Ilas been overlooked. ThIe chances of boreakirog down are always considlerable with complex machinery. If the maclmincry breaks down in the city it can hoe at ommee reltaired, or the work can be immac- ditotely executed by solIlebody near by. But when we go bach into the country the resitlt of breaking down is timmunk tuore soriotus. If a steam engine breaks dowmo it tintay (tomtee a belay of suvermol weeks. Bitt if a horse hinouvem ftoils its place camin toadily line smmpplied boy annother. Wihere timere is a large smupply of water, witil a consid- eralole pressutre, to water engine may be used. If a OOthlttlOt steam etogine shlo)ihld be coullected witho an chevnotetl Itomod of watem, amid regouiated to work slowly, it u-ouhd work like stctotn. It woubdl hardly do to topphy tioc coot-off, Ilolvever. [Latingloter.] In the office of tile Boston Tieveler a rotary engimoc about as large as a half-bushel measure, fed by the Cochituate water, furnishes all the power that is required. But situa- tions like that must be extremely rare, especially in the cases embraced in the subject for discussion. The CHAIRMAN suggested the use of wihid as a motive power. Mr. FISmIER said that a small amount of wooter ex- posed over night would be cooled sufficierotly to be used again for condensation on the next day; so thtot where little power is required the low pressure engine would not require a very lat-ge sutpply of water. Mr. POOWELL thougllt that would depend upon the degree to which the water was to be cooled. If it is to be cooled down to 800 or 1000, it would take inmouclo more time to cool it; and if it is to be used when bult little below 200~, it Mould require from twemlty to forty times as much water to condense the steano. Mr. DInnEx, reverting to the amount of work a horse can perform, said tilat he hanl manle lois estitmmoote froni the actual performamice in hoisting stone. ~Ihoe average boorses in New York weigh about 1,100 pounds; but a horse weighing 1,400 pounds, such a Ilorse as may be seen upon thoc wagons of the safe men, can do the work of a Ilorse power. Mr. STETSON--Can we buy such a hoose for less tihooho $300? Mr. DIHHENNo, Sir. Mr. CmtuactIrLDinl the Ilorse lose its cotoditioio nuoder that labor? Mr. DInnExI do not know. Mr. CnundnILLThen that tells us nothoing of the work a horse can do. Mr. IDIBBEN mentioned the fact that the air emmgitoe or the steam engine could not be stopped tomid left to stand a week or two Mithiout damuger of imoj ury ; bntt the horse power can be mused at atiy tinie, totod left at any time, without any imijulmy, and witllout atoy par- ticular care. As to the air engine, if 44 cents per day uvas too mitch, lie should iihne to iiear another esti- mate. Mr. BABcocK estimated 15 cents for coal, 20 cemots for wear, tear; and interest, and 10 cents for care, amounting to 45 cents, for a two-horse emhgimoc, foumided upon the actual performance of the Wilcox engine in the Pawtucket btokery. A one-horse emingimoc would probably cost about 30 cents a day. TIle cheap- est power in use, he said, was water power. It is noore reliable than wiuld, and costs scarcely aumythoiuog. But it enon only be made available ml particultoo sitolto- tiemis. Wind mills could imot be made available, usu- ally, except upon the coast, where there is to sea breeze at certain times, and upon high hills. Mr. SEELY said that it would not do to settle tloe question merely by estimating the cost of the different kinds of power when in use, or the cost of tloc ula- chinery, for there are considerations which entirely outweigh the question of cost. No farniner could profitably use an engine that would cost from $300 to $600; for the labor that could be done with it would last but a very few days in each year. For the rest of the time there is only an occasional piece of work to be clone by poweran ax to grind, a little woodI to saw, or a little straw to cutand yet for these a power Mould lie handy if it did not cost too much. But el-cry farmer must have his horses, and tiocy will do this work. Probably for a farm of 100 notes or less, no air engine or steam engine woumld line to profitable purchase. Water can be used for power much more freqomently than it is. There are very few farms of 100 acres which have not a stream which comuld be made serviceable not a small expemise. Amid wind mills will atinswer for labior that oloes not requmire steadimless. If we coumlcl take tue power of the Mimid clutring the entire year arocl store it up to be useni as a constant force when required, it would be very use- ful. This might be done by employing time wiimd miii to drive water into an elevated reservoir, or in condensing air, or in Minding a spring, or ill 5OtinlO such way. Personally, he would prefer steam, or air, or water, to horse power ; and if either coimld be stub- stitminted for liomse power tip~inin a famm line silottId prefer it. Wimat is wanted is a little powet within all time aol- vantages of steam or air and Mitil nomie of its ohisach- vantages; something that can hoe started or stopped toy tmmrning a key or touching a sptimlg; somnething port- able ; scenethoing which coomhnl be lint ih~Oinl a cooonioogn to drive oms alomite. to we miow Imood moot Suell power bolt he believed it possible tiltot at sonoc day MO oltould have it. Mr. JOHNSON stated that Mr. Keminnish had a small rotary water engine, using six gallons of water per minute, under the Brooklyn pressure, and equal to ten-horse power. There is eighty feet head of water. 38 ~J5IW ~~dentifh~ ~rn~k~ut. Mr. SrETsoN said that if the wind mill should be lise(1 in pumping uti water to 1 e afterwards used for po~er it would probably lie necessary to use two or three times as much power as coul(l l)e utilized. For manufacturing purpi )sC5, 01(1 for drivbmg sewin gina ehimies, the want of steadiness would lirevelit the use of wind mills. Ilut, although their (leteio)ration secmuc(l to amount to 100 per cemit a year, they might be useful for some kinds of work. Mr. Rowaaa suggested the use of time (log for motive Ihe (ILAIRMAN suggested that tile lou~ mi~ht be ~ a eraploye(l. Mr. liowami state(i that lie lia(l known of an instance where power was eariie(1 by levers mid wires froni a brook to a (iwellimig house, 400 feet (listant, mid em ploye(1 to (irive a churn. Mr. J)mu3n~N suggested tint wind mills Inve too umi steady a motion to be useful even whemi furnished with what are calle(l governors. BCsi(1e5, the farmers house is usually placcd where it will be sheltered from the wind. h)r driving sewing maclimes ill the family, the best power was the foot of tIme operator. Mr. VAN I)FRiVEY1)E stated tlmt in his miative country, i{oilami(l, wind nulls compete with steam they grind the (01mm, saw the wooii and keep the laa(l (lry. l3mit iii ilollamid you find no small wind mills. They niust lie large enough to keep three muen con- stantly enmployeil in watching the wind, regidatimig the sails, & c. , in order to be profitable. As you go ill) the Tiliiue, amid ascenil from this level coumitry to the mnoimmitaimioims regain, the wimols becommie uneertaimi amid whmemi on miss (ohogmie (iii imass beyomid the rego)mi (if wiimd mil Is. There you find that water l)i.iwer is used, the summuikst stuiams hieing made ser v iceable. Mr. Koen referroil to the use rif a runmsimmg streamim for l)(iwer. Upon time Illumine, uucar Maycune, are what nine called the Rhiimue umiills. They are Iliait.iumg vessels, with wheels uhippiag into time water, tuiruied luytiie streammi, thins fumrmmishing the power for the mmiilis. ~Ihue (JimA unMAN amiil ilNir. 1)muumnN saul that the sammie iuiethuuiid ~vmi5 iii luse in tIme Vi est. Omi miiotiomi of Mr. Smnv, tIme subject selected for tIme miext evenimig, is Pottery. Curing Ham. Ihie following muetliod of curing ham is given byll. M. Comuhhimm, ims the Chioifmy Gcmillrouoa :--Aft.er cutting out thie humus they mire looped by emittiuug through the shUn Si) mis to hang in the smoke-rooms shank down- wards thiemi tuike any eleams cask (if proper dimnensions, which is miot miecessary to be water-tight cover the floor or bittomn with comirse sumit rub the hmumis in fimie smilt, especimmhly mihiomut the bomuy parts, ami(l place tlmeni omi the bottommi (if the ask with the rimiil (lown, cover imig the floor of the cask first siurimilde dry flue salt eveuihy mill miver t.hmemui wherever it will lie so misto cover thiemmi li~rhiumlis huumlf ami imich then lay others on tliemui, letting the shiamuk dip or immehimie comusiderably, phuaimmg smilt mi miii eases lietweemi thiemum, where they couuie imi chose comutuict with each other, mir wit.h the sides of the eash simummll lunups iif salt will be fonmmd very comivemuiemit fur this prmrpose. Spmimmkle fimue sumlt muir this mis befoie directed, giviuig the thick part of the himimii mm good share, mis tIme shuamuk begimms musore and iuiore to imielimue downwards. Proceed imi this wmmy umitil the hmmimiss mire all salted, milwmmys observimig to plimee thiemn skimi mlowmi mind flesh siiic up mimid if they siimmietimmscs get stamidimig too munch on end, the ditficulty mummy lie ob- viated by usimig a smumill Imiece of liork mis a clierk. Let thiemui lie mmbout five weeks if of orohinuiry size, if larger, six weeks, mmmiii thueui smni)l(e them. I have ei)nstrmucte(l mm smisoke-rooni ovmr muuy kitehsemi, iii the guirret - maumuhe dark -mmmid so mis to admudt smoke frouui tlme chimney. More I humming flue hams mimud let in smoke suntil they mire smusoked enomughm, amid this comii- pletes flue entire mupermitiommi nothiumg usuore is mIone mmii sicummim ug mmgmiimust this, for thuiy mmcvii cmi tom this dmmmk ehimummihoer, ummuol whom we wummit mm himmmn we go to (iii siumoke-chiummuiber mmmiii tuike it from the hook. Ururimig mm period of I ovemity-five years I huave isot lost us hsaum, but before ad(ipting this musode, thrommgh carelca; munekirma injiudicious smiltimag, or fromis flies, I was continually uttering dismuppointussent with mny limimui5. Pes-sibly hams may have a better flavor by susimug other in gredi- ents with salt, yet where I Isave huid opportunities ot tasting such cured hauns, I confess my inumbihity to detect their superiority. Steam Canal Navigation. A correspomident of the Buffalo (N. Y.) ~buorier sigus- iusg himself Mechanic, presents some statistics to shsow tlsust steam propulsion, as a substitute for horse haulmige has not been successful on the New York and Erie Canmil. He says: Steammi niachuinery, of thirty horse power, comprisin~ boiler, emigine anol whineels, lint into a eanal-boat, will cost ahomit $2,500, and will occupy in the boat the space of abomut 80 tuns of frei~ht. As a steani canal boat of this power of engimie, amud 90 feet homing, caminot carry as munch freight as omue of the smmame size towed by huorses, it should cemuiliemmsmite by Sli ed for its greater cost bunt smuchils said inmost tom lie flue case. A boat towed by horses usually makes mm trill froommi Bimifalo to Albany in about femi days, and I have muot hiemird of mm steam causal boat that does it in nuouchi less t-imuucmuot, accorrilug to) may recolleetiomi, emmonghi less to l)reohicate umpon ft the chaini of a business imuiproveniemuf. The dihlereuice ims f-lie accoumits of thou two boats, witluomif mmieuitiouuium~ those expenses which wouhd be alike to both, for a- tuip frommi Binmff~ulo to Alhimummy, muia~y be thins stmitecl: STEAM eANAa BOAT. hut crest omi ., 4,000, the cost of flme boat, for 10 days, $7 67 Comil, ~ lieu ihumy 0 00 Enguumeer, a-f $2 per day 20 00 Total 57 67 170 funs of freight, at $5 per fun 850 00 Balance 792 83 BOAT TOWED BY HORSES. Imutemest on $1,500, flue cost of the boat, for 10 days, . 2 87 Towimi_ , at S per day 50 00 Totmil 52 87 200 tuuuus offreighut, at $5 lieu fun 1000 00 Bahamuce ~947 13 By the above comuipuirisomin of accounts, if is phainhy seen thumut steamui lmr(ihimmlsiomi of camual boats, a-s yet, has been but ami esqoemisive ammumusenuemut, or mmnremumuerafing novelty. flue writer goes oms n-f sonic lemigth, as lie has douse in formiser comnmnumnicmmtiomus, to argume agmuimust the ecomi- oinuiny of steummas oui time eumuimul. It is omihy by experiment thumit flue ecomiomuiy of umusy system ca-mu hoe deternuimied, mmmid Imerhialos mi f lie cemiter of New York where coal is so expemusive, horse power is eheumper thams steamus power for eummual hiaumlmmge. Amud yet the above statement is very uminismitisfactory to ems, because we have been assur- e(l, thuat instead of ten days, the steam canal bomits have musade the trip in five, whuiels would reduce flue workimug expenses to omue half of the mibove estimate. As boats are built during flue winter season for canal navi- guif ion in suimmer, now is the proper time to canvass this sunhuject thorouighhy. The Secret of Table Turning. This phenomenon is thumus pithihy described in 0-mice a JFeek: Youu una-y iniow proceed to your crowuuimug exhmerminuieuit, which comusists hum muma-kimug the tables rise clear oft thue gronmud, still muaintainimm~ its n~muighit Imositioum. As a prehuummumuary, you mummike ut m thinrou~h sonic cxtraordinamy evolutloinis by al- teuuuately pm coin amid ~iushiiinmg flue toli with your hands, comutuamy to Mmiii mel harmi-days theory, by rofluuitemy and umot involninitamy inminuscuilmir action. You thucum allow flue table mm little icqmmfe nliule you cross thie right lc~ over tIme left kumec, amid mini,cint flue cud of your ri~hit foot under the base whuiclm sumlmlmout-, flue colummuinum; umma-infaims thue puessure of your hmmmuids as iii stin aughuteum your leg, amid flue fable will rise perluenolincuil suly about two feet fuomum flue groumuid. Before, hiowevem mmftcuumhmtin(r this astoumndin~ feat, care shmoumhd be takeus tIm it umo n amy imersoum is sifting within reachi, or lie ninay dash out his feet (as a friend of nile did) and catch you umnoler flue ankle, piumuming you to the table, with your he_ in flue air, a position from whuichin you will fluid great dif- ficulty ms extricatin~ yourself, without bringing flue s~omice to aim i~noniinions fcuuumiumafion. STEAM ExPANSiON. A correspomidemut, writimug umpon f-lie suibjeet of worhdmug steamus expansively, says both lmmurties mime right. Workumug stemum expaussively is ecomionsical in quick-acting engines, because the st-eam hums so little tune to condense ins flue cylinder. It is the comutramy in slow motion. This pertains ously to this omie if-em; f-here may be misamay other causes why scineusce mind practice do usot agree here. It uneest be re- uneusbered that steam is simply huarnessed electricity, uminiri thuaf it is the electricity that escapes, and not the lieumt alone, line a slow actionelectricity is the force. I shuall muout be responsible for this, however, as I knoiw nothing at mill mshmouut the stemim engine, and the sememice of thue dumy mi thiust direction. IF 100 parts of tolhouv (by wei~ht) are mixed with 25 of cuirbonate of soda, and heated to 360~ Fah. in a close boiler, a good soap will be foruned. It has gen- erally been sumphuosed that thue cmmrbonate of soda would not combine with a fatty acid to form soap and fIsh is true at the ordinary boiling temperature of uvater but not at high temperature. The velocity of air runshing into a vaeuuum mit tIme level of the sea, is about 1,338 feet per second. Kind Victor Emanuel has accorded 200,000 fummmucs in aid of the public schools to be established iii Naples. In making alloys of copper and zinc to form brass, the metals require carefuil stirring in flue cuincible. A rod of soapstomse, about ten inches in length, fit-ted into a piece of common gas pipe, makes time lest stirrer f~ir this purpose whiels can be unseri ; flue soumlnstone is time- proof and will not fuse. Pure mom in a state of minute division is miow munch used in medicine as a powerful tonic. If is produced by seducing tIme best olumalities of iron with hydrogQuu, whereby all the impurities are expellerl. Thue affimmity of this iron for oxygen is so great, that, if mm pimuch of it lie thrown info time atnuosphere, it will f-mike fire. It is kept for use us herunetically sealed glass phials. Nitric acid, which is much used in galvanic batteries, stains flue skin of the luands a dirty yellow colon, which is very difficult to remove. M. Swartz, in the Repem- toire de Chimumie, states that such stains may be removed by flue sulphide of ammonium and a little caemst-ic potashs. This removes the epidernuis wlsich has been stained. Professor E. Lankester, M.D., P.11.8., says of cons- sumption, in one of his lectures: The avant of a free supply of fresh air, and the want of getting rid of cmii- bonic acid gas from the hounse and the lummugs, mere flme greatest sources of this disease. Dr. Carl Eylerts, a (Sermumams cluenuist, has oliseovereol a muew acid in maim-ow which lie has inuamed numednulhic acid. Its formeulme is C ~ ~[ O~ mind if s meltimug point is 72.5g. The compositiomi of ox numirrow is pa-h- mitic mucid, 46 pen rent; meduilhie acid, 10 per cent: elude acid, 44 per cemit. lime Lomudon (lieaiicel NUts states that hauminirlreds of bumurels of the clarified fat of horses mime imusponteol fnomni Ostemud to Erugha-nol amid sold in Lomidomu fom gemummimme butter. Pies mend puddings iuiade of sunch a savory substance must be very tempting to epicures. A new fact in the history of alummuinum consists iii its now being reduced, in the hands of the gold beater, in France, into leaves as tlsin as those of silver amiol gold. These results have been arrived at only with very great difficulty. The annealing of the alumminuns nuust be frequently repeated, and cannot be performed in the ordinary manner as with silver and gold. Other- wise, the operation of beating is conducted in the usual manner. A Pittsburgh cotemporary contains the followin~ sensible advice: The public are askina whether some method cannot be devised for warmino flue cars umpomi city railroads, and somuse suggest that stoves be placeol in thuem. A better plan would be to ahlouv the self- propelling cars to be put upon the roads. Then thue steam which drives the cams could be numuule to keep them comfortable. Metahhic paper is produced by caulsiung veiny thins f-mu foil to adhere to sheets of paper. Ihils neaterimil adnuits of many nseful applications: it is sumpemior to pemme f-in as a kydrofmoge, applied to damp walls, prevemuting flue exudations of saltpeter, and mmli kinds of deleterious emanations. Applied to the backs of paintings, it hirotects them a~ainst flue damaup of f-hue uvahl, & c. Cadmium promotes flue fusibility of sommue muetals, as tin, copper, lead amsd bismuiths, while it does not ~uino- musofe flue fusibility of othuems, as silver, amitimuuousv, & c., that is, it does not lower die nielting poimut lueyomud flue nucaus. Its alloy with lead amid tin in any propoutiomi, and with silver and mercuiry within a certaimm hiunuit, sumol equal part-s and especially if two I)arts of silver ammy omue of eadnsieuuui, or tuo parts of eadmusiuns and omue of mercury are used, are tenaciomus and malleable, uvhsile its alloys uvith sonse nealleable metals-gold, copper, platinum, & e., are brittle. Toilet sponges nsay be bleached snow white mis fol- lows -Sohect the softest sumitahuhe for the punrhlose, then dip it into hot water; take it out, cool and sqeteeze it in the hand. Now, put it into dilute hydrochloric acid (muniatic), amud allow if to steep for hsalf ais hour; then take it out and wash in hot water again Now steep it for 24 hour in a fresh bath of dilute hydrochloric acid, to which six per cent of dissolved hyposuiphite of soda has been added. This treatment will nuake the sponge quite white; it is finished by washing again in warm water. 39 40 Improved Connecting Link. broken, the chain must be carried to the shop to be ing illustrations. Fig. 1 is a side elevation of the im- This is an invention remarkable for simplicity, cx- mended, which involves a loss of time besides expense, proved rail joint; Fig. 2 is a top view of Fig. 1, with tensive application and great ntility. Its use is to to say nothing of the inconvenience at the time of the a horizontal section through one end of a rail secti6n; connect parts of mechanism, & c., which have to be oc- breakage, compared to which the price of these con- Fig. 3 is a cross section taken through the rail at the casionahly disconnected, but particularly to take the necting links is but a trifle, joint; and Fig. 4 is a perspective view, showing one place of laprings, which are such an annoyance to far- Every teamster using stay chains, trace chains, ox end of a rail section. Similar letters indicate like parts mers and teamsters. A laprmg Is used to connect a chains, or chains of any kind, would find it advanta- on all the figures. single tree to a double tree ; a single tree to a plow ; geous to keep a few of these links in readiness, so that A A represent the ends of two sections of the ordin- the parts of a broken chain, and for similar purposes. when a chain breaks there may be no delay. The third ary T-rail. The ends of each section are swaged or cut It consists of an open ring, the ends of which are ex- or fourth modification of link would be very suitable out in the manner represented by Fig. 4. The outer tended and lap on each other about half around, and, to attach a watch to a watch chain ; in fact, their ap- lip of the rail table is cut out on a vertical plane with when open, these ends are a sufhicient distance apart to plication will sug~est itself to many purposes not now the rails neck, a suitable distance from each end of the admit the parts which are to be connected ; and after thought of. rail, and then beveled or cut obliquely to the line of these parts are slipped into the lapring, the lapring The manufacture of this link is very simple. The the rail ; thus forming the shoulder portions, a. The ends are h mmered together. end of the rail is again cut as When disconnection is to take represented, forming a slot, b, 7 place, these ends have to be .1~9. ~ into the the thin portion or pryed apart witk a chisel or neck of the rail. An elliptical similar tool. The objections to hole, c, is then punched through this laprin~ are, that after tIme the neck of the rail section ends are thus bent forward and near the end of it, as repre backward a few times, they are seated in Figs. 1, 2 and 3. subject to break off; also, that Each rail end may be thus when the ends arc not sufli- shaped if it is desirable to se ciently closed the parts will cure every joint with the un work out, and when they are Proved fastening, but each cor- sufficiently closed, it requires responding rail end is formed a chisel or substitute to open as represented by Fig. 4. them again ; and even then A piece or fishing bar of this is difficult to accomplish nietal, ID, extends some dis- without a vise or other means tance on each side of the mail to hold the ring during the ( joint. The outside of this operation. None of these ob- piece or plate of metal is plane jections can l)e urgeil against the inside is of a convex this connecting link. / form, to correspond exactly to The link No. 1, in the ac- ( the shape of the rail at the companying figures, has all the / K side, and to fit in snu~ly be- strain upon the pivot, and is - tween the base and the lip of easier attached and detached. It the table. When put into its will not become loose as long as place, it serves as a brace, and any weight bears on either side of it; nothing less than quick KIRKS Th~PROVED CONNECTING LINK, also as a bar for the bolt nuts. E is a bar of about the same successive jerks can detach it from the object to which iron is dmawn out into flat sheets of the pioper thick- length as the piece, ID ; it is formed so as to fill up the it is attached. ness, and then, while hot, cut into the required shape side of the rail that is ut out, as shown in Figs. 2 and No. 2 has no strain upom~ the pivot ; it is easier in a die. Or, to preserve the fibers of the iron, it is 3, and thus give additienal support for the weight it is manufactured, and preseiits better security against ac- drawn to the proper dimensions and bent to the re- to bear and strength toothme rail neck at the joint. It cidental detachment. If only partially closed, a strain quired shape in a die or form. Both of these processes will be understood that this piece will break joints upon the same will close it. are particularly suitable to No. 2. with the rail joint. F is a lip which projects froni No. 3 is niore coniplex in construction ; but This Connecting Link was patented, through the the inside of the piece, E, amid passes through the two it combines all the other ad- slots in the ends of the rails vantages of Nos. 1 and 2, when they are brought to without using the same gether, and it projects slight- amount of nietmd to preduce ,~. ly through the opposite side the same strength. lime ends of the neck of time rail. A of this himik being turned un screw bolt, d, projects from (Icr, the round parts form- each end of the piece, F, amid there are nuts on these bolts hug tIme extremes emunnot fbi locking or screwimig up straighteim out, mind therefore the joint. Each end of the its strength is nearer to tIme piece, , under the tensile than the transverse E projects strength of tIme metal. There rail table, so as to support ________ the table at the beveled end, is no strain upon the pivot a a. Holes arc punch- of this link. No. 4 is simply a link similar ed through the piece, E, cor- responding to those in thie to No. 3, but of lighter con- _______ neck of the rail and the fish- struction, and without ends ________ lug piece, ID. This latter has turned nuder ; it is partien- a recess cut into its inner sur larly suitable for saddlery and R ~. other light work. face to receive F, and has The number of laprings in holes for the screw bolfs, d d. usc is large There are HEARDS IMPROVED RAILROAD JOINT. very With this improved rail some 3,000,000 of farmers in joint, the ends of rails are the United States, and if half of this number average Scientific Amemican Patent Agency, to John P. Kirk, rigidly secured against springing in any direction, and one span of hiorses each, they require 1,500,000 of double of Austin City, Texas, on Nov. 13, 1860; and further the piece, E, which serves to strengthen the rail at trees formed of two sin~le trees, each attached to the information in relation to it may be had by addiessing the joint, receives a portion of the rolling load and main tree by two laprings. When a corn or other crop Robert Creuzbaum, as abox e. transmits it to time base of the rail. And, while this has to lie cultivated in rows, these sin~le trees are dis- rigidity at the joint is secured to prevent the rmumls conmiected and attached to single plows, one horse to Improved Railroad Joints, springing, a free end play is at tIme same time secured each. This gives 3,000,000 of laprings constamitly re- rhmere are at present more than 30,000 miles of rail- to provide for the expansion and contraction of the qmmired on hand for this purpose mdoiie. Sul)pose the road in the United States, and there is no part of the metal with changes in the temperature of the atmos- other half of the farmers to use oxen to cultivate their permanent way which causes so much trouble as phere. Greater safety in traveling is also secured hmy lamids: they again require single trees to work their the joints of the rails. It is at these points that the this mode of fastening rail joints thman by the old oxen sin~ly within time rows, and, if not solely used rails are most liable to spring and be worn away by the m5thods. for flint puirpose, they also require laprings. If one-third passing of trains over them. Every improvement, The patent for this invention was granted, through of these single trees nr~ to be used for other purposes, therefore, which tends to render the joints of rails the Scientific American Patent Agency, on the 13th of they require 1,000,000 more of these laprings, or else more secure, and less liable to be crushed by the roll- November last ; patents have also been secured in connecting links in their phitee. ing stock, inures to the permanency of the track and France and England through this office. Further in- Again: each of these 1,500,000 yoke (mf oxen misc an to a corresponding saving of expense. This is the ob- formation amay be obtained by addressing the p texmtee, ebain each, winch is liable to be broken and. if heet of the improvement rePresented b the aeeeropanv- l)r. .1, M Heard, at aberdeen, Miss 7 7 MUNN & COMPANY, Editors and Proprietors. PUBLISHED WEEKLY At No. 37 Park-row (Park Building), New York. 0. D. MUNN, S. H. ~VALES, A. H. BEACh. TERMSTwo Dollars per annumOne Dollar in advance, and the rensainder in six months. Single copies of the paper are on sale at the ollice ~f l)ttblicatiofl, and at all the l)eIiodical stores in the United States and Canada. Sanspson Losv, Sois & Co., tlse American Booksellers, No. 47 Ludgate Hill, Loisdon, England, are the British Agents to receive sohocriptions for the ScIcNnFIc AsIciticAg. ~ See Prospecttts on last ~sa~e. No traveling Agents employed. VOL. IV. NO. 3 [NEW SERIES.]... Seventeenth Year. NEW YORK, SATURDAY, JANUARY 19, 1860. HOME PROSPECTS. We are the advocates of peace, both foreign and domestic; but as war is Sometimesllnfortunately too oftenan inevitable necessity, we have, in accordance witit the spirit of the times, decided to pat the ScIEN- TIFIC AMERICAN, for one week at least, upon a war foot- ing, regretting, however, the necessity which obliges us to depart, even for so brief a period, from the ex- clusive discussion and elucidation of the beneficent topics for which this journal is altogether intended. Our present number shows that we have brought out the big gun, and that we have got upon the stocks iron plated frigates of war, soon to be in readiness for san- guinary conflict upon the high seas. We have not yet reached those last days spoken of by the good old prophet Isaiah, when the mountain of the Lords house shall be established in the top of the mountain, when He shall judge among the nations, and shall re- buke many people; and they shall beat their swords into plowshares, and their spears into pruning hooks; nation shall not lift up sword against nation, neither shall they learn war any more. For fifteen years past we have had extensive correspondence with mechanics and manufacturers throughout all the States, and we Itave yet to learn that the predictions of the inspired prophet have even an incipient realization on this or any other continent. We know not of an instance where a single rusty old sword has been beaten into a plowshare, but we have heard it announced that even the weather-beaten mus- kets of our distinguished fellow citizen, George Law, have at last found a ready sale. Amidst the general dullness of trade and finance, the forges of Mars are blazing away with unwonted fury, and even strange lire is iSStliIlg forth from their smoky embers. Dragons teetil have suddenly sprting up as armed men, and we can almost hear the shoitt, the shock, the groan of war. This, then, is the ugly side of the question, and before using our big gun to pour broad- sides from our iron frigates, we will stop to think the juatter over a little more seriously. The old adage says that, It is an ill wind that blows nobody good, and this is as true now as it ever was. If our readers suppose that the rumors of wars which now fill the country have destroyed eli trade, enterprise and business prospects, they are roundly mistaken. The printers of daily newspapers have all that they can possibly do to supply the im- mense editions for which the public anxiously calls. The want of a new invention by which papers can be more quickly thrown off was never more sensibly felt than to-day. We are told that the fire-arms and gun- powdcr mttiitltacturers are overcrowded with orders, hInd, in some instances, ate employing double sets of hands and running their works day and night. Colts great establishment, at Hartford, Conn., is said to be flourishing to an astonishing extent. We hear of the farming out from that concern to neighboring machine shops of one job involving forge work for seventy thotmsand arms. We are also told that the New Eng- land wagon manufacturers have received large orders for baggage and transportation wagons; this will also give employment to many. There is an immense de- mand, so we hear, for rubber clothing, coats, pants, boots, knapsacks, buckets, tents, blankets, spreads, and every coaceivable article reonired for field use. All the above goods are, at the present issue, cash articles. Several of the States have appropriated large sums, amounting to millions of dollars in the aggregate, for arms and munitions of war. Nearly all of this money will necessarily go to our mechanics and inventors, and keep thousands of them busy through the winter. The influx of money is very great at the present time. Nearly every steamer from Europe brings us half a million or a million. One steamer, the Persia, from Liverpool, arrived, a few days a0o, with three mil- lions. From California the regular supply is from one to two millions monthly. Meantime, at New York, there are, in our banks and savings institutions, $32,000,000 in specie on hand, and the prices of stocks have, of late, much advanced. Tennessee, North Carolina, Missouri, and some other State stocks, mmproved very sensibly since the 18th of Decem- ber. Illinois Central Railroad stocks, which stood, Dec. 7, at 51, sold January 3d for 79k, an advance of 28~i per cent. New York State 6 per cent stocks, New ~ still remain above par, the latest quotation bein~ 104. In reference to the cotton crop of the Southern States, we understand that the shipments from some of the seaports are very large. At the West, large orders for grain are reported, accompa- nied by the gold. Red Western wheat has risen within a short time, from $1.08 per bushel to $137~. The panic, or hard times, that our people passed through three winters ago appears to have had the effect of preparing them for a similar contingency in the future. We notice that the savings banks of the single state of Massachusetts, contain deposits to the amount of almost fifty millions of dollars. These de- posits are on interest, and consist, almost wholly, of the earnings of mechanics and other working classes. As the total population of that State is only 1,331,- 499 souls, it will be seen that the financial condition of that great mechanical and manufacturing State is extremely good. This desirable state of things doubt- less exists, in a proportionate de~ree, in many, if not all of the other States. By the recent treaty of peace, ratified between China and the Anglo-French allies, that immense empire is now at peace with the world. The previously signed treaty between China and the United States is therefore now brought into practical operation, thus opening to our people an immense and highly profitable market for all kinds of Ameri- can manufactures. The House of Representatives has lately passed a bill for the construction of two greet lines of railroadsa northern and a southern routefrom the JIississ~ppi river to the Pac~fic! It is expected that the bill will shortly pass the Setiate atid become a law. The construction of these railroads will form one of the most gigantic enterprises of the day, will give oc- cupation to hundreds of thousands of workmen and engineers, and will impart a permanent stimulus to every description of business. The Homestead Bill, which has just become the law of the land, gives every man aferni for almost nothisig, provided he will go West and cultivate it. We have thrown together these few items in order that our readers may see that, not- withstanding the political troubles which now brood over the country, our condition, in a financial and industrial point of view, is better than in 1857. With such abundant resources at command, and with our political difficulties composed, a thrill of joy would sweep over our whole land, and start into new life the wheels of commerce and manufacturing in- dustry. PROGRESS OF NAVAL ARCHITECTURE...NAPO. LEONS NEW IRON FRIGATE. It was said of Napoleon the Great, when he was an exile at St. Helena, that if some person were but to elevate his 01(1 grey coat upon a pole, in some corner of France, all the rest of Europe would quake. It is pretty much the same with his successor, the present emperor. All Europe watches every movement of Louis Napoleon with the most sensitive interest, and his prolific genius keeps all the nations of the Old World busy. No sooner does he adapt some new idea and commence to put it into practice, than John Bull straightway follows in his footsteps. This is especially the case with naval affairs, as it would never do to allow the French to surpass the English in mari- time efficiency. In nautical skill, and in all that con- cerns the manning aI~sd maneuvering of ships, England has long maintained a decided supQrioritv but with 41 that scientific grasp of intellect for which the ruler of France js distinnuished, he, sometime ago, concluded that it was perfectly possible to construct war ships, so invulnerable in their character, as to give them the same advantage over others more ably manned but less skillfully constructed, which a soldier, furnished with a coat of mail, has over a nude antagonist. In carrying out his ideas, he has produced La Gloire, a great war frigate covered with thick plates of steel, and perfectly proof against shells, and almost so against solid balls. As to the necessity of commercial nations adopting this entirely new system of building war vessels, we think there can be no question. Mr. H. Vivian, a member of Parliament, in writing to the London Times respecting the La Gloire, gives it as his opinion that the best wooden war ships are as useless in her presence as the old flint musket is before the Minhi rifle. Ten vessels of the same class are now building in French dockyards, so that England must endeavor to meet the issue of supremacy, when it comes, by equal, if not superior ships. In order to encounter such vessels ns the La Gloire on equal terms, two giant iron frigates are now being built in Great Britain, and these are intended to be very superior in steam power as well as general construction. One of these frigates, called the Warrior, is now building in London, and the other, called the Black Prince, by Napier & Co., at Glasgow. A corres- pondent, writing to us from Malone, N. Y gives a brief description of this latter vessel, which will be of general interest. He says: As you enter the yard of Messrs. Napier, the first object which attracts attention is a great iron framing resembling what we might fancy would be the skeleton of the Great Eastern. It is at present surrounded by a scaffolding, upo~t which several hundreds of workmen are busily engaged like bees around a hive. The Black Prince is to be 420 feet long; her breadth, 58 feet; depth, 42 feet. She is to be divided into eighteen watertight compartments, and two great Arlustrong rifled guns are appointed for each bulk- head. The bottom is constructed of plates 14 inches thick, and the sides lined with plates lths of an inch thick. Over this is to be laid teak wood planking, 1 foot thick; and the teak is to be covered with wrought iron plates, each l5~j feet long, 3 feet wide, and 4~ inches thick. All these iron plates are made in the best manner. They are tongued and grooved on the edges and ends, so that they fit most accurately into one another, and make watertight joints throughout the whole hull. All the iron plates are cut and punched close to the vessel, whereby the fitting of them is rendered very convenient. When completed, the Black Prince will be 10,000 tuns burden, and her screw engines, now being built by Penn & Co., of London, will be 1,250 horse-power. No person can have an adequate idea of the great size and strength of such a ship without actually be- holding it, but the account given will convey such an idea as will at once render it apparent that no wooden frigate could possibly compete with it. The conclusion at which our correspondent arrives respecting such an iron ship is reasonable. It appears to us that such a frigate could walk through an entire fleet of wooden war ships as easily as a life guards- man could cut his way through a regiment of paste- board soldiers. In addition to the above, we find some further information on the same subject in the London Engineer. It states that the entire shells of the Warrior and Black Prince are made of the best scrap iron, which has been found far superior to common rolled iron for resisting shot. The ribs which spring from the keels are 3 feet 8 inches apart, and are T-shaped beams; alid inside of these another set of iron beams run along the whole length at intervals of 5 feet, and all strengthened with enormous iron girders. The decks are to be covered with timber, supported on huge iron arches. The engines are to be so protected that no shot will be able to reach them, and the stem and stern nmay be completely riddled and yet the frigate will float.. When finished, each of these vessels will certainly be a leviathan of the deep. WHAT WE MOST NEED. Food and raiment are the chief of the material wants of man; if we have these wants fully satisfied, we should have necessity for little besides, at least for the physical man. Thus, tailors and cooks, who make the final preparation of the things we most need, seem to be the most worthy of the dignity and praise which are always denied them. If we consider a house with its appurtenances as a kind of mantle or overall for the family, we very readi- ly arrive at the conclusion that nearly all kinds of mechanical and chemical work have in view, directly or indirectly, the wants of the stomachs or skins of men. A steam engine grinds corn or weaves cloth, or if it builds a railroad or a ship, it is only to transport the corn and cloth to the consumer. The first inventions of men, of course, were such as ministered to their necessities or pressing wants. The 42 gar(ldn of L(len was so happily planted, and Adam was ~ perfect, tlmt all his wants, as soon as felt, were s disfied, and he had no use for an inventive faculty. Ilut a change caine, and the garment of fig leaves was invented all invention the first among menand the rude l)rototype of all the strangely fangled notions of tailors an(l milliners. When the human family in- creased beyond the narrow limits of a tropical climate, or perhaps in Eden, when winter came on, they in- vented for themselves more l)elfect garments from the bark of trees and the skins of animals. The arts of preserving food and building houses must have beemi very early learned, and the improvements in food and raiment must SOOli have cnlminate(l in the invention of roast heef awl breeches, which may still be received as symbols of our greatest l)erfection and of our exalt- ation above the brute creation. Many l)eoPle think that if they only had enough to eat and to wear, and at the same time had nothing to do, they would be happy. These are foolish people, for they do not understand how and why nature exacts hi or. It is only after labor that bread tastes sweetest, 1111(1 rannent is most becoming. Some of our paupers are practical illustrations of these do-nothings; they in- caliacitate themselves for labor by the practice of lazi- hess, and tile State gives them enough to eat and to w(ur, and they have nothing to (10 Iiesi(les the necessities of victuals, clothes and labor, there is perhaps a necessity of amusement or recreation for the senses; the ear needs music; the nose, fragrant o(Lors; the eye, gay colors ; tile tomlgile, 5pices, & e. Ihese wants open a wille field for invention; they call into action the talent of such as Beethoven, Piesse, the French ulilliner, an(l the great anil lamented Soyer. A New Instrument for Taking Horizontal and Vertical Angles. Mr. Abel Ware, of Athens, Maine, recently obfaimle(l letters patent Oil a new surveying instrimmellt, 0110 of which lie exhibited at our office a few days ago. As a Imiece of workmanship it is exquisitely fine, and the improvements which the patent secures appear to be of much importance in furnishing a cheap amid port- able initiumnemit, which are both desiderate to the l)ractical surveyor. Ihie object of the invention is the liroduetion of an instrunment which is adapted to the imicasurement of both vertical ansi horizontal angles, arl(l is much more simmilile iii its comistruction and less expemisive thami the theodohite, while it is capable of lielformaing the work of the transit and of the circum- Icrentor, though its cost does but slightly exceed that of either of these instrunmemits, thins meeting a long- filt miccessity for ami imistrumnemit which shall be cheap, coniliact, portable, and simificiemitly correct to supply the ordimmary requiremnents of the lamad surveyor in taking bothi vertical and horizontal angles. To effect this purpose, the several parts of this instrument are combined in such a mamimler thant by tIme use of but one gra(luate(l limmib or circle amid rotating vernier imlate or carriage with its sights or telescope, both hurl- zomital awl vertical amigies can be taken. The imivemitor will be haippy to give further informnation imi regard to his imistrimmusemits upon being addresse(l as above. AiswaeAzs AT SEvAsToror,. When this city was be- siege(l by sea ansi lamisi, a few years since, the Ilussians sunk a large fleet of war vessels in the river and har- bor, to prevent themmi falling imito the possession of the British and French, and also to render the river lmminavigal)le. After time Crimean war was concluded, our countrymami, (olomiel (iowan, made a contract with the ilussiami government to raise the sunkemi ves- sels amid clear the chiammel of the river. For several years lie has been engaged in fulfilling his contract, and has, by the latest news, rendered the river once more navigable. He employs daily about 200 men, who, with his clerks, & e., occupy tue naval arsenal, which was eomivsrtesl imito a renslezvous specially for thisma. The s sjseratn us comimmesteul ~vi thi the raisimig of immikemi ships, & e. , are omi a large an(l grand scale ; by time imnproved apparatus which Colonel (iowan uses Isis firmncmpd divers belting aisle to remaimi in 22 fathioms of wsster for time space of fumur hours; and though the operations have exfsmmsled over four years, only one a( cident has happened, and that was the drowning of one of the (livers in comaseqimence, of one of the air pipes bursting under the pressnre of the air, which was being pumped into it. It is supposed that Colonel Gowans operatiomis will yet occupy two years. ROMANCE OF THE STEAM ENGINE. ARTICLE VI. SAvzluvsrmmps INDICATORSTEAM FmRE-EIeCINE. After the Marquis of Worcester, the next steani in- vemitor of prominence who appeared on the stage of time was Captain Thomas Savery, also an English- minian. This was about thirty years after the noble Marquis had been laid to rest at Ragland Castle. Very little is known of Savery as a man, but he published a pamphlet in which we have a record of his mechanical and inventive abilities. It is certain that he possessed considerable wealth and that he had acquired a thorough praetieal knowledge of mechanics. In 1718 no less a personage than the great Sir Isaac Newton made a report to the government on the praeticabihity of a maehiine invented by Savery for measuring a ships way at sea, wiiieh, from the description, appears to have been principally composed of a set of blades placed omi a vertleal spindle set down under a ships bottom, and which was revolved by the water. It communicated motion to an indicator through a train of gearing, like that of a gas meter. Captain Savery also constructed a fire-engine and exhibited it before King William, at Hampton Court, and the monarch was highly pleased with its performamice. At this pe- riod Newton was president of the. Royal Society, and mill matters of science and mechanics were treated be- foie that body with profound respect. To this insti- tution Captain Savery carried his imivention, and in its tiamisactiomis is a record of an experimemit masle with it before its members, imi their apartuiemit. It is stated to hiax c been quite successful, but we are miot left in doubt as to what the engine was, as the msccompamiying emigravimig ms a representatiomi of it, takemi from the primuted volummie of proceedings foi thie year 1699. In the hihistratiomi, k is a pipe which comidumets the steani frommi a boiler, left out of tue figuire to mender the exl)lanatiomi more clear. The steamii passes into two meceivems similar iii forni to metorts. A pipe, i, bramich- lug from each of these vessels is inserted into their bottoms; e e df are valves opening outward and pre- ventingby their actionthie return of any water that may have been fomced through them. A pipe, Is, proceeding from the cistern also branches to both re- ceivers, and is inserted into the top of each. Valves are placed at c c, by which a communication mnay be opened or shiut off with the boiler, alternately, accord- ingly as they mmiay be adjustedone being open when thie other is closed. Steam from the boiler being permitted to flow first into either of the receivers, the water which that re- ceiver contains is forced by the steam pressing upon its surface, up one of the branches of the pipe, i, and when the vessel is thus emptied ofthe water and filled with steam, the valve, c, is (hosed, and communication with the boiler mit ff. Cohsh water is thinen smuffereth to flow over the sumrfiice of thie vessel, which thins con- denses the steam within and forms a vacuum. The pressure of the atmosphere now forces water from a cistern or xvell below up the pipe, /s, into the empty vessel. At the instant~ steam was shut out from one receiver it was admitted into the other, by turning the other steam valve, and then the water was forced from it up the pipe, i, during the peTiod that conden- sation was being effected in the other vessel, and so on, as hias been described. In this manner, by the employment of two close vessels stamidimig in the sanie relatiomiship to omie another a5 the two cylinders of a common fire-engine, first by the pressure of steam and then by its condensation alternately in each ves- sel, a conmtant column of water was raised from a cis- tern and forced to an elevation proportionate to tue pressure of the steam. This was certainly a direct steam engine, and was recommended principally for raising water from mines. It would, and did, do thais, but not economically, although it exhibited much imi- genuity. Its inventor was rather despised than appre- elated by the owners of English mines, for whose bemi- efit it was chiefly designed. Subsequently he added several iniprovemnents to this engine, which will be il- lustrated in our next article on this subject, together with a further account of this very worthy invemitor. MECHANICS, ATTENTION~...TURNING TOOLS. The proper shape of a tool employed for turmilming metal can only be determined by experience, aided h~y a philosophical knowledge of the laws which gsmvermi motion. The relation of the curve or straight line to the ends desired to be attained must be as camefuhly considered as that of any motive agent whose aetiomi is correspondingly valuable to man. A tool which has merely a very sharp and hard edge will not accomn- plish the same useful results as one which is construct- ed upon philosophical principles, with respect to its shape and position. It would save a great deal of that. and expense in macblue shops if a more correct knowl- edge generally prevailed among those who foige tools, so that they mighit forni them as micarly right a5 pos- sible while the iron is hot. Much valumable timmie is wasted imi grinding dowmx tools to the pioper shape after forging, a great dal of n hichi tinie might be ecomioniized. If we consider the first pminciple of a euttimig tool, we shall fimid it to be that of the wedge, and thiat imi its performance it separates thie atoms counprisimig a whole by cleaving them asunder within mome or less force, as its shape is coirect or incorrect; but the way imi which the actiomi of thinat wedge is to be applied is the secret of the whole art of tool mnakiming. Speaking of tools, we do not in this connection recognize amy but roumghing tools. Let us suppose a round shaft to be in the lathie, and the tool applied to it ; the first consideration is whether the one in hand is such as to act within ecomio- niy, and produce good workmanship. The surface of the shaft is to be turned down one-fouith of an inch and it is a well known law that all revolvimig bodies throw off at a tangent within their circumferences what- ever is loosely attached to or detached from their sumr- faces. In obedience to this law, the object to be attainesl is to turn the surface of the iron so that its mefuse will run in a tangent. Now, supposing the tool to be moving laterally, as it does in operation ; if the edge be inclined at an angle of 450, the chip will first endeavor to pass off at a tamigent, but, as it nicets within resistance fiom the cuttimig edge amid the surface, it will deviate froni that direction, and, running dowmi the angle of 450, a corrugated and very brittle ciiip is produced. If we alter the edge of the tool so that its point reachines high above the centers of the lsthe, and set its angle sloping partially, instead of arbitrari- ly to the right, while its cleaving edge forms a tangemit (or nearly one) with thie circumferenee, the chip pro- duced will run off the tool in a true spiral, and vary but slightly from the pathi we claim it shinould travel. In the first mentioned instance, the tumning produced, although apparently even and true, is not and cannot be so evemi and perfect as that produced by the second tool set forth. The fmuct of the emitters being higii above the centers of the lathe prevemits the work froni rolling upon amid chattering it, as it is called. Moreover, by tesuing the heat of the two chips, pro- duced as described, as they leave tine tool, it will be founsl that the hmist-ninsntionecl is not so hotconic- quiemith the tool workish with less frictiomi on thie nietal, and thierefore hess power was mequmimed to duive the work. When we consider this fact, we directly re- cogminise its great valnie ; for, if we admit that omie in- strument is more economical of power than amiother we must admit that the freest working one will re- move more iron in a shorter space of time From uhi~ recognition, the pecuniary value of thine instrument be- comes evident. But in discussing the quality of tools which have keen edges and cut clean, we do not allude to faney tooL, made merely br exI)erilneut. It is l)ear them slowly aiid silently under the sharp cutting edges molly the l)raetical advantages to be (lerivecl from ~ of the tools, and thin shavings of the metal, which, as they are cut, coil up in long bright ringlets of iron, attest the experiment that makes it valuable by the form of the trenmendons power of these noiseless and all but omnipotent chip taken in working his lathe, we can, in some ~ machines. When the edges and surfaces are made perfect ly smooth, like the finest work of the cabinet maker, tIme nrc, jndgc of a craftsmans skill. l)lites are placed on an emid, gripped firmly by a mortising A revolution in the shape of cutting tools is gradu- machine, and, as they travel slowly backward and forward in our best machine shops ten years in the framework against a small tongue of steel, a groove ally taking place of about one inch in width and depth is formed, into which ago the rliamnond point was regarded as the neplos the corresponding projections formed on the side of an- c/be of roughing tools, but those now in mmse are very otlmer plate will fit with time most perfect accmmracy, time l)lates all being umade to dovetail on each of time fommr sides. ulitihremmt in slmape, mmd are (liftietmit to describe without _________________________ illmmstrntiomms. Mode of Spiking Cannon. Every mnan, of c(mmmrse, muakes his tools to suit him- From the ntmmnber of inqimiries which which have self, h)mmt as each handicraft is improved by individuals been put to us since Colonel Anderson spiked the e(mmnp(msing it, we ask time mLttelmti(mn of our workmnen to cammon at Charleston, as to the way spikiming is their cutting tools, and try what progress can be mnade done, we are led to believe that a large majority of in this dim ection. persons are ignorant of the process. To emulighten sue h, we have had the mmnexed views engraved to CAN WATER BE USED AS FUEL! illustrate the I)lans most usually adopted. Fig. 1 it is quite a comumon belief that water thrown on a liercely raging lire acts as freslm fmmel to the flamnes, and mnakes the fire hotter. A little consideration of the nature of water, an(l the laws of combtmstion, will ,homv thmt this belief is an error. Water, for nemmtrahizing heat, is far more efficiemut thu-nm any other substance. Ihirteen pounds of water, at 212 , in elmaging into steam, will practically ex- tinguish all the he:mt from the burning of a pound of coal a thermomneter placed in thue steam will not be raised mm single degree, althoumgh, in fact, heat enough is gemierate(l l)y the burning coal to melt nearly ten l)ounds of cast iron. Nothing will put out a fire 50 (111i(-k as mvater. limit it is saiul that water may be (lecomnpose(l when thrown on time fire, mund that theum it will bum-n this is nearly the truth. Ilue water may be decom- posemi, bunt not in such a way that the oxygen of the water can assist in the burning of its Imydrogen. rilme separation of the elements of water re(lmuires and con- sumnes a great beat the oxygen of the water eomnbines with its equivalent of carbomin, and so much carbon is, in effect, taken fromn the liie and produces no heat. When the water is thus decomposed, an equmivalent of hydrogen simnphy takes tIme place of its eqmmivalent of carbon, and gives omut in bmurmmimmg precisely the same amount of heat as is attalumble f mom the carbon. Of course, as hydrogen is a gas and carbon mu solid thue (lec-omposition of water in a cluarcoal fire would give a flame where otherwise tlmere would be none. Now, if these facts be pinut together, we arrive at time pimmetical concluisioum that if water be thurown on a lire, in the first place a gremint deal of heat will be consumed in comuverting thue water into stemmun and, in the second place, tluat if umminy of thue steam is decommuposed, thue hy- drogen set free will be at time expense of its equiva- lemut of carboun, and can, in bumming, produmee no more Imeat thmmn the carbon. Manufacturing Iron Ship Plates. tIme followbug grapluic description of manumfactumring time ir mm plates for the Emmglish war steamer IFem-mier is fromum time London Emmgimmcer ihe tests which weme inui)h)lied to time hmlates fuurnishued by time humihhers of time lLmmm-ior wem-e of time umost tryimug chuar- umct(-r. Sommue lilates were fireil at witim fit-pomimuders, at 2(10 ymmrds range, ummud were literally cut in Imalves by balls fired cue after ammotimem- omm a lime drawim on time surface, eachm ball striking immunmediately hmeluw its hiredecessor. Upon sonne othuer plates time halls mmmdc a cimemmiar hudemutation umpon time simm-face mmeariy as dccli as time lilIes, exactly of tIme foum of time hmru,jem-tiie, amnil inns though a maoiml lend h)een takemm of it un smumume soft mmmd yieimhimmg smmimstammce. It was omuly after relmeated tm-mis that it was decided thumut tIme plates 5h1(mmnld lie of ammimealed scraim im-omm. lime labor imuvolved in Imumilding up timese plates is enormumoums. 1mm time first iumstanee, sumall scraps of imoum ame throwmm imito tIme fires, awl, wimen in a state of mcml lucat, am-e smml)jectcd to sevem-e imammnmmmeming, mmnder tIme steamun huammumnuer, ummitil time whole is bemmtemm amud ammummiganmated unto a soliul mumass of muhomut Imalf a tmmmi wei~imt. T imis inumup is tlmemn placed omm time top mit mm simmuilar munmuss, time nvluole mnmmmde reil hot, mmmd luamimumered ammd welded togetimer. lielmeated additiomus (if timis kimud am-e mmmade ummutil ahommt five tmmus of mmm(-tal mmmc thins welmh(-(l togethuer imm one hmmmge simapeless bomhv. limis is tlmemn hmrommgimt tum a gimiwimug whmite meat, anil imlacel mimumler time lmmmge ma mmmmmmm-m, timi- I immmmmderimmg imimuuvs rif wimim-im gm-a initially m-mmimmm-m it imutmm siem he. A gaium a mmml a gal mm flue emmimi- mmmmmmms sia ii is i mint mini mm tim - I mmmmmmmee a mmml hmaummnmereml immt(i (mmmc lice of 13 feet limmug, 3 feet wimle miumml 44 immeimes timick. -momma temu to a miozemi mmmemm mmmc emigmigech imm tIme work of mmmov- mmmmmsses of iromm,whicim arc moved umbomit ~wmmmg time mmmoitemm mmmass fmommm time fmmrummmm-es to time hmammmummem mm imicehy mudjinusted balaumee is lmroviied (my mm mmmmmssive iromm lever, omme (-11(1 m)l wimicim is welled immto ammil forums imamt m)f time mimetmul, ammil tlmis is lirmivided with mm dozemm om- immiare mmf inoins or handles, tiny wimicim tIme imoum emmum be tunruned lun mnmny dimectiomin for tIme imimutes inure mumit oniy huanmmnuered omm tine broad smim- fmmce, but at tine sides and at time top ammd bottoum. Time imlates, mufter hmmmving been mouiglmly fornacd unto shape, are comumimletely Imimmumemi ammd smimmamech. Plammimug mummelmimmes of eumormuommin size liming thmese pimutes imm timeim um-sistie-ins mmrumms, amud relireseuits mm lommgitumdimumml sectiomi of mm emmummomn, witim its ~rimmmimug luole spiked within mu smmmll u-mint-tail file, as sinown in Fig. 2. TIne steel is driven hard down, as fmmr as it emun go, amud then broken off even with the sum-face of the barrel. The steel is so hmmrd thumut it emunnot be drilled, and so rommgh thumut it cannot be forced out, and is, therefore, time best material used. Figs.~and4 show two forms of wrought iron spikes, which assume the position slnown by the dotted lines when used, and thus camnnot be withdn-aavn withount munch difficuilty. The Mechanism of the Horses Hoof. The hoof of a horse is considered as an epidermic ap- Ineudmugesimilar to nails and claws of 6tiuer animals, amid scales ot fishes, which are produced, mm the first instance, by the growth of cells, the contents of which grmmdualiy evaporate, so timat the walls of ths same gradually approximate each other. In the upper part of the hoofnear its matrix (nnother)these cells are to be observed; they are somewhat flattened against each other, but still retain a rounded form. The hoof, nails and scales, are not traversed by nutrient vessels nor absorbents, as is the case iii regard to the sensitive tissues; amid the flattened cells, when fully developed, vundergo but little change. The chemical analysis of the constituents of the hoof are as follows;- Cmnrbomm 32 limurts Hydrogen 7 Nitrogen 17 Oxygein amud sumlimhimir 14 Total 100 Ammmem-ccemu S/oe/c Jommi-imel. WATER GAS AND THE EnPERoRs HEARTBaron Gundima, the French marine paimuter, describing to tine Liverpool Social Science Association a gas amid water apparatus, happened to say: The Emperor is my friend, and I know tine very bottom of his hineart At these words, Lord Brougham, wino was in tIne chair, suniled and shook mis head; and, at tine conclusioun of the Barons remnuirks, while eulogizing his talents as an artist, added: But, with reference to this great dis- coveryI dont mean that of the bottom of the Em- hneror s hemirt, hunt of tine gas amid avater apparatusI home we slnalh sooma heat more. These wor(hs, deliver- e(l mu time mnmible Loid s (lmyeSt mamnmner, excited roam-s of lmmrnghutem, which seemed to pnnzzle Baromi Gudin im- nucmnsely. PRomEsson NEWBURY thimmks tinat arteslamn wells emuim- muot be homed to ammy advamntage in Ohio. The well imu time State Hovise yard at Columbus has reached a deptin of 2,775 feet (or over humif a mile), mumad yet the watem wull not rise above the surface; and even if avater shall be got, the Professor sumys it avill be warm and salt, and so umafit for mnse. 43 A Sign of Prosperity. MEssRs. EmToRs:Imn your issue of last week, youn say the mechuanical and nianufactuinring industry of the country is at a stamudstill. This is no doubt time case to a considerable extent, mome especially your avay, but much less this way. The factories are all quite busy in the City of Spindles, having just made up their accounts and de- clared good dividends (payable omi demnuamid), and mum-c bunying large imavoices of cottoun at mm low figume. Soimme of them huave immense ordens omi hmund Our mem-humumui- emml establishments are, as mu general rumle, doing nuore mmonv timan they were one year ago; indeed, sevem-al of thuem are doing more than double. Some of theum mum three nights per week until 12 oclock. I learned of one business firni imi your city wino re- ceived, witinin a aveek or two, the lamgest order they huave ever got, and find mo difficulty in iloimag business except in the stringemacy of the imnoney muminrket. It seems to me tinat all ought to endeavor to do mull iii their power to restore confidence. The country wmus certainly never in a better conditionwant of confi- dence alone excepted. Our farmems mmli throumgh this section have raised unheard of crops of wheat, corim, rye, oats, potatoes, amid fruits of nemurly all kimads. Wages hane been good, and are good now. Farmers are advertising for ineip, and everybody about huere seemus to be busy. A. M. S. Lowell, Mmmss.. Jan. 1,1861. [We are glmmd to leamun that (lumlimiess un trmumle is muot sumpreme iii mmli sections of our counutry. If oinr politi- cal differemnees could be composed, joy would fill flue hucarts of all omnr lneople, and pinosperity woumid emowim thue labors of all. Confidence avill inmot, honvever, Inc re- stored umntil ommr. national affairs are settled imu sommue fomun. Ens. Prospects in Mississippi. MEssRs. EDITORS Immelosed I hamad youu $10 fom five yemmrs sumlnscriptionm to your vmmlunable inmuliner, nvhiclu I cannot do witluout, en-emin if tine Ijmniomu is dissolveml I was plemused to see thue Standi youm took iii regard to taking tine notes of sunspended bmmnks imi paynnemat of subscriptions amid money dune youm, amid I shall tell everyone that I sent such money to you for five years subseriptiomi. The Southern banks are as solvent as ever, and imn a short timane exeluamage on New York will be drawn at its unsual rate, say from par to one cemut discoumit, mmd I hereby proffer nay services to youm, if I cain aid youm, iii getting suncin manonney mis you unay take converted imito exelmange omn New York, at livimag rates, of which time I will advise youn. Parmilon me for in- trrnding a bug letter upona yotn ; binut kmaowimmg tinat youm do mnot dabble in political nunatters. ammmi believing thnmut political mnewspapers gemnerally do umot represeunt tine trune teehimag of the people, is muny excuse for writiming thins mucln. TIne South is comauparatively easy, being ann agricultural people and raisimag enough to emit, nun ammainle cottinmn crop selling mint goodi prices, mumumi, mis mu people, macamer omit of debt thamin thminy ever aveme, they are sunuingly fixed up to secede fronin tine Unidmmn witluount feeling it much. Your friend and obt servamat, XV- I. L. Okalona, Miss., Jmmn. 1, 1561. [It does us good, imin these excitimag times, to receive such solid awl cheering evidences of kindly good will from our Southern friends. So long as the peace of the country is secured, our resources are ample and onur people will be happyEns. The First American Locomotive. MESSRS. Ennious An inquiry is going the rounds in relation to the first railroad built in time United States. A locomotive ivas placed on the eastern pom- tioma of tine road frona Carbondale to Homnesdale, Pa, himemioums to 18.30 ; lint nvhaen tine road was hinnmilt, I uho mmot kmaonv. I wmus (here in time snumunnier mf that vean~. and saw tIme locomotive, whiclin had been taken off cia account of the road beimag so sleuidenly built. It ivas muot a passenger road A. H. Schnenevus, N. Y., Jam. 2, 1861. Ar the Augusta (Maine) bridge, a umovel manode of tmamusit for wimuter teams has beeni adopted. A track is lumid tIne entire lemugth of omne carriage way, and a large platform car placed thereon, so consuructed that a load- ed sled eamin be driven upon it amud easily dranvn over. rho object of this invention is to render type enses capable of being made more portable than hitherto, or of much less dimensions, so as to economize in space, and, consequently, in rent and artificial light, and, at the same time, exl)edite the work of the compositor. Type cascs constructed in the ordinary way require to be of such dimen~sions as to preclude the necessity of frequently sul)plying or rcl)lenishing the boxes with type, which would consurite considerable time. This arbitrary size occasions much embarrassment. The hand of the comilositor in the l)rosecution of his work necessarily travels over a great deal of space in a given time, and considerable artificial light is required to render visible all parts of the case. To obviate these (liftlculties, a type case is constructe(l of quite moderate thimensions, so far as area is concerned, but with the case and its boxes made quite deep, so that these l)oxes may hold a com~)aratively large quantity of type, the boxes being provided with movable bottoms, arranged so as to be readily adjusted or raised from time to time to conspensate for the gradual ex- haustion of the boxes, and keel) the type at the surface of the same. This invention was patented by Thos. N. Ptooker, of the New York Tribune office. APPARATUS roa ENLARGING PHOTOOttApILs. The object this invention is to obtain from photo- graphic negatives of a given size, positive pictures of a much larger size. The invention relates to the em- ltloyment of mirrors to reflect the direct rays of the sun through the camera containing the negative, and it consists in so applying and operating a system of minors or reflectors in combination with the camera, whereby, notwithstanding the movement of the earth upon its axis, the rays of light will continue to be reflected in the same direction for as long a time as may be necessary to obtain the print, and distortion of the picture be prevented. The credit of this in- vention is due to J. H. Whitley, of Owego, N. Y. The Recent American Inventions. 7.Edward Dithnidge, of Pittsburg, Pa., for an Improve. followi,ng inventions are among the most useful ment in Pots for Glass Making: claim the use of the secotsd or false back its retorts or pots used for improvements lately patented: usaking glass, as (ICscribed, sod for the porpose set forth. TYPE CASE. 8.C. H. Dolbeare, of Boston, Mass., for an Improvement in Lamps: I claim, its a burner of the kind as specified, the application or srrsogebnent of a tilling tube, D, so as to pass down throttgls the cap, a, substantially us tuanner and for the purpose as set forth. 9.J. H. Durand, of Niles, Mich., for an Improved Clothes- dryer: I clai,u a clothes dryer, A, consistitsg of a series of slats, B, cotassected by cross rails, C, its cousbittation wills tlse litsks, H, atsd legs, B, all ar- ranged and operating in the usassiser attd for the purpose set fortls. [Tlsis clothes dryer is so constructed tlsat it cats be expanded or con- tracted at pleastire, assd Ilsat it cats be used equally well when CXltatsded to its full lessgth or olsen expanded otsly partially. Its legs are nsade so that it will stand firm under all circumstatsces, and tlse rests whicls otsp port Ilse clothes are so arranged that the same do not rise or fall mate- rially wIsest the clothes-dtyer is expassded ot contracted, susd tlsat, wisest the same is used in use open air tsud a .~ndden storm makcs it desirable to lake its tlse clothes, this can be done simply by contracting Ilse closlses dryer ssitlsout daisger of soiling the clothes.] 10.C. Eggeiston, of Beloit, Wis., for an Improvement in Seeding Machines: I claiso, first, The combination with the spoked driving wlseel, B, and conceuittic spur gear, E, of a surroussding case, D, and sled slsafc pinion, F, the w-lsole ars-anged and operating as specified, for the purpose set forth. Second, I claim, its combination with Ilse series of spouts, C, the series of cut-ofiS, v v, assd the adjusatable diamond-slotted bottom, z, atsd slide, W, witlt its hand lever, Rand adjssstable slop, L, the whole constructed aussi operatiusg as described, for the purpose set forth. Third, I claim, in combination with tise semi-cylindrical seed-box bottom, the doutble seed alsaft, G H, wills two sets of gears and central bearing itartilioss, t, and separate cut-ofis to each seed spout, the whole cossstrsscted stud ssperatiusg as specilied for the psurposes set fortls. Font-its, I claim, its cosubinacioss with the spossis, C, attached by re- movable sods, h i, assd set in asud otit as specificd, mite clsasus, g, support- issg adjustable beam, 5, assd the maiss frame witls two beams, H and N, one in advance of the ssther, Ilse uvisole constrsscted stud operating as de- scribed for Ilse purposes set forth. 11.Nicholas Hackett, of Albany, N. Y., for an Improved Chsimney Top: I chasm Ilse employment of the openings, D B B B, neat- the closed end of tise pilse, A, sehess shielded by the caps, F F, assd utoed its com- bissation withs the external cossical case, H, asad the guard, H, as ansI fos- thue isurpose specilied. 12.Joseph Harris, Jr., of Roxhury, Mass., for an Improve- ment in Adding Machines: I chasm the oltring escapement movement, a, in connectissn with the ~sisss, n n, and issclitsed platte, c, working its the massner asud for thse psur- pose described. 13.Alfred Hatlsaway, of Charlestown, Mass., for an Im- Isrovement in Skates: I claim an insproved skate as mssde not only wills its foot rest combissed wills its rssnsser by means of a hsissge, rocker or fsshcrusm, bust with a spring or spruisga so applied to suds runner and foot rest as to preseuss ass elastic sappusrt to either or boIls ends of the rouster. I sshsus chaim the conabination and arran gemesst of thse lockissg arms, or Ilseir equsivahesslo, withs thue foot rest and the runner hsaving a spring or springs so ah)plied to thuem as to essable them to operate logethser, sub- stasslially as specified. 14.H. Hathaway, of Detroit, Mich., and B. Lathrop, of Tohland, Conn., for an Improvement in Apparatus for Evaporating Liquids: I claisn thse use of thue siphon, in combination w-iths the gratings and arrausgement of the pans, substantially as described. 15.J. G. Henderson, of Mo., for an Improvement in Hand Looms: I clams, lirsi, So consurusctissg assd combining the picket- stan; H, and driver, L, that Ilse stair will stassd at right angles to Ilse hay and operate us a stop to the lay whsen thse shsuitle foils to box, substantially as de- scribed. Secomsd, Operatissg tlse take-up assd let-off motiosts by the lucatimug tsp of tlse web, by measss suf mite emadhess belt cossusecting tlse cloths assd yarms beants, ssstsstantiahly as described. Third, Thse cousbiusation of tlse treader, H H, gusides, G U, amid shaft, H, Fig. m, so arrasuged that tlse takimsg dots-n of ouse treadle by the back- ward nuotiusms suf Ilse lay lusruss said absult, N, partly arotsnd, thrusting oust tussollser staple, Os take doscis tlse treasihes us thse proper mausner to make Ilse requsired shed, substaustially as described. 1G.Joseph Holleth, of Fostonia, Pa., for an Improvement in Knitting Machines: I ebsiust, hirat, Tlse Isook, U, schess Ilse same is cosustrusctedandarramsged Its operuste isa tsskimsg tilt Ilse slilcls usnd carryissg it met- the end of Ilse mseedle, v, susbstasstially ims tise ctsrved musususer described. Secossul, I chusins gicisug shse said took, U, thse sisskissg and cusra-ed re- tssrmsissg snssuhssss uhescrilseul for cam-rying dusts-ms assd disclsam-gissg Ilse stitch by nsessoo of mIte lsouuk carries-, H, olterated by the lever arns, N, substan. tiallc iss miss~ mnanuser described. Third5 I aloss claim snakissg Ilse loss-er end of Ilue presocs-, L, its tlse fsss-kesi Issuns slescrilsesh, sssssi casusissg Ihue saisi lbs-k Its 5ttoae iss a cLint-se along use Iwo attIcs of thse needle. v, usa describeul assd for tlse purpose specilied. 17.W. J. Hotelskiss, of Derby, Conn., for an Improve- ment in the Link Shackle of Chain Cables: I claim The cossstruclioms ssf tise husk, A, amsd thse mssvable side piece, B, wills apertusres amsd hook-formed lessons its Ilseir extremities, in tlse manster assd for the pumrposes shosvn and described. [TIse ordissary alsackle used to connect cables with anchors, assd to cosassect taco pieces of cisaiss, or supply the place of a brokess link in cssses schere it is tuscosat-eusiesst 10 imssert a insets husk by svelthimsg, cOussisIs of a slirruls-like botv, aviths Isvo eyes at us extremitics, isas-ing a pin in- serted thurousgis lisem, making a very cuumbrous amud aavktvard attach- ntcssl; Thuis imsslss-ot-ed husk slsackle cosusists of a link of Ilse form of ssss orditsarv chssius husk sssasie with a mssa-abhe sidle fitted into its lslace, st-isis osse d55~ niose lesussuss, its studs a muanuses- tlsat, whets iss its isluce, Ilse cssn-u- islete sisackle presents Ilse appearausce of an ordinary chsaisa husk. Tlsc movable side is to be sectured its its place by rivets.] 18.Prosper Humbert, of Boston, Mass., for an Improved Lever Escapement: I chains Ilse lever, C, havisug its cvhinshro.pallets, ~, ots a cylinder, B, amud its fiurk, g g, aussi stall; d, arraisged suslsslantialfy as described rela. lively lo Ilse stuifi; is, of Ihue balausce 5usd spitudilc, c, of hue escalse ta-heel, lo operate as set fortit. [Tlsis invenlissn coussists in a ces-laiss cossairsuction of ilse lever amsd nsode of apphyiusg its pushlets, ainsd mode of applying thue lever relatively to Ilse bahausce ainsti escape trisect, wiscreby the fork of the lever is tutude to act supous Ilse said 1sius stills a usore steady accssmpatsyiss0 movenseist, ausci Ihuereby to olserale ta-ills nauscis less frictiots.1 19.Jolun C. Kimball, of New haven, Conn., for an lin- provement in Self-adjusting Carriage Seats: I claim so cossslrsuclissg assd cousnectisug the lavo seals Ilsat tlse cess-aihi- useas- musslissuss of Ilse tsack sea.i at-ill perfectly coinstrol the cusra-ihissear snomiouss csf all isauts csf thue forsa-ardl seal, sclseint tise tsao seats are con- strtsctedh, cosussectetl anti nuathss to hsrodltuce the resstlt, sssbsttssttiahly as tiescuibedi. ISSUED FROM THE UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE FOE THE WEEK ENDING JANUARY 1, 1861. Rcjssctceh Ofticisstts, tsr I/se Scictstsi/tc Assueciccuss. PantIsItlets gis-imsg fsull lsarticsulars ssf Ihue nsode of sshslshyimsg for pintesuts, size usf sssssslet sesisuiresh, asush ususucls dstltein isuforsosslissins susefust Its inssceinstttu-s, osusy be lssssi grussis sy asldrcssissg MUNN & CO., Publisluers sf sIte ScieNTiFic AMeintucAN, Nesv York. 1.W. C. Bermy, of WoodbridNe, N. J., fot- aim lmps-ovement iss Machiuses fot- Cutting Roots: I clusisus thue kusises, U ussuti St II, sussl hue aveslgess, I I, surrausgeth rinda- si cclv at-ills tine csutlusr, F, sssssl Ilse lissger islustes, K K, Its smseuate sus amsd for Ilse ptinrhsose set fortis. 2.Ehiakim Bniggs, of South Bemud, hid., for flil Improve- IneIlt in Feeding Mechausisuts for Spuke Macluines: I ctains Ihue arrausgensesut ssf Ilse screac, B, asIseel, H, atlaclsed Its bhssck, U, site coud, N, altselsed Its arm, I, aussl ssxis, F, of acheel, H, cascls bar, T, assd shislissg chsslclt, II, usli turruttaged hoc joisat Olseratioss usa and for Ilse issurpose specified. I Thuis inveustioss in-elustes to sin immss-sss-ensessl its llssst class ssf Iusrusitt~ nsssciuisses ms acluicls a isustlerms is ussesh fssr gisissg Ilse shesiresi form to Ilse stork Its be tsuoshssced. Thuss imuseustissus, sslthsosugis nsore eslsecially de- siginuesi fos Isinussing slsokes, is aisplicuattle fssu Issrssissg tall ssrticles lsaaissg a rcgsslstr cutusesh hssssgitssshimsssl Ituttlile sss aat,hl as ilsusse hsssaiusg ams irrtgsinlsts- fusuns dircsstssfos-estliahlv. I 3.B. J. Burnett, of Mount Verison, N. V., for an Improved Refninerator: I claim, iss combissatioss at-iths Ilse lsrovisissut dluassuber, Ilse employmeust nsf ass ice chamber, B, so costslrsts,tcd asuth arrassged, as specitied, as to Isusce tstlserissg smsaces, f, out esschs sitle, as shsedilied, fssr Ilse isusrhsose de- scribed. I alass damn Ilse ensisloymesst ssf Ilse shssor or hessf, C, cousstrsucted and intlteratiming as shsecilied, for site ittintItOse set forlis. -l.J. M. Connel, of Newauk, Olsio, for an Ilisprovement in Water Elevators: I claim the arramugesnent ssf mneasts fssu ocIsinsttiins~ Ihuc sposul, N, avhich is isingesh to Ilse cns-ts, as 5(1 lortb, Isur olss-s--oissg Ilue s-ala-c, P smutS coins- su-sshiimsg the qusantily ansI thuc llssas of st-stew its cdsssintcdtioint stills tise usper- tsure bsiarti, J, as asiti fssr Ilue itt 15555C5 sleucs-itteti. 5.A. L. Dennison, of WaltIs-tus Mass., for an Imisrove- mont in Watelte I daunts, lirsl, Thue issles methin-nie - I, mu cousslsisualitsss st-ills ilse tssstin geas-, C, ssusd ceustral adluict K tvhueins tise isslersusedistle asuth ceustral arhuecis as-c iss thus, sussne isltcc us set Ists Is Secssntl, I clusissa csssnlsiutsst- Ilse ints-ussut- iusg post-cr at-ills ams untIes-me. ulissle wheel lscisa-ccsu Ilse ussauss gear asush Ilse csssstu-al salted, arluereby the usulcis of thue asisatliog artsssu- ussusi Ilse r-sts-ls ssf ilse uusaisststiusiusg Itotter ate Islaced in Ilse sussne plasse fust lIst stur sos et lisrult. 6.J. H. Dialogue, of Catudeit, N. J., for an Improvement in Valve MOtlOhi for Steans Engines: I claim the reciprocatissg bar, B, its slides, C and C~, cossnected Its tise steam valves Ity any ausitable devices, ausd ulue catchs levers, I and I~, having their upper susrfoces parusthel withs the line in avisich Ihe said re- Cu prodssting bar innoves in coussbinatissn with the vibrating cams, T assd T, or Ilseir equivalents, controlled by the governor, Iluc avlsole beino ar ~ssssged ftsr stiot adtists, tststsssatstially as assd for site isusdisose set forsi. - 20.Henry Leibert, of Nornistown, Pa., for an Improve- ment in Lamps: I claim fisrmimsg an adlustable cusp for lamps ssf a single fiat piece of metal havisug projedtiossa, e, f and b, and recesses of the shape and ar- rangensent described the said piece of metal being bent as specified, ass as to horm the body of the cap and so that the tss-o projections, e e, shall forints a sprung cuip for grasping the lube of the lamp in the mausner set fssrs Is, 21.T. D. Mathevs, of St. Peters Parish, S. C., for an Im- provement in the Composition of Castor Oil Soaps: I clams Ilse lsrodsuct fssrmed by comtsiusinsg hue hollssasinsg stasned utrticles in the prsspssrliosss isuthicased Oil of palnsa cluristi, I gsnlloss; attesa ants- monia, 2 tt~s.; refitted potasts, 6 lbs. 22.A. G. Mack, of Roelsester, N. V., for an lmproved Maclsine for Settliug up Barrels: I claim tise adjustable tsr rising assd fsnllisug buninsti, B, ins cosussectioss at-ills Ilse adjunstable and flexittle loaded bassd sti dolse, B, suishshieth its un is-usme, A, altucis is pros-ideci as-itis am asansuslar ledge, d, at ils bsnse, a, sums sunsusslar Istate, c, at its Issis, anusi a asiuscis on- asisudlunas, B; all arrangeti sunbalaus- tially as ainsti for mite issinrisose set fortis. fTlse object of thuis issa-entioss is to otstains a sinuple muscisimue tIssut muss- be econonsically csnsstrescteel usnud unssmsilssnlatetl ta-ills great fuscility ftsr seitisug sup tise staves of barrels and all kissds of casks msrcpssrsstory to hntso~sisng lisem, so that thue saork may be douse usuch nsore exisethitiounsly thuans by Ilse usual process.] 23.John Middleton, of New Yolk City, for an Improved Ice Cruslser: I dlaiinsa the comnbinatioms of the receiser, A, stars, B assd B, sninsti slidissg bsstsssnn, U, stiseraming togetisen- asubstainslisnlly us tise unasunner assd for tlse itun-pose set forth. 24.G. H. Moore, of Rochester N V for an in Plows: , . ., Improvement I claim a plsssv constructed and comssposed of the seversnl clsarsscteristic features described. 25.Win. Newbury, of Clamksville, Mo., for an lumprove- ment in Straw Cutters: I claim, first, the comtsissasioss of sne rake-tsotlscd feed roller, U, a vertical luopper, F, a series tsf revols-issg knives, T T, a hssrizosstal gagis plate, A; amnd the geariutg, B B H K J U I II N. thne avisohe coinsotruncted, arranged and operatimsg ins ulse snamsncr anti fom- site psurposes set fortis. Seconsti, Thue combination of she selsarale or rennssa-ssble isrojedtiotus, 0 b, oins avisicis tise kinsives rest, set screars, m, kinsives, T T, amud Isorizossusni gage plate, A, ins lise manster and for tine pnsrposes set fortis. 26.Augnst Nettinger, Jr., of Philadelphia, Pa., for an im- proved Sausage Stuffer: I claim, brat, TIse cylinder, J, at-ills its projectittins, m, ms combissatioms wiuls the sprissg latchin, i, mIte latter being so conslrsincted and so arramaged in respect to the said projection Iluat shue cylinder is rendered self-lock. iusg, as set issnIb. Secomsd, The huinged table, L, and its oblong slot, p, arisen arranged on lIne frame in respect to the cylinder, J, and its Isube, K, as ansd for Ilse pssrpose set fortls. 27.J. T. Plummer, of Plainfleld, Conn., for an Improve- ment in Machsinery for Drawing alld Twisting Wool: I claim the stustiossary desacised tube, U, applied in combinatinsins with the rotatinsg geas- box conlaiinsisag Ilse 0-tnt os low-er drawimsg rollers, sub- stantially as and for tine purpose specilied. [This ins-enstittins relates to thasut descin-iption of dusuaving and tsvislisug machinery in avhsichs the front or how-er drasving rollers are caused Is- revolve about a cousmoms axis perpendicular to their oavn axes lor Ilue purpose of hsrodsucissg tasist and draft of uhe roaissg at the same time. It comssists in a certain construction amsd arrangensesst of the parts, whereby tIne distance belaveens such revohviusg draariusg rollers and tise receivissg end of the dlsannel for conducting the sliver or rovimug to such rollers is very greatly reduced, ansd the difliculty of imstrouisucimsg tise essd of the ros-ing between such rollers is obviated; amsd ins Ilse employment of a detached stationary conductimsg lube, applied its combiusatioms wills asincis drasring rollers, avisereby the necessity of piecimsgs is geuserally avoided.] 28.John Reist, of Philadelphia, Pa., for an Improvement in Scissors: I claim scisooss itsrnsed by the described combination and arrange- ment of blades, A, spriinsga, C and B, plates, B, and pivots, 0 amud c, the whole being constructed and operating susbataustially as described, 29.G. H. Reynolds, of New York City, for an Improve. ment in Mounting Lithographic Stones: I claim msssnnsting each stoinse pernnamsenlly its a nseialhic frame, in Ilse manuser and for tise purposes aubalainstiahly as set forils. 30.Ezra Ripley, of Troy, N. V., for an Improved Wrenchs: I damn Ilse rotatisug face adjustable jass-, C, huaving a direct screw- ad- jusstmemnt, as described, its coinbissatious stills the isook or claw- griltper, B, hiusged to Ilse arremucis stock or bar, A, combinsed substaustiamiy amud operatimug its the manner amsd for tise purposes set forth amsd sinuous. 31.Ezra Ripley, of Troy, N. V., for an Improved Mode of Hanging Covem-s to Boiled Metallic Hollow Ware: I claim ass improved amsd nsun-e ctsnsvessiesst article tsf lest ketlIe cover, substantially the sante as fsnihy described and siuotvnu, ususti studs sins may be attached ms a hinue scith tine sposum, to sposnied assd bailed nsetahhic isol- hssav state or tea kettles, itt the maususer seubstantially as set forsis. 32.Archibald H. Rowand, of Allegheny, Pa., for an Ins- provement in Coupling for Railroad Cat-s: I claim use ushsislications usssd usse ssf Ilse cssnsisossnsd metallic aisriusgo, suisisurted by tine elastic sprin0 pods or cushions, C C CC, amud its socket or beti, ssu na, olseraliuug by lateral resistansce or presasure agaisust Ilue entrausce of she aredge-sisaped end of tise bar, A, ssnbstamstially as de- scribed ins tise second chainss. I also claim the apphicattoss of use ratchsetolsaised stotelses, N N N N N N, in site insithe ssf site main tsu metallic sisrisugs, snssd lise cunresisomndimng secesses ins tise asedge-ensti ssf hue issus, A, its combisuatious, Ion- tise isusr- pose set fortls ssnbstassuially as described. 33.Tlsomas N. Rooker, of New York City, for an Iniprove. ment in Type Cases: I claim a type case isavissg its boxes, a, provided arith movable nsn ati- snotable bottoms, 0, arrausged to olserate by amy assitushle mcchsamsians, asubstainstially as ansd lor hue pesrisose set lorlit. 34.Henry Schenerle, of New York City, for Improved Punches for Makilig Sides for Hoop Skirts. I claim conshining with tise male asind female dies, St S K L, hor csmtting and fornsimsg the slides luom the slrips of metal, lise athditiomnal set tuf dies, N N, for cuttising ansci foruniung tise ui~ss from tlse Isortiousa of the metal strip avhsich heretofore avemut to asaste, as set fuchs. 35.Jolsms C. Schooley, of Cincinnati, Ohalo, for an Imphoved Refrigerator: I clssim, first, The applicatioss mud a.rs-assgesusenst of Ilse air intlsuctissnu isasoage, U, exiendiss g luons Ilse 101) of tlse exterisus- of thue ice dhusnmsutscs- dssasss its imsside usnsdermseaths tIne ice sneitiusgs, snsd shisclsss-gissg at a isoisut suttove tisem, osnbstantially as amsd for tise psurIsuse set forth. Second, I claim tise cunsulrsudtioss of lise thosuble trainer escape tube, N, so arranged as to carry ofi Ilse meht.ius~s ins hue ice cisamber and tise nsuiattnre prudsscetl ba- cssmndenssahious arithins hise sssbnserged air indtnctions isassagew-itis osse ausd tise sanne avater csnp, osubslantially as assd for the 36.Herrmann Shtharbauna, of New York City, for an Ins- provement in Aquariums I claim the ulescin-ilsed cssnstruction of ass aqsnarisum asrsnngesl so uns to be asusisentied out a stall ins line nuansusen- amnul fun- hue psnrisosss OtinisOtasslially as sel lurilt. 37.R. R. Taylor, of Reading, Pa., for an Improvement in Steam Hammers: I chains, first, Cumbitsin0 use ailsralissg asuodens lucIa-c, U, stills hunt Isauninsuer isiock nsua-ing its aertical gssides ansi stills a dusuisle-actinsg steam cylinder athens tise hattes- is csusssss-cseti to site truss slens iselse at a poimat betaseen the cessler of the mdccs aibrahissus, anuch thue isamutussen- as and fssr lise issinrisuse set fouhis. Second, Operating isotit exisanat anti sleamss valves, isv insteasts of lIne pin-ojecliusto, j, on Ilse helse, amsd uhe slssited let-er, in, sa-isln its adijsnsmustshe set screavs, k, amsd kt, mite saisole lseiusg arussusged antd t-hscraliuu0 as set forth Our the psurpose specifieth. 38.John Terrell, of Phsiladelphsia, Pa., for an Improvemellt in Knitting Machunemy I chains, first, Oiseratmssg tise litre sd psesser, 5, tsy measts of tise recilt. rocaGug slide, Q, and its muller, ust sun comtsinatious with hlse lever, 5, vertical slide, T, and spunins a the avisuhe beinug consotrudted amtd str- ranged substantially as set Issin tis Second, Uiving tise smgssai lou meserasug the motioss of the mnacisine on turning the heel or toe ol tise s5ocknn~ by noetnuss of Ilse sliding blocks, W Sv. on she edge of sIte plate U mu conshinations antIs the shsalk, 7. its arm, SI. and bar, 13. calchs 9 and saldlmet avhcet, i the schole being ar ranged ansd oIserasmnsg ~ssbst-nnssr - s fursis 44 Third, I claim the plate, U, riitg, V its projection, u, the itlocks, W ttit(1 W with the stoingo, x and iv, elteaging into the noteltes on the Itack of tlte said plate, U, ttlt(l ottiti ritig, V, its specifteti, itt comhinatotti with the ntosahte vielditig lever, C, the whole heing arranged for joint olteratton, sttttstaiitiattv to toil ha the purpose operitied. 39.H. W. Warner, of Urcenfield, Mass., for an Improve- ment in Sknteo: I claim a skttte ~t itteil stiflt separated fisot itlates, C, tlt~tt are jitittletl itt the rittitter, A, itS sttotvti tittit tlcscrihetl. 40.h. C. T. Weher, of Rochester, N. Y., for an Improve- tatent Iii 131 cech loading Ordnance: I ct:tttii it t Tue itt trittuetit iii the thick, U, coittaittitig the screw lihtIg, 11 tit tie lit ret itt the itiece, hy strait pieces, I I, tittticited Itt pivots c c sit tired iii the sides of the httrrel, such strait itieces iteitig ti-rat it 1 Itt stvttt iii vet-tietti phtttes Ittint lie s:tiil pistils aitti the teat lice ii lie invert thu Ito it litre iii the s~sitl itliak, Ittivilig the fortn iii rortesttoltdllti,, ire roticetttt-te tit titit s~tid itivots, ittt Otti)Otittttiitllt tt5 scritte Secotid Tue ad uttinetit of the elevtttittti of limit piece ity metttms if a shaft, Ii thu ritit ii coitihtitictl ivitit ti sittift, r, hy mneatto if iii euth less 51] en it thu 0111 ii smitee I, q, titti the svhtttte tithihieth in rttntttiita tutu with the ~nti titti to carritige, sttttstttittiatly as set forth. thu t ii ettihil It tot it liii ivttrkimtg the hire ~li a hitrizontal liter tutu iii a sit ill I I tittir, P ivitrot wheel, I, enthiess scretv, O~, timid shaft, Q liii u-little -i t lieu, cititittitieth auth ithieratilig stitistaittiahly its de sriittc ICoiti thi Tue sot itiuttig gunners seat, R, ipplied situ secitreti to the Fiftit, liii elttlutttylnettt Itit- itteetilig tite tecitil of the gnu, anti etnhthity tog tue lute miii ri-itt Itt retorit the gttti tit its place, iii springs, U U, anti V V, tirrailgeti in cttiittuiituttittmi witit hitixes, C C, titti ititerutmilig ottitotati 41.Stephen 13. Weeden, of Providence, R. I , for an Tm- provenacot in Lamp and Candle Wicks: I cititmn tue ovii-k ctttitptuscuh if a simtglc straitti etichtaitted itt a series iii sitigle huutuits as tlcorvitirti. 42.S. A. Whitney, of Glassborongh, N. J., for an ho- proved Glass Stopper for liottles: I rlttirti the gitiss sttt~tpir, B, its screw titrrath, ml, shiottlihers, e attd f, cut-k wttshtet, It, umuth tuthurmitig tumtttitttttiuttt, i , liiehtitter heimmg sum fot-mited auth sit mimitimigeth ito it-s~ttct ii thic tutu shutuithihets so ho facihitate tue ath umstmnimtt if t tie otashict tit titti cttiutitiemnemit stitititi time mecess hetiteeti mite s~tih shittuihihets, iii thie niattiter ihioctihueth, auth tue muittihe Iteitig rub shruirteth atid athttitteth mit thic mieck if thie tuttle tutu us shtttmmhdium-, mu, as sit Itirlht 43.John Wilkinson, of Baltimore, Md., for an Improve- mnent in Ahatohoatic Brakes: I rhaito tuhuet-utmimig csmmiiige hutuikes it) thur oiiumatittmt tim nicking tuf the utile, sutiusuttuttially iii mIte utitimiutri titith tihutuit the hutitchiuhes set htti-thi, smith hum- this piti-hutise I riutitit tue outithutthstct-, it, ~tttth its 1uihhuim, hi, cittithitted ovitit time nisiut hiuhotum, a, to set hitithi 44.William Willianis (assignor to himself and II. D. Good- win), of St. Lonis, Mo., foh ihO Improved Floatinu Mat- hess: I rhaimut tue tumrautgenttnt tuf romutiutmuoumo tiatuge, P tt-itht Is eyelets auth rututh hutreth thmuouuulu mitt- suuiute, auth thie iutlittleth gummusotthi-, otitho tue utah tm-coo, time tohitihe tut ite notade suuitotuomutitilly itt tue nittiuitet- theorm-ilueth. 45.C. A. Wortenahyke, of Goiltvinville, N. J., for an lot- piuiveinelat in Oanihle Wicks: I rittint the st-irk lurituitureth hy the system muf sutiuumuiuug amid tosiotiuog shirrilieth We shuall shuouthy htuti)hiOht alt ilhumotuitrul uhescrihutitut of this to-irk] 46.C. 0. Wood, of Woicester, Mass., for an Improvement in Breech loidion I ire Arnus I rhututti him ttt-ououeuncmut smith rtuutuiumutatittut ol lImit muotchieth esloituohmug iii, 1) itt its etiuumo iii mum so thu thie us m uuusoituim hiusmutmutem timul thue Icon 1 itchi iii ituemhi mitsui liii huttihtuti mlii tim-u-il. 47.Ihuisout Wit hut of Weotfoud N. Y., fou- an Improve- memut In Puepttumw Pitteuns lot- Moldiuug: I rhutumit hut si I hut pm trios oh ium-iutuiimui~ tie suit-litres iii rust it-ott ututi let-its iii tie muttuhuheul hi tutu itt tttuttitu thue hurtuieth omit-litres hf miutuse hat units tuuiht a ruumuihtuusuimuumt uth mumutthim ruumusmstiuug iii hircoovax, iuuthisumthheu- utmuth smuhiuhitum smut-i stilt tihy mit thte iii tutu u -mt Itumlht Seromuth I rI limit ilium itt ritutin sturhi uttiemuus ofiem tutey h~to~ i)eeti him-etittmishc iii rut iii I It) tmuttuueu-stttu thuruus itt uhihumie sumhhihuiuuir Intl smith suuhuotuouuuuuhlo -us uhusumuium 48.lohun Bork of Schiwenninoen Wnrtemher,, Germany, aum~uienot to J 1k. Bmumh~ oil anli, hod., for aus Ihnl)roved W-utcluunauao Tmnue lktcctom I elututi tite euuihuhius mitt itt ii a sit-ti-s if keys, C, osithi hits tuf uhillement shusites itt vututulummi tiutuit oh tilt iuuu tutu humus B, utmiul otithi ut uhumumuo, A, rust muimig a sIn o il hi Iii 1 1 -tutu mutt-tiE- i it chick uuttiociuu(uttt, omuhotutmo- I thU so umuil liii hut ittuthttt-ti shteruiii-ih FIuuis thu-stem us sit tummut mitt-ti thu-it ml rut ite romuuimiuseul osithi es-ru-)- stotut ovuutehi iii to iii oust tullut I hum t utuhr nut k uuutuoruuuiuutt, utmuml it ho iuorhiused iii a olutumut tusm-tolhic ease It 15 lit-let-ti tutu hue huamutho muf tue sousichuuuuumu huurkeul SI itelutue hut si-ti to tilt huts it ul tutu huis metuum-um hue gis-es it luau-h iii hue sumpem umuiemmuht mit iii sumurm o u-itt v utihirci, oshuto, tilt ohuemuiuug thue suumuoc, rush limud the hit-twist tiuute oshueui the tttttchumtiaut hits sisited the seorutul statiutumo iii iuc sisiteul mutt huis unit, tohuim-hi thitertitiui hue huts takeum, iii tohuimthu sm-del- hue tisitrul ihie setmauth stuttiuumus, toituit mhtuituvo utmuth thesis miutuso huatit occumiteul, mutt hutmug ut tiutuit hue ituis tat-mirth tim the tony lututmocitis the snot-u-ti sistiutmus smut tutu thuit siuttitumus ihiemutochs-co, dr I 49I. F. Gieeuae, of Brooklyn, N. Y., assigmuor to S. B. Tohey, of Proviihemuce, B.. I., foi- an Jnuproaememut hut Machuines for Making Hat hhoihies: I eltoitos thur ciumitiuistitimi if hue hiuuknt soithi time uhitihiti if us rututlimug cmi gibe smith tie toiuiuhitug citmurs ouiItsttutiiitthh) tO thu futi liii- utummutuuse shicci Auth I thou ehtuimu, mu rouutiuimmaiiomm osiihu the mutating itirkem-, tue itmeuk riutmemut hihahit iii site rait muse its-cu thtut iuickith amid thue dmuhhetutiiug plum, suulusiuumutiuuhh) us tumuth hum thuc itumuuuuuoe slierilicil 50.James Haynes, of Hohhis, Maiuue, assigoni to huimsehf and U. T. Lewis, of hioston, Mass., fot an Improved Device for Strainirug Woomh Saws: I ehusiun thue ilnorriumeul hierimhiuui attitmtgniuuuumtt iii ihue SlitS, D, the tack, 0, utuuul time let-em, E, tuigethuni tumuti otithuium thuit Oust hiusimut, utuuul soihhi me ~tieh tut tutu hutotem cmuisoiiutm, ul, tumid either of thuit ruth hays, a it, as shueri hitI 51.P. G. Johunson, of Brooklyn, N. Y., assigoors to huim- self, W. T. Milliken, of Momrisania, N. Y., atad E. Jones, of New York City, for an Inapuoveuuieuut in Water Me- ters: - I rhutiun thue tuhtemusuole rommuiuimuatioim if hue seoutmuil tiotut om mouth-it) see tiutimo, 1 2 3, of hoe to-totem uuuiosuugeo otitli thue sesi-muth (tot-ti tur inure) utter seusiuug lihude ot-hsettlo, ~ 2it ~ sumiustutmutiushly itt thumt umutummumem smith liut tue utuuutoose set fututh 52.Porches Miles, of New Haven, Comi., assignor to huim- self anil A. P. Plant, of Plantville, Coon., for an Im- provement iii Ntut Machuines: I rhusim thue etimiuimutitiuutt if time huititmuth romtmstemommmok sttutut~timtg tutuier him, m, os-itls the cumuli-u, e, iii lime mutumumuem- olmutotum utuuil deorrilueth - The arnamugenoemut of the cutter, N, usummurim, P, soosgi, 0, cheat-eu-, Q, and hihock, U, toitho thue nuttar) thin luhutie, B, uumuul luttul, E, to shuotoum utmomh ulesruiheth In moult mactunes, I rhusitto noakiuig Ihe hoot-eu poutioum of Ihue outeum mhie, F, mif rumoimush fuirun, oumluotamutiall) iii the muamumuem umumut fuum time puuiptusm set hit-thu I thou ehoint hoe hutekimog of the intuit luhusuk otilhuimi the huttitom of Ilse tipen thin, It, smuhotuimotiahly us stud fun tue tumunutoses siuutoomo aumul thutorniloed [Thue olijert of thus itto-euttituus is hut mulutaimo a nuturhuitme hy oohmirhu tutu mihuem-atiusmm of chilling ill thim luhauuks fuom ihie luau, the soo-aing of thse same ammul hue uummuucuuimmg umf thoemus ins) he simmuitamocomushy suit amutonoahi rally buenhunnoetl its hoe numuot umenfect miosiumuer] 53.J. W. Pearson and H. 0. Peahody, of Winchuester, Mass., assignors to thenaseves and P. E. Hayavard, of Maiden, Mass., for an Improvement in Skating Boots: We claim Ihe comiuimoed hoot nuud skale uhescnhloed, the support for the runner heitog ronfismeul to-imboimi lIme sohe at set forth 45 54.William Schuilhing (assignor to haimsehf and Jesse Kline- felter), of Baltimore, Md., for an Improvement in the Manufacture of Spiritnons Liqnors from Tomatoes: I claim thue mhescrihed turmuress for makimug hnsmsmhy from lounatoes, itoh soishmimig to ruumuhiuse tut)-oehf to thue precise proutuuutitmums if use imugrechiemols month thur hit thue eiarh ulegneco of heat sperilted, htut to vary time same as muss) hut fuimumud uueceooaru-, osithuotut thepantimug fromum thue esseuutish chuaractem- utumul humimucihuhes if saith usroceso 55.F. Veerkamp and F. Leopold (assignors to H. A. Max- well), of Phuiladelphia, Pa., for an Improvement in Gynanastic Apparatuses: We claim, Onol, Time emutuhimymemut for gymmuaslir or rahiohlseuic exer- cise, muf omme on mitre pumhhes s to mints rum do attutrimed to himeir perituhuenies to-hems thue fonre uttuphied his n tue thue rum ds stud thins time pushleas is nesisted it) the tuietitummal rutmotact muf suit I urns amid sotmeut thue smuoummut of itirtioto is negumlalemi hi) mise intro-inns thesem mhed mit them emumuivahemuto Sneomuul, We datum the enutuhumomemul oh lovo tunmone luiction disks fared to-hIt heutitmem- om othoem suuutahhe mali mu it tuoml cuuuuotrmurheml suuhohamuiiahi) as ilescuilmeul, so-hen thur saud disks me sit tututtluimoed svithu Ihue olsuoft, Ii, as to mesiol mIte hmtrtuits of tIme lather to set I h Thuinul, We rhusino ouue in mutt e toumlhno N, ohs lime ohuaft, It, tarhm pulley huas-imug a rumnd, is, smith a s mum al nitot e tutu rernisiusg thue stummun, its romuthin mutiomt otiuhi intuit raumhmet so heel hi amoth out musg dug, tI, ttse ruiheul shorimog, P smith lIme frichituui mhioko snot e deorm uhed iii uhurir ruiumisuslemuis tIme tylsoht lunimug aumuimogeul uttod otuem atumog stilust tutu ull) as set fumumhi, tom thor tuumnusmuse ohuerilinth Ftmuurutu, We rhaitom the radualed index plate, Q, pointer, q, and spituihhi, B, iii conuiuiuuamummmu so thIs thor ft mctmmuum disks uimsuh thue imutero-ruimog thitoires, or thuitir ethmmittshetsis ho so hurhm time mot-emeist of thse siutudhe is cusmusemh to imurretose tin mlimuiuuishu ilue usmuoumnt of Irictiusum as set fuuuthi 56.John H. Whuitley (assignor to huimself and C. S. Car- - michuael), of On-ego, N. Y., for an Improvement in Ap- paratuses for Enlarging Photographic Pictnres: I rlsiun so ap~uhyimsg amod oprrsmiumg a system of nairuoms or rellectors, ito rumnhimoatimmo toithm a ramuems, thaI, it) thor muttettortot muf ouue tuf thor nair rorsthur tays of thuit smumo ma) roushiusmue to lie rniheried iii Ihe samome di- mectiout thsriumughs thur raumoerut him us long a time as ma) he umutreosar)- to tthtaims a uumimum, oumhuotuuuutiuuhlv too deormilteut 57.G. K. Winchester (assi~nor to time New England Butt Company), of Providence, H. I., for an Improvement in Bi-aiding Machines: I claim the anramugemneut of tIme spriuug hommoko, J, iu comniutuation osith mite slotted talihe, A, and avith thor rmurmiers, B, coustruched aud operating smuhotamstiahhy 55 usmuml fit thur timmm-haoseo set hiurthi. I also rhaiuis giviumg to earh carrier of au cyrus stramod hnaidiug machiur tovo mum more Isartiuth revolmutioums, at tovo or muore smucressior pumints of its rirrimmitiots ous thor tahhe, utuiustamotiahhy ItO stud fur thor pmmnposes de- ornihed [In lummuidimog flat luammils coustatusimug au es-rum usummniurrof strauds hy au or- uhimoamy imnaumhitog musachuimme, eacim shrauod recrioro a tosiot each time it tra- verses tIme taishut, stud if it is desireml to keep the stdcu of thor otrauds facing shmva)s oume ova), lime tunaidimog of smmrlu hamods tumumut he dour hy husuod The object if timis iusveuutiomo is to arumumige a hraimliumg machouse saiths ittO es-eu moummoohem of carrinus, its sumelo a nuamummer that tIme too-lot is taken omit of etemy utntummd, tiny giving to rant rarniem- tovo or more partial revolutions out tovo on more husimots on its citrummitiun tahie, syhich forms the smippurt and guide fun said rarniers, thuemehy keepimog thor sides of each stramod al ova)s facimug ut time same direntiomol 58.J. E. Furgus on, of Micanopy, Fla., for an Improve- ment in Cotton Gins: I claim time muller, C, comostruunled as deurnihed, aud the adjuistshle plate, ID, its comhiuuation ovitti the adjnshahhe viiunahimsg rake or nomh, H, arnutmoged foijotmot opem-ahiumu as amod Ion thor purpose set fortim [This immveuutiou relates lo mimi iumprovemeuut its tisat rhass of cottumo gius us so-loins mullets are nuuithtt)ed, aud oshuirlo are desigmueul nisiethy foi gus- umimog hiumog statute coltoum Thor object of this inveutiomo to ho ohtaimm a sim- luht amuui elticiruit glum, amod omme oshmich, sahoihe capahle of osorkiug rabidly, still must imujutre mum hecuk thue ottuphe om Olunm] 59.J. M. Hill, of Angels Camp, Cal., for an Improvement ita Amalgamatoas: I rituimn thor device siuosvmo aummh deoruihed fumi cohhentingpneciumms nuehals, sohuieho I term a gleams er, ammul osisich nuuumsisto if a lusting hasin, H, tints mint asiuts a cemulnuui umeucummy tat., U, mumumnied atuste a tm-is-itt shaft B, utmud franue, A, thur ovimuhe nuinstrutched and operating as set fiurthm, sohurreh) time osusmnm, mummarta stud mithnm impurities ovill tie exuarhird titer lime emhges if time hasin hy centrifugal force, ovimihe thur humeriusumo metals of sumumerimur grasity os-itt futhi imoto thor remutuat unenctmny tatalt as suarrilird [Time iumo-emotiomo comosists us thur muse of a rotating hasin, provideul ovitlo a ceuhual oat, time uuumpem em miser surfaces of time hasmms heing amalgam- alnut, amid oo operating, ito comumoentious avitis mernimmy, as to effect thor de- sireti nod] 60.B. B. Hotchkiss, of Sharon, Coon., for an Improve- ment in Riveting Curry Comhs: I claim sum~miuontiumg the several parts of a rhunmy comh its timeir pmoprr riuhatise posiuiutumo hetoseems and oohoihe lurumog acted tuumoms hy thur huemodimug thies, A B, hy meamus of time hearers, I K 31, or timnim rqtmivaheuts, smihotan- omiuthly as and fir time tusurpose specified 61..I. W. Lewis, of Providetice, H. I., for an Improved Blacking Box Holder: I claim, as sins imuummuvemh article of mnauonfanttmue, a hlacking hox holul- itt, nmumusirumehrd osith time imonhmsoimog huux, a., Iminged cover, h, adjtmstahie ohtintleml niampimog plahe, A, and otimerontor muamir as shmoorn and deocriheul [Thuis immonustiutms roumoixis its senuumimug amod imurhusimug a lmlackiumg hox soith- iii a case or tuuux tusoimug a notch, stud altanhoed to a sumilatuhe hoamumile] 62.James McNamee, of Easton, Pa., for an Improved Bread and Pastry Board: I damn a hreatl ausul pastry husand loas-imog its hula, C, turumo-imied with ne- retutaches, E E f drasyrm, g, ratunted traits, tI ul, littimug sisalts, C C, stud uutheros-ise umade as sismssvn mmml deurrihed [Time ohjrct of tisis immoemutioms is to Oi)taitO a thomom receptacle, saitlo a unsaid or coven isuovided ovithm mains fom muoldine time flomun tIme shove tineing used ovith variumus small luoxes fom reusimoine sluices and also smupplemameti- hal hoxes for coustaimmimug flomur, lime hattem hrttu- so umhmmn m rant of thor open- slur, amod all so arramogmud that a yery commvenmeut limumum hox and umoluling imuard avith the isecesosry appmmnhrmsanres still tue romhuumcd so as to fomun a rutmumpart amud thesinaishe snide for time kmtclonuo 63.John Taber, of Bangor, Maine fom an Improvement in Attaching tIme Shuronds of Shmil I claim time rumunhiumatiout if Ihe taisruumog semi tuthes, A A, as run- struirlemt oviths lime clasp, B, amsd righot amod mIt -cm rot ID impem-amumug as set forth stud Ion lime purposes descruhed 64.J. S. Vernam, of Rochester, N. Y., for an Improve- ment in Corlugatiog Iron: I claim time conulminstiums of tovo distimoct connmmgatiomms in our sheet of mum, soimere time line of dinenlion of our corntmamiois is am nigist stogIes or Iransyrnor, om morauhy so, mis the line of the dirermuon of the usiher rorrmm- gatioum, sutlsstantiahhy as descrihed alsove and shsumsvn in the utccotumpany imog mlrsovimogs marked A 65.E. W. Tarpley, executrix, and J. T. Simnus and Isaac HumlI, executors of C. S. Tarpley, deceased, of Jackson, Miss., for an Improvement in Cotton Cleaners: We claim thor cumluimmatiomo of thor sueve hoot, F, solsuppen chanuhem, B, hmavumog fermI amumh delis-en)- apertures, stthstanttahh) as mlesrriised, sytuilaharns or heaters, C Ci, stout hhsot lute, I, oviurn the latter or hhast nhusmnher is separutted frium the dust nhamher hy thur chose partiuiomo, U, essemotiahly as otmoovus and deunrihed. 66.George Williamson (assignor to L. S. Gohle and H. E. Richards), of Neavark, N. J., for an Improved Veneer Planer: I claim, furot, The yurhdimug mnomumlmpiece or slot taisle, Fig 3, adjuisted and operatimug suhotaustially uts thor noanuser and for the pmurposr de- scnihed. Second, I claim the comhummahion of the said yielding mouthpiece or slot tahte os-ith the pressure han, B, operating together to clasp the wood and render it firm while heing planed, sumhstanhiahiy in thor manner and for the purposes desemihed RN-tssUE5. 1.F. E. Sickels, of New York City, for an Improvement in Steam Engines. Patented Septemher 19, 1845. Ex- tended for 7 years Re-issued Fehruary 21, 1860: I claiuu cuuunhrnisahaum-umu_ the tori-hot of time hifhing rods so as to mehirve tlue eusgiumerm- mo somuuking thur emugiumut ii)- imamud, and so ttmat asheu tise rut- gine is booked on, they ovill exert titeim ftmhh tome in desnemudimug, lo Otem- come ahoy opposimog triction 2.-F. E. Sickels, of New York City, for an Improvement in Steam Engines. Patented Septenaher 19, 1845. Ex- tended for 7 years. Re-issued Fehrmmary 21, 1860: I elaum time paddle sohmemul commohruurumuI so-itis tuumcketo of ssu)imug areas, smuhutanlially as drorriiued 3.Henry Keney, of Hartfomd, Coon., Grant Warren & Co., of Boston, Mass., and Joseph Jordan, of East Hartford, Coon., assignees of George Sweetland, of New Haven, Coon., for an Improvement in Pulp Machilnes. Patent- ed Septemher 5, 1848: We claim time eunmiminamion, hum a haumllsimue ems _ time_ tuf too-u series of mhusin- te-rauimog kutioms stilts looms kmuife stumeks (iselso-ermo osimicts time paper mate- rial is h~ sued amid omue of ssiuinhu u-evolves) mu sumeho nusummuer thmat the edges of time kuuives diverge fruits time axis of ruhatioum, smmhutamouiahh) as ule- scuihed I slums claim-n time cunatuimuahion of time folluss-imug elements ito a IuuuI~siuug engumue, vie - 1st Lou kuomfe stouko, heloveems avisich Ilse palmer material iu casmoed to pass and one oh so humeim revolves tun a nemmhm al axis 2d risum snuues of dushiulegraming kutives omitted to the shucks 3d A lerdumor om emotmy passage to, amod an exit passage irunu, the kumife stuck so aruanged relatively to time dusmumr-ratums- kumvns himat thor palmer material its passing fnusm mine passage to thor othorn that erses hemugihovise ooith the kuomo no smuhotautiath) as drocrmheml I aisui claim the eummiumumauion muf a seumes oh duo eugun disimulegralimug kusises uupumo the knife stork of a puilpina en tue so mitt fillimog hetweemi thor kmumt es so hmmrh utaso hr cult asvay as may hr imumummul neneosmuny to roulnot the mutuine om less mapud passage of time pipet mamnmmal heughisovise ovihim the utomuoterm stun smut faces, ommhstaustiahhv as descnuhe I ahsu claim arramummug a series of disiusle raimut kuoms es mapon Ihor knife stock if a puuipune ruogimme, in sunlo a noamousem thmat limeme air trover kumo-es morar time etthrt passage thoarm at tise isarm of the kuomir stork ftmrthuer timere- from sumhsi umutmilly as desruihed I also claim tIme cumlsimuatiomo in a pumlpiug engine of thme follosa mr ele menus, viz., a pair of kiuife storks isavimug divergimm disiuterm ummn kuom thereon, smmitahhe eulny and exit passages for thor paper noahem ush and a casing so noustruched tisat returns the partially rromsud pmuhp heist nets the knife storks for the piurpumue of grinding the pumup fiurthonm ouuhohauu tiahly as deonmuhed I also claim time comhiuatiomo in a puuipimog emuritte of thins folloso tue ele menlo, viz, a revolving knife stock, a series of disiustegi stung kuoms no sutaun our simir himereof, stud arms suisomm thur olahuosite side them emit suuhotaut tialty as desnrihed 4.A. Palmer, of Brockport, N. Y., and S. G. Williams of Janesville, Wis.,assignors, tharough mesne assignments to P. H. Morgan, W. H. Seymour, S. G. Willtams and Aaron Palmer, for an Improvement in Harvesters. Patented July 1, 1851. Re-issued April 10, 1855: We claim discharging the ruth gmautt from a qusadramul-shaped platform, out syhuirim it falls as it is cult, hy means of an amutuuunutin soveep make soveeping over thur sante, smuisstauotlally as deonrihed 5.A. Palmer, of Brockport, N. Y., and S. G. Williams, of Janesville, Wis., assignors, through mesne assignments, to D. S. Morgan, W. H. Seymour, S. G. Williams, and Aaron Palmer, for an Improvement in Harvestels. Patented July 1, 1851. Re-issued April 10, 1855: We chaitto sss-ee~mimmg time cult graims fruits tise piuttlusum umumuit oshuirim it falls as it it is dm1, hy uuarauss muf utmo amutomamatic sos-eels rake uuuuocmh is) gear imsg located soimluimo tlor miser edge of sushI luhatforum, suuhomamutishly as de- snuahed 6.J. E. Brown and S. S. Baltlett, of Woonsocket, B. I., for an Improvement in Grain and Grass Harvesters. Patented January 2, 1855: We claim hamogiug tsr imimugimog time har, U, to time carniage so as lo vi- huate, sumhstauuimahhy as deurrihed, its conuhimuation ovitto time huamugimog tin humuging tuf the cutter stock to hue han, U, smuhotamutially as deornihed, so that time cuttem stock may vihrate stud accommodate itself ho any mmndum- hauiono iii the smurfare of the ground, and so ihuat it may he naiseth buy the attendant to pass stones, stumps, om ohimer obsotrutchions ovitisomut tippimog the cam-risen Also, thur use of a single draso han attached hy yielding amud Imimuged rommumection at thor side of the carmiage or nasun frause, in cmmmhiuatuomm ovith thor hinged or rigimhty cumumoecleul cutler stuck or limager ham, susisutamo- tially as deocrihed, for ike ptuupose specified [This immyrutiun relates to an iuaprovemaaent tint that class of harvesters its oviminlo provision is made for admitting the finger har anti sinkle ho commformn perfectly to Ihe inequalities of tlmit suit-fare of tIme grommnd] 7.F. E. Sickels, of New York City, for an Improvement in the Method of Opening and Closing the Valves of Steam Enuines. Patented Octoher 19, 1844. Extend- ed for 7 years: I elsum, first, B) imuspuovememot In time tueriuuulo of thur movenuruols of time s-shoes hy sobsirtm thoic are otunumnut anti rhosrul mehatis rho to eanhm oilier amumi to time nmmmoemuseuut muf the pmstmmmm h~ meaums iii as iumnhu thur piotmun cumni- mInes earls stuoke ito equomhuturmo mm- muesm ho so so uhimusuui aulnaimuimug sum-simm against time motemeut oh lime imuston tins- ut heath to hut sleumuso suslves, oshuirim is eftecmemi, as imelom e slairmi hr suinrumumme thor huts-er exhoauust oils e isutltirm mise eutti of the mupso and simmuke mu lime ummotumn amud hefture thin ump~inet- eximatmot s-aloe is chumsed amout ouw nuts thin uuppni eximaumot tahoe imefiure thin eumd of Ilme dusotottard sit muke oh hue puotous amoti buefom e thor howet- exhmammst salve is closed; time moo ement of time oteana valves urine sun regumlatid as tins adnait steam to time no hinder omul) afuem Ilme nxhsauout s ohve on the rum- responding end of thor roimudem imas herb closed I aLso claim, as usy omext munlumovemnmuh anti so u nurauss of rarryimo_ tu to effect ussy fit-st and essemutmal impuosememut the aim amugement of thme toes and the norkuhuaft mis smuch a noanner m ehalmo eh~ to thur horauloms and forut of thse feet on tise imfttise muds that at thur namdulhe om murarhy so of the rorkimog motion of Ihun m orkohaft huitho luttmne rods so minim thonir exhoamust vaives sisait he pusrlhy tip, as imerein deserihed; auth I also cloim mis rum- hinatiun avihim timis arramogemeust ttmr stilt of thin lifters omo thur steam osive shems, as descrihed, to insture the closing of thor exhosnot salves hefome the opening of thor steam valves on mite correspomudiug minis of time cyiiuu- den, as hemein drucrihed 8.F. E. Sickels, of Neav York City, for an Inaprovement in the Method of Opening and Closing the Valves of Steam Etugittes. Patented Octoher 19, 1844. Extend- ed for 7 years: I nlamm giving to each exlssust valve, alternalely, orloile the pishon Is at or murar the end of time cylimoder fumrthoest from it, a large amount of mato tion as compared ovith time motimmut of tIme oilmen exhoamush valve at thoat tmnue, so as to move freely, exhaust the cylimumler avills less extent stud grealem ease of mom-ion to the valves than has hem mione iserehofore, suuls- stantially as drornihed I also claim imparting these motions to the exisaust valves hy muueans of a rocker inlerposed hettoerum thon first motion from the mugimur anti the valves, so mimat it ovihi increase suit uliminish its heverage relative to eacto oshne os-hile nauving thoem, and therehy impart my improved motiout 9.Jesse S. Lake and David Lake, of Smith Landing, N. J., assignors to .1. A. Saxton, Canton, Ohio, for an Ina- provement in Grass Harvesters. Patented July 20, 1852: Having drucnihed one practical ovay in ovlminlo tisat huanch of numn in- veuiiun syhich fornus the suhjert of this patent can he cart-ted cutml, ove ovish it ho he mmnderstumod that ore do nut linoit oumuselves to any particular rutting apparammos, utasin fm-sine, or mmnde of muperatimog mIte nummummug aphusra- ttmo But ovhat ore claim under this patent as ommr invention is atlachimog on fastening that pant of a umuovimog nuaclmiun ho sylsich the gumarmhs or fingers orhicts support and loulmI the grass ovisihe it is heimug severed hy the cutter or cumiters, are attachued ho the minim h-sine, or to an imotermediale coup hug piece, so host the gtmards or fingers, or that part to svhinh they are atmacloed, and hy syhich they are stustaimoed and smupported, ovill he free to rise or fall hodily, antI also to have a lateral rolling or avahhling mo- tion to enahlr mhe emitting apparatus ho conform freely to time muumdtmtabiumus of the ground oven which it is drasvn indepeundent of the mup-amud-doson motiummus of the main tiame. 1O.Jcssg S. Lake aid David Lake, of Smith Landing, N. J. L. C., of hadWe have seen electrical machines made .1., ttiShghhl)rs to James A. Saxton, of Canton, Olalo, for of viihcaiiiie oi lard ribber The chief objection to the rnhherhs Ihasi ala lnaprovcnaettt iii Crass Ilarveisteri. P~ttciatcd Jialy it is mt lard eiioaigha it sonia loses its polished surface by thin fric- 21), 1832: lion. thaving tescritad oiie hirictical way in which that much if sir iii - venttoia vhicti linus the subject of this Pateiit can lie sit iii, we ~ IL., of Iowalit ltsihag than htoontla hiow-pipe yon sitonid iii ii(ul i-iiiiiiuc iiiiselvcs C tarti-ilsi- nash cot appi tug iii- sail ii hn~irii list how In keel up a constant blast. Thin aiaonlhi should be notion to the ratio mon-tug isis-hit in~ ii iou, 1511 ire dii claiiia ii5 oui- kept tollalel, aisil thin breathing doin through Ihie iuosn. Those who iii nil desire hi secure liv Let 5 local First, The isniutnaltoim iif s lutugeit I-ru-c slit fir thin lviii- wilhi ic accustomed In use thin blow-pipe can lit- a slesihy stream for inst ii fuaiuun out citing alhuiruul is if a iuuuwu ig iiiicliiiie. 8-i-s it, We also claim iii emits no h-u I a iiiaiii fi-ume aiiil an to hours. rliiiet horiujevltuug hutiugec I hive snot ovilli ii iiiiii ti-in ovhunel hiaviiig no C. S., of Mtass.Yonr match-dipping apparatos is new to uiFOli solihiliri. no. II secius to he useful, aid we should thuiiik it palcialahohe. Should ii 11.Jesse S. Lake and Diii Lake, of Smith Lauding, N. you dc-c-the ho apply fin- a patch, itease ociat is youi- model aiah guy- .J., assigutois to Ittisacs A. Slaxton, of Canton, Ohio, for nriuinniua fee. tO Inapmovement in (h-ass hlttrvestei-s. Patented Jhhly Wv. B. B., of N. Y.A mechanical dranglatisman shonid he 20, 1832: lluus-iuug ihesi-ritind nun hiractical ray ii which thual bruuuuchu if ~m- acrtuuainlnd au-lila thin riuilinaenls of gn(smntrv niul nunchaisical 101010- v-i in ia-liP-lu iou us I lii- siih~ji-i-t ol this Islet e~uuu tin iii hid suit, un sophy. avishi it Is is- uiislirsl iso Illusive ho uS esuuthuin uuuirsi-ls-es lii a iuuuucluiiun C. C., of N. CBy refemi-ing to page 77 of tlae recent edi iii uvhuheti iii liii u-iiu-iibuu- Ciulhluig aphiai-aiiis caiu un uusnsh. liii slut w i liii us uiir iuivciutisui, ut il-stun t-- sncuii-n by Letters liii if ihun Puumniut Las-s ruf ihun Uuiiued Sualno (fin- suote at Ills officel, Puuli-iui, is First Ptacing thin li-ia-tag wheel iii a noas-luig uisachiliur- oiu thin nubile you ax-ill find luunresuing lucius of tiufurniustion for hoalniulens aiid of the fi-unun iii u-oiiu luiuuah issui ailli uu I uiuuiigiutuuu- ship-it ti-auiiu- iii hue iiu assiguiens. Tlui poliut iso which yo ii refer absuul tIm use of puitniulnot stili- 01 thin avlui-i- I. -- ausaveresh. Su-~uuuh, Wi- ulso ch-uiiui in a isis-i ug uuai-huh iii thin cssuiibiuualion sif thin lnsiuiiioiio is Pith tiuiluuuu hug eli-iuii- its, vt-s., ii lu-ianguuluuu iiiuuiiu ltuuiuuu, a stiugle slriviuug P. A., of VaWe are progressing with yoaar huasiness as ii lu-ni, a i-u-:u uigi-sI miii thin oiuusisln sst osuish tiuuuu si-, uu mit su Istuigus Itiuc 551 lust so lOOOOilute. viii- uooas-iuug nsachuiuue ilna-ice is usut uucao; aa-e huaa-e li-i- ii hum-u-, fusi thin h)uuihosSscs si-i huh Ii. Ihuhust 0 alsi u chauuui tim ci)iiiiuiiisultssuu aiihhu hue maui liaise isf mm uusoaa- ni-i-ia lIme osanum- Ihuiuug befoun. - - ususui- hutuse a siiughu liiis au-hum-i-h auush si Inuishtiug souiui-l ai-Iui-u-I, sm mum- - iii ustuuttuuuu iii euuu-lu usilmur aisil ihmi- s-iulhiiug uuiuhisuu-alumo, us ulusal thin A. XV., of Oltio.uVe can explain thin erhoneohas action of huh sit mu-u- ho olu:ulI iuim Oii htiuu-s j isi i ilisist i-sir liii gusiSO 15) i-u- ciii. yssuum- shtihn auuho-u- oistx hsy nuipposiug that thin diouausen iintau--nmi thin 12. -fesse 5. hake alhil Daviul Lake, of Smith Landing, N. exiuuuuuos tssu- auush thu oheaun Issum-hn is moot thin sanun sums i)tslhi si-Ins- -1., assigutom- tim haitmes A. Saxton, of (antout, Oltin, fch- B. I-I. M., of N. 11.TIte skhas for druamlieads au-n an inferior Itt hmnjhhoaelumeuut in Cu-ass Ilam-vestem-is. Pttteutteh July kuumul f hoai-chmummniui. Thin lushes are moot tamommnul, huh susakeshtreahed 21), 1852 I tao-i mug stiss-rilinsi muise isroehi-al an-ax- his ax-huh that pam-I of ~- tii--ii asitIi hum 10 rerossan thin satin-, thunum nImehi-hind On fusions Is in scisihunil sun ii huh ti us thu siulujeul it lIsts husuicumi essum tim- u~suu-ii-sh iuuuh, aulsuml xis- tush elnamusnul, siusi fumiathy lidshisluu-uh axilla ax-huilimog amash hOmiunien sloime. ilsi iii, muuust uli-otmi- Isi sneuuin liv Leuteus Pals-mit, is Ihuslus on ax-Iuichm thin hair is iso unrosuin usned ouihy Is ise axelt cheuuussesh by Ii oh, II ness uuuhsiuuahiusui ml 1 sin- cssuu~shiuig hi~- I. auuil fuisgum- siuphisi-Ilt, Oil Ii iii minI miumius hiumhi miii- huihhti es-u i mi-i- hissui iii leo-u-u-, ~ liii- ti- huuuihuOst- scm-ushoiusg aummh Osiuli hhii-~- may, hoax-ca-nm-, ise fuitto lumuined iii thin sumutiusaux sisuinui. Ismisuuhuug hiulimisho. Se-mist, Ws- ehuuimn 11mm- ummehahhis- cssusmmns-tissmi om Is-vuc, It, liothi as a Iuimuge .1. A., of (iouan If yon will flu-st give tlte iron a coating of tumiul 5 OiihOhousi-u Iss time i-ut hi ug Olihius isuhius aimil flutist. Wi- dust mu it mu- ussum ihutuisut i-sum sst liii- Ii uu0s-i-I- oiu~u lu-i-i mush Itun metal- esuhopem- by lIme usuhheix om- otlmem-an-ise, yon axith hmuone a good fsoumusdatisn hi u 55 mmiii eh issum sin- hi-i-u-i-, II, iii suui- his nusaummmum- I hisat timuti tumour 5iiii~iii liii- a nuumfumni of thu. niusi II isi- hush liii- time sum ihiussi s out lisithi. Issuirths We ulsiuam tim i-us umuiutuusuutsuuu anti hIm noahus frame of a grass C. II., of MassSitellac is a compotand of seveu-al resiums Iu~u i-russ-u-, um hiuigi-u-uii-gu suit sumtsisusuu au-imuuhna-um- it usia in usuhhmut huumuh mug - - iii us uiul,hunuisheiuihy si-i tug huts sguo uum atulutimug csumummechiomus mmmli- u~uussm-u t isi- (sin guile actuho). Gosul spin-it x-am-umishmns may be osaule axhutcha shuath Comm. 1 mu-mm ii most Ihui muisuium huuuuumu tim ~uui-lu si umuauuumem- as hut osuiut hiuigucuom- hahn iso shmnthume. But lism oilier moumupoons, axn au-n usot aeslialusled ax-ills holism-u as it is suuhusuumu-u-ml isi uuuususus ust to Isiusgus ru yiuluhimugi-ssuu mis-cs isuumo sIms II iii is-mu- us iou- ml sum- usr Cull hum!suuu his hilusimi isis iulmhshi mmmiv olhmem- numisohausce axlmic-hi au-itt ion hikety to take its hOltice ii mu u-sm mix hug sur siriviiug iris-u-h sur arlium-lo sum-u u~siig T. XX. P., of Maiiae.Tlte expansion, in lengtlt, of a har or I-i liii Xi- -lumi iii sus hmiusgi uug I lusui sum-h iii si umusuutmug noacluimme to ixhmichi sluamon of - us hi usgs-u-s iii- mu ismulsush us Ilmumi it mummy usseilluil r tim-mi ni a huulse 01 tusuui to ussul ausmind by its lIst ekuseso om- cm-nsa anctuoms liii ml iigluh suuughus Sm liii liii usi umiushtusum uui liii- iiuumchmtumu, liii lIme ~~iitiu5e mlix nhuusumlsh il ime I mit muuisiuug thin pluto sul hi, guisuislo us Sisiumlul 11mm- ciulhtiug 5i15 tinmumhius 1mm mlii esuoulhliusum sit 11mm gusiumumul arhuili- is is alsus li-u-u hum roll, usuik mur axaimhuhm- ~fl I-. L. , of Conn.The filsal polisht of glass is given hy tite tase hi iii husmusuhlmI has h lu hums- of umusuttumum usC thu nusus-hmtuun. mit a unhuluem- of fult om- leashmem-, oumlohuhinsI axuhhm oxyuh of liii, comissonhy Sisihi, Wi elsmimum Ilus- cuunshuimusuhiuumu ia-ill 11mm mumuuium fi-amomn fimuger nuuppout mmuust inuillimug atuhusum-Saluis ust um uuussiutmug nusus-lmisue usfs Is-sum- is-tutu iii aulj umolum- cumilush liii houmlhy mum- lushly iuu)aiSlu-i- tt lIme glass is aery 50th, a elnaum tile u-might hhuniuoui xii Sum-u- isv hue huim-osuin 01 thu liusgem- numpiosuut samuul ciii chiSuiuutuis shims iumay iue umonsl aaithuoumt amax poaxuhem in mug a ishussiumluso ilium thin guouummmuh mumum tue iegishuiheSh liv siummphv uniux-imug sumist anmigiui imiuSium us lvii . . V. F., of MoWe do not like to make thte discrimination Sun-numhhm XVu SuloSi chuuluum thum comiutmuatisun of mm coummuterpoise axcighut msr hehax-aemi machmlusno of miesurly equal meril 0mm- mulutusioms sx-uouohd seem ilus mutumtauulemml II u-u-must mis hi uluSul limit it Si umiusas-imig inisuum-tutmmn, uitiuutniiin it - uuismy tum cii hInd, hum aulmtuIm 11mm- gumamut himugums sure aiisus-luu-uI iss uhlummlmutotu its like a cssmmulm-nsnahion of such as an-n should nol name, ummahess man shuoumtsh tum-somume umiusui lime gusumuuuul summul hums uuimvisulm siute uhmuith umumul litetirsus takn a great ulnusi suf otoace fom umumneceosary extohaisatiomus F. A. C., of X5a.Tnngstate of soda is not on sale in this cliv Suilluhiale of anomusmolo to cheap, auml nosmy ion lurocuireth from any ot hue aslisuhunushe deuslems in uhruugs F. B., of MassSonue manofactorels use zinc nails as a nuibstituihe fsur scsi-mug tins humulins shiptoers A mnchal last is euasphoynul, amul lIme musutho, mum hsnimug shrmxnua us thus, become Iunsadnd, forming, it is saish, a vnry secure fashemmiuig N. S. T., of IndIt is a veiny common idea tlaat thtern is a gresat expenditure of poma-er tins fuurcimug axater mob a bother; houul is it isuil plus that, as hun xaatnr is tom-s-nd iii, if than lsasnsges are otoems it exemis its fuurce onuhmn pismous of thin engine, and Ihums therm to mao poaver iuuoh lux clrivimug thin injeelioua moumnsp, except am-lust is exhonusuhed in oxer- esumammiig uhun fm-idioms I Emen ax-linus lIme passages are chuosnsl, ax-n do mmcml __ _________ hl~7:7fT~zz1;:u;:::;:mz qmtnexteimiymhy;p~mp sun Ilium ulun huuaini- exci-InsI to fusm-en tins hhe axalni- is tuost J~ (i~, of TexasThan ondeushant hreast whanel is tlte kind -ju ciT. .~ ~ mmhmnsst ummmlmcmsumhhy uiseil tins blue colloms anut aiSusuhun nsamsuufuuctorins n~ firsaithx if hmyshmogun imeimog 0139. si-lithe uhuah of good ilhumussiusatimog gas is abussuat 690; that is to osay, xvhite ihiummimsalmusg gas is morn than half am heavy am air, Iuymlm-uugnaa is 34i2 limes htglslnr 0. A., of N. J.Coopnrs isinglassis the concentrated gela- liii Estracleul by shnam fi-omn fuesh hoomans, perfecuhy etnan, and li-ned fruous fal lix previous busuihimug TI ax-as tins the mauaumfSmclumm-e of this numb slausee ihmuat Pelem- Cooper laid Ihe fuouuusulation of than great fuortummme axtmtcha hue is exbsnisuhtusg so axorhlmiha (1. (4. L., of GaMetal pulleys, properly turned, are thtn bmest ; amish lIme gratis nishe of thin bell slisuulsl alms-says be placed usexi than Isuilley NOTETO the above hot of tateoto eighteen of the number were sood through the ageocy of the ScWNTrlc AMERICAN. While many kilo of hosi oeso are temporarily paralyzed, we are happy ii tong aide to State that inventor ant most kiodo of roeclaniciano are totole em- ployed. Maonfsctnrcro of textile fabrico and merchants oem to he the class of persons who the dcrangement of our cloocotic athirs seems most to fleet. Within to weeks we have noticed a large increase of ictivite among aventoro Itreoghont the country. II. II. 1)., cf Muss. Time huest way of coating iron witla tima mum usitim clime is lux usm uls sing hise hum muSh clime summit ubitujsuiig 11mm- hums lialmich lie ass-il dli55i5d511 mu uS 11mm-mum tuiSum u-aim ise mussulnut insulin Ihmnon muse silO liv thin guulvss isim bOuseuss, luimi shuts is mmsrsm-n hmuummishnsusuase numb exiono sian, amsd, bum-siulno, thin coslimug is usot 00 pcrfm-i-t Tise gahassumim- h~~ss is hum ssmummn sins thumb tuui CidehinO-hulsi mug ii thu eo~o~oeu, sumuhy shusumug nohum- I sums suf liii mum clime ussiust bun umonul S. C., Jr., of PaYour letter on than crank motion has huenus meentinsh XXe main almeaul uhemuhech suo mumeha sloace to lIsts suuiuject tlusul am-n causumot ~ inn osoini moom fsur it 0. XV. NI., of PaVoma thaimak tltat we obaghit to call than oil muiut~utunml firsius thin csth ass-his cam-bus ii Sub iii niShein is uuusuhon a uhisliuse- I simm luetmasesm it mmml lii ihlcsh essi I mull XXu husk mhiIhminioihx, bunesuumon ml us mush rnsmhlx- uaiiu5Sn buimi a tixuhium esmilsuum mutt Timius sit I axuomuhul be lime umusush mmtu hOiSihOituile muanmm fun ii: I uuuuumtuh esuimi-ex- Ilme iuteus of hIs suuuSidi115e cu-hi F. I. D., of N. Y.Tlic ghuse mnohuls ens~sloyed fcmr plaster casts ia-ill prohmem~ nhOdullnSt iiguurus ummuhmos gm-cal came bun exerciseut Is sum in than phaslem- shsSam hy, ssu as iss uhusIshumee all this- smir Thin calcineul a hums ausut huhasiem- enumunuot is 551 ussausum fuel uurm-ul ainoysm-humie, nsu fm as ave kummum Xiii cumin umasuke it tom- yusiirsu-If lix fsulhuuamtuu g thin medilse ashumeha ion tuna-n ahinaihy Iuuiiuhislsmuh, Iii axhaichm yuuui u-item- Ssu fumi mao axe kinooxa-, lucre is not ams eshabuhiohimeust tins huts city axhutels makes musts anul full figummes of metal liv the eInclu-oihn~ooniitiog loruss-nos, usom- ham-n am heard mit sahummi momma iselmug Isractically umonul tins ehectro-siielahhiirgx-, limit il cams uimiduSiuiitithy Ise emmuhuox-mul .1. F. 1-., of PaIron, like all suhstancns capahhn of niyotaIthcaiiuous, nObsiumuls ulummimug thin ehsausge fm-sum lIme Its~umtut 1u thin sinulhul slssle St esuot imuuum clinues nuit gun a olmumuto tiuihsieOOiOini of lIme noohul, ml is mint I mat it buses uisut Cihinsuinish, hut huecisuise it luinsus its llualuhthx so ntis-My ihumuce Ibm misc of cimiuruming ho fsurc-e lIme nuotlema mini, am-hen it am-ill mint go buy its nun axuiglut B. S., of Icuaaa.Tlteh-c is no difhictilty wltatever hint con- slrumehiuug a otnauss eam-niage lo minima sum esomnmoms roads This Imas been ubsime inhuealnuihx- Thin oily qumeoltinuus mmiuoumt success is, cuan studs ems- gums lue nsaihn to pay 1 This has yet ho bun shensoumshralemh W. H., of Mass.Mburls laas heen done in than way of street suvenhutisfi noaclahuses, anul them-n is a cerlatmm uhegree mint resemb)Iamsce be- tivenus all of hisens Xouurs seems to uttihim- us some mespeels fuouss all others kumoaxus In mis, huinmi usc- I hunk xouu haul bum-Item- baa-n a Iicnhsuostusau-x- m-xausstuoatiois mimIc at ubse Paleist (Itlice before goimog to the expeusme of mmmi a~o~ohicsaIion liii- a lialeiut Money Received At the Scientific American Office on account of Patent Office bussiusess, for mIsc aveek ending Sahmurday, Taus 5,1861: S C., of Pa, $35; A Q., cut N 1, $30; 53 it W, of N Y, $30; H B it S 1 L, mint Muuimme, $23; F S, of tab, $50; I II, ofCisl, $25; F C., of Ohio, $25; L TI, of Maso, $25; .5 D, of N Y., $30; 31 B S, of N Vi $55; C I P, of N X, $25; 14 XV R, of Ala, $25; C L P, of N v, $55; A 1-1. & C H B, of 5usd, $25; F B, of Ohio, $30; H N, W, of Ciumsmm B t C of Ohio, $5.X; S & B, of (al, $25; C (4, of N V, $25; I H P, of N V, $25; L C, of N V, $40; (4 W D, of N V. $96; A C, of N V, $50; 31. P II, of Ohio, $15; B MeN, of N v, $30; F J F, of Mo, $55; C & C, of N v, $50; XV 31, of N v, $30; B it F, nuf Wis, $25; B F H, of Cal, $25; W J 14, of N V, $37; A R, of N P, $250; J A C, of N v, $55; It P De (4, of N V, $25; D C, mint N V, $25 Specifications, drawings and models helonging to parties ax-ills mIme tsinlhouxhog uusihlals Isaxe linen fiuram-arshed tum the Pateist Ollice dur- ing than avenk emodimog J~mms 5, 1861; WFQ,ofDnl; DitW,nfNV; MPH, otNH; A (4, of N Y Itavo cases); C L P, of N V; B & C, of 01mb; J IT, of Cal; E C, of Ohoto; (4 XV B, of N V (tavo canes); P B C, of N Y; (4 W. F, of Ala; H P Be (4, of N V; L ut S B IT, of Mass; A F, of N V; B. C, of N V; 31 B it 5 5 L., cit Maine; 5 C, of N V; P A, of N V; A It it C F B, of Tnd; C (4, of N V;,T II p, of N V.; B It It, of Cab; S. it B , of Cal ; B it F, cuf Wio; 31 B S, of N v. Important Hints to Our Readers. BACK NUMBERS AND VOLr3IEs OF THE SCIENTtFIC AMETIT. CaxXohmumcs S, IT and ITT (bsuuummd om- umusboummad) usay be hash at ilsis ollice and from alt periodiesul desuhers Pitee, hoouumud, SiSOpem- x-ohumnme; by ussail, $2am-latch imscludem postunge Price tins shietils, $1 Every mmmi- chiamuic, imum-emutom- or murhisummm tim Ito Umuiled Stales ohusculsl hsaa-e a eons- lohete set of this lonubhicalisms fuom reference Sishoscrilsern shuountil musol fail ho prconna-n them- numbers tom bimading. PATENT IIATXns.Persons desiring than ellaini of any imiven- anishion am-luicli Ions been loalnusteul aa shin Ilmim-ly in nusmo, esmms olulaiii a cs~oy by addm-eooimsg a mote lii flits Bce, ststtmsg thin namume mint lIme moos - emusne aussh lane of 1OShnisI, ax-linus knoxyn, annul inselosimug $1 sins ten ton- co~oyiusg XX can also tuirmousli a shunlehm of amy hiotnisiesh ussaclutuse issnmeul niusce 18X3, ho aceomnpamay lIme clatni, Oini recethol of $2 Address MUNN it CI), Palemot Sohicilous, No 37 Pam-k Foxy, Ninay Vork BINDINGWe are prepared to hind volumes, in handsome cox-ers axulIm illiunsinahed sishes, amad to fsmnmmtshs coa-em-a fnur othser hniumsh- n-rn Price for bindimog, 50 ennls Price for covers, by mail, 50 cents by express or dehia-ered at than office, 40 cemuta RATES OF ADVERTISING. Thirty Cents per lsmsn for esucha amid every husserlion, payable inn ashmausce To enssbtn alt to nmmaslmistauud loam to cahenulsute lIme anosususnut tImex nanust send ax-linus they axisba ashacrtioenmemuls pinubtushinsi, am-i am ill cxtStsaiui ttssst tens aisirsls axerage one line Fmsgraa-tags am-ill muSt bun saulmmmthlnsh mmlii onur suha nrlmsmmsg cohnmnamus amost is lieu elofuire, blue biuiblistuirs unserm in- usa thunmosehs es lIme right 1cm mInd -aup ada ertuonmemul semot for pumbuhteahtomn IMPORTANT TO INVENTORS. m LIE GRE kT AMERICAN AND FOREIGN PATENT ACI NI X Xtnssms X[UNN it CO Puolsmmet moot lIme Scam a curie Asunnutisi mumlum mis u mean- busuimomus shuat tImex- mire still emsg~sgnih mum timutnumm ntou-s-iuucuamiuumus mmml diusaaiisgs ummuit alhc-mmutimug Is thin umummuls of isuxumihioms inn em-nm-p clehosiu-tmmsemut bonfire nIne PSulemul (hIm-n, suuchi ins Exheneissus, Ahulonaho, Imuhnm-lnm-u-mi-ns diiiin-dhimug immutonmtm-dl hOuOhlnms sumhusimistnil so thin Pumhunul Ihilien by imsccimmuhim-unmut hiensommo, exususmimmimig mmlii lIme inSanIty ot imsammuhusumus, argumnmsg mejeched esuses, A-c Thin hung cxho(-s-idssde uXtesors XIUNN P 111 Imusme hmait ma ~mie~iuinitii~ siinndiliduiitisns uummut uisammimsgs, exiussulimug mini mu a pen-inst nut sixiecus penis, husus rnmmuhns-uul thinmmo huiilndhlo csmmanm-somst as-il in Itue mmuside of clusimug boassimmess at thin hJmmtsnst Slams Puiteint Oiiuce, mush irish thin greahem- lOsitJiI lIme isamcumsisumuo am-lucia Imain lieu-un liahenSis-it I nmiummsmsm- hum cusmocnm-msmuug the usuulnmuhusiuiltiy sit tmuammistouus is lhuntx- gin ens, aniltmuinum charge, nuns semashiung a umanuchel or utm~mmatmmg amuit descriptions to tints uilhise (smmstmlhatiuums mmix be lath sm-ills thin firms, hschmmeen NINE amid 00011 nuchnuck, daily, at ilseir PmnINCIEAL OEruvE, No 37 PAisKonay, Ncain- Vomant XXn nave suhso a BRANCH Orruct; tins lime tu~y or XXA5RINOTON, nina thin CORNEti or F AND SEvENcn-sTaamuoyrs, OhOlinmiOihe nine Ummilnit Slates Pal- emat Olhice Tlsis moihice is namndur mIsc- genunmuui smmhonmimsienmuhuncu mint mime nun thin tuim, inch is inn uhuuthycomisannishcsatioins aa shin thin Priuscilomut Itilice tins Neam Vuork, amanl loersoisal attemsthinms amilt toe gimeum ~at lImo Paucunt u thee to alt suncta cases as mousy meuhunmmn it Isnmnmmisus-s amash uushsers ax-him 15553 s-iou XXaslitmsgion, lamua-imig bonnsimmess at Ilse Palnint Olhice, au-n dismuttuuhhx tumamleil to csuhl at their othuce uXheosms 3IUNN it CO are veiny cxtensivelvengagcdin lIme prehoarattona ansut secnmm-inug ot Patenuts ins flue aamisnnns Enimuopeunmi couuuslm-mns Fumi- tIme liumnmsachtsms of thuis iunmoimonso 11mev Imumne Otlicco at Nuns 6th Clsamuccix- Lause Liummuhoms ; 29 Bsonmtnmummml St 3huinitiis, Psurmo ; mmmd 211 Slime ntis Etuumsimsmnim-m-s, Bunmossets XXe Ilnimak ax-n Ii5ii5 Osuhils 5mix html onmiisu-ighiulio nut null lIme Eunnuotonmums Patnusms secured to Amuisjiuumnm citizemus are tsmmicnmmeut ttsmoum~hm our Anemncy hmmvcnmloms avill do sa-ell to bear in rotund that the Funghishm sax- dons not hinusil thin issumi nut huateints to imnanmntors Ammp~ omue Cmii take smut a Iumuhemut ma (Treat Brihutum A boanuholut mit imatuorosatton concem-usimag flue proper nonurse to be pumroumesh ha usiutatmoing usatemuta Ihumonugla their Agensep-, inline reshumiremnemotm not thin Patemnt Olhice, A-c, map- tue hash gratis um~uimis mnhoholieintiinsss at thin Pmtmistbssll Othuem-, 01 etthmem- nut ttse Brummuctues They also tmmmauiols ma Cimemutma sit Smmhiummussstiomm umiusinat Fuimuign P~uhemmts Thin amamnexed lellers, imom the last three Commissioner of Patnnhs, axe cismmnmonnust tino the auc-rmnsal of mull uonroomss imuterestesl in olotainsimug imul- numb uXtessrs. 3tuaxxt it Co. I take pheasune in stautung thammi, avlsihe S hehsi lIne otfuca of (uunamusnosnsinnr of Psuheusts, MORE ThiN ONinS-FOnih5Tuo OF All. THE BiOsuNEss OF THE OFFICE CAsio; THIIOUOH YOUR HiNass S have mini duonmlst ihat Ilne putlohue cnuuuliitnmscn thus imadicated humus bc-ens tumllp desnum-eml, as I Isam~n alma-as-s nibsera-ed, Ins all pcinnr inlerconmron ax-thIn stse (hihuce, a nuam-ked degree mat piiinOlOtisnss, okill mond flnhehitp- hum thin tishenusis of pu-mum- esmutotop-nm-s Voinro memy tnnmhp-, CItAS MASON. Immediately aflem Ilse aphosintmeust of Mr Bolt to Ihe usfilee of Post- mmusher-(4nmsnral of thin Unsited Stmnies, Inn- snituhresssnst ho tins the sumiujiuuised acup gumutitying teotiusuonimul uXhnssrs XIUNE it Co SI alfisribs inn munch phuasuure to bear Icolimony to thin alohe ansul nhficinmat mnmumaiser in axhuicla aoum minnie shiochnargeil vonni dumutes of Solicitors of Palensus ia-title I issnut nts~ imniosur of luoldimug thin- sllice of Cuommissiomser Voumm- innnsimoess aa-ao a-nra large, annul pomm sumotaimued (mmmcl, I stninmmbt usnut, jmusttp steserm-entl time mePimtmuniumnm sit nmsergy, osmom-ked muimilira amad ummsconuasa-omssisimsg tiuinlila Inn usemlisnmsminmg ycmnnn- asmimleosuommaa nmmgisgenaeusts Veiny respeeffnnthy, Vonur muhoestiemat nervanl, J. HOLT. uXtEusEs MUNE it Co Centleman; It gives mc much pleasore to say Ihat, duarimng time lime of my holdinag ihe sIlica of Comnmoisonouser of PaL- enans, a very large pmopornmnsms oh ttse innnsiness of imovemutorn before lIme PSaI- emit Oflice axuas irmnnusan-uecl thnuoungla punnar agc-mnca-, amust thuml S luau-c cuem fisuannl poum fattishhul muuast Slum inn-cl Ins lIme imnlemestL of a-our cliemuls, as axehl 10 ensimunmutha- qsmumlifinul to lierfisrin thin duties of Pstemst Aitorisups uxilhs skill smul accnmrmncp- Xerp- rnsluecttnmlhp-, Vonur ilsesliemat servant, XVM B BISTIOP uXtessrs uXtuxx it Co comutimuthy imavite personus vtsitimsg time cily, or rest- deusim, to call at hisnir spacissums offices, Nsu 37 Park-rinay, and exansinun mime musoulets aihutcla mime On nxhsiismtiiomm, iii- meten- us Sine axoults nit mehem-ensce ecimn Imummmed inn them- luhormurp-, access his salutehm emoms hoe hiatt at sill hours husunnmsnuu-s cain csnmmmmssnommicsaue Ins (4ermssan, French, Spansioha, or neamly any- otiser imumugnuage, ins solictmtmsg imatnnrosaumona troto limo S lice (tmcnmtssrs of tmsfnsmmsattsun reg~murshtmsg Itue procunrumag of pahemits, isrimateut ins Genisassim, map- he himsua On ahiiohtemstinmn Csunsuastmuaicahimonss anash romiltances alsotuld be asbdresmnd to MUNN & CO., Puablishers, No 37 Pam-hursay, Nemv Vork ANTEDTWO POWER PRESSES OF MEDIUM Vt size, avillinioumt back gear PLANTS uXtANFIS CI), 24 33* Nemv Havens, linus (i~ REAT CURIOSITY.PARTICULARS SENT FREE. Ageusta wanted SITAW it CLARK, 6 24-h Bictdnlhurd, uXtmminse XJ ATES IMPROVED PATENT MACHINE FOR SAW- I lisp Slaingles on- Heashing F A .SUDD, Pnisprunior, Cimtitensango, uXhadloons conmunty, N V XX II VATES, Ageuul, Rocisesler, 3ttu-hs 23 55 A WANTEDTO SELL FIVE NEW 5 u 00 4GENTS enhionsone veny recemat, mmiii of gm-eat a-Saline to fansihics All pay- greal borofito to agemuls Scud tnnuur 51500105 ausut get 50 pages panticnmiSinra (17 13*) FPHRAS3I BROXXN, Loavull, )Iuass UILD & GARBISONS STEAM PUMPS FOR ALL kinads of Independeust Steam Pmmm~oimsg, fur sate at Nos 55 ammil 57 First-siren-I, XXitiiamssmionsrgim, L S, ansi No 74 Bnnkmusmnms-ohreet, Nms Vuork (1 26j (4USLD, ISARRSSON it (0 ASONS PATENT STORE WINDOW VENTILATOR LIt) lOalnmstesh Jams 24, 1860), Isilimllp lorexents coimiheussatismus, tuosi, lineal, amast time resauttliag nhSsnoage to guosoits exliosed tins shuoms aminsuhoass Rigluui, smusgie or district ton- sate 1 say Aptohy 1cm 5 F uXIASON, No 1,522 NirIta Fummmrhls-street, Plsthadettolmimu, Pa - 1 50 IRON PLANERS, ENGINE LATHES, AND OTHER L uXiachinsisho Tisoho, nit susperior qmmalits-, oma imaussi amid iumsisinnmsg, mmmiii tsur sale may; also Stanrisoiss Crams Mitts: Fom- deocrilolive circolsmr ash- dress Neax- ISax-ens )hamnumfmudhssrtmmg Cmmmsmhsmmox-, Neax- lSusaems, Cnimmna 1 26~ UMPS! PUMPS!! PUMPS! CARYS IMPROVED LItiopory- Furen Pump, uuusmiaalnsh ton ~~Om ~oimag Isnut on- nolut itulumists uXtannnfscunmrnul annul nuilit liv (ARV it BRAINERD, Bnodhumoimrt, N V. Also, sdnisI boy J I CARV, ix 2 Astor Sluuunse, Neav York City 1113 46 HOMES FOR THE INDUSTRIOUS, IN TIlE GARDEN STATE OF TIlE WEST. TILE ILLINOIS CENTRAL RAILROAD COMPANY HAVE FOR SALE 1,200,001) ACRES OF RICh FARMING LANDS, to TRACTS OF FORTY ACRES AND UPWARD, LONG CREDIT AND AT LOW PRICES. The attention of the eitterprintiig and iiiduintrioiin portion of the coin- loonite in tirecte(t 1(1 the folloiviii~ otateniento niot t(t)erat in(ltleelilelltn ottiwed lien-i by tie ILLINOIS CENTRAL RATLROAD COMPANY, 0 (((Ii, ao Iloty wilt perceive, will enable then-i, by to-opec energy, per oeveeonee and indototr~, to provide coin fortabte lionoen for tloeinnet~en taint ten, nitti, coroporalivete opeakino, very little cal)ttat. I. LANDS OF ILLINOIS. No otote in toe Volley of toe Miootontp1ot ottero 00 great an notoceinent to the oeo too a tie State of Itttiiotn. There to iio toor mu of the world wt eve alt it toe -olottttoito 01 climate atot nit 0(0 a(thlltratotn coinbi ne to tratoec ttooe two to-el stoiptenenro and wheatan the proitren of I tititoto. II. EASTERN AND SOUTIIERN MARKETS. The-c Itnito are contigiions to a raitronit 711) initen to teiigtti, which coloneit o vttti oIlier rototo, am) navigable hikeo and rivein, thus afford an olitorokeit cooiianattiiicatioii uvitti the Eastern aiid Soottmein mar bet o. III. RAILROAD SYSTEM t)F ILLINOIS. Over $100,000,000 of private callitat have t)een ex~n-ioted on the raihi-oad Ovotani if Ittiiaoto. lononaneti an part of the income from several of I hene workn, with a vatoalde pnlotic foist in tando go to ttmntiitnta the Stile enloenoen, the taxen are ltgtit, aint mnnt, colmseothentty, every itay tee ro-ane. IV. TIlE STATE DEBT. Tue State ihetot in only $10,105,3t18.Id, aitd, within the tool three yearn hiolo been reotliceot ~295t17d6.S0; amot we may reanoiiatitv calmed that to temi vearo it wttt beeonte exttimet. V. PRESENT POPULATION. The State to rahobtte fitting ito wtttm tooynitatioi 868,026 pernona having been nolded otnee 18511, iimaktiig the Itresent popotattoim 1,719,4116a ratio of 102 tel eel-it lii teii yearn. VI. AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTS. Tb- ogrietiti oral proteIn of Ittlitoin are greater limit hone of any oltici- State. The to-on toelo seilt not itorimig the 101101 aear exceeded 1 5i0ti01t1 1(1100. The n heat cl-Ito of loot) ap loroaetoen 35000,000 of toiintietn, o ito- tie coirn ct-loll vietto list li-no I tiaii ldO,0011,O0lttiiintietn. VII. FERTILITY OF TIlE SOIL. Nootyhiere caii Itte imtotuintrtotmn foii-iner seclire oticti ilomeihiate renutto fill- tim 10(1(01- an toil thieni- tratrie nootto, thee hoetiig componi-ol of a (tel-ti, i-ti-to loin, the fom-Ittity of 01(11-ti to hmmmoumm-tonoeot toy any oii tIme gloibe. VIII. TO ACTUAL CULTIVATORS. Stioce 1854, the comloalty tiave nootot I,I00,001) acren. They nell sIlty to act itit cIltIiyatloi-n nmst evemy contrail ciomitatoon aim hmgm-eeniemot to ruth- vale. Floe rooaot ban leo-mo coumoti-orto-ot thiioiighi Ito-se toimitho oit an extenne rof $311lt00000. Iii 18511, lie tot tahtoomi of the fortyotne cuuiiiihien through orhuto-ti tt taso-o noon only 3:11,593, nimice whIch 470,023 have hieeii aitotect. maktmig Ito whtoohe tootootottom Sld,S0hoa gaiii of 143 toor cent. IX. EVIDENCES OF PROSPERITY. An aii evioheitee of tie thrift rif the peotite, tI naay be stoited that 600,000 Itlilo of fm--tghmt, tito-hooltog 8,600,0110 toiinhio-tn of gratia anit 2iilt,tlOlI barreha of tour, weme htirnearlhelh uuvir ltoi- hue toint yeomr. PRICES AND TEIIMS OF PAYMENT. TIme hom-ieeo of thoene tanotn yam-v from $6 him $25 per acre, aecoruhing to hoocattoomi, ojimahitv, be. Fim-ot-choon fom-mittuig tomumoho sm-Il fiom- omhiiommt $11) or $12 hem omeme tumbot the ri-hattie extoouoo ilit nilhiotimimig Pliltin- hoiiiol an cohn let smith ni-oiooh htmmd to iii tie roohioi of 1 10) 10 tim foivooruof the fourrimem. The Inrmiin of nato tom ltoe hulk of loeso- hammoho with toe oNE YEARS INTEREST IN ADVANCE, at nix per cemni toer abotibmni, ouimit nix tmttecest notes at nix percemat, toayabhn re..hoeetiniohi iii lomoc, tovoi, I tomei, Itoimi-, hini- moot six yeats fiomma ttmhe of soiho auiot foom- iou .0 Ill houtubuttot, ~amytibhe in foiimr, tine, six aunt sen-eli 101(00 iioot~ halo rof OhIO (tie cloluhiouct stipuitouliuug Itiat oume-lemmhti of thie vol mobouchoooocot stitith too limmecol oummot cuotiieoihioh etlehi amirt i-n-em-n- nca 1 fooc fin-ioi-ao-o fruluma Ohio late of note, so thoat, out thou eumot of tine yetim-n, uuime-hiomhf 101- fetuo-od ammI illOltel cimhltn-ontioimu. TWENTY lER CENT WIlL BE DEDUCTED ~rlia- too- I otlioaliooui for canhm, except tIme nasm- nhmoimhol be at nix dohhars per levi, II toeii lImo coonim too-tel ni-itt toe fine Illithoils. PohmmmtotGeuo uhenem-itutine of thou holimlI, south, ctinatntc, looihnctiuiims, prices, aim-h em-mn of paynasot, can toe lmaol nit apphicalion to J. XV. FOSTER, Lanol Comnhnhuoner, Ittinoin Cematral Railroad, Chicago, 111. Foi- tIme lames of thue loss-us, nithagen aitol cities sihimated upoms tIme Ittimmois (eittral Raitroaml, see toagen 188, 189, 1110, Aplitl-tniumo Raihnvay (Snide. ~he ~d~difk ~-mevk~zn. SEMI-STEEL. EMI-STEEL LOCOMOTIVE TIRES, FIRE-BOX AND K) Touhue Simo-elo, amtd Boihor Platen. Waim-aimleot hilly tier remit stroluger aimd mote durable thiala thas bent Loss- Ihooni- umhultihies out imoim. TIRESRoaVeot, bhoocked amid welded to fit aimy givela dianacler ot cimutIr. PLATESRIttelt autit cut to aiuv toatterul anot size nuotered. Rbhthelt 000001 hlamoumoered Boirn, Axten amuol Forgings of sante metaL Aim) fmirthuer imufoornualiomui oteotu-e.I sn-itt be forutislied, amad all ordern promphhy exeemmted. ilpouut aphohicatiolIt. lhautluttmelimred hay (ORNING, WINSLOW & CO., 113 Ahbaiiy Iron Works, Troy, N. Y. NIT HEELER & WILSONS SEWING MACHINES, WITH imopoortaunt improvemento, at reduced prices. Office, No. 505 Binamtsnas-, Ness Vorho. -o Thin itoachuimme makes thue - hock-stitch, niud rauokn huighest on accosint of time etanhlo-ite, pel-mnauieulce, tieaumtv, nuuul gemmeram uhosiuontohemaeno of thue shilcimimog sn-toeuo utoomue, amid the sn-tote momuoge of itn aphuhicoutiout. Report ott doe Auooerio-oioo founhihoute N 1 Timin retomo seas ut accorolance with thue ass-ardo at hite Fair of hoe Umuited Stouten Agi-icumhtturat Society; at thu Fours uuf tite Amitem-ican Imunti tub, Ni-se VoIrkI Sheclmaiaico Ansoemahioum. Boonton; Frankhiun lutotitutte, Pimitoldetto ttia; Meiropotitaut lhet-lmalticn Immouttomue, Wanhtimogloim; Mechmnut- ico lumotittute, Bontlimitoore 7ihecimanicn Ansnciahtoii, (immctutubooht ; Kuimlomek hmmnliuimhe, Loimiss-ihte; Mecimaitics Aonrocioutinia SILonuts; Meetmaumics hash toute, Saii h-l-nlaeisebu1 at the State Faims of 3h~imae, Vermoitt, Comolnedhielut, Nuns Voork, Ness- 41-roes-, Peunuanyts-autia, Vimgiimia, 3hisnisnip~oi, Shisooilri, Ohoin, Iiootioiima, lonsa, Teummaesseu-, Ihtiiaois, Keumlumuky, Ihicimigouut, Wiscoumo- simm, Coihilium-itia, amid I imiuuadiethn ol chuuluals- faimn. 3 20 T0ctme~V~ CIIEMI8TS.FOII SALE, ALDEIITI)N, Count oil Foactoom-)-, Peutny- Idmiole, Smith ldm-iookha-n. 10 pORTERS IMPROVED GOVERNOR. TIme relohmiation oh these gnveruanrn in svett entoabhinhued. Parties Im-numbleot snilti uuitnheonitt- pinner non)- si-lull fom titeon in emotire confiotence. Tito) moever fonit. - Tie noimeromun saiven un iuse are alt eqilahhy gorud, if well nande; the formin of lime opemaimog io inminaterini. The gn\-ernnro are seam-rantud moo seourk purfuotty sn-itt any ammot alt nonin-es, sn-loictn miione treehy amid chose toiheroatot)- tighol. A style in miitmuhe extorennin nohapted to ssatirsn-hoeehn, to snitichi they sn-ill gine a ltlrldhh) ilutihtoim uaoohioimi, oummoher ails- snuintiomut oh meototance. I Imoive tong dooime snithi Im-ouuitOttlig in) ciuntoumnern fom cerliticonten; html am atote too refer moo a ioui-gu atmunber of loarlien nons- umsiomg Ibm gon-eritor ima a ntotjohmity of thue Stoiten of the Uioinum. I seith neltd a t-nyeu-nor In any reolonuasitote party for triaL If it does not ohoeroute perfectly it onny be rehturitemt. A hibeint mltocrouint In time uroude, nylione orders seiti aiss-nys be prompihy filto-ot. CIIARLES T. PORTER, No. 235 West Tloiiteeiith-street, cormier of Nimutlo-avenne, 1 13 Nene York City. H ARRISONS GRIST M1LLS20, 30,80 AND 48 $200, $300 nut~400, lIme noobotu-u-ii iuuotuuomseuboe-uols. Atnom, Poom-mable nuod Statiroimam-)- Steatma Ruigimoen not ouhl sizes, numitutohe for nomid noitto. Ammo, Bootteun, Etes-atooro, Bmthiiog, Ac. Apply too 8. C. hILLS, Nom. 12 PlaIt-street, Nese Voork. 3 elte NITARRENS TURBINE WATER WHEEL (WARREN & VV Dounoomias loateumll, manoifactuired b) tite Ammmericamn Wotter Wtoeei Coompany, Bomntoit. Manuifactmirero and nit Iboose sehmo lanve been sadly dfsappoiimled in seheehn toe linteuuiiig to tIme citarmiimg song (ml high per reumlage, A-c., niud sehin seould notoupt ns lieeis that syith giec time bent pine licoil result setmemn tented by lime spiiidhe nuod loom, with ito seell to invo-sti- goole thin lomrbiime. Atmnuutthmmee houndred huctories are imons- prolaehled by Ilmene snImeets ut the United States, sorpanning, in ecounomy, comovellicioce aimd eflicio-iocy, -o lamely per ceiml seheets 100 cahledl, nuod all setmeets setuicli it has taken time place of. Timene prominent adeanuagen are ackmooosvto-dgeut by tIme heauliItg maimofactuurero ut mite cuuuunti~. Sciod the liotiniihmhei (44 lOalen), comolailutog engrnviutgs, & c., complete. Imocbose tseo stauimlbn. Amlotreno ALONZO WARREN, agent, No. 31 Exchamtge-ntreet, Bmmnloomi, Mann. 23 6* m HE FORT EDWARD LEDGER. ADVERTISERS WHO desire In atirouct the alleittinia of Itte menohimog boomlahie iii northoerim Ness Ymmrk, mini flitot nO better medium Ibmain tIme Fort Edsnai-d (Wash. Cii) Ledger. 3 2~ 11/U ACHINE BELTING, STEAM PACKING, ENGINE I~L. HOSETite shmperiority of these articlen, noauoofoetnreul of vumi- raitized rmutotaer, in entabtished. Every belt vitl be searraitted sumperior to leather, at one-Curd lens price. Tbte Steam Parkimog in niamle in every variety, and seari-anmed In stand 300 degs. of heal. Thoe Hone neeer maeedn ouihimog, amod in niarranted to stniad amoy requiireul pmeoouui-e; tngethmei- snilio alt noumiehien oufrombhoeioodaloteul too mechonimleal plirpO.5e0. Dinichimoits, lances, A-c., couii toe oototaiioeol tn mail or omloernn-ioe at cumin nyarehomune. NEW YORK BELTING AN~ PACKING COMPANY. JOHN H. CHEEVER, Treaniurer, Non. 17 amod 18 Poork-row-, Ness- Voork. 1 13 hene Iran valves au-i 1~UN IN THE FAMILY. MAGIC CASES FOR I hionlinmon, A-c., semul far 12 red ntanpn. C. 4. WILLIA3LS, Lock Hoax 388, Proviulo-nee, 11. I. 3 2~ (~1 LINTON WIRE CLOTH COMPANYMANUFACTUR. em out Pioneer Loom Mire Chiuth, foor threshuing noachoimoen, fan mitts gm-nih tusnorturo rice naiths, loooohinuutin-e shonrkaru-estem-n, oummot all otiter misen, out 01 siuhoerilor ohimalit) (oonlractn mauto- snub hlae Irnole amod barge ubuubomunmem-o, 0011 shell ti-u-moan lboomt time)- sn-itt Itmoot it too bell- iloterent to tbotte thouli- somplut)- from un. Oimi titiohemiotirk Poowem Liooun Wmue Choatbt. - C. H. WATERS, Agemil anut Tmeasuirei, 2 14~ Climotoum, Mans. I ~HE TIN, SHEET IRON AND COPPERSMITHS PRAC- TICAL (OSIPANION sn-itt be seuut by mail, free of poontage, to amoy part of hloe L motteul States, mum Iloc receibot of 75 menlo Circular of enmimenbo seitt gratis. Amldreon BLIEN A- BATTLE, Detroit, Mirhi. 2 40 TEPHENS DYES FOR STAINING INFERIOR WOOD K) to inlitonte hotoock Ivoliutult, noahungamo, sahimo snoond, rbasemnounot, am oak. Shuecimuommo ammol II inS Ioeutumnen setot iou alt baits of the Staten nit receibat (Of 15 memmls C. J. REILLY, No 70 Wittinin-ntreet, Nesn- York. 1 8* m HE NEW BRICK MACHINE IS GRADUALLY EX- I. tending over time htniteot Suoulen amod Camoamla; io snorkemi by one niton, to) hmohmne nuod to)- sletont; mouken from 4,000 too 25,000 brucks a da); roanto froont $75 too $400 Four fuirthier particiulourn in a painhohteu giving full muuntuuummioouon mint turick-sethimog and touirioiuog, noldreso, emomlomnimug Iltree stamupo, FRANCIS It. SMITH, Bahtimoure. 1 68 ~3iw ~.3eadjtunq ~hr bcutfdjc ~i~tfiu~cr. ~ZIie Uutcv3eiuf)lwten ~uXbe1I 101111 ~tHteitlhnq, tIC (RljillbCtH bct~ )& tt)uXttCll (h11~3fittt, 11111 flIt) it)VC ~34htCBtC 311 fhlt)CV1I, ttitto fhlh~lt~CbeB, 1313b IiCVIIIifm,tcJen fototie f)tchthi 1511 bie4ettien. (vfillbet, ~vetut)e lIid)t mit bet euqti~d)en ~4rusc~e betuinnt ~i1hb, toitneit otge ~)Mitttwitutt~eu ill bet behltfd)uuh ~,tis4te lhhthd)C13. l~fi33C1t liOn (~tfihIttUIh~C13 RIOt tllr3ctl, bettttiuf~ glo fIt)rmebenen Qlefd)reitrnnqen tictiebe nvtn ~u usbbrepirelI ChIt tMturn ~ 1)1311111 I ~)ie ~afeuf-(5~eFef~e ber ~ereiuigfeu ~faafeu, net4t ben lReI3etn Unb bet t~3e u4t~orbnlhnc~ bet ~Iistentn Zfftce nub ~tl3teothnqeII fur t.& finbet, nin fi4~ m~3c1teI3te 3U fhd)1r13, in bell )~3et. ~t. fuilvotht uit~ itt (~lhtO~Nh. 33~etttet ~IUt8a 3 iic~e l5lh~ ben ~ ChICHI (~3 efel)en frentber ~rnbet nnb batisuf bet itub foht)e, knetd~e ~ustentiren lio tlett. 47 ATENT LAWS OF THE UNITED STATES, WITH I oIlier imofaumntinn of importamoce In hmoveuttorn, Palenteeo nuod As sigutees. JU5T I55UED, A ss-ourhn of os-er 100 pages, eommtomiuoiuug Ihoc Patemot Lass-n nf the Ummited States, snitti alt Ilte imotiommation tmmruotstmed fruouto 11mm Poutent Ottice ucla- tise to time umoomle of aptots-itog four taloteumlo, Itorumms oof shooeittcatioauon, romseouto, re-loonies, notohittouuoni iIm~pmosemeumts, omssigmmumoenlo, Am ; tlte routes tom toukiuug tusttuomoouus- hum cases of imilemfem-o-iaee moot extemostoamon, sni thin smogtles- minion of imloortounce regarohluog the righots of toatemotees, buss too mark uheim patemoted noncloimoes, the tacintatty Itor utegleetiuug to tail nut Ilte correct date, and uulloer imoformatinmi of umnpoitaumce to every inventom- iaatemoteu- or asnugmtee ma ttte IJutiteot Staten. Tbte snork also contaimos an epitome of Itte lawn of foreigmo coumnlrico seith dumeclinmins lions to secuire imuvenmions abi-ond. Thinis bonumol-touoook ions beeut carefhuths pro-tatoreot by thte cohilorn of thoc SCIENTIFIC AnmEnIcoN, autO it is betteveol contaiuun n-mole iuofoaruooatuoomm of lortoctical importance to t~eunomos ss-hmn svinta too nicotine lalutemots. or so loom ons-mo palcuoto, mom- seouk mamodem a ticemone, Itooum amo)- nothuem iooutoticatibouo of a like nature ss-ticto huts es-eu- toecum tautottoheol. Price, otuogle coolomen, toy minonil, 23 cemoto; itee copies for $1; fifty cohates far $8. MUNN & CO., Puobitnimemo of tioe Seto-mot the Ainericaut. Noo. 37 Park-rose, Nete Ynom-k. THE NEW YORK OBSERVER, A RELIGIOUS AND boaper, mo hoc i-mu nest moesnshoatau-m- iou thte ss-oortd. Puoto- Ifohed sseekl), amant uhes-voled ho uetm-unuus hutemotur, omool suetutoor ioolu-thigeuom-e of ever)- nonliely. Its nonumoinootho shoed in-. nom arm-nuogeot on to eomastttuotu- Inso cohuntotehe moess-otoaper-, thoc oute in etm-uoamms tomant (hoe otimer secomlam- each oaf ss-lotetm is toorger utotimo a mahoom mis mot its coomuoeuootooorooritn. It in 10000 sectam-lamo ma metigiout loom- pam tunain mint laoluhme , bout oteniguoo-oh tior os loteanimog amod uuostuoucmise colmntoamuioaio ma es-i-is- on- iuooettcat Clomisttooui ituuoths It ttonomotughit)- couoseu-s-omtts-u, autot ohahaoneoh too ott the dinom-gniatzimog silos of Ito,- inlay .0. tauge uthulOotoem Ill thi bet mu tutu on not uloc age too slam-v-mom I coototuiluom- louis nuont cvommenbaoouooieuttn, lit alt tIme tot immeutont rooltututen of thou svoorhot ummmiled snitto a full editoomloot coam ~ oh looion exhoi-m-teuoce to gin-c iuuterent 00 (tot sontute too lime paboer Ttoe Retuotootmn Dota-ountmoeuum, hoenioten ito entitoom-toot am-lichen amool cinam-i-enlaouooteuace, comounmuon a Ohllollooaly ill thou- most ttoutolomooiuoo monseuneumts of nit Clootntmomo nheuuooiiouitatuoons Thou Soeuutau- Slocot too adohitioauo ho time foomeigut amuot ohoouooestmc iou-sn a loan detlautuaau-mmms ni toguto-utl- lure, of nemeutee, auaoh nut co omumnoet re thou- I ottno eiotorooeiutg tooth atuot loro-it- rate mepouts of mooooitvn-, tau-oootuuce, moot tic, aunt oltuci- noomuketo, uu~a ba I too lime of goumtg In laicos Tioc lance 0,1 toe - - lllooevn-er to $2.10 on smoar ioo ails-once. Too es-cr)- taemooouo scooting no thoc lotonoes Oot 1mm moons shuto-eutO- eu-n, sn-it ho note )eotms pa)-ioieuot tim bbohstmuoco ($12.1t1t, sne sn-itt gioc thoc 500001 of $5, sniouctin ma) be deotitoteol froommin thoc SOOn-in tiorsnouu-oted to mis Oololvevo SIDNEY E. MORSE, Jo., .1 II)., 1 5 Noo. 37 Pourk-rone, Nesv You-k. Cl OAL OILSA PRACTICAL TREATISE ON COAL. petroheoum, and mothter dintitteot silo. By Abmatiano Gesner 8eom. 1 fully itlouslraled ; choatho, $1.00. ENGINEERING. Etogiuteerimog Preceohemuts itor Steauta Mometuimoery, enolarneing the hoer. formaumeen of Steaumonhoitan, Expertuooeuotn ss-tth Puopetting hnslrtunoeimtn Conolennern, Sloothera, be Toso soottuinen, Ssou. ; filth)- itttmotrateoh $370. Viol III., treoutimug sot Steanin Jometnots, in in enuirse of tarelaomo-ahioauo Seutt free to)- nonit on receitat oaf tie amunootuot. 25 BALLIERE BROTIIERS, No. 440 Brobomohnsl)-, Ness Voork G IFFAIIDS BOILER INJECTORFOR SUPPLYING bothers bin ohirect pressoule oaf steam snittontut lIme iuahern-emu- tinul of aute mnooctoinem-)- Shoe altcuotioum of etugiutecus amoot notlocun imobn-renti-ol in ins-ihed to thoene utess-is- iminneumtent iuoniruumneuoto, utouss out exloitaioioon allot for sate by ChARLES \i COPELAND, No 122 Bioooouhseny, Nese Yoort. 24 33* (~ IL! OIL! OIL FOR RAILROADS, STEAMERS, AND J for Mooctinimoery amod BhurningPeases huooprnved ltnehimteu-y atoot Blmrnimog Out sn-itt sane litty toer co-mat, nutot ssitt 10001 point Thois (hot tan sesses qiulhities sitalts esuiemmtinl loor tomhou-icaltumg autut toturmaimog, nuont fomutuol iia no otiter bouL It is offered to hoc puitohic toooouo thue most mehtahuhe I boor- ouingla amid practical test Ommr moant skittimut eoogiboeems aioul noactoimotnin pronouuumee it suupemiour to amod cboeapeu- thonmo amoy bomlinem-, aunt hoe uouo1~ oil that is mo alt canen reliable and n-ill noot glum Ttoe SCIENTIFIC Atmanmi- mx after senerool to-sIn, prnuooauamoces it ntu~aeriuar too nomy oltoem- ttoey has-c coo-v used for inouctiniumery. Fior sate 0101)- to) thoe hmon-emutor auod Mauatifavt 01110, F S. PEASE, No. 111 Mouumantreet, Botfinbo N V. N. B.Eeiiabhe orders filled for amay part of hoe Uniteul Stouten and Enrobe. 18 13 HO~2~D ARTICLE FOR EVERYDAY USE - sateA setfsoapiutg Sermutobaiutg BonIto or Nail Brumoto. Can toe got im~o cloeoup; aut excellent ooppoortuuumits- too moonke moutey Pat lot grantedM ay 22, 1860. Address Wihh. JUSfIS, Boox No 773 Nese Xoork Pool Othice. 18 CAVE YOUR STEAMHOARD & WIGGINS IM K) prounoemt Steam Ti-ala Valve, itur rcticvuutgnteaun pitoes, cytnudems, Ac. of cnndensed 55001cr Br ito too iloc hbomitem homeSSoinre is ke1oh utp, thoc holt heat noatmolatumeml, and a large sons-omog tint Ituel munole. So-rerat Iboomunanolo out mini SIon-cunsfuot hose, nold sn-c toiler thocun snitti eutmire conlidemoce Iboat hoes sniht neo-bonotahisho alt hoot nne damn fuor thoein Fov aoo ihluontrated circoularom on oriat innactoimme, aototrens .1 W HOARD 14 l5~ CEO. B. WtltmIIN, Provlohemtce, H. I. HAYDEN SANDERS & CO., NO. 306 PEARL-STREET, York, inammufactuire every varto-te nf tao-ann seork four porlatoli- steam emozimoen, selointhen, voiteco, noth cuotan, gage coocks, Ac. 21 13n OLID EMERY VULCANITEWE ARE NOW MANLo-- K) foucheum-ing ss-hoeebo of Ibm remarkatahe shutootance fin dhintllutg, gvimoot tuog amod ~oootioluiuog noetnbn, hoot ssitl ubomtsseouu- toomuoohreols of iloe kiutni moomom inoamuby muncot, mod sn-itt nba a nootetin gleatem- oonoootuumt out nnoam-k tu hoe 50u100~ lime, tool more etliciemoits-. Alt imaterenoed cala 0-he hero in otoemattoomo oh at our ssam-eionhine, nr circootarn niescribiutg Ilteon sn-ill be fiooutnboeoi lo - maiL NEW YORK BELTING AND PACKING CO., 1 13 Non 17 anot 38 Park-roose, Nese Voink. Cl L. GODDARD, AGENT, NO. 3 BOWLING GREEN, ~l. Ness Voork Omobn ntoonItioodtoorer of tIme Sleet Rmmog anot Solid Packtuug Burring lladhitimes amad Fecot Entis for Wool Cards, Ac. 25 26- TOVER MACHINE COMPANY, No.13 PLATT-STREET, K) New- YoarkManuufocttorei-s of Slovers Patent Eagle Pbohdiiog Ba- chute, tom dlinttiming anot taoauoiuo1 tinregolbam- tturuuoo out enery dencrmtati.moil. huustraled in No. 25, Viol I, SCIENTIFIC AsinnnucAteanot of toe Stoorer A Coflin Patent Combination Planimig Mnctoiuoeibllstrtlted ho No 190 Voob. II., SCIENTIFIC AMERIC.SN. ALso, all kinds mof Wmmod autol hmnuo tootoom. sasing inachututery, Raihin-nad Sumpiolien, Ac., Ac. CIENTIFIC REPORTING.PATENT SUITS, INVOLY. K) imog questions of science or mechanics, reported verbatim: set Clintific lectuires, or the puocuedimogs of suicootifie societies, etotoci- re- ported in foil or condensed, by HENRY B. PARKHUEST, of bite flint of Bmirr A- Lnrd, Short-hoond Writern aunt Law Repoorters, Nmm. 111 Nasuan-street, New York. lii TRAVELING AGENTS WANTEDTO SELL A NEW and valuable macmine, 010 comnaisnion or salary. Fou terots, not- dress, settht stomp, J. W HARRIS A CO., Bontohut, Moos. 25 4n NEW SHINGLE MACHINETHAT WILL RIVE AND ave 24,000 Stoingles tint a dony, foor nate toy S. C. IIILLS, No. 12 PlaIt-sheet, Nesv York. I If NIT OODWORTH PLANERSIRON FRAMES TO PLANE TV 18 to 24 machoes sn-ide, at $90 to $110 For sate by S C JIILLS, No. 12 Pinot-street, New- York. I If noums adresner danu leur langume notate Envnyez noums uumi dessin e mine description concise pour notre exainen. Toatmies rooinmunicoutinn seront regues en confidence. MUNN A- Co., SCIENTIFIC AnrEgmcize Office, No. 37 Park-row, New York. 48 Breech-loading Steel Cannon. The most shrewd and far-sighted ruler of men now living is un(loubtedly the Emperor of the French. He seems to have anticipated every emergency that has yet arisen, and has always been prepared to meet it. Tie was the first who introduced rifled cannon into actual warfare on the battle field, and it has been ad- mitted that it was the terrible effectiveness of this weapon over the old smooth bore cannon which gained for him the battle of Solferino over an army numeri- cally greater than his own. One gre at cause of the success of the Emperor of France in most of his under- takings, is the superior judgment which he exercises and the resolute will with which he directs it. As an evidence of the consummate skill of the Emperor Napoleon in all matters affecting the military and naval glory of France, we refer our readers to a high- ly interesting article in this weeks number on iron war frigates. The government of Louis Napoleon never insulted French inventors by the passing of an ordinance prohibiting the purchase of patented inventions. Napo- leon himself is a generous patron of the arts, and he makes liberal provision for testing the efficiency of all inventions which relate to the national welfare. It has been state(l, over and over again, that the Armstrong gun was almost perfection itself, and that it had no equal. It has also been stated that it gave an immense superiority to British soldiers; but the late accounts which have been received from China of its efficacy (10 not sustain such conclusions. It appears that the lead bands around the iron balls sep- arated from the iron as soon as they left the muzzle and these played the mischief with some of their own outlying riflemen. The vent pieces of these guns are also said to be (lefective. The material of which cannon are made is a very important consi(leration. Steel is the strongest of all known metals, and yet cast iron, which is not one- fourth as strong, is the cc mmon metal which has been employed for this purpose. The tlifflcuilty of obtain- ing large sound castings of steel suitable for the pur- pose has no doubt been the cause of using an inferior metal; but by the invention of puddled steel all such ilifficulties may, we think, be obviated. The accom- panying engraving is a perspective view of a rifled steel cannona breech-loaderlately manufactured for the Russian government by Mr. Clay, of the Mer- sey Steel Works, Liverpool, England, and the London Mechanics ]Jfagazine, which contains t~ e illustration, states that he is about to make one or the United States government; it is therefore of no small interest to us. The breech-loading arrangement is effected as fol- lows :At the breech end, the gun is formed with a l)rojection, or extra depth, on its lower side, to allow for the borin~ out of a circular screw-threaded bore or recess of much larger diameter than the bore of the gun, and with its center considerably below the cen- ter of the bore. Into this recess is screwed a cylin- drical screw-threaded block or breech-piece, B, which closes the bore of the piece when screwed home, but which has formed through it a cylindrical passage so placed that when the breech-piece is turned back through a portion of a revolution, this passage comes directly opposite to the bore of the piece, and allows of the charge being passed into the barrel. In the engraving, the breech-piece is shown in such a posi- tion that the charge may pass freely into the barrel; when this has been done, by turning the handle (shown on the breech-piece) partly round, the hole in the breech-piece will be moved away from the bore of the gun, and the latter thus effectually closed. On a close inspection of the engraving, it will be seen that a pin is inserted at the upper right hand end of the gun; this forms a stop for the handle to come against, and may be removed by loosening a thumb screw that nips it, when it is desired to screw the breech-piece en- tirely out of place for cleaning the parts. The carriage on which the gun is shown mounted is also made from Mersey steel, and has excited a good deal of admiration. The gun is supported by its trun- nions (which are formed in one with a hoop shrunk on the gun) upon a strong bracket, which is pivoted upon the top of the carriage, and has a tail piece that extends backward, and is supported upon a box brack- et fixed on the carriage near the top. In the extremity of the tail-piece is formed a slot through which rises the point of a nut or bolt, the head of which (which is within the box bracket) receives a transverse screw worked by a hand wheel. As this wheel is turned, the gun is traversed with the greatest nicety. The elevating screw is placed above the tail piece, passing into a hand nut below, and carrying a bracket above in which the breech of the gun rests. The range and accuracy of fire of a gun depend in no degree upon any given form of breech-loading de- vice, itut a good breech-loading arrangement may prove very beneficial, viz., by increasing the rapidity of fire obtainable. This gun has been discharged no less than nineteen times per minute, and in this high rate of discharge it is incomparably superior 1)0th to the Armstrong and Whitworth breech-loading arrange- ments. HEWITTS PROJECTILE. Mr. William Hewitt, of Bristol, England, has in- vented a method of dispensing with rifling cannons, and at the same time securing long range and unerr- ing accuracy of flight. The particulars of the inven- tion, as stated by Mr. Hewitt, are as follows: 1. The breech is bored, say one-eighth of an inch larger than the bore of the gun, the projectile, which is elongated, being constructed to fit the breech. 2. The projectile to be coated with a soft metal, with a hole through the center from end to end (see the drawing). 3. Immediately the projectile enters the gun it meets with a shoulder which takes off a shaving, thus molding it to the exact size of the gun, thereby precluding all windage. 4. Immediately the projectile leaves the gun the air forces out the bevel plug at the back (on the drawing) the air, then, having a free passage through the projectile, prevents the possibili- ty of its diverging either left or right, or turning over; on the contrary, it causes it to travel with astonishing and un- erring precision; the sudden expansion of the air at the back~considerably assists its onward course. AMERIcAN RIFLED CANNONDuring the hait summer a board ot ordnance and artillery officers, belonging to the United States army, were engaged in making ex- periments with rifled cannon, and the results obtained left no doubt upon their minds as to the superiority of rifled cannon over plain, smooth bores. A report was made by them to the Secretary of War, recommend- ing elongated and expanding projectiles. Arrange- ments have been made for grooving a portion of our army cannon. COAL OIL GAS ExpLosIoNOn the 31st ult., an ex- plosion took place at New Bedford, Mass., in a mann- factory for refining Pennsylvania petroleum oil. The apartment became saturated with gas from the oil, mixed with air, and the touch of a match by one of the workmen caused it to explode in an instant. The force of the explosion was felt at a distance of six miles. OF THE SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN. THE BEST MECHANICAL PAPER IN THE WORLD. SEVENTEENTH YEAR! VOLUME IYNEW SERIES. A new volume of this widely circulated paper commences about the 1st of Tanuarx- and lot of July each year. Every number contains six- teen pages of useful information, and from five to ten original engrav- ings of new inventions and discoveries, all of which are prepared ex- pressly for its colnmos. The SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN is devoted to the interests of Popular Science, tlse Mechanic Aria, Maunfaciures, Inventions, Agriculture, Commerce and the Industrial Pursuits generally, and is valuable and instructive isot only in the Workslsop and Manufactory, but also in the Household, the Library and the Readiisg Room. The SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN has the reputation, at home and abroad, of being the best weekly publication devoted to mechanical and industrial pursisits now published, and use pnblishers are determined to keep sip the repsitation they have earned during the SIXTEEN YEARS they have been connected with its publication. To die Iuvcentor! The SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN is indispensable to every inventor, as it not only contains illustrated descriptions of nearly all the best inven- tions as they come out, but cads nitmber contains an Official List of the Claims of all the Patents issued frons the United States Patent Office during the week previous; thus giving a correct history of the progress of inventions in this country. We are also receiving, every week, the best scientific journals of Great Britain, France, and Germany ; (hits placing in our possession all that is iraitopiring in mechanical science and art in those old countries. We shall continue to transfer to our columns copious extracts from these lournals of whatever we may deem of interest to stir readers. lb tlte Mechanic and Manscfacturer! No person eisgaged in any of the mechanical puisuits should think sit doiisg without the SCIENTIFIC AMERiCAN. It costs but four cents per week; every number contains from six to ten engravings 01 new ma- chines and inventions, which cannot be found in any oilier publication. It is an established rule of the publishers to insert none bitt original en- gravings, and ihose of the first-class its the art, drawn asid engrave4 by experienced pet-sons istider their on-n supervision. chemists, Architects, Millwrights and Farmers! The SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN will be fouttid a most useful journal to them. All the new discovet-ics iii the science of chemistry are giveis in its coltimiss, and the interests of the architect and carpenter are not overlooked ; all the stew inventions and discoveries appertaining ho these pursuits being published fiom week to week. Useful and practi.. cal informatiosa appertatising to the interests of millwrights and mill- on-nero will be found psibliolied in the SCIENTIFIC AMERiCAN, which in- fot-mation they cannot possibly obtatis front any other source. Subjects in n-hich planters and farmers are iniet-esied n-ill be found discussed in the SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN ; usost of the improvements in agricitllitral implements being illustrated us its colsimits. Terms. To mail subscribers Tovo Dollars per anissim, or One Dollat- for six months. One Dollar pays foi- one complete volume of 416 pages; tn-u volumes cousprise one yeai-. Club Rates. Five Copies, fot- Six Months Ten Copies, for Six Months S Ten Copies, for Tn-elve Months ... ~i5 Fifteeti Copies, fot- To-dye Months ....... 22 Tn-enty Copies, for Tuvelve Months 28 For all chibs of Twenty and over, the yearly asibacription is oisly $1.40. Names can be sent in at differeiti times and from different Posi-oflices. Specinten copies will be seiti gratIs to any part of the country. MUNN & CO., Publishers, No. 37 Pat-k--row, New york. BREECH-LOADING STEEL CANNON.

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Scientific American. / New Series, Volume 4, Issue 4 Scientific American, inc. etc. New York Jan 26, 1861 1004 004
Scientific American. / New Series, Volume 4, Issue 4 49-64

A ~JOURNAL OF PRACTICAL INFORMATION IN ART, SCIENCE, MECHANICS, AGRICULTURE, ChEMISTRY, AND MANUFACTURES. VOL. IV.---NO. 4. NEW YORK, JANUARY 26, 1861. NEW SERIES. Apparatus for Utilizing the Waste Gases from Blast three, four or even six points of the circumference of topped furnace is less sensitive to irregularities of Furnaces. the throat, allowing the material to slide inwards two moisture in the materiel, (luantity of limestone, size of In almost all the arts there is a ~m4 omount of or three feet on a sloping plate, it was considered ex- material, & c.; which can he accounted for only by the value wasted, and throughout the civilize(l world a 1)C(lient ia the present instance to make the filling fact that the open-topped furnace has the advantage great (lc:d of thought is being (x1)cndc(l in efforts to apeiture as large as practical; it was therefore made six of a large amount of surplus heat due to the combus- avoid this waste. ~i~i l)resmnne that in all ])arts of feet six inches (liameter. as shown in Fig. 1, so that tion of the waste gases at its thioat which serves to Europe more attention is (lirecte(l to these, as well as the material tends to arrnnge itself hi a circle a little dispel moisture and calcine the limestone, and helps to to all other economies, than in the tnite(l States, and outside the center, thus correcting the tendency of warm up the large pieces of ironstone; all of which there is prohaldy no fairer field innong us for prohital)le large material to roll outward liv causing a similar operations in the closetopped furnace are effected only invention than this. The following description and tii)(lency to roll towaul f he center also. This point is at a lower point of the furnace, thus necessitating a illustration of an improved plan fbi utilizing the waste gained in one (if the shnplest methods in use for closing larger consurnh)tion of coke. With the same propor gases from furnaces we re- tion of ironstone to lime- produce from the L imolon stone it lies been found to ihleeheoics Moyeziiie require al out 10 per cent [here is no novelty in tlo more fuel to produce the fact of taking off the ~uiste same number or quality of gases iroum a blast furnace iron in a closetopped than for in~un methods liii e in an opentopped furnace. Iii been and are at present (iii- the closetopped furnace the j)hiycil f ii accoiiiph isli hug gases pass away at a temper this object. Though the ature of ahuout 430k Fab.; writer was unaware of any whilst in the ol)en-toppe(l a similar method, it is not temperature of between (lesireil to claim origmnahtx- 1,0000 and 2.0000 is gener- in that about to lie de- ated in the throat of the fur crihed; hut as there is such nace by their combustion. a(knowleihgeil diversity of Iii comparing the extra ohiimuion as to the reshiecti vi quantity of coke consumeil merits (if ililieremit plans, in a close-topped blast fur aiiil great iliffiemilty in hiro- mince with the saving in coals curing rehial he i nfl irmation for the boilers and hot blast on am, it is Priuhiosed to stoves, it is obvious that give a ilescrihiti(in iif an ni the ecenomuiy t(i lie derived rangement whuich has hie(n by taking the gases off iii suiccessimmi iihicm1itiOn fOr ooi (lepends on time compara Shine nui)nthms at the ()rnmcshiv tive value of cohe and coal. lion Works, Middleshior- APPARATUS FOR UTILIZING THE WASTE GASES FROM BLAST FURNACES. In the Middlesborosigh (his- oumgh, nail hihhs fair to realise trict,where coal is expensive, the hiest exhiectations (if its merits. The large waste time t(ip of a blast furnace, where a cone is used to lower it is an undoubted source of economy; where cohe is into the furnace for filhimig; but it is secured at the very (lear, however, and small coal can be olutained at expense of tIme hmighut of material in tIme furnace. A a immere nominal cost for boiler and stove purposes, the certain bight is necessary for the efficient working of use of the waste gases would possibly do little more the fornace, and if this lie (himinished it must be at the than compensate for the outlay involved. Here, no of fuel from the mouth of a blast furnace where flit escaping gases nine ahloweil to hum away is well knowim an(l amounts to 50 juer cent of tIme fuel huirut; hence there is considerahile margin for (cononmy, 1 earing in mind the large qimantity of coals consumimmed in raisino steam for generatimig tIme hilast, ammil flue further quantity necessary to heat tluat hihast to the required tempera- tuure. In fact, assuming a comusummmption of ;300 tuins of cohe per week to make 200 tuns of iron, ahiout 100 tuns of coal would be required to generate steam anil heat the blast. Taking off the gases frommi one furnace uminder suck conditions (hoes, according to actual experimoent, fumrnish gas equivalent to umpwards of 150 timmus of coal Per week. 1his is obviously an imumportant nmatter where coals are expensive. Ihe blast furnace is alternately charged with coke, ironstone and limestone, in proportions depemudimig upon the quality or - nimmumhier (if iron desired. The arrangement of these mumaterials in the furnace is gener- ally deemed important, tlmoumghu it admits of consider- able latitude withiomut ammy ahihureciable alteration in the working of the furnace. Thuims it ihimes ni)t secimi to lie of any importance whether time charge of coke lie 12 cwts. or 24 cwts., tIme amnouummt of himad if ironstone an(l limestone being in flue saume prilhiortion (if 1 to 2. The chief point, if there lie one, to be gaineil in tIme arrange- meat of time material is to distribute it pr(tty equally over time fuminace, not allowing all the large mnat(rial to roll ouitwnr(hs anil time smuahl to occupy the center of the furnace, om rice crime. for it is sumhiposed the aseenihimug gases will pass throumgh tIme more open material of the furnace to time injury of tue closer; thus the two reach the active region of redumetion in different states of pre- paration, nn(l the operations of time fuirnace are inter- fered within. To provhhe for this (olutiuigency, whuichi is met in an opentoppiul furnace hiy ii hug at time shhes at expense of fuiel in the fuirnace, since the absorption of heat from tIme gases depends on the bight of ummatemial thromigh which they have to pass imp: if this be dimin- ished, the gases issuing from the throat of the furnace will escape at a higher temperature; if increased, at a lower. limit theme is an imnportant difference to consider in thue conditions of a close and an open-topped fur- nace, to which the writer is not aware that attention hinas hmitimerto been drawn; a difference which acts some- wimat in favor of thue open-topped fuirnace. The working (if flue fumrmmaces thmemuiselves seemums to shuow that an open- doubt, is one source of the variety of opinion enter- taimmed in various distmicts as to the advantage of taking off the gas. The writers expeinience at Middlesborough has been flint time waste gases can be taken off without affecting the quality of the iron produced, though at the expense of more fuel. The mode of closimig flue funinuace top and taking off the gas at the writers works is showmin in Fig. 1. The top of the furnace is closed hmy a light circular wrought iron valve, A, six feet six inches diameter, with sides tapering slightly outward from below, to admit of being easily drawn up through time materials, which are tipped at each charge into the external space, B. To prevent excessive wear upon the body of the valve, shield plates are attached at four points of the circumference, against which the material strikes as it rolls out of the harrows. An annular chamber, C, encircles the throat, triangular in section, into which the gas pours through the eight orifices, D D, from the interior of the furnace, and thence passes along the rectangular tube, E, into the chamber, F. At the extremity of the tube, E, is placed an ordinary flap valve opened by a chain, by means of which the communication between the furnace and the descend- lug gas main, 0-, may be closed. The valve, A, is par- tially counterpoised by the balance weight at time other extremity of the lever, H, and is opened by a winch, I, when the space, B, is sufficiently full of materhais. At the time when the blast is shut off for tapping the finmraace, the gas escapes direct into the atmosphere throuugh the ventilating tube, K, which is connected hiy levers, L, within the blast inlet valve below. The waste gases pass from the furnace top to the hot blast stoves to 1)0 heated by the waste gases down the (le5Cendin~ main, (1, Figs. 1 and 2, into the horizontal main, M, Fig. 2, running parallel and close to the line of stove, N, fr om which descend smaller pipes, 0, to each stove. The supply of air for burning the gas in the stoves is admitted through the three tubes, P, and can be re~nlated at pleasure by the circular slide closing the ends of the tubes, which has an aperture corresponding to each tube, an(I is planed on the 1~nlA)ing face, as is also the surface against which it works, in or(l(~l that the slide may be sufficiently air- tight wheft closed. The ignition takes place where the air and gas meet the imiteil gas streaming into the stove and (liffusing it.s heat uniformly over the inte- rior. An important element in the working of an apparatus of this (lescription is to provi(le for explo- sions, which must take place if a mixture of gas an(l air in certain proportions is ignited. To provide for this c~ptingency, escape valves, Ii, are placed at the ends and along the tops of the main tubes, G M; but to prevent explosions as far as l)Ossil)le, the ventilating tnl)e, K, Fig. 1, is used at the top of the furnace, con- nected with the blast valve at the bottom, so that, when the valve is closed, as at casting time, the act of (losing opens the ventilating tube an(l allows the gas to pass away (lirect into the atmosphere. The gas woul(l otherwise be in (laliger of slowly mixing with air passing back through the stoves or otherwise gain- ing access into the tubes, and would thus give rise to an explosion; until the ventilating tube was provi(le(l, it was necessary to lift the valve, A, closing the mouth of the furnace when the blast was taken off, otherwise slight explosions took l)lace fiom time to time. [a the use of 1)nrham cokes in the l)last furnace an inconvenience arises from the large deposit which t~kes place in the passage of the gas from the fmunace and in the stoves an(l boilers. lTn(ler the boilers this deposit is a great objection, as it is a very bad conductor of heat, awl necils to l)e frequently removed; in the stows it is not so objectionable, though these need a perio(lical cleansing. The (leposit (hoes not arise alto- gether from the cokes, it is true; and it may be inter- estim to know its composition, which is as follows: Silica 1886 Carbon 1614 Alumina 1387 Sulphate of liume 1361 Lime 1101 1~rotoxyd of zinc 1031 Peroxyd of iron P01 Protoxyd of manganese 236 Potash ~11 Protoxide of iron 123 Manesia 125 luloriile of sodiurs 006 10000 At a tomperatmne of upwards of 3,0000 this mixtnre melts in a yellowish slag, (hispehling the zinc; but there are no signs of fusion at the temperature produce(l by time ignition of the ~as in the stoves, which mnst roughly approximate to that of melting iron from the results of a few experiments made to ascertain this point; though thin pieces of cast irrs~ were not fairly melted (lown, they reach the rotten temperature, which is only a few ule~rees below melting, and gave further signs of nearly melting by throwing oft sparks when (julickly withdrawn from the stoves and struck smartly against another object. The writer has heard it asserted that the closing of the top of the furnace is the sonree of mischief to its working imy producina a back pressure in it. Under ordinary circumstances, with the furnace top open, the blast enters the tuyeres at a pressure ranging from 21 to 3 lbs. per square inch. In the present close-topped furnace there are eight outlet orifices, D, Fig. 1, each two feet by one foot, giving a total area of 15 square feet for the passage of between 5,000 and 6,000 cubic feet of gas per minute raised to a temperature of 4500 Fah.; and the actual luack pressure of the gas, as measured by a water gage inserted into the closed top of furnace, is from 1 to d 2 8 inch column of water, or al)out 1-40th or 1-50th of a pound per square inch, an amount so trivial as com- pared with a pressure of from 2~- to 3 lbs. as to be inmworlhy of notice. Of course, if the tubes are con- tracte(l in size a greater back pressure will be produced; and it is quite possible that, where attention has not been paid to the circumstance, the back pressure may have interfered with the working of the furnace by preventing the blast entering so freely. As regards economy in the wear and tear of hot blast staves of the or(hinary construction there can be no question ; the pipes last much longer when heated by gas, provided the temperature of the stove be carefully watched to prevent its rising too high; whilst the value of the same heating surface, compared with its value when coals are used, is greatly increased, owing t( the uniform distribution of the ignited gases through- out the stove. In the use of the gases at the writers works, this economy of surface is such that two stoves heated by gas will do the work of a little more than three heated by coal fires. The Eureka Lake Ditch. California is not only one of time most wonderful coimtries in the world with respect to its natural re- sources, but also as it regards the enterprizing spirit of its citizens. An amount of original engineering genius, at once comprehensive, bold and wise has lucen exhibited in the construction of hydraulic works for conduetlug water from great distances to the mines, which places her nearly on a level with the heroic old Ilomans, whose ancient aqueducts still excite our wonder. The folhowin~, from the San Francisco Bul- letin, is an account of one of the California hydraulic enterl)rizes to which we refer: The Eureka Lake Ditch is one of the most remarka- ble enterprizes in the interior of our State (Nevada county), which, from a very small berinnin__ has gradually grown into gigantic proportions, an(l, al- though before its completion but little known, must be destined to attract a goo(l deal of attention now that it is finished. It traverses the entire extensive region, rich in gold, lying between tIme Middle and South Yabas, from the summit of time Sierrawhere it is fed by a number of larger and smaller lakes down to the junction of these two na ei~ nmai the French corral, a trunk of 60 miles, but formnm~ ~x ith its branches to all huportant mining l)lac( s adjacent, a total of 250 miles of ditch. Throughout tins eVen- sive region, the hydraulic methoui of mmnin~ psedomi- nates which employs water power as a 1 sbomm~ agent. The call for water is, therefore, enormous, and likely to remain so for a generation, as the mines ase cry rich, an(l notwithstanding the numesous dasms now worired, yet not more than a commencement may be said to have been made. The Eureka Lake Ditch Company controls nearly all the water in the district described, and have more of it than thmeir puesent works can carry ; yet they will never be able to satisfy all the present or future ule- mand for it. The whole of this auriferous region is, therefore, entirely dependlent on the ditch. For near- ly six months the same is supphicd by rivers, creeks an(I some of the lower lakes. During the balance of time year, it receives its water frons some large lakes embedded near tIme summit of the Sierra, among al- most eternal snows. The largest of these lakes alone furnishes about 5,000 inches of water (lailv (hiring four months. The enterprize was started in 1858, by a company of ten Frenchmen of great intelligence, almost without means, who secured thine necessary water riglmts awl karl them duly recordemi at Nevada. Their tenure of the same found a guarantee in the law which secures to the miner the possession of his claim, and which has been recognized in this State by the Supreme Court. These water rights could at any moment be sohd to other ditch companies for a large sum, and are stated to be really worth not fir from 1,000,000. In 1854S a small ditch was completed to Eureka South, where the entrepreneurs united their interest with those of the Miners Ditch Company, then already in existence, and in the hands of an intelligent American company and management. A duly incorporated as- sociation was then organized, under the name of the Eureka Lake Water Ditch Company. The Miners ditch had been in want of water, which the Eureka possessedthe latter lacking, in turn, means to carry on tlmeir work as fast as was desirable to the rich mines lower down. In their union, both companies found relief. The sales of water furnished the means for further extension and perfection of the ditch, whmich, to a great extent, may be said to have been built out of its own resources ; and, in its present finished state, is a gigantic enterprize, commanding the greatest ad- miration. The entire worksditches, fimnes, aqueducts, pipes, re, i-voirs, & c.are stated to have cost about $950,- 000, toward which the work itself has paid about $750,000. Since April last, tIme weekly cash receipts have averaged, we are informed, about $6,000. The annual income is at present 300,000, for water is sold in whiter also. The monthmly expenses of the cons- pany for preserviimg the whole property in the best of condition amount to abSut $3,000, including the ad- ministration. The amount of water sold daily is about 6,000 inches, at 16 cents, while, we are inform- ed, most companies in California charge from 25 to 50 cents per inch. The company is just now occnpie(l in enlarging the main (trunk) ditch, audI making sdim other important unprovements which n ill mci ease thum amount of water they can delia-er. By omn~ to for- flier expenses, in increasing the capacmt~ of some of the ditches, flumes audI dams, the weekl~ in eceupts could easily be raised to 810 000, without exceedmn~ SoO 000 extra outlay. There are about 40 reservoirs, which cost from $3,000 to 86,000 each. The iron pipes, 22 inches in diame 1cm, which carry the water through San maim from one hill to another, cost 812,000. An aqueduct, named the ~ Magenta Flume, between Illoomfield and Eureka, was built at a considerable expense, and is as substantial as it is beautifula work of art, and a wonder to behold. The above infonuation we owe to lnarties intonate ly acquainted with the enterprize, wlmiclm illustrates how much may be accomplished wills scanty meammi andl energy in a country like California. The small number who originated andl acconaplished this stupen- dous work form still its priuaci pal slmarehmolders. They have for years seen no return for their labor, and have at times been conspelled to pay crushing rates of interest ; still, they have mostly preserved their shares, and are about to reap a rich harvest. Connectedi with the enterprize, and also belonging to time company, is a tailing Ilusme of about four miles in len4h, cormamencing near Ihloomfieldl, andl following from there time bcdl of Humbug creek down. to the South Yuba. This flume will cost abomut .25,000, awl receives all the tailing of tlmat rich outlet. TIme adja- cent. names are sumppliedl Jo- tIme company with water-- the latter once more retmiruming to the companys pos- 5~55iOfl and muse thinrosigh this flume without cost. It is mostly finished, and will uindouilutedly pay hand- somuelv. New Zealand Steel. Ever simace thne settlement of New Zeahamid by Euro- peamas, their attentioma has laeeia (laily called to the pe- cumliarities of a. kind of metallic sand along the shores of New Phymuomitum, ims Taranaki. This sand inns time appearance of fine steel filings, and if a magnet be dropped upon it audI taken imp again, the instrumment will be found thaickly coated with the iron granules. The Australiams JFail gives a lengthy account of it. It states that the place where time sand aboummads is alona the base of Mount Egmont., ama extinct volcauso, amid the deposit extends several miles along the coast, to the deistls of main- feet, and having a corresponding breadtha. The geological supposition is that this grams- uulated metal has been thrown out of time volcano, alomig flue base of which it rests, into tIme sea, anrl there pul- verized. Time qumantify is so large that people omit there looked upon it as utterly valmueless. Captain Moishead, a gentleman iii the West of England, was so muds inipressed with its value that he went t.o New Zealand to verify the reports made to him, amad was fortunate enouioh to find tlmem all correct. He smelted the ore first in a crucible, amid suil)sequently in a fur- nace ; the results were so satisfactory that lie immedi- ately ol)tained time necessary grant of flue sand fronm the government, and returned to England withs several tumns for more conclusive experiments. It has beems carefully aisalyzed his flint couumatry by several well known nsetallumruisfs, and has been pronounced to be the purest ore at present known ; it comatains 88.45 of peroxyd of irois, 11.43 of oxyd of titaniuns, wills sili- ca, audi oushy 12 of uvaste, in 100 parts. Taking the sand as if lies on the beach and smelting it, the pro- duce is 61 per cent of iron of the s-cry finest quality. And, again, if fIsk samad be subjected to the cemenfa- floss process, the result is a tough first-class steel. whaicla, in its properties, seems to suirpass any other de- scription of tlsat ussetal at present kisowis. The haves- tigations of usetalhuirgical science have found tlsat if titanium is mixed with iron, the character of the steel is materially improved ; but, titamaiuumas being a scarce ore, such a mixture is too expensive for ordinary pur- hoses. Here, imowever, nature has stepped in, amad MISAPPREHENSIONS AMONG INVENTORS --PA- TENTS NORTH AND SOUTH~-SUGGESTIONS TO MECHANICS. We are led to believe, from the number of letters we are constantly receiving, similar in purport, that an impression is prevalent in the community, that the rights of patentees will not be respected should a (lis- were reqne8te(l to see what colll(l l)e (lone with the Tar- solution of the Union take place. meld steel. Ihey have tested it iii every possible way, One inventor hesitates to apply for a patent until end have trie(l its teml)er to the utmost, and they say our political difficulties are settled because, should the manner in which the metal has l)asse(l through the Southern States secede from the Northern and their trials goes far l)eyond anything that they ever middle States, his rights would not be respected in worke(l in steel before. Messrs. Moseley, in whose but about half the States, and thus his patent would he bands the sole nunutheture of cutlery an(l e(lge tools worth only half price, seeming to forget that the de- s veste(l for England, have placed n case fihle(l with mand for snow-plows has never been very great in the the metal in all its stages in the Polytechnic Jnstitn- Southern States. Another inventor writes that his tion. There is the fine metallic san(l, some beautiful model is ready to forward, and he is anxious to havo sl)eeinaens of the cutlery ]na(le from it, an(l the inter- his rights secured, but he thinks he will wait until ]ne(hiate pluses of the iron and steel. An official ex- after the 4th of March. What advantage the writer pemimnut is expecte(l to he ma(le at some of the gov- expects to gain by the delay, he omits to explain, eminent establislunents shortly, and it is also intended and we fail to conceive. Another correspondent is to forge some chain cables, anchors, & c., in order to afraid to have his model deposited in the Patent-Office folly set forth the great superiority of the Taranaki lest the Southern Confederacy may seize upon Wash iron. ington City and, when they convert the Patent-Office edifice to some other purposes from which it is now Cookery. used, he is afraid his model will be destroyed. lime following, from the London Rriew, is of very Now all these troubles which haunt the mind of general apl)hication Two things are necessary to be taught the ignorantthe value of several articles of inventors are imaginary, so far as securing their pat food now left to waste by the waysi(le, au(l how to cuts or protecting them is concerned. It is the mann- facturinc~ and mechanical States of the North which cook. TIme English are notoriously the worst and most have ever been the great patrons of the patentee, and wasteful cooks in time world, and among time most Pie- while we do not apprehend any permanent division of j1i(hiced feeders. Fine wheaten breadnot half so un the union of States, and interests between the North triticoms, h- the b~ as that wimicim has the bran left mu and South, even should an event so deplorable to all tea in unknown quantities time i)est in(nt, or none at all a celebrated seetmons occur, we see no reason why patent property fish or twowith a score of pre- jomdices against time cheap, the unknown or the unusual should be materially depreciated: certainly not in a constitute the English idea of table comfort. As to greater ratio than merchandise, stocks, or even real any makeshift, any savory preparation out of unprom- estate, ha cities and manufacturing towns. ising mnatvrial, moot one in a thoosanol entertains such The SOuthareacottonraisingandagriojlmlturalpeoj)ie having given heretofore but little attention to mann- an lolca. ITumisual food is not eonsioiere(l respectable in factoring and mechanical pursuits, while the industry Laghanol. Yet thousands of hundredweights of good of the Eastern, Northern and Middle States is in a food yearly olecay because of the siiiv fancies of ignor- ant l)eopie. 11kb, wholesome, appetizing fungi poison great measure devoted to manufacturing and mneehani- time air when they might Imave fed the iningry or adoled cal b~isiness; the Western comprising both mechanics grace and flavor to the soanty meal wet, poor lands and agriculture to an extent which is known to most lie laden with their harvest (of thistle and buidock of our readers. So far as the South have required in- ventio)ns they have patronized them as liberally per- when they might have grown oats or other hardy crops haps as any other section of the country, but it has gool for nun an(l beast. Scrofola and seuirve break not been within the nature of their wants to require out for want (of greeninent, when nettles and obmude - hiomis, anol heaps of lme(lgcrow vegetables and salals, imatented improvements to the extent of other sections. wait time ])icknmg amal olols and enois of beasts reckoned We have intended by these remarks, to show that coarse get Put . oiler any circumstances inventors residing within the to umnl)rohtal)le uses, while their legot- Fe(leral States, whatever forebodings they may have inmate function of feoding the folk is neglected as nina- relative to time political questions of the (lay, may worthy and ohegrading. In Ireland, oluiring the faummine, have none in regard to the protection of their rights in thousands of poumnols of ox liver were ina(le into smniff, in all States within the jurisdiction of time federal laws wimibe inca amid women w(re olyiuing (of Imumuger, and emptying oumt on time roaol sacks (of mmmaize meal, ratimer and that timose States which will abide by the Union thoama live boy a food wimicim timey smi(l was fit emily for at all hazards (and we trust such a compromise naay time bugs. be made that oil ~xill) are comparatively the only patrons of time inventor and patentee. Instead of hesi- The Lowest Type of Humanity. tatimog to apply for patents on any of the grounds we We take time folbowimig extract from time amtkle on have iminted a4, we timink inventors who arc prepared Barbarism anol Civilization, in the A!laoo/ic Moo/lob, to secure their inventions will not find a better oppor- him time mmiteri(or of tIme islaimol of Borneo there bias been tumnity than the present. The Patent Office is not so fonmind a certain mace of wild creatures, of wimicim kindreol va- over-crowded with applications as usual, hence cases rieties have heemo (liscovereob iii time Phiihhi~opine Islands, mu Terra old Fimego, amomi 1mm Somithmerim Africa. They walk ~ are muore spee(iily acted upon. To those whao have not ally ahummuost erect upon two le~,, anol hum that attitude nacas- their inventions matured and models completed, but mmmc about tour feet in lmiglmt thmey are olark, wriminkled a nd~ bmair1-; tlme~- coumstruict umo liabitootions, form 110 families haave experienced or seen sonac defect in machinery, scarcely assomimite togetimer, sleep hum trees or in caves, fecob which they timink they can obviate, it is their duty, on shakes anol vermmmium, mmii ants eggs, on immice, and omi each and will robabl v boeto their pecomniar other : they caumnomt hoe taimmeol, moor forceol too aimy labor aimmi . y profit, to study timex- are hmummiteol aimol slit anmong time trees, like time great over, mature, inaprove and construct, SOme plan to oh- gorillas, of wimimli time are a stunted copy. When they are viate tIme difficulty, during the long evenings of these captured alive, ommie fiimohs, with surprise, timat their uncouth immioberimig so)mimmols like articulate lamigmuoge they torn miii a xJiatem~ naomatlms. human fomee to gaze mmjmoim their ealoto time females show instincts ot moohesty; amid, iii fine, thi(se wretehmeol locimigs ExPaoaT IN DIvINGIn raising the treasure of are omemm. ______________~~~~ the steamer Meleber, which was wrecked last summer Application for the Extension of a Patent. on time coast of Ceylon, the divers worked under water (bit from Who/s for Railroad CooriogcaAnson At- tiorough nine feet of sand, and then cut away large wo(ool, of rrol, N.Y., has applied for tbmc extension of a iron plates half an inch thick, forming time sides of the patent granteol to ham on time 15t1a of May 1847, for mail room of the steamer. Eighty thousand dollars ama immiprovememit in time above-naineol class of haven- worth of treasure were thamis obtained in one day. The tions. Tbae testimony ~~ill close on the 8th of April, steamer had over $1, 500,000 in gold on board, all of next and the petitioma will hoe heard at the Patent Office j whaich haas been saved. on time 22o1 of same mn(miatlm. - PuoonEss OF Sxcsssiox.The Comovention of the IN the great cartliotumake which overthrew the town State of Florida assembled at Tallahassee, passed an of Paiobainhoa, in 1797, thie guomamnd was raised within sucha ordinance of secession on the lltla inst. Mississippi, violence timat time booolies of sexual (of the hulmahoitants iii convention on the 9th, declared herself out of the were hurled to (umilca, a hill several hmumudred feet in Union ; an(l Alabama will, in all prohmabihity, have hight, and on time opposite side of tbme river Lican. voted herself omit before we go to press. THE SCIENCE OF COMMON THINGS. Nm~msnzaa IV. BEE1STEAKS. aThe two parts of beefsteakthe fat and thc lean-- furnish very good samples of the two great classes into whicla organic substances naturally (hivimlc themselves, timose which contain nitrogema and thinose which (10 not nitrogenized an(l non-maitrogenized substances. TIme fat, or adipose nuatter, is coiriposed of hydrogen, carhuon and oxygen, while thac lean part, or muscle, besides these three, contains also a large proportion of nitrogen. ~Do you say that tIme lean linart of tlae steak is umuscie? Yes. ~I thought the muscles were a sort of corols. They arc cords of red flesh. TInt this looks like a mere lump of meat. ~Thmat is becaininse it is cut across. If it were dis- sected out lengthwise, yoma would see that it was a cord or band of lean meat, terminating in toumglm gristle at cacla end, one end fastened to one bone and time otlmer to anoothmer bone, so that wimemin tIme muscle is coma- tracted or shorteneol it would move omme of time bones. This is the purpose of most of time inmiselesto move the limbs. For instammee, here is a muscle in tIme aim hetweemin tiac shoulder and the elbow; time aapper end is fastened to time bone near time shooul(her whaile time lower end terminates in a smootla, strong tendon, whaicim passes under a band at time elbow, and is fasteimed to one of the bones of the forearm. From thois arrange- mament it fohlomvs timat, if the muscle is shortened, time imand is drawn up, bending time ariam at the elboinv joimat. If you grasp your arm Imalf way between time elhmow and time shoulder, and benol your elbow, yomm avill feel the muscle thicken aiim isa time mnidolle as it contracts. What inmmakes tIme muscle comatract ? Thmere are little mvhmite, temmoher cords, called nerm-es, whoicla head froum tIme larain, or frommm tIme spimmal inarromv ivimicim coammects within time burahim, to emery mamuisele imm tIme body, and whema tIme mviii ohesires time himmab to move, time impulse is carried in sommme mysterious mvay bay time nerve from time brain to tIme umusele, iinimellimag thac muscle to comatract amid amove time linmb. Homv is it knomvn tlmat the immilmiulse is carried Imy thine nerve? By a long series of inin-estigatiomas. For instammee, if time nerve is emit off, the mumascie to mvhichs it heads ceases to obey tIme avihl ammy honger; it becomes huara- lyzed. 0. Y\Thmat (10 they ciii off imeolales nerves to fimad thmat out? No; limit tlmey cuat off time mmerves of dogs, rabbits, & c. Dr. 1)alton, in Isis lectures at time immedical sehmoomI up town, shouighters dozemas of ologs cm-cry seasomma too ilkistrate various facts in lihmysiohegy, cmattimag tIme lm(o(oi animals imp alive lim em-cry comaceix-able umamammer. Timat secums enamel. Yes. Maim, him Isis lmuarsmiit of knomvleolge, trammihales on all feelings. He braves thme could of thac Imolar regiomas and time Imeat of the trohmics; line emaduires Imammager, timhist sickness an(I long ammd patient labor. Time human ima- telleet, in its marcia, is cndomved mvitim trenmeimohous strengths. TIme messages from the brain umust be carried ~mrctty quickly alomag the nerves. Yes; but thmey occampy an appreciable tinme, imomx- ever. Astronomers learn thmis in their delicate obser- vations. As the eartha tmmrmms oma its axis from invest to east, it causes time stars apparently to smm-cep over time sky in time opimosite direction, frem cast to invest, as time sun amid mooma do. As thacy pass before time telescope, thme astrononaical observer mm-etches thmeir passage, and as time particamlar star mvhiclm he desires to observe comames in line mm-ith thac fume slilders mveb dramvn across time middle of time telescoime, hoe nmarks the time mvitum his finger oum a very delicate and accurate astronommaical clock. Nomv, it is foumad that, after the mvihl gives time command to the finger to act, it takes a certain tinme for the nerve to convey the commanol to time muscle and for the muscle to operate; and tisis time varies mvitls different men, some mens nerves actimag umore rapidly than others. Time first step of ama astrommomical obsermer is to find out homv nasmeba tiimae it takes four lois ommma muscles to act; ascertaining tIme personal equation, as they call it. I have heard Professor Mitchachl state mvhat hais liersonal equation is, limit I ham-c foargottema; a very sninahl fraction of a secomimol, Imommemer. made free gift of both metals on thac largest scale. To give sommine lolca of the fineness of tbmis beauitifoil sand, it mmiii hue enough to say that it passes readihy through mm gammze sieve of 4,900 Imomles or imaterstices to time square iumoim. As soon as it mvmss tuirimed into steel lay Mr. Mini- shoot, of Colefoord, M(55r5. Mosehey, time emimment emit- hems miad toomhummakers of Nexv-street, Covent Oardemm, 51 52 You say the office of most of the muscles is to move the limbs or bones, what do the others do ? There is one muscle round the mouth to close it. There are delicate little muscles that move the eyelids, and the heart is a muscle, or set of muscles, which, by their contractions, drive the blood through the arteries, all over the system. What is the use of fat It performs several offices. One is to round out the system awl complete the l)e~u(ty of the perso1~. Your cousin Janes smooth neck OWC5 its beauty to the skill- fid manner in which the adipose matter is l)acked into all the crevices between the muscles, veins aud arteries. For Nature expends no small amount of labor in the pro(luction of beauty. Behold the lilies of the field, not Solomon in all his glory was arrayed like one of these. Another use of the adipose matter is to serve as a reservoir of aliment for the support of the system. In the fever which I recently had, my stomach was in such a state that it could digest no fond and, by one of those beautiful adjustments so common in nature, my appetite rejected it, and I did not eat a mouthful for several days. The consequence was that the heat of the l)ody had to be kept up by burn- ing the fat in the system, and how rapidly this was consluncli I 5ll~~O5C I lost 20 pounds in the course of three (lays. Hibernating animals, that sleep through the winter, are generally as fat ns they can be when they crawl into their nests in the Fall. Their thick furs prevent the radiation of heat, so that little is re- qlure(l to be generated; their breathing and circulation are sluggish, causing a slow consinuption of matter, an(l this matter is supplied by the store of fat in the system, which is slowly l)urned up during the winter, and the animals come out in the Spring as lank as Pharaohs lean kine. If you put a piece of fat on the fire, you see that it burns with a blaze. Whenever any organic substance lIurns with a blaze you may be almost sure that it contains hydrogen. The burning of a sub- stance is simply its combination with oxygen. When- ever an organic sullstance containing hydrogen is suf- ficiently heated, it is decomposed, and, as the hydrogen is separated from the other elements, it takes the gaseous form. Rising in this hot state, as it comes in (ontact with the oxygen of the air, it combines with it in other words, burns; one atom of oxygen combining with one atom of hydrogen, and producing water (HO). There is phosphorus in the bones which, when separ- ated, will burn with a flame, but almost invariably when you see any animal or vegetable substance burn- ing with a blazethe flame of a lamp, of a kitchen fire, of a burning buildingit is hydrogen in the act of com- bining with oxygen, llroducing water. On the other hand, when you see an~~ organic sul)stance burning with a re(l heat, without blaze, like charcoal or anthra- cite coal, it is carbon combining with oxygen and ~)ro(hlcing, generally, carbonic aci(l. If the blaze pro- (11WC5 a goo(l heal of light, you may be pretty sure that the substance contains both carbon and hydrogen; the light coming principally from the intensely heated carbon before it is burned. Tmini: WArcn OF GENERAL WASHINGTONWe were shown yesterday, says the Louisville Journal, a gold watch of the olden time, which is of great value as a memento of an huportant event in American history. rile watch was a present from Gen. Washington to (len. Lafayette, and bears the following inscription on the back of the inner case G. Washington to Gil- bert Mattiers (le Lafayette. Lord Corawalliss capitu- lation, Yorktown, December 17, 1781. The watch is of London manufacture, and was made in 1769. It is said that the watch was taken to San Francisco from Paris by a Frenchman, who became embarrassed there and sold it to tile present owner for the sum of fifty (lollars. ROMANCE OF THE STEAM ENGINE. ARTICLE VII. 5AvEavcoxTrxuan. In tile early part of the seventeenth century, Eng land had acquired a high position in metallurgy. This was due to her coal resources, as it was even then well known that there was more coal beneath the surface of that island than there was in France, Germany and Sweden. Her iron manufacturers, however, came to a stand still about 1700, owing to the great expense of working her deep coal mines, which really contained the best and greatest amount of this fuel. Horse- power was then generally used for pumping up the water and raising tile coals. This answered very well for shallow mines, but as these were worked out, the value of coal lands began to deteriorate, owing to the difficulty of boring and working the deep mines. At this period the whole country was incited to look for some new invention that would work these mines. This is the reason why the early steam inventors in England devoted special attention to tile application of their engines for pumping water from the deep pits, and Captain Savery was among the most in- genious of these earl) steam engineers. The accompanying figure represents the direct steam engine of Captain Savery, of which he said, in a pamphlet called The Miners Friend published in London in 1702): Its power is in a manner infinite and unlimite(l, and will draw you water five hundred or a thousand feet high, were any pit so deep. . I dare undertake that this engine will laise you as much water for eightpence as will cost you a shilling to raise the like with your old engine, the which is tilirty-three pounds, six shillings and eightpence saved out of every hundred pounds; a brave estate gained in one year out of such great works, where as much as eight thousand pounds are expended per annum for clearing mines of water only, besides tile expense for repairs of gins, engines, and for horses, & c. Thus, Savery calculated the advantages of his engine, and he said that, for one hundred years previous to his inven- tion, no imllrllvemeilt had been adopted in workhg ft the English mines. This engine has two U iler fires, a; one boiler, L, is larger than the other; b is the fur- nace of one, and c is the general chimney. Tile small pipe, g, reaches nearly to the bottom of the boiler. The other pipe, a, of greater size, is inserte(l into the same depth, and has a clack valve in it above the boiler top, opening upwards; this pipe, a, passes into the large boiler; o o are steam pipes; one end of each is inserted into the root of the large boiler, L, and the other end of each into one of the receivers, o P. In this manner comniunication is formed between each of those vessels and the boilers; q q arc screws by which CONSIDERABLE interest has been manifested in New York in regard to an invoice of Permmvian cotton re- cently received via Panama. We understand that it is ilart of a shipmemlt of fifteen himudred bales, most of which was consigned to Europe. The quality is very beautifinmi, and the sample shown would sell readily at fifteen cents, even in the present state of the market. The plant from which it is taken is said to he a peren- nial shrub in Perim, indigenous to the soil, the growth of which already extends over a considerable tract of water pipes are fastemled together. It II r r are valve country, and needing only a little labor in the way of boxes in the pipes: s is a pipe through wilich water is cultivation to yield large returns. j forced from the receiver, and is conveyed into an elevated cisterml; is a ~mipe running down into tIle immine fromn which the water is to be raised x is a cis- tern connected with the pipe, s; the pipe, p is ulounted ill a swivel water-tight joimlt, and it can be turned round upon cecIl of the receivers. P p to lnake water flow over themli to condense the steamn inside; a z are Imandles of tile regulators. Jibe boilers, we will suppose. are filled with water to the necessary bight; all the cocks are sllut; the valves are in position, and the receivers empty. A fire is now first placed under the larger boiler, and steam is raised to such a pressure as will balance a column of water equal to tile lli~ht bet~veen the bottom of the vessels P p an(l tile upper surface of the cistern to which tIle water is to be raised through pipe, v. By turning tIle handle, a, of one regulator, it opens a communication between the vessel, p and the boiler; all the amr s timen expelled tlmrougll the valve, r, into pipe, S. Tile ilandle of the regulator is now turned, and the steam fromn the boiler is cut off IvIlen tile vessel, p is full of steam. Water is now made to flow over its surface by pipe, p from the cistern, a. This condenses time steamn, forming a vacunimi inside, wllen the water from tIlE mine imllmuediately rises tinough pipe, t, into the re- ceiver and fills it. Time valves, a, are now closed so tllat no water can ascend from the mine, and then steam is admitted by tile regulator into tile to1) of tile receiver, p again, when the water is forced upwards through p s into the elevated cistern. Time same oper- aticIlls take place with tile other vessel, P and so Oil continimally, thus raising a steady columun of water by the alternate actiolls of steam an(l commdensation in the two vessels, P p. In order that the large boiler should be kept COIl- finually working, Savery used tile small boiler, d, to feed the large one through pipe, a. The small boiler was kept closed, and when its pressure exceeded tllat of the large boiler the water of the former was forced into tIle latter by the pipe, a, to replenish it at inter- vals. The smuall boiler was fed at intervals with cold water through pipe, e, wilich received it froum the dis- charging water pipe, s. This was certainly a most in- genloims and direct boiler feeder. The cistern a, I vhich furnished water for condensation, was also simpplied wmth water from pipe, s. All tile clack valves in tile pipes openeEl upwards. Such is a descriptiomi of tile construction, arrange- muent and operation of Savery s celebrated (ngine, called a fire engine: and it was certainly more entitled to the name of caloric engine than any hot air motor of more modern times. Smich an emlgine is of commrse out of the question at the present day, but it affords us evidence that he possessed an invemitive mind of a very higll order. He stated that it would he very useful for pumuping water ilItO an elevated reservoir,from which it could be taken to drive a water wheela mode of driving macllinery by water power whicil has been pro- posed to us several times within a very few years. Savery obtained a patent for imis engine in 1698, at whicll period he imad really erected several of then), and they had operated very successfully in companisomi with that of the Marquis of Worcester and othcrs that had preceded themn. A very curious incident is related regarding the way Saverys mind was first directed to steam emgineering, and it shows that, in one instance at least a tobacco pipe afforded a lesson of inspiration. Switzer says: This gentlemans thoughts (Saverys) were always employed in hydrostatics or imydraulics, or in the im- provenlemit of water works; and the first hint wllich, it is said, he took his engine from was a tobacco pi~)(, wilich he imnmersed in water for the purpose of wash- ing it. He discovered, by the rarification of tile air in the hot pipe, that the water was made to spring through its tube in a wonderful manner. SEPARATION OF BISMUTH FROM LEADTile Annales des Mines states that, in some of tile mines of Germany, the ore of lead contains a small quantity of Ilismutil, which concemitrates in the pig lead. Towards the en(I of the cupellation there forms a green litharge, very rich in bismuth. Tills 15 gathered separately, redinmced, and tile alloy of lead and bismuth is cupelled. There remains some bismuth, which is placed in another furnace and heated until it sparkles (cc qee lephfaomene de leclair ail lieu). In an essay on a large scale, 50 quintals of green litharge were reduced. The alloy contained 54.5 of bismuth and 65.5 of lead. Time his- ninth extracted contained only traces of lead and of iron, and 0.42 per cent of silver. ELECTRICITY AND SO1~IE OF ITS PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS. ARTICLE IX. Jlie elcetro-magnetic rotary engine il; constructed in an entirely (lificrent banner. It consists of a ~vhcid, OIL the circiimfereiice of which ire hiolteil two or more armaturcs. Outside of this, and lIlliced in the direction of a railiiis, is ns electro-iuagiiet, whichi iS 50 arrallge(l th it , l)y nieans of a contact lIreaher, it shall attract tile armature nearest it until it comes directly opposite, when the current ceases to how the whole revoix-es by the momeiitum it has ac (luired until another armature approaches tile magnet, when the current again commences to thaw, and the second armature is attracteih and this alternate at- traction and cessation iif attraction produces a rapi(l rotary motion. As the armaturcs must aecessarily be at si}mo (listlinie frm each other, it is (vilient that if any sudden resistance should occur while the magnet was at a distance from ilily (if the armatures, the ma- chine must necessarily stop. To avoid this (lifficulty, it was proposed to employ a 7,-. 7 - iiimnmber iif ulagnets, which s Ii o u 1 d oI)erate suecess ively one after the other, and thus bring a continuous power to bear upon the wheel. The cut Fig. 4 represents a section- al fragment of such a device. A 13 C B E are electro-magnets, and A B C I) E the arma- tures winch they are ti) suc- cessively attraet, bolted firmly upon the circumfemence of the wheel, U- H L. The magnet, E, is fixed at a certain distance from E, which (listanee should be that through which it oper- ~itcs to tile best advantage. D is at a ihistlolce twice as great from its armature, and C three times as far from C and so Oil. Now, suppose E to be- conic magnetic it will attract B lultil it reaches e the cur- reilt is now ti) be trammsferrcd to B, which will attract 1), from 2 to d; mearorhile, the wIled will have re- volved sufficiently to bring C to 8, u-hell the current beimig transferred ti) c, it will be moved from 3 to c. Ibis operation beimig kcpt up, A will finally reachl the poimit, a, and, if tile ilarts are properly l)ri)l)ortioned ami(l mi(hjustc(h, I), will have reacheil tIme iloimit, 1, while B will have ilmissed sufticiently far beyond B to be out of the reach of its attractiomm. Ihie current beiimg now passed through B, ammil thleil smiccessix-ely through time emitire series, again time reviilmmtlimml will lie kept up, imlil will proceed with rapidity. It will be seen that, in tile al)ove engine, milthlommgll a utumlber of electro-muagnets mire used, yet a current haviming power suthiclemlt for omlhy one will suffice for the wIlille. By iilcreasing the niminber i)f ulagilets, the ihistaiice thmroimgh which they mitti-act their mirmatures mmmay lie (himinisileil, mimmd power gmlimleil thierehy. For breakhmg tile comltai-t iif the ci)n(lumcting wire, i. c. , for intcrrui~)ting time cmmrm-emmt, a device calhcd time commtmmct breaher is emuploycil. There are several formils of this iimstrumneimt, oiie of tIme hest if whdch is mepresemited hi tIme cut. W W is a thick disk ~ of metal, whicll is usimally mit- tmichmcd to time maui shaft of time muachiine which it is to re ~ gulmite. Vhmn time shmmift of time ~J) tusk a spring, P presses timis s~mrimmg i~ eoimmmectcd with (lime eheetrishe of time batteiy, and mimiomilmer s~lriig, S linresses upon tIme circummiferemice of time ilisk, ammd is coimmiceteil with thie otlmer pole of tile battery. If these sj)rimigs remain ill commtmmct within time disk, which is a good c uilmicti)r, time current will pass without interruiltiomm, whether time disk rotates or renmains stationary buit wlmenever a stoppage of time cmmm-reimt is desired, mm portion of the disk caim be rellm(lve(l by filing or othmerxvise, mind time cavity filled within a noim-comiduictor, mis ivory. In the cut, the dmirk portioims rellreseilt time miomm-comiducting portleil of the disk. It will be seemi that these por- tions caim be extended mit pleasure. There is an application of clectro-mnagnetism which, aithoughi it does not come directly under the head of magmietic motors, yet is a case of motion pm-educed by electro-mnagnetism. In many machines, timere are parts remote from time point at whuich tbe power is applied, whiicll require eccentric motions, and these motions must be giveii through tue agency of an endless sue- cessiomi of screws, canis, rackwork and other contri- vances, the constructiomi of wlmicim often displays much imigeimumity. but, at time samue time, such contrivances in- volve a great expenditure iii their construction, amid mmmdi power is comisumed by the frictiomm whicim they occasiomi. Mmmny such imiotiomiswe do muot say all mmmighit be givemi by mumeans of electro-miniagimets properly mirramiged. Wheim a rotary motion is desired, an ar- rmimigemmment sinuilar to) L small magnetic engimme may be mnaole use of. TIme frequency of such motions can be easihy conti-elled by means of the contact breaker. rlmere are often situations where a motion either re- ciprocatimig or rotary is requmired, amid wlmere, at the sammie tinme, it is difficult to give such motions by me- chmmmmmical means-sometimes on account of the mac- cessibihity of time part to be umoved, amid in some cases becamise of the gm-eat friction or liabihity to corrosion or breakmmge of the part by whicim such niotions are trans- mmmitted. The opening amid shutting of ventilators, flue vmmlves, and other appliances used in cominection with thue warnming of large balls and otber public buildings, is oftemm mittended with difficumity, for the reason givemi above; but suclm motions could easily be effected by muueans of time vmmrioums devices previously described. We immight go omm mmmultiplying suchm instances, but any omie wimo will turim mis attemutiomi to time stibject will fimid mio lack of oppom-tunity for making applications of this hUmid. 1mm estimmiating the expense of working any such ar- rangenment wiuicim is to be in use only for a short time, it shmoumld be bormie in mnimmcl tlmat there is no comi- stumumptioll of zimme mind acid mm the bmmttery except wimile it is in operatiomi ; mind if it is only tmsed for short periods, the cost will be triflimig. TEISSERES BLANK STAMPING PRESS. Thmis invention of Mr. A. Teissere, of No. 29 Bouhe- vmird St. Mmmrtium, Paris, consists of an improved dry stamnpiming liress, whmichin may be substitmuted for presses hitlmerto iii misc fom- that puirpose, ammd also presents the midvmmntage of hieing easily hamidled, very simple, and may be produced mint a chmeaper rmmte. This press is formmued (If tinvo parts ; of miii ripper movable piece turn- iimg on mmmi axis cmuryimmg time impressed letters, flgumres om- ornanmemit to be stmmmnped, aimd of a lower piece cmmrry- imig time letters or com-responding figuires or ormiament in relief. lIme engrmmving represents a cemitral verticmd sectiomm of a uinress ; a, wooden kmioli to receive a firm pressure to press the uppem- pam-t, e, on the part, f; b, upper part burning omi mmmi axis, d, wimiclm carries thine plate, e, oim which mire time sumuken letters c. lower fixed part car myiming thie pimite, f, tam which mire formed the letters in mehief; d, hinoles formed in the fixed and movable parts to receive tIme mixis on uvhich time umpper part, b, mnoves; , plate with the summuken letters fixed to tIme piece, b, with time mud of a screw this plate can be renmoved at will ; .f, plate with time letters in relief fixed to the piece, c, within the aid of screws, g g, which can be re- moveol at will; g g, screuvs intended to fix the platef to hinicce, c; lo, spring intended to support the movable part, b, at a certain hmight above the fixed part while the luress is muot iii use ; i, hollow made in the lower pam-t imitendi-ti fur thue passage of the projection, k, at 53 bottom of upper part, b k, projection for preventing the upper part, lm, rising too high. Tbe parts being thus arranged the press works as follows -Between the two plates e and / is placed the sheet of paper to be stamped, and time operator gives with the hand a sudden pressure on the knob, a, thmi sudden pressure causes the movable part, e, to approach with force against the fixed part. f, anti in timis way the paper pressed betweemi the two plates receives time impress. So soon as tIme pi-essure of time hmamith ceases to act omin the button or kmmob, a, the upper part, b, rises by the action of spring, k, amid thus the simeet of paper is easily removeth, bearing the impression. 1his press was patented February 20, 1860. NEWTONS IMPROVEMENT IN PRESSURE GAGES From limo Lomodoa Engimmeer.] This is an invention that relates to certaimi iniprove- ments in the construction of the Bourdon pressure gage, the object being to rcmcdy certain defects which have detracted froni its merit under certain circum- stances. Thus, for example, water accumulated in the tube has, on exposure to a low temperature, frozen and burst the gage; again, when applied to hocomotive engines, they receive a tremulous motion, and give uncertain indications through the tremulous movement of the index hand. In Fig. 2 of the accompanying engravings is repre- sented a gage of this description of the usual construc- tion, the bent tube, A, being attached at one extrem- ity to the pipe, B, through which the pressure within the boiler is transmitted to the interior of the tube. When thus constructed, if the bent tube exceeds a semicircle in length, a portion of the tube (L5 from e tof, Fig. 2,) hangs down below the point, e, so as to form a receptacle in which water soon accumulates from the condensation of vapor within it. The water thus collected is liable to freeze in winter, by which the indicating tube is often burst or strained. To remedy this difficulty it is necessary so to combine the bent tube with the pipe tbat any water that may con- dense witbin the tube shall drain back into the pipe; but it is manifest tlmat a tube attached to its pipe, as mepresented in Fig. 2, will not thus drain itself in ammy position in which it can be placed. To accomplish this end is thine object of time first part of this inven- tion, mvhich consists in so combining the indicating tube with the pipe through which the pressure within thue boiler is transmitted to the gage, that the length of tube in any direction from its junction with the pipe shall not exceed a senmicircie, and in placing the tube in such a position that it shall descend at every point towards its junction with and drain back into time pipe. When used upon locomotives, tbe gage represented in Fig. 2 is liable to another serious objec- tion, am-ising froni the violent shocks and jarring to whiclm the engine is subjected as it passes over tIme road. Ihese shiocks are of a tuvo-fold character, first, those which arc occasioned by obstacles encountered by the tread of the wheels (mi5 tIme joints of rails, & c.), and which occur in directions nearly vertical ; second, those which are occasioned by the swaying of the en- gine from side to side, and by the striking of the flanges or fillets of the wheels against the sides of the rails, and which occur in horizontal directions. The first class of these disturbances communicate to the bent tube, when arranged as in Fig. 2, a tremulous motion in a vertical direction, while the horizontal shocks to which the engine is exposed cause the tube to vibrate in directions nearly horizontal. These vi- brations of the indicating tube imnpart a frivolous vibratory motion to the index hand through a consid- erable arc, which renders it difficult, if not impossible, accurately to judge of the pressure within the boiler; they also speedily wear away the teeth of the rack and pinion by friction,the one upon the other. This vi- bration of the index hand is considerably augmented by the water of condensation which is allowed to col icet niol reulain witliiii the tliI)e, and which materially increases its weight niol momentum. To (liluinisli as fin as possible the vertical vibrations of the tube, as well as to do away with their influence upon the iii(lex hand, is tbe object of the second part of this invention, which consists in joining the plpe through which the pressure within the boiler is trans mitte(l to the gage with the indicating tube at a point l)etween the two ends of the tube, and bending the latter upon Ol)l)Osite sides of a vertical line passing through its junction with lie pipe, whereby the tube is iennere(l less sensitive to the clh~cts of the vertical shocks to which the locomotive is sul)jected. The length of tube which the inventor has found to be least aliheted l)y these shocks is iiearhy a complete circle, to which, at a l)oint midway between its ends the pipe from the h)oiler is joined, the two ends of the tlil)e approaclung each other at the toli, where they are connected with the lever which transmits their motion to the index han(i. F . In 1 is represented the improved gage, the (hal plate being removed. The ~)i~)e through which the picssure is hrought from the boiler is attached to the iLi(hicating tube at the bottom. For the purpose of carrying out the first part of this invention, the two branches, 1 and 2, of the indicating tube are made of a length iiot exceediw a seuiicircle, while they are i)oth so l)liced as to descend at every point towards their junction with the steam l)il)e, flint the water which may eoimdense within the tube may drain hack to the pipe. To diminish, as far as l)ossihle, the vertical vibra- tioiis of the indicating tube, and to lessen their influ ence 111)015 the index hand, the steam pipe is joined with time tube at a l)oint between its two extreiiiities aiid the twin) h)ranchies, 1 and 2, are bent ripen o~)posite sides of a vertical line passin6 throrigh the lower part of the tube, the extremities of the tube being nearly over the points where the tuhe is rigidly supported. The tube is formed of two branches, 1 and 2, which are bent symmetrically ripen opposite sides of the ver- tical line, that their motions in a horizontal direction may coincide as nearly a~ pOssible with each other. [lie lever, i, through which the coistracting amid cx pamidimig mIm(mtion of tIme tithe is tramismuitted to the index hand is pivoted to omme of tIme branches (1) of the tube at its cud, thic extremity of this lever being pivoted at r to a cormecting ansi, g, the other end of which is pivoted at c to the branch (2) of tIme tube the lower end of the lever, i, is pivoted at r to the rack, as, which engages with a pinion, mm, upon the arbor of the index hand, P. When thus constructed and connected, it will be observed that ripen the occurrence of a shock in a horizontal dimeethoim both branches move equally, or very nearly so, in the same (hirection, carrying with them the rmpper end of time lever, i, whichi not being imivoted to tIme case or other rigid part of the gage, simply trmrns rolmn(l tIme l)ivot at its lower end, with- ormt influmenciug time rack, am, or time index hand. This loose joint betwecim thie lever, i, amid tIme rack, iii, is also important for time purpose of preventing the me- tion of time joust at tIme cud of branch, 1, from causing the maeh to hjimid upon time l)iiiiemm, sin, or to (liseilgage itself therefrom. Horses and Bilhiards-~Rarey and Berger. Two of thme greatest masters in thmeir professions in tIme )VOrhnl are at hiresemit exhilhiniting thmeir skill to thronge(l alidlienees in this city. liiarcy, thie American horse-tamer, who astonished all Ermrope ivitli his wonderful skill in breal~mi~ viciorms hiorses, is holding levees three times a Iveek mit Niblos Garden, to crowd- ed amid (lehighted audiences. Bergen, the corprihent Frenchman, whose wemiderful feats with the cue we noticed at seine lesmgthm on p~~ge 249 of our last volume has returimed to this city after a mouths abseumec, mind is delighting the billiard players mit thin, ]univat.e ruinom ini Mi. Ihielan (time renowimeul hurofussom of time ant int bil h ianl playing, ammul exteuisive muamuifactumuer of tmilulcs), inn thine collier of 1cnth-street amid I3romelwmiy. Ammy of Our city readcrs who are feud ot the horse or bil- liards caum met but be delighted by aus attemidaimee oim the exhmibutmemi of eithmer of these professors, as their tastes may ihiruct themme. JOHNSONS PUMPS FOR COMPRESSING ELASTIC FLUIDS. iiomu She Loinindon EinegineemI This imevention, communicated to Mr. Johmnsomi, by Mn. Somnicihler, of Turin, relates to a peculiar construc- tion and arrangement of apparatus for compressing air, gases audi other elastic fluids, and consists in tIme employment of a horizontal cylimider, opening at both ends into two vertical cylinders respectively. A piston is caused to work to mind fro by any prime mover along tIme hienizoiitmd cylimler. This last nientioned cylinder is filled with water, which also partially fills the vertical cylinders the pistomi is thus entirely closed by water en both sides. The two vertical cylinders are each providcdl ivithi a pair of valves kept hermetically sun-tight by hydraulic joints, thee valves and valve seats iccimig constantly covered evith water. One of each main of valves serves as thee inlet for the air or gas to be compressed, and the ether allows the compressed air or gas to escape into a pipe leading to the com pressed air or gas reservoir. The to-and-fro motion of time piston in the horizontal cylinder causes a simul- taneous elevation of the water level in the one vertical cylinder, and a corresponding depression of the water level in the other cylinder. As the water level de- scends, the extenimal air (if it is sought sinmphy to com- press atniosphenic air) enters the cylinder by the inlet valve, at time sanie time a small quantity of the water which sumnroumids that valve escapes into time cyhiiider with the air, and at the miext stroke of the piston the raising of the ivater level compresses time air above the water in the cylinder, amid forces it through the outlet valve into the pipe leadina to the reservoir or air ves- sel; a small escape of water again tahUng place with time air out of thee cylinder, it is thins obvious, that during the ivoiking of the apparatus, theme is an inter- nmittent entramece of )vater into the cylinders, and a cornespondimug escape of water therefrom. This supply mummy be maimetained by any meatural and constant source, suche as a niountain stream, ameul thee water which escapes flows into a reservoir fitted with a float and val~ e, so that wheemi a certain quametity of water has ruiim into the water reservoir, the float will rise opeme an escape valve, and allow the water to run off until the descent of the float again closes the valve. A is the horizontal cylinder, within which works to audI fro the piston, P, actuated by any convenient prince immover. This cylinder opens at both ends into tIme comimpressing cylinders, B and C, respectively ; M is a hionizontal cylimedrical reservoir, in which is placed mu cylindrical float, C, a free space, a, being left be- tween the exterior of the float and the interior of the reservoir, as shown in thee dlrawimig ; Pu is a water reservoir em tmuumk, )Vhiieim is kept comestantly Suliphied fiem muucy niatumrmil on other convenient source, and is providled with two cocks, r ~ which direct the water lute time two vessels F F, respectiveh~ S and S are twin inlet valves fos time enmt.uance duf thu mini mini us to line linullmh)lessdini umito tim dinilimpiessing in yh I iminhin us () (7) are two ethics valvu ii lihehi admmiit of the d eat of thie ceminipressed minim or gas f noun tue cemuipressing, respect- ively ; mind z is minumotim in milve fitteul iseto time bottoni of the neseuvoms M, mmml coimnected with the float C for the purpose of effeetheg the peniediceul emptying of the reservoim,mis hereinafter described; T T are two lion- AN Amenicauc, who calls hcimsmsclf Dr S. V Bly, is zontal tumbes or passages, one servina to conduct the astoundinu thee Peunisiasms by his power of reading any compressed air or gas to any suitable accumumlating letter or othier writing inclosed him mmny miutmnber of seal- reservoir, which is not represented in the emegreuving, ed envelopes. amid the other serves to carry off the water which is operated in the compression of the fluid. Thee piston evorks to amid fro in the water, which always ucahetaimis an air tight joint, and the tightness of the valves, S S and 0 0, is also maintained perfect by keeping thens constantly imumersed in water by the aid of the respect- ive vessels, X X and Y Y, which are always maui- tamed full of water at a constant and invariable level, which water effectually prevents the return of time aim or gas, whether at the inlet or exit valves. rice coins- pressed air or gas in the cylinder or coinnpressing chiamubers, B amid C, passes out by tIme valves, 0 amid 0, simnultammeorisly with a smicahl dpsantity of water, which is carried along with it smiechanically, audI expemmeinis hi the space, X, wleesice it passes by the tube, T, imute thee receiver or magazine. The small qumantity of water which is carried over by tIme air into the space, X, serves to keep the vessels, Y IT, constantly supphiedi, thee surplus water flowing off into the reservoim, M. When this waste evater has attained a certain level iii the reservoir, M, it elevates thee float, C, evhiichm draws with it and opens time eumptyimeg vmmlve, X, tlemdurmghm which the evater escapes by the aid of time tube, 1, amid under time pressure of the air or gas in thee space, X, above. Time escape of time water causes the float, C, to descemid again and so close thee vmmlve, z, until thee further supply of water again elevates the float and valve. Thus the water supplied by the cocks, r in, him two continuous jets, after having fulfilled its purpose of packing or keeping air tight the imehet vmulves, is expelled intermittently and automatically from thme apparatus at the same tince withe the watem canmieuh alomeg by the compressedl air. Altlmormgh thee cemistamet adneissiome of fresh cohul water into the apparatus might be dubjected to ems teme(l- ing to a certaimi extemit to diminish its useful effect, yet this entrance of cold water acts beneficially iii otimer respects by keeping down the temperature of the muppa- ratus, as it will absorb the heat generated by time coni- pressiome of thee air or gas. Supposing the apparatus to be started, time piston, P, evill travel from a to 6, and the outlet valve, 0, of the chancher, B, close. Thmis cylinder, B, is completely filled with water, whilst ism the cylinder, C, the water reaches osily to time level, a mm; the resimaimmimig part of theis sceouid cyhimidler is filled evith muir or gas, as time case immay be. Now, hrmninmg time course thee linistoim travels, fromem a to 6, the leech, mm a, will rise and comumpress time air mubove it umetil it fences open the outlet valve, 0, amid eseempes in the spmmce, X, and thence by the tube, T, to the receiver. On tIme arrival of the piston at b, or the end of its stroke, time valve, 0, closes again, and is kept tight by thee presence of the water evhich covems it in the vessel, IT. Should this valve be imperfectly mmmdc, a leakage or black floev evill take place thiroughi it, dusimeg the retrinum strohie of thee piston, from 6 to a, butt this leakage will only be a small quantity of evater, and inset of the coin- pressed fluid inclosed in thee space, X. Whilst the piston has been travelling from a to Is, the inlet valve, 5, of the cyhimeder or chamber, C, has, of course, re- ucained closed, and beemi kept air tight by thee evater ime the vessel, Xlii wheich this calve is immemersed. In the same manner described, with reference to the valve, 0, amid leakage through this valve will memely result in the escape of a small quantity of water, evhilst the compressed fluid itself is retained in the cylinder. The operation of the cylinder, B, during the retuirn stroke of the piston from 6 to a is precisely simecihar to that already desemibed in reference to the cylinder, C, hint it has in the meantimuee beemi filleini with air or gas throughe the inlet valee, 5, amed its evater level imas descended to time line, minin in, so that evhen the piston beams to move frone 6 to a time air or gas above mini mum evill be comuspressed and forced omit evemitually through the outlet, 0, into the space, X, and receiver. Wheilst this is taking place, the level of the evater, C, is descending, and a fresh supply of air or gas is entering by thee inlet vmelve, S. Thee vol- uumie of mmii which (liters mulidi is dxpchleh froum Omiinhi cvi imeinier, B C, alternmitely, is, of nuuumse, eqinual tin in time volumme of evatem expelledi at eachi stiohie of thee pistninn LicoRicE Gmuoevru mini TaxAs.--We hearts fremes the San Amitonia Ledger that a Mr. Poinsand, of that city, has been eminently successful in the culture and ac chimation of licorice root, which he has had ineported from France. Of all the plants imported, one only survived. The groevth was luxuriant, notwithstaued- ing the drou~ht, covering the around fer a circunefer- ence of fifteen feet, irrigation beina unsiccessary. 55 (!~nr esn~ewe Holcombs Electro-Magnet. MESsRs. Euroas:ln y~t1 ~ of lan. 12, 1861, von publish, under the head of Telegraph Magnets, ii eowitnittneatioii sigue(l V. .1. 1k. , hi whieb the writer refers to my ( onihhiation Magnet, rceentl v i Ins I rate(l tool (lescril tc(l iii yO iii journal. [he writer, after saying that lie does not think it will he an advatitage, goes on to say that a varying (urreti I is a great source of t roul)le to operators anti it 50110 tile Woi11(l itivetit nit appttratits that would tounieratt its effect, it \(olil(I itt al)Itreciate(l. lie also .attribntcs this ditticitity of aAljiistttictit to lertuattetit niaguctisut, niol deliria the reitiark tita t a relay l)rcttv strongly charged with it, will tiot work with a vet y weak eurtent. Now, as there is ito duct withont a (iOit5t~ let 1t5 (otisid(tr what the true cause may be. When the eleettomnagnet re tait is its magtietistn, after the electricity ceases to pass through its helices, it is because the cores are ltt)t made tff iutre and well anticaled iroti cottsetiuetttlv, they take magnetism slowly, and part with it in the sattie inauner: hence the cotifusioti ~ttitl (liltlcttlty of djitstttscnt with a varviug current. Atiotlier (altse is, currents of electricity faissitig tlttottglt the heliecs, sotitetitues froill the grtttttl(l ti) the attuosithere, attil at other times from the atitiosphiere (or thi clouds that pervade the atttios- lucre) to the groutid. There is atiothier ilifticulty to he enconutered. Wheti a eurretit is trausmitteil a bug (listatice, it becotues protracted so touch 5(t that the sigitals, if rapid, becititi idetideil together fleit is, Ho tleettititx liiis uttt asi to tittw Ihrttityh the htelices t)f the receiving inagliet during the interval he tweeti the Itatistisitteil sigicils. Ihie witt(l, hail and radii atst) ltr(dltct currents of electricity its the wire by frictioti, and the litie itself is a battery of uticotumoti tnagiiitii(le. lake, for itistatice, a galvanized wire cots nectitig New York atad Ilostots there would be a ziuse strface exposed to the attnosh)ltcre e(ptttl to aht(tutt one tiero. Iti a datup atitiosphere, evet square itielt of this ~a ould excite suthicietit electricity to opcn~Le a relay ttmgtiet with till the rapidity reqtdred tot telegraphic coustitiunicatioti eottset~netitlx, iii a raitiy day there would be a pouu er stifticietit to operate 6,272,640 mug- nets. Owing to x arious causts, this ~m er tttay tiot always be apparent its the oftices vet, sut(hi is the tir- ratigetisent ot the ziIiecoate(l wire with the grt)utrid plate that, with a dattip attuiosh)ltere, they itessess till the eheinetits of a gtdvanic htattery. I meutittti these facts to show that alh the thflienlties exl)eriett(((l art miot thue to permatsent magrietistus. W. J. II. relbrs to muty tahihe as showing the (hitliculties of adj tustiuctit to be very mitch iuicreaseul. I certaitily eatinot see how such a toastrn(tit)ii cati lie putt itpoti it. While the h)erIuiatituit mutaguietisiti r(misaitis the sautic ii loch flit table shows, the couutitetactitig fetisiout cati alit) remnaiti the same, srltetlitr there b( a we~ik tir a stroag cuirretit, prt)vitht(h the following luriticthtles be observeul: Ihie arituatuti e shiouth d lie iti a State of (ifutil i hirittimi tluritug the mitirtusal (ontlitton of fhse muagiset, auth the tetisioui tif the spritug, while otthrhsg iso resistausce to the artuaturt at stuirtitag, shuturthl imsctea~o its the saute l)rohiottit)ii its flit varyitug force tif the ti~uugtsetismti. But ouse worth itt regard to flail mutisunderstood till the, which was ittubhishsed itt the htoites uuf pruivokitig ami iii vestigatioui liv souse oise that was better actinaitited svi th thu variouts huhii55es tuf mtgiietistti theuti myself. I wishoth to show liv it that one ehcetro-i tuagum(t, sf romagly ehsargeth irisma a peumuitts(tst steel mtmagtsct, is tscarly juno as htt)W(tltth, auth will work with a ii eaker cur retit, thiats whetin a sttcl uutagiset is uuot useul. Respect fully youts, A. ti-. Hoacosun. The Original Revolver---Colts Patent, & c. MESSRS. LDmToas: 1 tiolice that a eorrcspotsdent of the Petersburg (Va.) J~tilq Et-puisa has come to the tonchiusitas that the itriginuth reu-ol icr if the (olt style is the out hescrihttth hty thai ehthtr~iteth travihir, ha aid Taylor, itt his hisok etititled At hlonue and Abroad. lu in wltat this distituguishied genthetmiati at vs I amsi led ho htehieve ftiat lie i5 of the satuse ophit- tOil. My object itt writing this letter is to detty that couselusiots. aish to poitit out the genuine, original re- volvitsg firearni. I will quote Bayard Taylors words Waruvick Castle, onhy six miles distant, offers a remark- able coatrast to Keusilwoutht. Like flue hatter, the date of its toutiudation is utiukuowa, and its tutost ancient part bears thie tuatiie of Cuesars lower hituf, while Kenihwortht is t~ust eruuubhhtg to itieces, this rettualIus etufire, atud is in huabited in every itart. $ ~ ~ We saw, also, flue armoty, which is uismushly closed to visitors. It is rich in fhte atuchent aruttor ~uttd tare anti curious objects, atalotug whuichi I nt~uv uuetutiouu flue crysfah-hhhted dagger of Queen Ehizabethi, lieu skirt itt chuala nusil, her sadtlhe anti flue fiap- pings of huet hiouse butt I was usost struck with two thuings te it-tolciuig at its/a 1, utuore thaut two Itunthred years ohd, until u muttushe taken frotit the face of Oliver Croatwell alter tbeathu. Thic revohver (of flue atntictuity of which there eati he ito tloumbf) is ahtiuttsf precisely similar to Colts, htuivitug a situghe hiuuurel to which is attached t revohvitng cyhintler coti- tutinhuig six chuatutbets. There is a Ilituf hock atid pati to each chiuttuther, auth the liritug of otto thiscliatge britugs flue sue- ceculitug ehuutuibri to flue barreh. I huath beeti auare of the existence tint thus cut-iouts wealloit. but was tiot prepared to tituth flue ideut of a revohver so perfectly thevehopech. (Page 56 utiti .seij.) Thie origimial ouse, siuttiltir to Colts in style, is its ex- isfetuce at the hirescuif thue, ninth was on exhibition at thue Mechattical ~tmmth Agricultural Fair at Newberis, N. (., in 1859. The inventos wuts a poor flints (a black- stutithi), find scarcely could get the isecessary funds to pay his travehitag expeusses ninth for his pateust. His frietiths (?) laughteth at liii follythe absurdity of spetith- imag what little mnsottey lie bath in such a reckless nian- tier. He finally started, but between Richissoud atsd Wasluitigton City lie lost his fortutie. It is risehess for me to say mimic the balance of tIne story masay bt lasagitiech. The poor man retrurtietl htonse to bt luutghmetl at amsd seortied aiscl reproached for liii shtdlowness ot tatinti. Alas! poor Gill, thue black- smith, dicil, anti was buried LTuuwepf, unhtotaometl atuti utusnumo. Aumy hmuformatiots coiscerning this revolver cats be oh itaitieth by adtlressing tide Mayor, Frederick Latne, or the Matthews futtuilly. at Newberun, the luitter of whiotss owut this husuplennetit of wutrfare. The omie ititemsd- eul atid tuseth it5 a musotlel Itas fourteen chiatribers, imastead of five om six, as linac tite most of Colts nanke. rime baruel is hi-ass. While I was editimig the Newberts Ge- zdtu, 1 kept putting oil my thescription awl lihistratiomi of thais itssfriunsctst nistil the paper was discontinued. hlievols lung fire aruss hsuive ams ou-iyiut, anti the miatioms shuouhul hcisow ailso is the orighimal imsvetst or. I amis, & c.. Tuoarxs II. MURRAY. Lalce Latmihitig, N. C., lats. 12, 1861. A Grateful Inventor. Ihue atumiexeth letter, fromni nn lingemmious itivemitor who huts jctst received a puitetat, we recomnmatetad to flue peru- sal of any persoti who is about to tipply for Letters Putteist, ~ttmtl butts muot decided whuommi to eutuploy as his attoritey to prepare flue tiecessary drawimigs nuid speci- fications, nuid act as Isis agent before the Patent Office MEssRs. MUEN & Co. : Your favor etunse duly to hatad, amad, iii respotise, I must nclctsowletige mdiv tlsnmnhcs atail itnclebticiness to ytttu, avhiichi I luope you avill accept its puirt equis-aictif so jttstly tine you for the uuiwna-er- iing etnergy titush naitiritig zeal tusuimaifesteti its tuty ense. I nutust also cointess tbiutt I am luighily clelighifeth aviths the ulraaviuigs its may Letters Pateist imadeed, isothing ims their limne eami excel tlsens its point of beauty ninth sys- temanatie order. Amid, tisore than this, you has-c dis- chiargeil yoitr ditty ttiwnrti a depemadlemaf client maolaly itadeeti, voim have accomuslahishnech usome thsats I could eveti hope fom-, amid flnat its megarci to tasy tludmass, omie of which I uxpectecl womultl be nutiomag the naissimig. Sutice unmy first pateust. I have reeds-ed mnnamiy solicifa- tiotis ft-otiu other 1ttemif Atforiteys, bunt preferred pluicitig tuiy cutse utustler your owts persomial supervisioti, utiull itt tlsutf I has-c isot beets olisappoitated antI I am glaul thiat I haaxe chaise so. I reconinsench to all my hi-other itavetators (eslaccially those that nsay not he so well ativiseil its relatiots to your excehleust facilities as I aids) flint, shnoiuhci they be so forfimusate as to Idlace their case its your luamids, they may rest assured that thacy laave usuide ut safe inveiftasent, as far as the pro- cutritug of flue patent is coticerned. Piespeetfuilly, yours, J. McNAmu~. Ruiston, Pa., Ion. 5, 1861. I NNfuNio)ius [htsv, riFT PATENTS DiMiNtsttiN(t. We tart meeciviuug vast tiuminthers of lettems describing isew has- provenients fromni every sectiout of the country, which ox inces activity tunsomug the inventors but the taum- hers who apply for patetits have latterly soniesvhat di- maainislaed, as the reader will infer by the maumbem of patents issued weekly and reported in our columns. rho nunaber of patents issued last week, and reported on another page, is only twenty-nine, thirteen (or nearly 0usd-half) of which number were solicited thiroumghi this office. ~ohunn of ~addies. A Paris correspomadetat svrites of a bihliam-cl table its- vented there avhich nany be used as a dinmier table, a chest of drasvers, a both, a bathairug tuib utah a stove. Iromi pi~aos, svhaen haiti in the grorurtI amid isacketi all aroumiaci avith dry clay, do miot rumst. lhie ehtty protects the nietal fromus the actioms of oxygems in mnio~tttre amid air. Brosvms sumgar cuits hue bleached mietimly whuite by placitug it its a those elunniber aaucl stubmusittitig it to flue utetiomi of susiphiutroums atiul vttpors, avhsich thu tuof lta~ dirt its qutahity. Thie stetumni tutmamnuge of Nesv Yorlc is 120,h) huts, musostly inarimac. Ihie miexf port its imuuportamice is New Orleans, the steamas tumiumiage of svbiichs is 75,789itiostly miver boats. Thue etitire contimiemat of Australia bans beets recemitly crossed for the first tinase by svhite insets. This 5Vit5 itC- condldhishadtl lty I. Mactbomaniti Stesytirt, ouf Editibumighi, amid tuso attetadamats. TIne steamaisbip Tt;uieiaee, avhnicha sailed from New Ot- beamas for Vera Cruz lately, took a luirge quamitity of material for the nosy railro~id fromus Vera Crutz to flue neighaboring village of Medelhin. A prize of 82 500 is offered by J. Silsersmsmithu, of Sati Francisco, Cal., for the discovery of a process avhmereby gold nnd sihs-er can be profitahaly sepa*-atcd from the suhiahurets of California. The nesv Armuastrong gutas cost the English gttverii2 nioust $10,000 each. For tlneir comistrumetiota, a grutuit of $10,000,000 hind beets nsade by Pamhiamnemif, of suhuieht the greater part hitus beets expended, anti 4.31 gums cf every caliber masade. At ordinary atniespheric tenapetatutme, flue comithumet- ing poaver of putre copper is to thutit of hard oirutsuts sil- ser as 93 to 100. Aismacaleti copper wire is superior to hard tirnavis wire, thac foinser being to sils-er as 97 is to 100. The Comaamaiissiomaers of Sew-ers its Lomadoms baa-c gramat ed to our coumutrynsems, Mr. G. F. Tunin, permuiission to hay doivia a single line of horse railssav in Moorgate- street, awl a tbouble hue itt Fitisbumry-phttce, ruttuiliag miorthsvard to) the boumutiry of fansoums Loittloua toavia. Sacramnactito, Cal., is the Cimneinmuati of the Itmicitic regi oius, iii the way of demaiohishting huorkers. Fhicue itid several poik-packimug estabhislinietits imi flint city, each of syluichi takes tiosvts utbotut 80 gruisters per chiemni during the hog hiarvest. Although copper is imiferior to pure silver for cout- ducting electricity, struinge as it may seem, it loses souse of its comacluicting laosser whets alloyed avifhi silser or any other nietal. This has hocus determuilned by a series of experinsents comnaumaicated to f lie Royal Sci- ciety by Professor Wheatstone. The Fremiehs Mimaister of Fimiamice bias atuimonusced, by acivertisemasemat, thant ave will receive, ott t lie 18th of next masonthi, tenders for 3,000 tumas of Virginia, -1,500 finns of Kentucky, antI 1,500 tumas of Maryland to- bacco. A hue of telegraphs is abomit to lie comastruicted be- twcen Teheran and Bagolad, so as to comanect Persia with Europe by the electric cord. Persia is bectmnming civilized the capital of the Mohantuiedan enipire, Sc- eluded ots the banks of thie Euphrates, is opemilfig its bosom to receive imasprovensents. When arsenic is throsvn upon muselted copper, a smnuahh part of it volatilizes the greatest portious of it is ab- sorbed tind forms an alloy of a gray color, very hatird and brittle. Sutliahuur, selemainni math tell miriutmia, masixech with copper, remader it so rottems thiat ~t -atataot be drawia into syire. All thiese substances shiould be carefully avoided in smuelting copper. The Mobile Wine Company report flint, should the season be favorusbie, they expect to nuake this year 10,000 gallons, or 500 gallons to the acre. The actual stock of the cotaspany is nosy $20,000. It is proposed to adol to this $10,000. Thiring the tavo yours avhtiehs thue ooatunlaitmuy Inns hicen in existemice, f lie stoekhojholeis htave putith in 40 per cemit no the capituth stubseribeci A ohistingumished phay~ician lately tontuoumneed flint one reason svhay so taaatiy pecuphe have the dyspepala is because they have ao uyuuupet/uy at table. rhsey eat alomie at restaurants, and devour their toed like wild beasts, instead of sitting at the table with their famihiet, where their synipathies would be called into healthful activity, and where they would eat like civilized beings. There may he something in this idea. At any rate, It svould do no harm to test it. 4 TILTONS IMPROVED TEMPLE. There is prol)ahly no other piece of mechanism o~ equal simplicity which has been the subject of so much study as the power loom. There being thousands Of these machines in constant operation, under the super- vision of skillful and intelligent mechanics, every part and motion has, undcr tlic impulse of the patent laws, been the theme of a great (leal of thought and con- trivance. As the cloth is woven, it is necessary that the sides should be stretched apart to prevent the web from becoming narrow and uneven, and the mechan- ism by which this office is performed is called a temple. The fact that there are several classes of these little implements, illustrates, in a forcible manner, the truth of our assertion in regard to the invention which has been bestowed upon the power loom. The improve- ment which we here illustrate is in that class of temn- l)les known as the spur plate temple. The inventor says that, though it seems to be the plan which a l)clson would naturally adopt at first for making a teml)le, its pmohmetien has cost him five years ot reflec- tion an(l exl)eriilient; an additional proof to the thousand others of the general tendency towards sim- plicity in mechanism. Fig. 1 of the annexed cut is a perspective view of the ~vhole implement, and Fig. 2 is a sectional view, show- ing the imuiner in which it grasps the cloth. The in- vention consists hi inserting the teeth of the temple Puto a l)ieee of woo(l, which is fitted to the plate of the temple in such a manner as to be removable fos the purpose of renewing the teeth when worn out or in- ured. WI Fig. 2 rhe piece of wood, (, is made of both tapering and dovetailed shape, to fit into the space of corresponding form between the two projections, b b, which rise above the surface of the plate, A. Passing through the wood from the lower side, are the pointed steel teeth, c c. These teeth have both a forward inclination towards the breast beam, and an outward inclination toward the side of the loom, which position prevents the cloth from slipping back, nail also prevents it from slipping off the teeth in a lateral (hirection, as it is stretched by the action of f lie reed when the latter beats up the filling. The l)ieee of wood, C, being easily removable, it can be renewed with a set of teeth when these are worn out, or any broken or injured tooth can be re- placed without taking the temple from the loom. The cap, D, which is ma(le in one piece of metal with the arni, E, confines the cloth to the teeth, c C; it has a depression over the teeth so as not to come in con- tact with the latter, and it is held either open or closed by the spring, g, which presses against its short arm beyond the fulcrum pin, d. A short stud, f, fits into a hole in the arm, E, to hold the cap securely in place when the temple is closed. rrhe temple is attached to the breast beam of the loom by the stout spring, U. To persons wholly miacquainted with the matter, this may seem a small modification to 1)0 secured by Letters Patent, hut those who understand the value of improvements in even the (letails of mechanism which is in extensive use, will readily believe that it may be a means of independence to the ingenious inventor. The pategt for this invention was granted, through the Scientific American Patent Agency, Dec. 11, 1860, and further informatiop ip relation to it may be oh- tamed by addressing the inventor, Jeremiah C. Tilton, at Sanbornton Bridge, N. H. WORTENDYKES IMPROVED WICKS FOR CANDLES. The object of the invention here illustrated is the production of a wick which will burn in tallow candles, as well as in those of less fusible material, without snuffing. This wick also requires less weight of ma- terial than those in common use. For accomplishing these objects, the simple plan re- sorte(l to is to make the wick of several strands, b b b b (see cut), each of which is formed of two or more yarns, e n e a; the strands being twisted in the same (liieetion as the yarn, and the wick being twisted in tIme opposite direction to the strands. When we consider the immense number of candles which are consumed in this broad country, we shall realize that a decided improvement in wicks is an in- vention of very, great value. The patent for this invention was granted, through the Scientific American Patent Agency, on Jan. 1, 1861 and further information in relation to it may he obtained by addressing the inventor, C. A. Worten- dyke, at Godwinville, N. J. Death of Professor Hackley. We regret to announce the decease, on the 10th inst., of Professor Charles W. Hackley, of Columbia College, this city. At a comparatively early age, he was cut off in the full vigor of his intellect, and called away from scenes of great usefulness at 52 years of age. He was educated at the military academy of West Point, and was teacher of mathematics there for several years. From 1833 to 1839 he filled the chair of nmathe- matics in the University of New York; then he became president of Jefferson College, Mississippi, from which place lie came to Cohmmmbia College in 1843, and at his death was professor of astronomy. He was the author of several elementary works on science, and took an interest in all that related to astronomy and mathe- matics. He exerted himself in directing the attention of the public to the importance of erecting an astro- nomical observatory in this city. Applying the prin- ciples of acoustics to rooms designed for public speak- ing, he projected the method which has lately been introduced into several churches of the city, consisting of a sounding board which throws forward the voice of the speaker among the audience. His death was occasioned by a nervous fever. He leaves a large circle of friends, whom he had won by his kindness of heart, his gentleness of manners, and his useful life. FnATEnNAr.The (ouoliq (leo/lramon, published at Albany, N. Y., by the veteran Luther Tucker and his son, in alluding to the prosperity of its agricultural cotemporaries, the Maine Fume,. Moores Rural NimL, Yorlrer, the American Agriculturist, and .Jliaerm Rural American, says that among our non-agricultural ex- changes, the Hone Journal and the SciENTIFIc AMERICAN are to be ranked among the most perfect specimens of the art of printing we receive in newspaper form. This is certainly a high compliment, the correctness of which, as applied to this journal, our readers can judge. From our own knowledge of the Ilaaie Journal, we are certain that the Country Gentleman is correct. Messrs. Morris & Willis, and their famous Home Journal, are known everywhere. A new volume has just been commenced. Human Power over Brute Force---Rareys Method of Taming Horses. The mode by which J. S. Unrey, the world-renowned subduer of wild and vicious horses, accomplishes his marvelous feats has been very widely discussed, and it is now being practically exhibited by him at Niblos Garden, in this city, by the taming of the very worst horses that can be found. Ills treatment con- sists in two thingsfirst, in showing the horse that he is in the mans power, and second, in convincing him that the man means him no harm. In order to obtaimi absolute physical power over the horse, the simple plan is adopted of bending his fore legs and securing them by straps in this bent position. This of course throws the horse upon his knees, in which position lie remains but a short time before he becomes so much fatigued that he rolls over upon his side. The tamer now handles himn gently, patting and stroking himim, fondhimig his head, putting it under his arm, turning him about on his side, & c., until the horse is thor- oughly satisfied that the man is kindly disposed towards him, and has no design of doing him any injury. When these two ideas are fully implanted iii the liorsas mind, that the man can do what he will with him, and that he will not use this irresistible power to the horses hurt, the work is donethe homse is subdued. To overwhelming power, combined with perfect kindness, he yields prompt and absolute sub- mmssmon. At Mr. Rareys first exhibition in this city, a muzzled horse was lead in by two grooms, which was such a vicious aninmal that he had not been used in four years. He had both the wicked habits of kickimig and biting. In just thirteen mainutes froni the entramice of the horse upon the stage, Mr. ikarcy laid his head betweemi the horses heels and placed his armn in the horses mouth! Fitzgerald & Bates Method of Igniting the Charge in Ordnance, & c. This invention of Mr. Fitzgerald, of Cambridge- street, and Mr. George Bate, of, Great George-street, conists in firing the charge in cannons, muskets, and other firearms, by means of two chemical substances or compounds, by which fire is generated as soon as the substances come into contact with each other, by per- cussion or otherwise. By way of exemplification, we will describe one arrangement of gun and omie set of chemical substances, which the inventors find to answer well in carrying this invention into effect. In an angular direction through the breech is formed a tuhular aperture, and to the front of the hamnier of time lock is hinged a pin or bolt, which fits accurately in this aperture. Over and opening into this aper- ture, at a point in front of the inner end of time bolt, when the hammer is drawmm back or at full cock, is placed a reservoir or hopper, and in this hopper globules formed of a mixture of chlorate of potash and suiphuret of antimony, in or about the pro- h)ortion of two parts (by weight) of the former- to omie of the latter, with a sufficient quantity of gum, gela- tin, or other like suitable agent, as a vehicle for form- ing the composition. The opening from the hopper is so calculate(l as to allow passage to one globule only at a time into the tubular aperture, and then only whemi the hammer is at full cock. The back emiul, or the paper imitended for applicatiomi to the back end of the cartridge, is prepared by apply- ing a coating of a composition formed of about one part of phosphorus (by preference amorphous phos- phmorus), one part of suiphuret of antimony and two parts of emery powder, with liquid glue, gelatin, gum, or other like agent. These muaterials are compoumided nuder a degree of heat suflicient to melt the phosphorus. In some cases they apply the paper to a wad at time back end of thu cartridge. In the accompanying en- graving, A is the plunger in coummection with the trig- ger of the gun, B is the reservoir for the globules, and C is the cartridge. In tile case of ordnance, tile pat- entees prefer to ignite tile cilarge by inserting in the vent hole a tube partially lined with the prepared paper described, which is brought into frictional contact with a portion of the compoumud used for mnaking globules. 56 (U .m47.7 ij ,-- - - MUNN & COMPANY, Editors and Proprietors. PUBLIShED WEEKLY At No. 37 Park-row (Park Building), New York. 0. B. MUNN, S. II. WALES, A. E. BEACH. lERMSTwo Dollars per annomOne Dollar in advance, and the remainder iii aiX mocha. Single copies of the psoem sv~ on sale at the ollice of poblication, and at all the leriolcal stores in the Umitel Stalco and Canada. Sampson Low, Son & Co., the American Booksellers, No. 47 Lodgate hill, Londom, England, are the British Agents to receive sobscripions for time SCIEMTICIC AMERICAN. ~ See Proopoctos on laot page. No traveling Agents employed. VOL. IV. NO. 4 [NEW SERIES.].... Seceoteeoth lear. NEW YORK, SATURDAY, JANUARY 2Q 1860. FIREARMS AND RIFLE BREECH LOADERS. The sllbjeCt of firearms has engaged muCh publiC dis- (ussiOn during the past few years, ~tnd it is now tttttcting mOrC attCntion tisan ever. Nearly all EuropC appears to be an armed Camp. England has two hundred thousand volunteer riflemen in Constant drill; and at home, the notes of warlike preparations rCsound throughout the land. For two Centuries, the freC yeomen of America and tile sttlr(ly Switzers of the Alps were alone distinguished for skill with the deadly rifle but it has now become the weapon of all armies and there is ito nation which can claim pr& eminence in the skillful 115C of it. The first correct writer on the rifle was Robbins, an English soldier, who wrote upon the subject about a hundred years ago. He explained the defects of the smooth bored musket, described the principles of the rifle, pointed out its superiority, and (leclared that, by whatsoever army it was adopted, wonClerful effects would follow. The theory of the rifle is now generally known, and the advantages of this weapon are duly appreciated. But there are great ttltd essential varieties of rifles, and, of course, all cannot be equally good. There are breech-loading and utuzzle-loading rifles; there is the light English rifle, with its sutooth tapering barrel: the heavy Swiss rifle, with its thick breech ttud muzzle; linCI the long heavy American rifle, witit its octagon barrel. There are also very great differences in the pitch of rifle grooves, and other teatures which ttre far from being unimportant. On these points iisuch has been written that is more (Iiscllrsive than instritetive. .1. Chapman, author of American Rifle, and Colonel Jacob, of the East Iht(lia itrlisy, are perhaps among the best writers on this snbJ(ct. A series of articles on small ttrius isas also lteeit ltlt(ly pcildishctl in the London illeclooiica JJege zinc, by ~V. Britlges Adctms, it prttctical engineer tcnd writer on mechanical 5111)jCCfS. Some of his views are full (if gt)otl sense, while others exhibit a want of thorough laractical acquaintance with rifles. Europeatt writers on firearms seem to be unacqitainted with witat htts been done in Amcrictt by our guasnuths. 1he conical or elongated Minid projectile, whicit has htecoute the favorite in Europe, is tice 01(1 picket bullet ilsid by Atnerican riflernets, witit the addition of a Chittlulter tusd plug itt it~i sterns. Adams says: All lc)rCih)ie expansion of leaden bullets within the barrel by the explosive actiolt of the gas is a mistakeit wastes l)owdcr and alters the form of the shot into irregularities, tending to irregular flight. He thus (leclares tinat the expanding bullet is not reliable for accurate sisooting. We have seen several experiments utade witln the expanding ttnd the old solid picket bullet loaded at the muzzle, in which the latter always proved the most reliable. It must be acknowledged, how- ever, that the expamnding ball has its advantages in warfare. Witlt it, a soldier can 1011(1 his rifle inS easily and 115 fast as a utusket ; ttnd if it is not quite so rehitcble, it is better for rapid firitig titan the solid ball. But it has itt) otiter ntdvantage flush) this ; nus(l ntbove all things, certttiitty of striking sisould be t lie first object ut firectrins; quick shoot iiiN if we can, but accuracy by all means. Americait first class rifles are the best in the world. The foreign Enfields, Wliitworths and Lancasters are far inferior to them. ~lhse reason of this is obvious. Rifle shnootirag Itas been a fttvtrite American timusement fora hundred years, and it has been a matter of national pride, as well as of security, to excel as marks- men. TIte greatest care and the highest mechanical skill have been called into requisition on the part of our gunsmiths to make perfect rifles, and they have been successful beyond all that Europe can boast. A Wesson a James or a Fish rifle is always a dead shot in the hands of American marksmen: the instrument, when in proper order, never fails. At present, we believe that the muzzle-loading rifle, with the tight fitting conical bullet, is the most reliable, and the principles involved in its construction are few and simple. Tite barrel should be of the best close- grained cast steel, and its weight sufficient to give it stability. It also appears to be advantageous to have tite barrel of an octagon form, and of thte same diam- eter from end to end. When the charge expands in the barrel of a rifle, a series of undulations are pro- duced, whtick operate to give irregularity to the flight of the projectile. The angles of the octagon rifle bar- rel tends to arrest these undulations. This was dis- covered long ago by our backwoods marksmen; but this principle does not seem to be appreciated by most army officers, who have provided round barrels for tlteir rifles. The size of the bore in rifles is a matter of convenience and choice. The larger the bore the greater proportionately should be the weight of the barrel, to give it stability. The interior of the rifle shtould be as smooths and polished as the inside of a steam cylinder, to avoid friction in the passage of the bullet. There is quite a difference of opinion as to the best length for rifle barrels. This is an important feature, because the pitch of tine rifling is always in accordance with the length of barrel. The heavy, long western rifle, with its moderate spiral, is considered by many persons to be the most reliable; while others assert that a short barrel, with a slow starting spiral and an increasing twist touards the muzzle, is as reli- al)le, and is preferable to the long barrel. The number of grooves in a rifle is not of tnuch importancetltree are better than a (lozenprovided the bullet be made to spin properly; they should be as shallow as possible, however, to prevent windage. The German rifles have short barrels and a rapid twist. Colonel Jacob states that he found, by maffy experimnents, that a barrel two feet long, witit the grooves full and of a breadth equal to the leads, and giving a revolution once in three feet, was C(lual to barrels two and a htdf and three feet louw a Tine muzzle of a rifle should be perfectly true ; for if there is the least defect at the issue where the bullet leaves the barrel, shooting becomes mere chance work. Clarks patent loading muzzlean American inven- tionhas conferred a superiority for accuracy on all rifles furnished with it. It is admitted flint rapid loading is desirable, and that this is obtained with expanding bullets; but these are not rehitsbhe. But, then, are not accuracy and rapidity of firing combined in breech-loading rifles? The late Secretary of War, in his report, said: I thimnk it may be fairly asserted now thnst the highest efficiency of a body of men with firearms can only be secured by putting into their hands the best breech- loading firearms. This conclusion, it seems, was arrivefi at after a great number of experiments by army officers. There ctstn be no question as to the ease and rapi(lity of loading breech-loading rifles, but they are not comisidered Sc) aecctrate in finitig as a good utuzzle- loader. We have seen several trials of skill witlt the two kinds, in which the breech-loader usually failed; and yet we do not see why this should be considered a settled question. There is nothing in theory, and there should be no positive difliculty in practice, to prevent a bteech-loading rifle from being made to carry as accurately as any other. We shall recur to this subject its a future article. THE NEW COMMISSIONER OF PATENTS. The inquimy is frequently made of us, who is likely to be appointed Commissioner of Patents under the incoming administration? Our readers are deeply in- terested in this matter, and hi view of the vast and increasing importamtce of the interests over which the Commissiotter of Patents is called to preside, the inquiry is a pertinent one. We are not in the counsels of the acting President or President elect, and have therefore no authority to speak for them. This much, however, we will say, that the appointment of a Commissioner of Patents is an important matter, and it ought not to be conferred mhteiely to provide a place for some windy 57 political demagogue, as a reward for stump services. Neither should the selection be made of one who has searched into the profound mysteries of some science and knows but little else. The duties devolving upon the head of the Patent Office are somewhat peculiar, and require ~ the right man for the right place. He must have considerable patience, a willing ear, ahid a firmness of purpose not to be whicedled out of tine path of progress into old fogy notions. He must have not only a knowledge of law, but he ought also to be able readily to distinguish the difference between a cheese press and a hydraulic rain, and even, to go further, when necessary, to protect the rights of an inventor by overruling wrong decisions. His habits, conduct and language ought to be high-toned atnd above suspicion. In short, he ought to be a gentle- man, possessed of good common sense, having a gener- ous appreciation of the interests of inventors, so as to welcome them to the Patent Office in free and frank intercourse ; and if an inventor should happen to suggest that his rights had not been fully respected, not to swear behind his back, nor consider it am attempt to cast odium upon a high public functionary. There are plenty of solid men in this stirring coihtstry, possessed of all the desirable qualities herein mema- tioned, and who would, doubtless, cheerfully accept the appointment if tendered theiis. The only name we Inave heard suggested for this office is the Hon. Butler G. Noble, of Wisconsin. From what we know of this gentleman, we should think he has all the elements necessary to make an admirable Commissioner. He is a lawyer by professions, and has a knowledge of the arts and sciences surpassed by few men in the country, to say nothing of his capa- city for work and his readilness to do his whole duty. Mr. Thomas, who retired from thte Patent Office to assume the duties of Secretary of the Treasury, has re- signed his new office, and it is stated in the Daily Toetes that he would probably again resume the duties of Commissioner of Patents. This we consider wholly improbable under the circumstances. The duties of the Patent Office are now acceptably performed by Mr. Shugert, amid we hope no one will be placed over him. We should be most happy to announce the determination of Mr. Shugert to abolish that useless appendage, the revisionary board, and inaugurate some other changes in the Office such as would relieve it from suspicion of imbecility at least. THE FERTILITY OF INVENTORS. We published last week an illustration of the niode of spiking cannon, and it would surprise any one who has not come in actual contact with the inventive genius of the country, to learn the number of sugges- tions which have been made to us of improvements itt this simple operation, both for spiking cannon and for restoring them again to usefulness. If the atteIs- tion of our inventors is called to the need of any im- provement, however difficult of accomplishment it may appear, it is surprising how promptly some means of effecting it will be devised. A few years since, an extensive worker of marble, in New Hamp- shire, offered, under special conditions, a reward of $10,000 for a machine for sawing marble in a particu- lar manner which it had been deemed impossible to effect by machilnery, and the plans poured in upoms him ins such abundamice, tinat he was not only embar- rassed with scores of personal applicatiom~, but had so many letters upon the subject, that he w?ns led to ex- claim, Hold, enough! Very many of the operations which are now regu- larly performed by machinery, would have been re- garded, a few years ago, as absolutely beyond the power of mechanism. Who would have thought, for instance, that a peck of pins could be poured into a hopper, and that a machine would take them all by the heads and insert them in straighat rows into papers, with a rapidity and regularity unapproachable by. hand work? Here is a loom, driven by a powerful water wheel or steam engine, and running with great force, weaving with rapidity a very slender cotton thread into a web, and if the tender thread breaks, the loom instantly stops. A piston is moving back and forth in a steam-tight cast iron cylinder, and the vary- ing pressure of the steam, throughout every portion of the stroke, upon each square inch of the inside of the cylinder, is accurately recorded by the engine itself upon a sheet of paper with a lead pencil. What man can pronounce any mechanical or scientific aebievement 58 mpossible who reads every flay, iii his morning paper, he news sent from all parts of the country by that lerpetual won(Ier an(l miracle, the electric telegraph if any person perceives an opportunity in any art for an ilnl)rovement which would be of unquestionable money value, or any operation which it would be l)rolital)le t have performed by mechanism, however impossible it may seem to eftbet it, let hhn write a short note to the SetENTirie AME1UeAN, calling the attentiomi of our readers to the matter, and we can almost insure himii a speedy solution of the problem. Difficulties only stimulate the resolution and inge- nuity of inventors. The niore formidable thc problem tIme greater the satisfaction hi encountering and over- coming it. impossible ? said Napoleon, never repeat to me that blockhead of a wor(l. THE WAY WEALTH IS DISTRIBUTED. We have seen that wealth ~s l)mo(llmee(l by the joimit actiomi of labor and eapital or, rather, by labor using capital as tools to work with. A man might raise a certain amount of corn with his naked hands, tearing up the earth with his fingers, and keeping it clear of weeds with time same means. lint how much more lie could raise by the aid of a simple hoe lie could pm- duce more still by the use of a horse and plow, and still more with carts amid all the modern implements of Inisbandry. All capital, from a hoe or ax up to the most elaborate manufactory, may be ~roperly re- garded as tools in the hands of industry, increasing its product of wealth. Now, when the cal)ital belongs to the laborer, as is the ease u ith many of our small farmers, there is no division to be made of the product. The laborer and capitalist being the same man, the whole of the pro- duct belomgs to him. But it sometimes happens that a man owns a farni, stock, utensils, & c., amid (loes not (lesire to work himself, while aimother man is (lesirous of earning soniething by his labor, and an arrange- imiemint is mmmdc between tlienm by which one umaim works with the others cal)ital, and the product is divided between tIme two the proportiomi which each shall receive (IeJ)emohimlg inmpomi the relative smipply of labor and (dl)ital ii time market. lii other cases aim arrangenmierit is made by which time capitmihist pays lime laborer a specified sum for the sea- somi, or umomithi, or inveek, or day, assumimig tIme whole (hireetiomi of the labor, alm(l takiuig the risks hmimmiself of mnakimig it productive. The amminoumit which time laborer amid capitalist shall receive inlepemids, first, upomi the miggregate amount of die prolimet to be divide(l betwecmm time two amid this depends primmeijially upon three tImings Iirst, impon the miatural resommrces of time coinmmitry imi which tIme labor is perforimied secomidly, upomi time skill with which the labor is inhirected mud, thirdly, impomi the supply amid quality of tim tools within which tIme work is performed, imi citlier words, upomi tIme abmimidammee of capital. lime imithuen(e of tIme matuirmini resources of tIme country upon wages and interest was strikingly- shown in Cali- fornia, soon after the (liscovery of the gold. Here was mm region, iOO miles wide and i,OOO miles bug, iii which mimost of time beds amid banks of the streamns were filled with a very l)rccious metal; the laborers were few mmmd time capital was very limited ; time result wmi5 that the l)ro(lmmct of labor, workimig evemi with time imim- perfect ineamis furnished by tIme himumited capital, was so great that there was mm large mimnount to be divided be- tween tIme two, amid wuinges were from eight to twelve (lohlars per day, while capital was worth ten per cent and upwards per mimomithi. This was seen in time large anmount paid for time rise of all kimids of l)ropemty which could be made available imi facilitating operations, as well ms in tIme high rate of imiterest on money. For instuinnce, a rocker for washing out gold that cost thirty dollars would rent for a dollar and a half a clay. Time writer sf this was bin a log (ai)i in tin 11 mnoimmutains 0 hill mcmii .1 loin (lie ilulIffInfI mill hifly fbi mmis immotitlin ; mumul minftcr imiterest had beemin fimihimug for three years, lie, with his pmidhuicr, bummed a drayimiminn ~2,6OO, to buy hiorses amid (irays witim. at five per cent a month and the muman, besides paying the interest, cleared the whole anmount in the course of one year, being worth that much more than he would have been if he had not obtained the loan. On the other hand, in Greenland the resources of the country are so few that the aggregate product must be small; consequently, while wages are low, mmo considerable amount of cap- ituml could be employed except mint a \ery sniall rex-- not beemi employed, either iii comisequemmee of the prices emmume. of the sminbstammees, of their destructive aetiomi on the It requires a great deal of reflection and observation sugar, or of time complications which they imitroduce to emmable one to appreciate fully time importance of a into the operations, which ought, before all things to wise direction of labor in its effect upomi the mummioumit of remmmahmi simple and rmipid. A single process, thmmt of wealth which it will prodnuce. The writer of this Mr. Rousseau, has received ami imidustnial apphicatiomi mmoticeul once imi the suburbs of Acapulco, in Mexico, it consists in the pmmssnge through the mmlkaiine liquor two blocks of logwood which had beemi hewn imito of an excess of carbommic acid; it requmimes the employ- shape to fit the back of a mule, iii order to be thus nient of a specimml apparatus which is qumite costly, and tiansported over time moumitaimus. Compare this muode it probomugs the timime mequired iii time operatiomis. of tnmmmisportatiomi with that upomi our rivers, cammals amid Time mmmeamins proposemi by mis depend on very mmermt rmmilnoads, and how snimull is thie mesumit of mm clay s lmmbor chenmical reactiomis, of emisy execuitie mm, ummid which re iii time omme case comitrasted with that iii thie other. quire omily an imisigmilficamit expemise. Gemimmummi mimeehmammics gemmerahly live amid labor fromim omme The mesnmit of time operation is to satummate time deleca- to three muimles frommi the towns wheme they procure timing mngemit iii the state of sulphate em ol emmuhonate, amid their work, and a large portioum of their timmie is cx- that by reactiomis mine c, or at lenmut differemit frommm those pemided iii transporting their mmmatemial between their heretofore employcul imi this minim. iiere minre the divers villages and the towmm. When the fruit of their labor, umamimmers imi which we operate. thius umiwisely directed, passes iminto time umminniuct of time i. Make the defecatioui of time sminchianine juice imi time wmmnld, it amounts to so little thmmut it will oumly pay ordinary mumanmier, by mumeamus of hiuume. io time rmmcked thinemmi froni thirty to forty cemits per dmmy. liquor mmdcl floumi of sulphmumr, em., better still, mm snmmdh Lmmst, brut not least, in its effect upon the prochuct of quantity of the h)crsulphumret of emmicimum, which trains- lmmbom, is tIme abundance of time tools or emupital to work forms instamithy time excess of lime imito time suiphiuret. within. A nmmmn with a turning lathe cmiii make mere Next, pass the juice through mm filtem inelusimig soumme bahuisters tumami lie camm with a jack-kimife ; a man within a sumbsulphate of the sesquuioxych of iron mumixech with steam emigine and a Woodworth planer can sumootim black or other dividing matter. At time couutact of tIme more boamds thmami lie cam with a jack-plane ; a man subsumiphate of the sesquloxych of iromm, time smulphmumnet of with himmif a chozemi great ships emmum trammsport ummore mimer- calcinim transfonumis itself comumpietely into time sulphate, ehmauidise thinaum hue caum with a yawh boat ; a ummaum within a and the lime thus beconmes satumnated. rfli0 jumice, mibSO- imirge mmmnmumumfmmctomv cam make ninore cloth thmaum lie can lutely imeutral, passes through time black mummul is aftem- with a spimmumimig wheel amid hinamid loom ; amid a umatiomm wards sumbmnitted to time cookimig. with 30,000 mumiles of raliromuch cmiii distribute ummore 2. To simplify time operatioum still fumrthiem, it wums goods thummum it cam within a few imummindrech pack ummules. umatumral to seek if time sumiphmumnet of emulciuumn, derived Eminghmmuid, fromum the exteuit of lien nimmumufactonies, froni frommi time calcimmation of the sulphate of hiumme within cimmmr- time mmumnibem of liner stemmum cuigines, frommi time abundance commi, wonulcl umot defecate the sachmarine juice mis well as of mmli her mmpphiammces for aichimug the operatioums of caumstic huumme. Nummumeroums essays have cleummomistrateci imindumitmy, iii nm word, frommi liner gremmt suipply of capitmmi, that the defecatiomm with tIme suilphmuinret of ealciuuum is doubtless produmees mumore wealth aummmumally, iii p~Opor- as rapid and as coniplete. As, however, thie mnommo- tuoum to her population, thmaum aumy- other umation that sumlphumret boiled with a hmmge qumauitity of wmmter may- ever existed. Next to Englamich, iii tunis respect, is the give the oxysumiphiumnet, it is better, mome fom secrurity, United States ; mmmi this coummutry, frommm time great to boil time mnoumosumlpimumret with mm little flour of sumi- extent of its mmmmtuummml resources, mimmul its umipich aecumnmn- phuir, iii oruhem to himuve mm polysumhphumret which will umot latioum of eapitmd, ivihl, un mmli piobmibihity, surpass alter, it is to be renmarked though thimut thin process Euuglnimich iii time procluictiorm of wemmlthin. Our umumumumal umay be applied, still preseuviming time ordiumaiv defeca prochumetioum, un proportioum to time i)opumlation, is mow tioum with hiumme, imy mmddiumg, as is said above, hiquuici icr- many fold greater thmaum it was forty years ago ; thinis is suuiphumret. Iii the place of the suuiphmuret ot muheinmn, shiowum, umot only iii time ummuitiplied wmmges of our labor- there may be employed for the nlefecmmtioum time sul ers, but still ninore iii the enonummously augmented rev- phmuret of barynni derived from time calcinmutioum of thin emmumes of our mmmammufactuurers, ummerchamints and other sulphate of baryta with ehmarcomul. The racked hiqumor bushiness men. us filtered, as in the preceding operation, thmroumghm a filter charged with time sesquuioxy-d of iroun, mmmmch the barytmi is conipletely precipitated in time ustumie of sumi- _______ phate. This reactioum is most perfectly mmemui, numil time absolute iuisolumbihity of the sulphate of barytmu responds to all the objectiomins which might be mimmude mingminiumst the employmeuut of time sumiphmumret of baryuumum. 3. It was evidemmt, simmee time sumhmlmuumets of calciuuum mmnd of barynmni arc trammsfc rimmed imito suuhimhmmmtes iii comm tact with the sumbearbommate dinf iroim, thmat they would become carbonates in presemmee of army muietmmlli& carhmoum- at(s capable of giviuig suilphmmmrets, such as time carbomm- ates of iroum, of zinc, of niangumnese, & c. We cite these especially as being less dear to prepare mmrtificiahly or to timid in time umatuiral state. Iii effect, the suuipimurm rets of caicluim and of baiyuuum, lint iii contact mmliii time cambonates of iromm, of zinc, minuci of mnamigaumese, give carbonates of limime ammcl bamytmin, and time correspouidiuig sutiphmuirets. The sacehamiume juice, defecated by himmme, mmnd consequently alkalimme, icing boilcini with earbonahe of iron, of zimme, or of mamigaumese, gives sarbouiate of lime and oxyd of mnauigammese, which ap~means to fommim a subearbonate. But it is preferable to employ lIme cmv bonate of ziume or of mmmamugaumeso, the carbonate of iromi beimig seuisibly indimulle in water. 4. Fiummmhhv, thine smmeehmanimme juice mimay be defecated by means ef time ahkmmhimmm sniphmuirets of potassimmumi or of sodium, ninnd passed afterward throuughin a filter uf I lie sesmpmioxysh of irmn. which tramusformns the cxess sf 11mm siulplmutret mite mm sulplimmie of soda ; this sumiphaf, mini though soluble, miot hem emmtiumg tIme ervit 1 hizunt if ft in of the sugar. Defecation of Sacharine Juices, and Complete Saturation of the Disinfecting Agent. nv uuEssas. woamis DE uuouuiaav xNn MARGUERITTE. Linmammiated iiieraiiy from Liinvenmiom. I Limime, imm time mumanumfimeture of sugar, is at the present time exclusively emmmployed as aim agemmt br defecation. Tine unomlerate puice of this substammee, its precipitating actioui on extractive mattems, and its perfect freedom from any injurious effect on the sugar, fuuhly juistify this preterence. By tIme side of timese precious advan- tages, however, lime presents time grave inconvenience of dissolviuig in considerable quantity iii the sacharine juice, fornining an uncrystahhizable sacharate of hinme, whichin, by tIme viscosity which it gives to time liquor, prevents mulso time crystahlizatioum of a qummuntity more on less comusidermmble of time free sugam. Fuirthermore, if the excess of lime prevents tIme sugar froni altering, it determines, under the influence of ebulhition, and of time temperature which rises with time commeentration of tIme jumice, the forumation and time coloratiomi of viseoums nmind dehiquscent matters, constituting time greater part of the moimmsses whichm impregnates time brown sugar. In the manufimeture of sugar, as mmcli mis iii the refining, it was then very iniportant to get rid of the excess of lime, and to be able to evaporate and cook the juice hmerfeetly neumtrmml. Mmmmn i ifact mmmcms (iii jsh 5 miniusimmi I mlmmek to (I hseculom them itise, recogimizitug, mihuc,, ihimint this mmgssint of diseolomiza- tiomm has thie property of sminturatimig amid retaining time liumme ; mumid that time hiqumon was uvas discolereni tine bet- ter the less it contained of alkali. Aninmal blaehu is then employed in tunis aim ; but iii certain years, and always towards the end of the manufacture, there is necessary for the defecation a proportion of lime such that to saturate the excess of it, enormous quantities of animal black are required. This plan is then ruin- ous. Divers processes have been proposed for the sat- uration of the excess of lime; but the most part have A Bino CAsTiNGMessrs. Neilson, of Cla-~mmomv Lu lately cast a sole plate for one of Pinandoli ii (On marine engines. The casting is twenty-one feet eight inches long, twenty feet wide, and eight feet high, and weighs fifty-nine tuns (of 2,240 lbs.). It was east in a pit outside of the foundry. It is one of time largest castings ever made. India-Rubber Manufactures. On page 169, Yol. I. (new series), of the ScIENTIFIc AMERICAN. we publishcd an illustrated description of the history and manufacture of American vulcanized india-rubber fabrics, which was admired by all who read it, and which containe(l information on the sub- ject not to be found in any other publication. In or(ler to render our pages replete with all useful infor- ination on this topic, we copy the following, respecting india-rubber manufacture in England, from the Lois- don illcchenics Alegezine the very rapid susd extraordinary stri(leS which have becis made in the manufacture and applications of caoutchouc or india-rubber, (luring the last thirty yearsmore particularly since the discovery and in- troduction of vulcanization induces us to devote some space to a slight sketch of its past history, its I)rcsent state, and its probable future. With the exception of gntta-perchaa somewhat similar, though inferior gumwe know of no material that has wrought so many changes in so short a time, or one that, originally found wanting in its cisensical comisponents to withstand the action ~f time atmosphere, has, by the aid of clsemistry, been so thoroughly changed that it has become one of our most valua- ble articles of commerce the annual importation of various kinds of the raw material exceeding at the oresent time over 2,000 tons per annum, the price varying from lOd. to 3s. per pound. The india-rubber tree from which the gum is obtain- ed is a native of India and the Brazils the product of ]ara in time latter conntry being very far superior to any other. L:srge quantities, however, are imported trom Java, Penang, Singapore, and Assans, and these, though inferior in qiemhity, enter largely into india rubber ~nanut~sctures. The Para gum is obtained chiefly from the Sipho- nia elastics, a species of seringaby which name in- deed It is commonly known by the nativeswhich grows in great luxuriance through all the forests in the Brazils. The trees, rising from eighty to one hundred feet, ale bare to the Isighit of thirty or forty hi~et from the grosmisci, when they branch out in a dense glossy foliage, the leaves, about five inches in length, irsuehs resemblin~ those of the chestnut. The Ficus a clastica, a species of fig-tree which yields the Java guns, also reacises a very great size, omse mentiomsed by Mr. W. Griftitis being one Isundred feet high, seventy- four feet in circunsference, and the girth of the usaill trsmnk, along with time support imnscdiately around it, one hsumidred and twenty feet. Ihe area covered by the expanded branches had a circumfercisce of six hun- dred and ten feet. In thse Forest of Ferosepoor alone, us the district of Chssrdwan ill Assam, an accurate survey ressmltc(l ill time cormisting of forty-tisree thois- 5515(1 two imumrmdred als(l forty such trees withsin a silioce of ciglst miles by thsirty. Ihse suJ)phy woulol, thiere- fore, scens to be almost unhimr.itcd, tisoughs it hssss re ceisthy foshlen sisort of time olemand ims thse market, owing to its imlcreissulg smse in various usanufactures in Eng- lsusd, sins well sins 015 thme Continent and in the Uniteol States. We thmink, however, we may safely state tisat tills scarcity is ossly temporary, and that as demssand immereases, so fresh forests will be opessed up, and that olemmsamsd adequately supplied. In confirmation of this view we have only to say thsat it hums been ascertained that there exists a belt of forest trees extending ten olegrees on eachs side tise equator around tile globe, whilels yi(i(l gums of tills aisol a lik( natur(. Time prsess of gatimering thse guns is rude in tise ex- treme, swat is capable of great improvementms fact of whsichs our mmsmsnufmmetsmrers are now becomimsg fully sswmsre. It is received ims rumfie vessels of cissy suttached to the bark of time tree, in wimiels imicisions are made, and from whmich the gum in the forns of a pure white milk-hike juice exxmdes. These incisions rarely exceed fommr to emsch tree tise jumaistity obtained varying ac morthimig to thme size (It time tree, aboumt mm psart lining time lmo)ol uost of acim openiimg iii the I IV(ntyf( our hoosmrs. Those illoisiomins, imowover, aro nsaoto sparmmtcly, time fimst bciosg sot time greatest hincigist Irumim time groummid, ammd wisers tima t is cxhmammsted, another veil, if emrhs a terims mmsay be used, is opeured, ausd the tree is thins bled till its veimss are dry. And there is more tmuth in this simmie tisams womid at first appear, the effect being so weakening that a tree cannot be tapped again for two years, that time being required to recover its wasted powers. The milk thus collected being placed in a lsmmgc pan, forms or shapes misade of clay or wood arc dipped into it, and to these the gum adheres. They action of the atmosphere, ssrsd all the goods they bad are timems exposed to the smoke of a fire kindled with a made were running away ill the form of treacle, or pecuhiar isut, tise Imiaja or Urucari, which tisrows oist stuck together past all sundering. This was such a a tisick oily smoke of a highly drying nature. The blow as would have destroyed any other business brut dipping and dmying is repeated till a sufficient nuns- tise elasticity of the article was not to be thsus restraims- ber of coats are obtained on the monids to give the ed; it was destined to rise again and rebound to high- reqirired thickness. If a piece of bottle rubber be cx- er elevations than it had yet reacised. Here was a amined it will be found to consist of thin flurmis (time result of this process), wlsich may be separated layer frons layer. 1mm this clumsy irsanner large qumstities are allowed to fsdl to the ground, where time gcmm be- comes rrmixed witis all kimsds of dirt, deteriorating tise quality of wisat otherwise would be equal to tise best guru. India-rubber was first brougist to Europe, it is sup- posed, by some French travelers, on tiseir return from South America, in the year 1730, and in tlse year 1736 M. de in Condamine read a paper before the French Academy, on its wonderful properties, describing the tree from which it was obtained, and the rsmode of pre- pafation. More recently we find it mentioned in our own country by Dr. Priestley in his introduction to The Tiseory of Perspective x. D. 1770; wherein he speaks of it sins newly introduced, and praises its quail- ties for removimsg pencil marks from paper, adding that the vendor of it is Mr. Nairre, instrument mssaker, opposite the Royal Exchange, where it can be bought in cubical pieces of half an inch for three shil- hugs sterling How little was then foreseen of its valuable proper- ties; and, indeed, how ninny of the present generation renmeirsher it sins only used irs their school-days for s-nb- bug cost eoistoo/ccs, or for tire clandestine nmrrsuscnsent of ehsewimmg time latter foreshadowing the present plains of mastication~ which it undergoes in the pro- cess of manufacture. From 1770 to 1791 rsothing seems to have been done with time new material, though attention had been drawn to its womsderful power of elasticity arid its resistance to wet. Time grand difficulty, however, was to fimid a solvemst for it of such a nature that it irsigist be easily snarsipulnuted. Irs 1791 the first patent for effec.ting this was tsmkems oust by Sausnel Peal, who clainsed mrs improved rssetisod of making waterproof all kirmds of leather, cloth, & c. ; wimick he accorss- plishmed by o dissolvimsg by (histillatiosm or infusions over a h)risk fire imsdia-rubber in spirits of turpentine, and timems spreading it oms his cloths or other material by the aid of a bros-lu, & c. Here is the gerrrs of our pre- semst waterproof coat for which Sansuel Peal deserves mu miations s tisankspeace to his manes. During the next thirty years, though little was done ims tlse way of mmdvancement, the wonsolerful properties of the nsaterial had attracted tise attention of several huge nious mad inventive usinids, who gave their whole tinire to its stumdy. Cisief arminong tisese stamid oust the moamuses of Thormmas Hancock in Emsglansd, uinmsd Charles Goodyear, in Annierica, who were veritably, by their indomitable perseverance, the originators and perfec- tors of the present india-rubber trade. In 1820 a patent was taken out by Mr. Hancock for the applica- tion of gum elastic to springs for trowsers, gloves, shoes, & c., wimich to the present day, tisough in a usuchs inmprov(-d foriss, are msnsonsgst its most valuable rises. 1mm 1823 another step was takers by the patenstirsg, by Charles Macintosh, of the svell-known waterproof gar- ments which bear his name. These were advances in timom right derection, valuable in their way but yet far sisort of perfection. Onse of the largest articles of ecasursiption in the early days of india-rnrbber was tise overshoe or galoshe msot the ehegamit ripper which we now have, but a clunmmsy piece of native marsufacture. These shoes, niminde by the Indians on time banks of the Anisazon, and simply fornued on wood lasts, coated by repeated dip- pings and susokingsas follosved in the making of the bottleruh 1 er 1 fore deserihut-ol were introdrroed listo time I butch Slats-s smbouot thou ~enur 1820, ansI fun noosmisy years time imports reached time lain-ge nunisber of five imumidred timousaniul pairs pen smrsrsusrms. At this tiusse timere was a perfect furor imi Aursenica Ibm indism-rubber asarsufactures, and ainsost incredible sums were invested in machinery and buildings in various parts ot the country for making overshoes and waterproof goods generally. This reached its height in the year 183435, when, to the dismay of all inter- ested, it was found that the gum, after passing through the process of manufacture, would not withstand the field for genius, and the man to seize the opportunity was Charles Goodyear, wiso, by imidossnitabie coumrmmge, umuwearying sturdy, amind the enidusrausce of priv atiomns sunch as fall to the lot of few sliers, at hnsst discovered a nseans to overconse this decouspositioms, maid make india-rubber whsat it now is. ~Tc be ccsnnismosed!. The Chrome Mines of Chester County, Pa. A corm-espondemut of tIre l4%st ( /ocstem- Jeftcrsoumieuo, writ- ing frons Hopeweil Bor-ouglu, timus descuibes time Chum-onse Works in that vicinity:Somsme six mnsiles southswest of tisis place lie tine fanrous churomne mines, fanmihiarhy known as Woods Cluromnue Banks. Timey and a tract of land arc owned by a Mr. Tyson, of Baltinsome. Md.. properly styled tine Chu-omrme King. To timese quarries or ashomes we paid a visit dirring time last seasons, wiseum tlscre were upwards of 70 huands employed in and about tine nuines, hundependent of those engaged in Imauhing tine cims-onne to market. Timere ar-c two shuaffs sumshe, from which tine on-c or nuinen-al is trisems. Timey have descemuded to thue anmazing deptim of tins-ce inums- dred feet. Tire mumouthss ot time slmafts luave inmothsinig dissimi- lar in their appeam-amice to that of an om-dinamy well, proba- bly a little wider. Timey deseemsd perpendicularly sormac 73 feet, then stuike oft iou an oblique direction for- a distamuce, thnemm perpendicularly agalur, amud so omm to time bottonm of time pits, the aseum being, as we are told, soinise fifty ysurds further souths at thue bottoum thuan at tine emntrammee. Time cinromnue is din-awn up by usule power. Two buckets about time size of a floum- barrel are attaclmed to a rope at eacin crud. Winile omne is belong enuptied tine climes- is beimig filled. Some 300 yards distant is the nuihl for gm-in dimug tIne elnuommue puelsara- tory to barrelling it. Here tincy losuve a wauer-poweu- ex- celled by few, luaving tiuc advantroge ot all tine wsmter of tire Octor-aro Creek, if needed. Eu-cnn mere theme is a simaft runs (comuneeted by niuscininery to time nuohhl) to time nuines, and them-c attacimed to pu~nmps for tine purirose of punsping the water frons tIne I)its. Stu-arngers au-c sot libem-ty to de- scend into tine pits, havimng a touch amud a nsuan to lead the way for theni; but tIme tuip downs is so dangerous one, requiring care and caution, as ihe rounds of tIne ladder are continually wet and slippery. Owing to hue conutummual drip. pings, it is a anost beautiful place to get a suit of ciotlses spoiled, amind timose desim-ing to see the wosuders of uondeu-- grormnd work imaul better prepare timeinirselves within aus oil- cloth suit. The inruagnitude of time business done lucre camin- not be well eonnnprelmended by time norere readimog of a amen- ger dlescriintiomm of if. Tins is suidi to be tise rielsest vein hun time kmsown world. Cisrome ore is consposed of thue oxyd of iron and cisronusic neidi. This is tIre mincid, of soil time sails called chrornates, tisat are snow very exteussively used ins the arts. Chronnie acid possesses time rerssarkmsbie pu-c- per-ty of ignitirrg ether uvhen brougist into coustact wills it; arid some nimethod asay yet be emnsployeol for usimig ii ins time rusanunfaclunre of igniting conusponmuols as a sub- stitunte for phosphorus and hue cluloruste of potminssn. Cisronusic sincid conshinedi within issintasls is tire insert corus- nusons fouma ins which it is used in the ants. lms this re- hatiomisimip it is calleol the bichronsate of potasis; its colou- rs sin cheep orsinruge, ansd in forns it is sin bessustifuni crystal- hiuse sail. It is used as a mordant for coloring black 055 wool, anud for niaking black ink when combined within hogwood; it colors orange and yellow on cotton goods, and the oxyd of chronic is a conunusors greens pigment esupicyodI ins hithographile, copperplate and steel phate printing. Its green color is very permanent, and this quality renders it well adapted for printing bssmuk ruotes for whicim puirpose it is niouv niuncis unsed. Ihuc- oxyd of chrorusium w hers reduced to fine posvder is one of the best reducimug sinud pohishirug substausces for metals knownu, and whuicim we think is even superior- to the finest erriery for polishing steel. The best irridiurro pointed gold pens become srseless svhers urs(-dl for writ- lag signatures for a few Irons-s oven the gn-een cluronne ink that is priusted cmi luank bills. TruE PATENT LAws. flue bill to amend the Pateurt Laws, which passed tise Senate at its last sessions, has not yet been taken up in tire House. Tisere is no probability thuat it will receive attention at thins sermon. Members of Congress Inave their hanols fnnll to arn-anuge sin lusisis of so-ttlenosu-ool of luor luoliti-al uhifficuoltics. moiid thos~ lernus duf time lIrd-semot Conignoss is huniniteol to time Pin of Nusreb. THE nmechsanies of Louisville, Ky., of wmnicir there is a noble band in that city, recently aid in coneention to consider the political condition of our country, and have sent forth an address to their brother mechanics of every State, full of patriotic and fraternal senti- ments, calling upon them to lay aside all partizan prejudices and to come forward and make an earnest effort to throw oil upon the troubled waters. 60 THE POLYTECHNIC ASSOCIATION OF THE AXERI CAN INSTITUTE. [Reported for the Scientific American.] Ilte usual weekly meeting of the Polytechnie Asso- ciation was Iteld, at its room in the Cooper Institute, this city, on Thursday evening, Jan. 10, 1860. The President, Professor Mason, in the chair. The PIuIsiDENT propos(d as a subject for future con- sidcration, The Effect of Temperature au(l the Force Operating in Crystallizatiou. Mr. 1-JASKELL propose(l, Artificial Members of the Body. Mr. STETSoN proposed, Compressed Alt and its use lit Propulsiort. IMPROVED MAGNETIC TELEGRAPM. Mr. Hoacolla exhibited and explained his improve- uitents in the al)llariltus for telegraphing. He intro- duces a permanent maguet in such a way as to induce mtignctism in the soft iron core of an clectro-magnet, so that in passing in oue direction it adds its power to, 411(1 in passing in the other direction it subtracts its power from, the magnetism induced by the battery. 1-Ic is titus enabled, by one movement of the key, to coutbine the two powers, and consequently to produce a signal witlt a current so weak that ~x ith the ordinary electro-magnet it would be impossible to preduce any signal whatever. Whert the spring is once adjusted, there is no difference between a strong and a weak cur- rent, so that it requires DO further adjustment. The iIlol)rovements embrace this use of a permanent mag- itet, an improvcd spring for adjustment, and an im- l)rt)Vcd method of preducing signals by sound. Mr. DinalIx inquired if there were two motions of the linger in producing tite signal. Mr. HoLcoMaIt is by 1)reaking and connecting; it is one motion of the finger. Mr. STETSONCan ~t)li telegraph tarther and faster witit this? Mr. HoacoMaThat should he the result ; both farther anti faster. I have a patent, not for the con- tinuation of a permanent magnet, but for securing the current in producing a single signal. Mr. IDIanENUsiag two signals to make one? Mr. lloacoIumYes, sir; theoretically there are two motions, practically, one. Mr. SEELvIhere is certttinly novelty here, and if the gentlematmas position is correct, lie has made a very valuable discovery. Witlt the means we have heretofore used, we get twice as much available power as heretofore. With the battery, we get a certain poner, and with the common magnet a certain power; and these may botlt be weighed. By the combination you increase the effectiveness without increasing the cost. I have seemo the experiments by which Mr. Hol- comb, in part, thinks he demonstrates it. The experi- meitts lean to~varrls that conclusion ; but they are not without ohqcction. Mr. Holcomb feels quite sure that his discovery is genuine, and I understand him to come here to invite experts in magnetism and elec- tricity to examine Itis evidences and refute him if he is wrong. The manipulation of the key is precisely the same as of the ordinary key; but at each move- miieiot of the key you break the current, reverse it, and restore it. 1ressing the key the current is broken pressing it further it is reversed, and relertsing it the citrient is restore(l. BiJTTON-ILOLE SEwiNG MAcnINE. Mr. TOwsaEr exhibited Vogels Button-Hole Sewing Machine (noticed on a former evening) and specimens of its work, aitd cxplained its operation. It makes six different stitches, and is constructed with such sim- plicity that a novice may learn in a short timue to work the machine with perfect facility. hutton-holes can be worked with perfect ease at the rate of 100 per hour. Some of the specimens make floe stitch some- what open, but the stitch may be regoilated as in other machines, so that it shall be as close as handwork. Ihie machine can he worked with two, three, four, or five separate titreticls. In working a britton-hole we may carry a cord upon the upper side, or upon the lower, and ~vork over it, and work with the same rapidity that we work without carrying the cord. He regarded the buttonhole stitch itself far simperior to that made hy hand, for the reason that it is almost as elastic as any goods it is print upon. With the identical machine exhibited, any class of goods could be sewed, from the finest tabrics to harmoess leather. rThe machine makes two different kinds of buttonholes ; one of which would he pronounced by a tailor to be a French but- par, which is an oxyd of aluminum, and probably was tonhole worked by hand. By the addition of another once a clay. One of the greatest difficulties is to obtain thread a buttonhole is produced which is finished a clay free from sulphate or sulphuret of iron. At upon both sides of the goods. Woodbridge, beneath the pottery clays, are large beds r1-he PRESIDENTHave you considered the question of sunken trees, which are so thickly saturated with of making the buttonhole stronger at the point where the sulphate or sulphuret of iron, that, when exposed it passes the button? to the atmosphere, they are at once coated over with Mr. TowsaEvWe have; and you will see that as copperas. The further you rise above these trees, the we pass round the corner thlat the machine is so con- less iron is contained ht the clays. structed that it brings one stitch a little back of the The PRESIDENT remarked that the coloring matter in other, and brings them closer together, and works these clays was supposed to be due to the presemoce of impon both sides. infusion, which are burned out in the manufacture of The PRESIDENT (examining the stitch)That looks the ware, leaving the ware white. very much like doing the sumu. Mr. ROUSE remarked that all the porous cups used in Mr. TowsaEv explained the change which might be the United States and in Canada for batteries, are made in the elmaracter of the stitch merely by changing manufactured in Jersey City. the tension of one of the threads. The ulachine differs Mr. BARTLETT referred to the establishnoent at Sevres in teto froma other machines. It makes four different in France, under government patronage, which pro- emubroidery stitches. By a simnple change of one of duces new models in the highast style of art, and dis tIme teiision screws, instead of puttin~c a cord, it puts a tributes them free to all the manufacturers in France. binding upon the edge of the cloth. This cord or this The PRESIDENT expressed the opinion that at least a binding will outwear those put on by hamod. The ma- million dollars had been utterly wasted in this coun- chines are sold as low as other first-class machines. It try from scientific ignorance in the manufactume of muakes but little noise. The treadle and the feed are earthenware. Science ought to determine floe propor- different from thlose of other machines. The treadle tions of the materials, so that no such losses as those allows a single stitch to be made and the muachine to described by Mr. Rouse should occur. The city of New be started again without touching the balance wheel; York ought to be provided within a laboratory, where, and the feed carries both pieces of cloth along equally. at least, three or four young men should be devoted One of the stitches closely resembles the Grover & wholly to scientific original investigation, to publish Baker stitch, and another the shuttle stitchin. Another tlmeir results for tile benefit of the world. The President advantage, in keeping in repair, is that thlere is no proceeded to make some incidental remarks upon time part of the machine whichin will wear rapidly. tendency of population to increase upon thie seaboard where the metals meet the coal and both meet tIme ocean. A gentleman from Pennsylvania gave some statistics to the same effect. Dr. STEPHENS made a few remnarks upon ancient pot- tery. The ancient potteries found in thine United States were made by tribes of Indians driven out of the country before its discovery by Europeans, of whom the only reimresentatives now are the Puebla Indians of Mexico, which are white, and entirely distinct from the copper-colored Indians. They did not possess the art of glazing; but they hinad much taste, and produced ware which was highly ornamental. Mr. JOHNSON desired that Dr. Davis should have unit opportunity, at the next meeting, to read his paper upon pottery. Mr. SEELv was prepared to make some remarks upon the chemical aspects of the subject. The subject of pottery was continued for discussiomm at tIme next meeting. Mr. HEmimeu suggested that glass shmormld be consid- ered in the sanine commnection, especially in time elmemical consideration. On motion, the meetimog adjourmoed. POTTERy. It had been announced that Dr. Davis would read a paper upon this subject; but he was not present. Thle PRESIDENT made some remarks upon th~ uni- versal diffusion ot clay upon the surface of the earth, and upon its strong affinity for silica, so that a large proportion in potters ware is silica. It was note- worthy that clay, while the noost easily used in the arts, pottery being one of the earliest inventions of savage tribes, and clay burned or dried in the sun being an early building material, contains within it a metal for which the developments of the present day seem to prophecy a usefomlness in adv~ need civilization above that of most if not all other metals. Mr. JOHNSON exhibited some specimens of images fi~om Siam, and also specimens of Mintons encaustic tiles. Mr. BousE, a practical manufacturer of Jersey City, said that all the materials, except flint, can be had, as good in this country as in Europe. In crockery ware, out of 32 parts, 22 parts are the blue-ball clay, or Jer- sey clay, or coonmomi white clay. This conies, a large part of it, from Woodbridge, near Perth Amboy, N. J. Most of our table ware is imported, not more than one- thousandth part being made in this coromotry. And it has been bunt a few years since the Amuerican manufacture hias been successful. But now thoat flint and borax are admitted duty-free, we can compete successfully with Staffordshire. Thie flint is imported, ground, at less thian a cent per pound: whereas they could not grind it in this country at less than two cents. The cost of transloorttttion from Staffordshire to Liverpool, and then froni Liverpool to New York, the fornmer being gr(~tter thinami thoc latter, was sucho that we cormld miiider- sell tIme inoported ware. Every manufacturer has lois own secret in mixing thme materials, and mimome par- ticularly in thie glazing. Thiousands of dollars are sometimes lost from an imlirohier proportion. For in- stamice, if one of the materials is not groumod .so finely as another, whmemi they are passed tlmrommgh thme lawmi, or bolting cloth, an omudrine proportion of it may be ex- cluded, and thins spoil the whole batch. It camortot be detected until the work is fiminished ; when it may all fly to pieces in glazing. Dr. STEPHENS said that thie clay used in time manu- fimeture of earthen ware is amo oxyd of aluminum, and comitains a considerable portion of silex, arod often of lime amid potasho. If it contaimos too much potash, it whil run or fuse. Most of time clays found in the carboniferous regions of the United States are of that character. The clays foumid in this neighiborhood are confined to thme cretaceous or chalk formation, begin- ning at Marthas Vineyard, and extending southward to Texas, and northward to the Arctic ocean. The clays of the Pacific ocean belong to the testiary period. Kaolin, or porcelain clay, is derived from the immue- diate decomposition of graiiite rocks, containing is- TomE Volley Former, a monthly jorinrual of agricultural, horticrmltural and rural affairs, pubhisloed in St. Louis amid Louisville, in speaking of the ScmExTmrrc AmutRocAN, says: We need only remind those who are not fami- liar with the high character of this work (and whoo that is engaged in any scientific or niechanical pursuit is not ?), that there is no work in the English language, or indeed in amiy other, superior to it in moment. It occupies thie whole field of scientific and nieclianicrd discovery and inovenlion, arid is the finn friemmd of Amomenicami imiventors. Thie comodnetors, through their patent agemicy, do moiore imt secunimog patemots ort noew lint- ventions, both in this coomutry and in Europe, thmamo all othiers engaged imi the business. 1-lois is certaimoly DiOSt kind, and if we muistake not, we discover in it the partiality of our genial friend, Mr. Byramn, who is associated with Mr. Coleman in the editorial motanage- memit of the Volley Former. COAL Oma LAMPSThe conunnon l~umops for burnoiming this oil are furnished with a hollow xvick comie, perfor- ated at thie bottom to admomit a crmrremit of itir to floe flamne. It is ordinarily placed above or omt a level with the wick tube, and obscures a portion of the light. A patemit has beemi issued in England to J. Rinks for placing a conical deflector below time top of the wick tube, so as to make the air imupinge on time flame at about the top somin-face of the wick tube; time latter is also muade in two parts, joimied by a perforated collar, which admits air up the central part of tIme wick of the lamp. It is stated that a more brilliant flame is obtaimmed by this arramigenient. 61 Recent American Inventions. The following inventions are among the most useful improvements lately l)atented The object of this invention is to obtain a powerful, and, at the same time, a simple and compact hoisting deVice cipable of general al)Plication, but more espe- (ially adapted to the lifting or boisting of heavy weights. The invention consists in the use of two })ulleys of (lifferent diameters, and an endless chain, l)and or rope applie(l to the pulleys, and so ar- range(l as to effect the desired result. this invention may be used for lifting loads through short spaces, and may be inclosed in a block easing, similar to the usual lifting jack, and the implement is rendered capable of being eonnecte(l to any windlass or hoist- ~qn for the purpose of increasing the power of the same. John 1. 1)oyle, of Nc~v York (iitv, is I lie in- ventor. 5TOPPINO ANi) STARTING RAIlROAD cARs. This inventhmn, by James 1-liggin, of Man chester, England, (lees away with the use of brakes. The wheels of the cars are made without flanges, and of a great (lianleter the bodies of the cars are only about tour inches above the rails the parts of the cars mm- me(liately above the rails are provided with l)lates of iron, with projecting flanges at one or more parts fit- ting within the rails, such projecting flanges serving tbe purpose of the flanges now used on the wheels. When it is desired to stop the train, the ears are lower- (d bodily, by means of shafts, wheels and screws, or other equivalent (levices, to bring the plates above re- ferred to on the rails. I lie locomotive, teml(ler and ears are coflnccte(l by shafts to suitable couplings, ami the gearing for lowering the carriages on to the rails is brought within convenient reach of the engine (lriver and of tile conductor or other appointed person on the train. The cars are lowered and raise(l clear of the rails by an auxiliary steam engine or other convenient machinery. In case an axle should break, or other ac- colent occur to bring one of the ears suddenly to the rails, the apparatus for lowering the other ears is in- stantly anil automatically brought into operation by means of a spring or friction apparatus, which is acted upon by the increased friction produced. The said spring or friction apparatus may also he in connection with the starting lever of the locomol ye, to shut oft the steam at the same time. Report of the American Institute on Emery Vulcanite. We have before alluded to this new an(l useful arti- cle of manufacture, nuide and sold by the New York lieltimig and Packing Company, in this city. We have mmse(l it for several muonths for sharpening dining knives, aull we cannot too highly accord the preference to it over the steel for this purpose. Ilimon inquiry at the office of the imuamumfacturers, we learn that they are receiving orders from cutlery and edged tool makers for large (1uammtities of the vmmlcanite. who ordemed but little at first for trial. At the last meeting of the Amnerican Institute, the Committee omi Manufactumres, Arts and Sciences made the following report: That the comunmittee have examuimmed the emery vulcanite, with a view to compare it with oti icr abraidimig smihistances used in the arts, partiemihirly him the arts where metals are olierateif um~momi, and they have foimmol it to hiO55C55 solime imopor- tant 1mroperties which remoler it smmperior to the other sub- stances employed for wheels, griiidiiig and polishing fimmisli- mug hiles, scythe rifles, amid otfier like articles. [lie sub- stance consists of in(lia-rnbber mIiixc(l with emnery Imowdem, of ammy desired degree of fineness, the whole mimass beimig vnlcamiized at a high temperature imi molds which iniliart the desimed form to the articles. The peculiar propeities which the comilposition possesses are (lime to the india-rub- her. Wheels ammul whietstoiies have homing hineemi muade of emmiery powder hiebl together by glue, shellac, mosin, burned clay, & c., & c., limit they weme fonmid tui h)e brittle, to be hiahile to get out of shape, amid to possess little advantage over ma- tive stImne. Eiiiemy vimleammite, on the contrary, is tomughi, and whenever a wheel is woin omit of trime, it can lie faced to any coidoor iii a lathe by uusiming a hot iromi and a shape as a turnimig tool. Table steels, fimmisliing files, mithes, & (., & c., are umade in this sumbstance of amiy shape, amid they possess the unportamit property of hieing effective when imearly worn omit as they were the first day of their use. REGARD ron BCTTONsThie Earl of Westminster, the richest peer of England, having an income of three mmiilliomi dollars a year, recemitly, while riding iii omue tif his parks, nhisse(l a button from his coat. He in- stantly dismounted, and retraced his course for sonic distance, and searched until he found the missing ar- ticle, expressing much satisfaction at its discovery. He must have had a veiny stromig attachment to his buttoma. I& psitcc( Ofticodty .tto lie Nsmrmitijmc Amaemicusm. 5,5 Psimupisiets givimig full particulars of (lie misome of applyimig for lialents, ciz, if model required, and much otlics- iiiloiiiiatis,ii miseOul to inventors, may be iiaii gratis iii ucisicessimig MUNN & CO., Publishers of the ScIENTIFIc AsmemocAx, New Tock. 67.E. B. Banker, of Seliaghticoke, N. Y., for aim Improve- piovenient in Raihmoad Cl~airs: I eloiiim the eoiiii,imiatioii of wedge, J, ivitim the tiiviiid cc ,oiiiliotiuid -tour, Ito willie rimisistilig 01 the isis. B B an(i B B, exteodesi base A A, ii itli tli,ir inclimiel surfacs aiitl die lipiuimig amiti abmitling 1 (2 ifS, all arraisged in the maumier specilied. I flits iimvcim lois is a mciv uiui iumipriuved rh,ilr for couimiecting the eiids cf riilroaii rails, aiisl foi securing saiti mails at (lie joints, iii a iigid and ~erimm,sueml moanuer on ilie cross-ties. It comisists of two doubte-lappecI half clomirs uimitel by a dout,le-ta~~~,cd j~uiot, iii coiiibimsatioms ivitli a iramis- i-is-sc wedge snitch fi~rces the lips of the rail base up agaimiol ihie Imilves of the chair, aod at (lie samue lime rigidly i)iiids togeilici the two halves if liii cliaii. I 68.A. W. Bi-inkerlioth of Upper Sandusky, Ohio, for an Imupiovement in Cormi Planters I clatiii. lirot, The ei,nst,imiatiomi and arrangemnemit of rosis, d, cranks, e, and e limilers, ii, wills she sectional frame amid axle, as set forth, wheme- iv the extemior sections, mnoy tie turned up aisti time planting of Ilie ccii- Icr sectioms c,,mmlimiise,l. Scommil, ilse eomssi,imsatioms of cisonem amid coverer, F, whim time eye, us, t,m-a,-e, n ammi sit, k, e,imistr,icte,i, amm~snged amid cl,em-atimmg smibst~mmitimii- lv iso oct lmtli. Thud, Tim, irm-amigememil of the tousgose, mu, hiommms,I~, C, oct screw, k, axle, i, amid franme, A, so mmmd for time husmihslsses set forum. 69. I. S. Bmown, of Hopkinton, R. I., for an Imuprovement in Saw Teeth I clumimmi time cmsii,h,svmuemit iii sairs of cisc or muome piamulmig icetmi having a liirmu s,ml,stamstiiiiv as ,lescribed, thai is to say, isavimig a cechion at right aisgies to time iisse of immotioms of a form analogosms mc disc idler, 5, 50 so m~ l,resemst separate esittimig smmrfaccs for eacim sitie of mime keef, so mseam-hv ,,pi,site as to ~ each chimer, ammi so arrimiged timid each of the list emittimig e,iges isis a sepsum-ate amid imitiepessilemit passsmgc for misc escape of tic chmlius, smibotant lilly as set furthm. 70.- E. P. Carter, of China, N. Y., for am Improvement iii Window Sashes: I chains the eotiitiimi,tiomi of the oasis, B, so liii (lie stills, c, cousotmimeted as ihescm-it,eii, the si-u betmg usimiged iv secitreti Ic,gither by the hulites cm liars, a a, amil ,i,eralimsg tins lii, mimimimies- amid tim- time mitimeose shiecilieti 71.Loring Coes and A. G. Coes, of Worcester, Mass., for ama Improved Machine for Grimiding Heads for Screw Wrenches: We claim, in cmimt,imsaoioms usithm griudimig amid muoliohsimig mimiemilmico, a bihir to ishichs lime am-Itches to tic grotimid am-c sicimmid, said lsol,lem beimig sicotistrtm-tsi amsii arcamiged as Iliad disc isositioma of lIme armiches misay tue -hiamigod ss-liih, its sail hsihiem, liii- use u,lmhsooc of grimmotimig Sm- muoliohmimig s1tire cm- tieseheti fiecs, stmtstintliihy in the msmmmmscr oheat-rilsesi. u shoe tutu etumsmieciimtg the holder hi which lime tirticle to tie grotsmsu is sectirel tm the hesim, F, t,v meamis of a msmsiscmsaijimst, oimtiotamstiahly tim hi,- mimititim suit him- lime mutimlitoc slesemitied. W, sits -hams, him cmnhsimsatiims silthm a isoidem stssusendelm to a umnis-ersal hit, so hes-ribsi, time ussljtmslatle hesim, F, fir disc timirusooc of admiptimig hi, mimictilmie him Ihie si-ear if misc gmiiidohoimcs mur to shimics of mhhiferemit mit- mim,mmsimus, stmtistamitiiiiv in list issammimem stesci-ihued. We also chaimim, its emnutiiiiliiiou scihhs a grinding ammI ~uoiishiitsg ma- chitmie mi suihhm a isoldem mis sitisse meseritmesi, the psitterim plates, Figs. 7, 5, (1, mm them cttmissmtcmmts, fm the humimhuse if itstonsalicatiy gi-mndimig cm puiholsimig mimIcs to shitiememit mattermis, simtustimstlitiy as icsemit,ci. 72.iVnin. Combs, of Dnquoin, Ill., for an Improvement in Corn Plamiteis I elitism time armusmmgcmssetit of the shaft g, si-this time sleigh, the groumissi, tic- ti,p cc tiox, ID mImi lii, lesem, F, in disc rihatitims siescrihieti fir the til-hor- sisci-ilicil. 7:l.J. J. Doyle, of New York City, for an Improvement in Hoisting l)evices: I chumhin disc mtiuiiiynseut cm umoc of time pouhicys, a b, pmacct cmi time same sushi, musti hsusihmig litlem-ciut lisunmetems, iii emuisectic si-this time -mutheos -hmuihum B, cm- iii coummisalcust ismue mm tiumni, simissisgci amid apishmed smutistams tisithv mis simisi him time mutum-muise set hot-tim hurt mci claim, its c,ummmiectissms ssilhm time mutuiheys a b, mmii chain, B cc its etmisalemut, tIme pulley, c, instil guide milieus, g g hi, ammamugssi iii i-elm- lii ti-ills time chismims, B, tin uicrihe mis sumism liii lime istumusooc sot hulls 7tJ. H. Clover, of Glasgow, Ky., for an Imuprovemnemit in Mill Ge~iuing I chums, host, lime smoixihisiry shoal sulmeels, A A, mis consh,immsslioms si-ills tim mumitlis- sm uuusiimu susoum sitmeet, B, lime am-mmmo, tu a b b, se( semeus, i m ii, oils, g g g g, iii elsmmmsiuimmg bills, c, miii arrmmmmgeui amisi made dos muiserade sitoliiithsittv is mmiii hi- lime itmihooms set fulim Smecish lime ices k k k k hiagmummai urmec cools (I C G C isitis (lieu Imurim tickles, iii ctmmtuiuismtiuui isithm lime mmsiohoihe tie, It, amism slisift, C, mo-- cmiii as mmmi fir lii piurposmo siscchtiesl This immi-emultoc i-elites to cerhaims miosci imsspmoscmeusts his gear cm (cciii- oil is-heels, mmu~h it is iuutemushesi usore eo~teclsiiiy fur time him-ge sirhsimsg gear utoci hum insults, fr prevumutimug disc back lash isluicim uccommo in stus-mi sciumels ivhmo-um lb spices melts-eels time teeth mire imicressoed, his esmusequmemuce of wosurimug if time teeth of otme si-heel umpoms ausosthuec Tmue insemition miss isis fm its stijet liiis- muuiioyimicust of taisuce i-ohs iii couujtimsction si-isms a cs-u Irsul lie, smumuuusgel mmml cosmutmimuci is-tutu time oissum- silmeel, iii osmehi mmmmuser timid lime static iiiueet si-ill iso muome securely coinshimuesi tIm its shalt, mmml the shmmufo is oetf si-itt li tiriectl aiim streusgthemued agaimust situratiumis cm trens iaIsaac (hiffimm, of Milford, Ga., for an tuinprovemnemat in Cotton Puesses: I cismiusm mimi cummst,imususismu mmmi sumummugcmumcmio of time scm-eu-, B, mumosatile hismufrums, F, minus, I, mmmii umessumug tucks, C, isith (sixes, H, us mumust usc thu mimi-hoes set hirthm mmmi dcoermbcd 7(3.lames Iliggin, of Manchestem, England, for an Itn- provemneut in Stopping and Starting Cars: I cismimum time imuuiarsici music if rctmrshimug mmmi slouamuimug i-amiss-my cmm mimugmo shussmu amusi tescuilsesi, mm musy msdiuicatiumm of misc smmmuse, si-iscietmy him taimisuge is tusuemesh slim Is disc ismits ml time pemmmmmscmmt simy 77.W. B. Hix, of Rome, Ga., for an Improved Arramige. ninent of Flues for Drying Tobacco: I elsuim lime eiuu~hoymumcmut, in time drying of toisacco, of a systens of Cues, B B C, amid chimmummey D, svitiu dampers, E i F, sirmamuged and operating tigeshuem isithuuum a smumoatahe misciosure, A, as mmisi isim disc pomr~mssscs shosi-mm simm deocciiumd LTmuc stiject of shuts immvemudiomi is to arrange a muomnuber cf homes iii a dry house imi sumems a may dual, by being provided isith sumitabme dampers, the meat muitmy to eqummuihy oiistrmbuuled cc dirceted from one pam-I of (hue thry. inuotise Is auustluct, as ouccasious may rcqumirc, amumI imic mmcml mhsseesi tindem umic comismuiete conirtui ef disc atiemidamit] 78.Win. Hotine, of Biookhyn, N. Y., for an Improved Ma- dune for Mixing Dough: I chins liii- comoluiusutimm munom arrsmuugeusscmmt of time feeshimug des-ices iii muopuiers, A ii C, time lice tahuhe, I, disc moixiuug otis-ices mumusI mamekem, L, iii the trosugim, it, somtastmuumtiiihy so ustuol ftc time impose specilied 79.James Imugrain, of Neuv Yom-k City, for ami Improved Water Back for Cooking Ranges: I cissiuss, first, The nuosatuh ismutem (tick, e, ivhsems soustatised iay Imue muller, 2 2, mush usetousutesi tiy use leser, ii, mussi ci, i, as mmml fom use haiti- hosts sjtecilcd Scessusol, I ciatmus time arrmmmgm-tncmmo of lime ummossubie tilsule, 1, mmusi flisgim, 5, mchauisehs- si-ithm time mususatule is mdcc amok, e, fr time usournuoses aiso as suaccihied Third, I damn mime mihloss- cm fmusucet huimugec, is ~u, conubinesh si-ilmi a ussos-abic si-alec lusts, silicreby disc said sumlur (sick cumin ite Isurused tosisummi mc assay from time tire sihoimouut tucimohiuug cm- suariusgimug time huihics, as set foutli 80.John F. Killer, of Greemucastle, Pa., for amin Improve- nient in Macltines for Sowing Fertilizers: I claimas, first, Time arrmusgensemud of a series of siuhiseth i-oilers, B, si-hems tihaced serticilly mush nuos-est tiurotughm a huartisul res-ohomllsumu in a recipro- cssuimug motiomin, stutastitutisuhhv as set foutis Secomud, I claim the use suf the cicarers, H, mud disc feed slide, R (Figs 5 amid St prisimied is-ills lime hiccouiiar speuuiusgo, C, sombodsmmmtisuihy in the mausumem- mmmd fain- usc muturiussocs descuibesh Timirum, I also cumin disc arramugcmuseust of the memovable connectimug motmo, F miii W, iii comsstaimuatisms isitim elboss, x, amid time omniscromi joust, stutiolandisuliy as oheocribeol, hr disc issurusoses siuccihiesi 81.E. W. Kiitihiall, of Ottawa, Ill., foi an Improvement in Coin Planters: I claim liuc reciiucocathsmg sceol siidcs, u 0 must salves, I I, schema (lie imutter mire opcmated by time ~,rsjecdimss, j, is time slides, 0, auth sprimugs, i, cmi time i-otis, J, mud Its c lattem prosided ividim imudicatsro or rids, L, all mc- ramugesi as mmmd fur disc pourpose set furtum EThsts imus-eustioms mehates do mis imuupros-emmueumt itt Iliad class of couus huhaust. ero tins silmicim the sued- histrtboutlusg ties-icc is luhacel omi a nucomusted cause 515th isimichm tire shesigumed for pisuistimug his check ross-s Time imuscuutiotu comm slots its time muse of a reclusrocalimug seeti susIe, iii comumuectioms silthm i-milieu ishsuced hum hue loss-er hub of misc scsi I uuiacs suusol iuuohicsutoms mouuuucetel Isa the isuhses, so timid mime osesh us sirsuhupesh mimic hue soum-fuce of time guoumusui, mush time cuaersutiouu of disc s-its-es usolesh or iuudicateol, so limit lime ohaursutom cmiii imistaustil sided mlii fsmiiouue hum disc sirsiutuimug ,iputummduisj 82.David Pardee, of Carlyle, Ill., for an Imuprovenmeno in Seeding Maclilacs: I chains lime mrramsgctuscmut of time iacrfucatcsl rsutclmct distribsutimug us-iseci, H, coil-oft tursushs, I, siam mug hush, J, shuosut, F, cotmhtem, F, mmmii isopper, (I, si-ills the sibling ham, L, shriusgo, K c, mcmii, g, cmiii, C, imissucol gummolco, f ilmeft, i, huomak amiss, ID, mitsui ceo-coo, j, silt mO simuss-us must ihescrituesi [This imus-omutioms coussists iii a nosci amid imulcosel uuscauss enspios-esi fr iuresenolmsg time scesh-tlomribsutimug siesice fromus tuccousutmug cisokesi cc clog- ged, mush tiieretmy reussicresI tiioiaem-sutise mm coumliugelme us lii elm frcqtietittn occuims in oIlier macisimmcoj 83.J. C. Pease, of Sycamouc, Ohio, fsum an Inuprovemminent in Field Rohleis: I cimuisms use arramsgs-mssdmul of roilem o, H H, iii, suds-el frausse, f, shaft 5, tumaces, B B, stump, C, mmmii tuuugsu-, f, as slush him time uusumhaesc sit hummuim 84.W. P. Peman, of Belleville, Ill., for an Improveninent in Seeding Maclimes: I chum mime amid mrcmmsoesmueush of time clemuuiuag talus, a a a, time feesIhuig sihseci, F, time is-tinder, F, mmuti ms-ssisimsg euumum-, i, iii time numumuser sic- scribeth 83.iT. B. Quarton. of Cailinville, Ill., for am Inuprovemeimt in Seeding Machines: - I dimuiuum the orrmmusoemeuud if the rods, F, clutters, ID, axle, ID, os-il- imuumug shalt, ID, u-ti, ii, hesem-, F, seel lx, ii, moilcus, I, stilt, c, mmmii isiusgeol pistol isser, is, all as simmusum mmmi sism-milueh, fir inline hsmirisii sot felum [Tills imus-custioms couisioto of a ustumubem- of suhseis limit mm-c phucci sile hi- sihe sins a fixcol otmaft cacti of ushmhis si-ill tie cahamlie of mum iusdo-iucusohmmmu modicum if time clutters, mush so cousotrumet ccl amid pitmeci us time shmumfo limit thuss us iii rise or full mussl accousmodate lhueumssciu-es to time iuucqmusmiiiles if thic suurtisce of time gro,uuui, imssieiucmuhciitiy uf cmvii sillier, usismie thme~- until each foruss a siccia auth siciucti furross- multi cummcs~ssmsoiimug visige, miii last mmiii iureos time sceol comhilolehy mitts time sii[ 86.Gehston Sanforil, of New York City, for an Improve. muent in Horse-liowers: I claitas tile ussammuser if mmvrmmtugimug time frauuse, L, miusm, I, musmI slaisiem, K, usisis disc besi frmnuc, A, sin time macmuse, hr time psurpoc oh u-es-lu-mug disc finiusse, L, mind limit uuuisy, so thmmut hue hisisiem cmiii lie smiuhuthed to a shalt tim shsmulds sossmsdimsg iii uhilfercust reimutimumus is time iviviuug ussam-ishmue, as set fmmruii smith ohescuitued 87.iT. H. Saunders, of Hastings, N. Y., for aim Improve- muent in Couplings for Connecting Thills to the Axles of Carriages: I dimuins lime commutaiuuatiamm of lime ceuutemptecs, strati, elastic lumise mmiii him sf time clip, sumlastamitiathy as specified, sulmevety time temusion ouf mime cisuohie tumlac causes time ceumlerricco amisi strap letuss-cum suhmim-is it is cmiii- ivessesi lu gv(3se amid isolmi time (sill, mc squmisameust, isy us-isheis timex- are se- cured to cacti other as set forth 88.A. E. Smiths, of Brouxville, N. Y., for an Improvement in Railroad Car Axles: I dimmiun time comustcsucliumg of suvosuglut ivoms sic steel maitroasi axles lv lime irrausgotnemud of isamugittmshimmal mibs mm bmsrs sf nuetmul slihh~- mmmmimeEl ins- geolmer at i-ighmt angles tm sacum shier, someushomo iii lime iimm if a criss, iii time umammuumer mmmd liar use iasuviuoses set tiurths 89.B. C. Smuuithi, of Burlington, N. J., for an Improved Mode of Constructing Iroma Pavements: I cisuiuss mum mccii humunensoust comuuiassel sf a semies of plates luisi mu gums sliotmumuce alumut iimss emudhm times, must ummuslmug irdlcdiiiino 5usd uccesses sm iuroluovticumooi to (timid oiistamscc iliad time hiatus, isiscmm uuussihstummlmcd, nusax iou-mini mini suusyictolimug muavemuscust, mmmii (limit mmmc if time (status uusso (me icadhic remmuos-el afoem ii siugisi lateral muuscnscimt of tIme aIjaciid tiuico, as sit liumiiu 90.iT. MeK. Tluorton, of Niles, lilicli., for an Imuhamoveil Machine for Creasing amid Finishing Leather Straps: I cisuhun time cus(itmaiimu oh disc uuuuesiummul i-them-s F mmii 1, miucmmmscst hum lime mmusmnusem mmiii liur time psmruaoscs set firths 91.P. D. Van Hoesen, of New Yomk City, feir an Ininproveil Sad Iran: I claims mu immumudhe, B, fir mm sash irsums smhuichs is hacoildesh ms-ills a shield, C, smussi suimichs is attacimesi us the mmmi by mumemmus ml sqiummuc tummmo, e c, mmmi hugs, a a, mmiii locked (my a Idols emulcim, i), iii the nuammusem- mmml liv the hssmrpssss set frilin [This mrrausgeunent coussists hum the aru-ammgemsscusd of a smosasleus hsmussite milieu can be attached lu time tacOs sf lime hi-sums mmmi lakems oil fuons time same by a slusslshe eomuim-ms-mmucc, ansi smhuicim is lurosimicol smiths a iumoicdttmut muhale or shsicisi, in such a mustier thaI the huauadie can lie brotighi miss-mm as chose to tIme body of lime irous as use Iluickuscos of the fuuugemo mmii sf said shield ms-ill muhioss ssltlscoud exiacoimug the hsmnul of the operator to time iuulinence of the radialimug heat] 92.Ellis Michael (assignor to Andrew Fiec and .1. iT. Free), of La Porte, hid., for an Improvement in (3raimi Separators: I chains time siats, i k k, placed respectively on the apron, E, seuccum, C, and ciucosboard, I, mmccc sail hurts mine aurmuuged relatively scum each other, the fan, ID, amid time screen, F, to operate as amid fur time liv- pose set forth [Time object of lists ins-custisaim is mc osiatmium a nuacimine (my is-hitch time grass scemi may be separadosi 0-cuss lime guam tuefore beiuug suibjecied is time iaiasi, amid lhserilty remumlor the imluem more eflicicush his his sumuemalious iuumma huliucrtc] ISSUED FROM THE UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE FOR TilE WEEK ENDING JANUARY 5, 1861. 62 93Purilteix Miles, of Nxxw Haven, Conn., assignor to Plants Manixhietoring ( Orilpany, of Sonthington, Cono., for at I to xtxxvexl 31 eat ( titter: loin it xenix hinni xxx ixf the rixtate spiral forcing flancixes, F, attxt xioxoxc a, lx, i h ~ rex ring ixeatero, E, and stationary cutters, 1), it lie in xx xxix a at tar tixe tntxtxxxocs stxxxxvtx and dcscritxeut. xxvcxxtiex ox Ixointo in tite cxolxlxxvtoxtxt or tine of a roixtry rotticat (itt lii, tv (ted xliii spiral kttivco, nttxt placed wittxits xx roxticat xtxelt xxtxictx Ixas xrittxxxx it stiral grooves of grn(lnnltv itccrcnsittg wixtilt front lxx niger ii) tixe stoniter extit of itie slxctt.1 9I.Iittreltes Miles, of New Havets, (mutt., assigxtor to liatita Matanfactitring (ototpattv, of Sotatltixtgtots, Conn., fox an Inaprovexi (tattitag attil ~Jritttling Apparatus: I etaitta ttxe cxxtxxtxitxnt ixxxx xxi ttxx sixirat ktxivcn, i j, xxxi rotary either ticaxi, it, xx ixtx Itte spiral groxxv en, e, xxxxxt txxxxgitxtxtixxal grxxov en, lx, of Itte rxxncaxc, A, xx the tnatxtxcr nxxxt tixe lxx txxxrtixx~cn stxoxsxx nxxxt xtcocritxcit. ITItin itxnctxliixtx eoxxsiolo itt ltxc cxtttxtxvtxxcxxt or toe of xx serien of sin I tottary exittexs xxttxt xcxnitvixxg lxea teto Ox lxeitcio tilneet Ott xxxix axtxl ltxe xxtaxe ntxaft, xtxxd witlxitt xx nixitxxtxte cave ox sIxell, xvtxerctxx xx very elticietil xxxi hug aptxaral to in otxlaitxext, xxxii xxxi lxxxi xttav lxx xegxxtaixit xxtxexxevcr texireit, xx xncxter to tttxvxxvo icenerve xx tnt ixpet cxxix itx g actioti nixxxitxxr to tot inxxnxtxxccxl lxv xitxtixxxxxv stxcxxcx. xnx-xssut:xt. ~xII. Ii. lIanilets. of Paxioltyille, N. V., for aix Improve- xtoixnt in I rxtixt (ittidles Patexoteti Itmne 28, 1b59: xl ixix nlixctxixx.x xlix tixxxiex ntxxxxxtxxtit it, lxx liii ixiniti, A, xv tixeaxin of xlix x I, I, ii xiii x~i, lx, xii exit xx.xtxxciitclv to lie xtxixiitxxtxl itixi xxxiii ii, iii ixixixixi lxxiii irixti xlii xiii ipx ixixixig xx xxxijxmslxxixlx tittaces, it I, the tetiexte xxiii t xxiii xxixxitxgixt oxttxnlxxtttixillv xis axtit lxxx the uxittlione set ix. tixiltxex clii xxi lIxe ciitxaixextsalittg ox xxx9 xxxi itile ticxxeen ox slays lIxal xxix I lie Ii aexn, t, tixtit xvtxixlx axe tixtaixit ext the nib, c x, axxxt nxxcket, it, si-hem oxxixi xxi In xxxc in xxxiii text lxx lxx tixigers, F, lxv lixe cixtixixs, xx. -ixtini xxtlixillv in sit liii a ixtxctxiixxxt exixineit n ix a ttxxxcl txxxixie xxi xxi lxxcixittg ltxe lttxget ntxx xx. xlix it In lie sxxxxilx xxxxxt tixxxxixxg lie Ittigero, axtit aIxi cxxtxxxcxlixxg tie tixi cx loaxIt xxxi Ixiteixy lxx ivexal tixitlo tie textilered eapatite if ixcixig xcaxtilv all xxnlxxt lxx situ tie xitxccxxlx o xxx an cxix xii nixxv texixtixe, xxxiii a xxxv axtixito xxxiii xtxxxxxtxle ixxxtxtxtixixli xxtxtaixxixi, 1 1.1. illiot I)iiketrnaxx, of huxIttitoxid, Vt., fox aix [toptoved (lotltex-wuitagei. Ixatetitell APiS! 10, 1880: I ctxxixxx, iii taxixixixtix lxxx itteitig itixtixes xv exixopxeoxdixxi ixelixeexi xxxi cxxx, itoixixit ixig, is xiix~ xxi lixO lxxxi liii ixiltein lxxx aching xttxxxi the chixttii,n, xx ixhxixex cxxxxiext xxx xxix ixixahxixi clxxxiii xxxiii xixxxiaiisxxttxxxixt uxitlex, A, six xxxiii txttixt in a sixiixtiiti lixixititig, hi Ii, htixit tic cxxxxx l~x osixiti xxi liii elastic xxxii ix-ixit xxix lxxxi ~iiti xstiiitx in xxclixxg ixtixixi tue cixilixco in allxictxc(i ti~ a xxxix itixixixtitta cxxiii xxx xinixiix if xiii ixisi ix txxxixittxtt agxtitxst xx xxxttcx, hi i-ic xxix ixo ixixixixixix -tue xxo xxxii lix tixe Ixititnixoc it 13. .1. A. Vangluta, of (itxValihlifa FxalIs, Ohio, foi an Jun itovernetit jux (halts Setatatots. l5xntetateil AiatiI 24-, I clx xxx, tixot iii iixiixtxixtxihix xxx xviiht a xxixicn if cigixig oc xx ito xxxiii lxiii xixxg sixixili lxxix ixxg xx h-thai xxtxxhixxxx, xlix xihniixxxixxtv ctxtxixxlxxxs hut xxx ix xxxi xlix uxixilexixil ii xxiilxxino, xxxlxshxx iilixitlv too ilixicitbexi, S xxix xxxi, 1 cixtixix the xxxxxxlxixxxxxixxxx if lixe seixes xl nigning ocucexto mu xliixxitig ixxxxxxxio tixixint xx ilixike xxxxxhixxxx, ihe stxiiiixxtats ucixixixig cixtiuxa ixixo xxxii sixexti lxiii, svtxiti xxccxxxxgext lxx otxecxxix sitlxslatatixiltv iii dxocxitxcxi, tititxt I cixtitix iii cxxxxxhxixxxxi xxix xxi hixe xiitxciixxg ixoxixit, 1 cixekie lx, Q, xxxii cxxxiii ixisixit, It nxxhxohxxxxt ixitt~ xis xxxiii thtr lixe ixiti-uione tic- -cx-ihiix ii;. Ixioper .Iohns,axa, of (;enesee, N. V., fur an Itanproved (hate. Patentell Mxxxiii (1, 1880: I clxi xxx ixixixat ixxg xx gxxtx itpxitt ito ixixigen iv Itte alhxxxxale ixaxtial cola lieu xxi it xxiii xxxi xxx lxiii, xxxix ixixixtxix xxii sihsixhx xxxxxx-en ixihix-ix xx gixixhis xxix lxx f,-xxx xxi xlix tixile It xx ixtixix tixaxichx hxcixig xxxnxxhxxi xxiii tic sitp~xxittitig xxxii, xxiii lxxxiii tiihxui xxix ixtixig iltiiiixt liv hut xiii ices xicoxxilxxxi, xxx xcii xx1uu ixxxlxxxt a, 17.- .1. W. Mllffitt, of llartishitmig, Pa., for t~n Inaprovement iii the Maxatuftiettute of Ititrielain teeth. Pateixtexl Nov. 211, 1 881): I clxx mxxx t ixe mxxxiii itfxmxlxtte if lxxuxcutxxixl leelli noxi gixiuxo xxf tixe xxxatet-ixxl sixecitiuxi xxx lxx ixmxxtxxxxuixxmun xtmxxuxitxcxi xxxiii sex ixixtim time oxixixux ixeixug tixxtxxumcxl xutxtxiiixi xxxiii cxxxxnxxtixixxtxxt txxgettuxx itiuxuux mlxx tulatix, sxtlinixxxt xix xxuxxmxxxcx xixscxiixcxt tush lxi thu ox ixixox otixcilixit IS. II II. (Irahiana, of Manchester. N. H., formerly of Bill litixud, ttxr an Iuuihitoxernetat in Magazine (~nuts. Pat. entoil Ott. 4, 18.5:l: I ixuixit, licit flue ciixnhiinatiutxx of a rotalixxg nangazixte selxarate in xxix ixig uluxuiga tectivux xxx ciiuxxct-, tixid giuxi Ixuirret, itt xxixcratixxxx togmuixim iuulxohxutuiixuthv xxx slxcuiiiiut, S xxxiii I, (I 5u1mxu mug liii ixuhut h mug musagazixuc auxut roinlisig cixasgi teem-is-er aiihixmix,-iuii-illv lut lxx uxuixiit xxi lxx xmiggcx giuxuxut xxx ito cx~muiixxtexxt, thu xxx-xxuxugumuxxxuh xxi lxx sex-iis xxi lxxiii mimxxxxuhxus, ix b ix hi., xxxiii lxx simiun xxi 5xxuxxxl xxi tixtiutixutO xi xi xx ut-c. iii cxxmucusuimix ciucixo, suxut xxxi xlix nixi xxi lxx gixix lxxi xxxi xxxii xxxi xxi site sithul uxumuxix, usuxi six xis xxxii xxxiii hut xxx hit xxmxxt xxxiii uguxumuot a x,xxxxmxxuxxmu lutxxxx it, illixixi iii mite sixie xxi liii lxx xxiiixxhi its xxxxilixxti-liximi xx iii xx uxuixi i-im tixtigi xiciixit, k h--ut ix ithxiux lxx ti-u-i-it, xi stuxculiuxi situ-lu xxxxxumixicuiietti xxf xlix xuxxxgxx xxxix I xiuxxmumhucmo xxxi xxxiii ixuxmxumug xlix tuxuxxutxmuit hi ix itixisgin xxx xc kx~xh iii u5uxitxilu uitxuxmiiiiuo, ix xii lxi lxxxiii time uixiuxut xxi uxix-ixteixi, lxxix cxuxmoixxg xlix utixuxxuitlx xx ix ox xuxiximuuui-ut in ix iii xxiii if uxuuugi xxi shut sights xx ii ii, xix u xi. lx Sxu to cxxxuuixiuxe the pcm-cxmosinmx lmamoottoet cix exxck, rolaxv uhauge tcceii-ttxxxxxt htux xiiixiuv muxxugxu-imxe xvihim t hue ixiggir giuxux-it, tiuxut, liv I hue unoscxxxcmux xxii tiuc saixi guixix-ut asixiv xxxix I hue xxtixuk lucy ixixti xc mmxxxii- ixxuiiiitxxiv 5uitt xxx mxxxii xxx xxxii the tuaxuuuxuxs huxuxxxglut mxxx hut lxxii cuxcix, itO Otacciliexi. -i 4 J. B. S., of N. VVon hail better write to (1niIil, (iartison .t ii~,, xxii \\iltinmuxniixutglu N. ix iii sefeuemxce to xx mitaxill slexixo exogixte .1. (h., of Ala. Tue fuxoihale pitag is aux old inventiota. If uses palcitleut, tue lexixi fur avlxiuli ii tuxus isouuexi has Ixuxug mixoce cx ixiccut. hi. (h. [a., of Conn.---Thie dufihas of water which you oh neci-mut out cxuixt sinuuen xxxiii minim mixue coxuxiexusuui from hue alioxistohere, iii liux same is-ny ihxxt si-alec in cuixuixutoexi xxix tixe xxxuxoiule of xi uxitetmer of xxx iixxhcr iii svxirxn sseatlucr. 1). M. t., of OhioIt scents to us that thie proper mode of its u i-nit ixeimug vuixux ixicax to lie tomilulic to iii pxc5xusie xx toapex mitumiteli ite- -cuihuimig vuxux mnetlunut if ixxvesxigatixxn noxi site reoxuils, and either seuxut ix in Siiiisxxaxxn Jiaxirixol tsr icaul ii hcfxxre tIme Axaicriexuut Assnuiuxtiotx fuir xlix Aulcuuxicenxexti nf Scixixue. ~ I. L., of Ixad-Thie wheel which gave the laugest results at mlxx Iriuxi ax lie Phmitaitehiutiixi XItutemoxrks is-as I. E Sleseuxonuxo il txuitxilu,i xxii ixigi lIlt xxii xxxix lxxxi suixummux, The mmclxxi did ot Iltis mclxxxi isuxo - 5777 xxii xixe ix lxxi tim xxii hue imaler mmxci, licoiuies hue frie tiux xiii ihux nxoxhuiuxcun- situicix xxxii (-Ohimuxalixi xxi I loch cxxxt, toxakixig stun ixutal vie-ti ,lihi77, fiuxax muhxcuin xxix uuuxxxsxsfuxci xsret at use Nosetly Wuurkn imx Ilxin tiux. .1. (1.. of Pa. Xuata wihh hate hoexceused that Professor Sihli uxami xxxi axusisexeui Mx. S~iiagmui, Whim xis axunsix in hue uuxuxtier sixuxiuld rest. A. H., of N. VCast and wrought iron are more hrittle during severe frost luau warm weattier Car axles and rails are sluxtexi to lirexuk uxisre freqiscuatly in xxiiatcr ttian stimnaci; tixis is no doubt nisixug ho funot rexudexixug them brittle. Vie lxxxis neier fully- in vexxhigxxled SIte cause if hixin by extoerimeuxt, atlisniugh xis are xielt aivari nf Site fact. ST. Mutays, OhioThe hest thing that you can do is to gct muta xx svtsecl nix lime plan you propose, anti test it practically If s-ott lxxxii ixceosixtux Ia xxddresx xxx again. xee utant you sign yxxxxr tel icr, if yost avixIx ti auxoasered. 13. B. H., of MassTo color the edge of your wooden shine siule, Scsi a~xplv a sees aveak onlixhioxa of csppexas axad allosv ills utry; sliest a~o~xlv a s-cry shiouug set sxulsumtnua of togistooxi anti sumac ixtuicta xviii catox ii ajel lunch, 171. W. 18., of MissVomi cotnld not make a reliable and pro filaliti is orluisug engixue in Ixe o~oerxxted lxv itxix solar Ixeat concexatraheut sexhix lixuruxisug teiti, The sonic txro,iect tins xenix smulitoauihed io sun sesexal linico auxut mx hhxe xx Fiuto-ixice of sIte Sicain Exigitne, satulelx axe axe tunis ioxslxlioluisxg, iii si-itt fluid ii xteoruitucul xis sIte ixusunhixuxa of Sot oxixixo lie (aims A. 18. T., of OhioA tanaguxetic battery is not made with nuhuts, An s-cut siuxush Ito reuxouxie iroux xxxiii sheet tourlicles from gotut, Ixes lxxxiii xxi uxuogusito stuxxxuixi ixe muocut fior bum soxursoose Take a Stunt pernan uxexux uxiaguxet, xxxii utrxss ii ihuxuxxsglu suinie nuxid hint cuxxatoisxixxg steel Stimugo, axuxi they is-ill hue altraciuui lx ilue suirlixci of the xtxagtuih Tlxey cams hiseux lie ixxxsstuext xc; and tixuxo setoaxaleui from lIxe guxlst 18. W. I)., of CounVoti can tan muskrat skins hy scrap ixug site thesis stile llxorixxxgiilv, Iluexa sleep ilacuxo isa cotul suotmuhiosax of omuniuxe thou tutuoush xx is-eck, iou cats cxxiii hixeox dark tirosso isittx a lic~mxor if fissuie, Ihuazit sionut aixut a little togixuxoxi lxxxi slsxxxstd siss xxso okiuxo si-ills their Scott siutes ingebtuex, xxxiii ~ohitnge ilient iii the cuulxxuixxg ticpsuum. (1. A., of OhioTo malse an study helt cot-er it first withs a cxxal of glue itmeux dust xiii lIxe cindy ltuictxly md attuxxs it lxx utry; uxosi- gui it auxoxixer co-ut lxx sIte same naaxutxex smut attosi it ho xtry~, auxut yoisx hell xxiii lue reaxtv lots tuxay also oxix the emer is-ilIx the glue, auxut lay the sitmuxic xxx ax once ss-ista a bxumsstx uxc, inshexut if glue uxox cOtoxl sxiruutxtx Tue sarnists is Stun lxest ; uxuxut toe situ-c ho utry it tux a toxin lxx alest to ahxoxit 212 Fats Ills ixest to 10th oxa thus enxerv in several coals, attossixug each txo ibm txefure sIte nhhsex is apluhiud i1y~ ~ B., of KyThac electromagnetic engine of Professox Page, fur ivtuiehs Couigreos made a large apuouotorixxxioxa several yearn agex, fuxileut ixecomune ii svas far too exixeusoive as a oncxlive agexat tux cona tide si-lilt oheumuxi, Ii xxxix, huossxscu, Sloe luest clexiromoaagixcuic exagine ive ever soxy, smut fox some sihmxaiiono, smith engiuxen couxoimmueted umuxoum site saxuxe hicixaxitoles suxiuld he useful, axaul pertuatux ecuoixonaiexh Such exugiuses could tie muocut fur iverkitug seiving mactames and other tigIxt is-ork lix Ihinaitico 5cc time articles xxix dlcihtiiitx, nosy toxxlxtistxing ha our cuxhxusooxas, fix fusettuer informaxioux nix shuts suulnicet D. McC., of PaWisat we now want is some other person cr uxerooxus ivtso xviii try another set of cxperinaenls ivithi steam siork mug both at full stroke and exuoansivehy. The opiuxiouxs vhxictx xve en hirtaita are similar to those in your lellex, bust xis isault facbo; these, tuhoxue, isilt be saliolactory antI conclusive Ii. W. B., of N. J.Soft soaps are made with caustic pot ash, suicti ax Stxe hey of synod ashen; baud soaps are made xvixhu sodux at hahtes Take tivux poutuds of stacked hinxe antI tuvo poxuods of sabsoda uiiosxilve bite halter iii one gathoux of tint isater, mix them together, auid atloic Stue seihixotent to settle Noss take tIxe clear hiqutor, and buxit in ii too toxtuuxuuts of tatlxusv uxuxhit ills eom~otetehy chiosolsed; Itteux tuike ii uxush, cxxot lxx a xxxix, xxxiii you xxiii Ixaxe ixarit soap W. S., of 111.We cannot accorunt for the explosion to si-huh yost rdfdr itt Itte clalnotoes xxf xx uniter, lxxix buy susututems iguxilion of aix cxtutosiie gas ixx it, Tue sotalihi toxoximuelo of txihmxsaixuoxxs coat, xitxen suuluiraldut ixitix air, si-itt extaloxte hike guixotxitxxildr alien iguuileni Thin expixusions lxx suhuicli yoxt refer xviii sixty occur wtxen a uxesv flue is puui on lxxii if yuumtr fusrixace ihoor xvnre psrfuxrxxtext avittx small Ixotes auxit thin coats laid on at lixe edge of the fiuruxacs grate, tao explosion siximuhxt tithe place, xx thud gas siomuixi lxe ixuuunexi iii tine hue as sooxa ax it sits titxeu aScii fuxun Site coals, tuxohead of txccuuxnmitatiuag in lIxe chixoixey (i~ C., of Put Patents have heen tabsen otat in England for site maxoxuiactxxre of tIne imingotate of soda axud thin sxuiptxale of ammo- xliii, liii uornsoariuxg xaoix-isuhttuxnxnahhs fuuixeico Cuxpies of linens cuxn tue utlxtaitned Ixy sexudisug to Loxadoux floe thacuxo hint you can eaxity make Ituc oxuiptiuxie xuf auxtoxoiniun xiittu nuxhuohurie aciut atad tiquuid ammemnia 3Vttetx couuibtiNeut, these tivo stubstataces make the saIl xvtnictx you tie site Tiney- tuxuils un xtdflnuts prtototxrutixuns; Sheteftire yost si-itt tiund uxo uttitlciutxv attomut the quxauxtitins of eacia to toe uusext The taitrunte of head is a good nxoruiasxt lOr xlyeixxg cothuxo xiiih anihiuxe, toutS use cotion stuximuhut hue Scot nuts xhuuouughs xx ix-eak suxurti hiquxixi cuoxutniusiung some suuutux hex J. W., of N. Y.(stxttaperchaa shine soles were not uncom nano un thin cily xx feix years siuxce, lxmut hey are not uxoss- isa mind, S. V. 1)., of MaineYou can aplahy any improvenaent you chine to a paheuxinut machxiuxe, auxut oxake as ninny enpairs uu~xitn it as it requires, A puxtenhexi unactuisne soixi my time tuuitdxuide, isitti tine uuuxqxuuxt ificxt right to usc it, tieconoes the persoxuxi pro~xerxy of Stan txuurchuxsuu, axuxi ixe cain ito auxyxhing hs phexoes ivishs ii W. B., of ViaWe believe that porpoise oil may he purl Set txy sim~ohe chuirnixag un a ivonulexa sesoet fox ouxe hour ; thxeux athxiss it to settle, so as to permit the snxhixnexxl ixo fall to tim hotiom, Eaxteith Soti oil mxxy toe greuxlty isuatxxoxnxt Sty hiuc cuxtul unroenos, txy axtut tug one oxuxice of disoolvdut puart ash to every gathxxxi, agitaliung it for a Idix hxuxuirs, auxut then utihuxixisug it to odhthe If yxuut adut lixs ouuuuces of airshached him to thai xx sin oxuxace of penulash axid smubjeex mIte out Is a simmerixxg heat fuxr Sun huxuuus, than iinpsurilics xxiii tombixad ixilti the alkalies, and the oil ivith toecome a clear ydltsxi color Money Received At the Scientific American Office on account of Patent Office huisiness for the xieeh ending Satmurday, Jan 12, 1861~ it R hi, of L I, $1011; It, 5, W, of Mass, $25; A it hi, of N II, $25; C C, of Ins-a, $30; A S, of Otuis, $151: A C I, of Wis,, $55; iii S T, of Shieht $30; A R, of Micti, $31)t P 15, nf Pa $30: T R ii,, of R I, $55; H B, of Cat, $5.3; MeN K Cs,, of N I, $251); J IS A tuf lund, $311; B Z, of N V, $20; A C T, of N ix, $20t L J H of N I, $20; F C S, of H I, $30; L & C,, of Ill, $30; I H hi, of N I, $28; F IV J, of N V, $25; 3 A P of N V, $30; C IV C, of Gui, $25; .1 H H,, of Mass, $275; IV F I, of Outs $30: H P C muf Pa,, $15; St N IV, of finn, $25; hi K, of Pus, $10; H C, xii Texas, $75; H II, of Pa,, $30; R MeN, of N v, $dO; J iv N, of Pa, $25; J U, of Iniva, $25; J IV C, of Illicit, $25; TI S, of Maimne, $10 ; H T, of Iosva, $23 ; i Ill, xxii 0mb, $25 ; ~ yr, of Pa, $20 ______ Specifications, drawings and models hehonging to parties svilta Itne fohtoning initials hxuve been forssarded ts the Patent OStee duur ing the synek ending Jam 12, 1861: A it- TI,, of N II; II S IV, of Maoo; L S II, of N V; K MeN of N V ; H H of Pa ; H P 5, of Thu; J K A, of Ixad; H IS IV, xxii Ala; H N IV, of Coman; I II hi, of N 1; H A MeL, of La; ft IV C, of Ca; A L, of Iii; F IV, of N V; 11 B, of Cith; IV B R, of La; A 5 H, xxii Texas; A & L of Couxix New Books and Periodicals Received. ATLANTIC MONTHLY; Puhahishoed by Ticknor & Fields, Bos toux Time Jantiary nutmhxdr of the II Atlaxatic man scvdral ixolerextixag arti- cles, Tiun one on hixurixaxiomna auxut (ssithzuxiioxo is ccuxssilcd sx-istx tuteis line account of Casloar Haunch in iveil svrihxexx; noxi lxxxi Rdvxreo Ride, boy- Loxxgfetlosv, is ixund of Ixus beol BaAcKwOoDs MAGAZINE; repiahhislxed hy Leonard Scott & Cxx, Nix, 54 ftotxt-oureci, hum city TIme last tnmmnoiidr of this venetatile auxul ahxle motxihxty- conhatos a naomI ixoteresuing tirticie nun Iruxmx Cinch Ships of Wuxe, - auxut xx btuuuxuxmugbsly sci- euxtifle article tiny C tuxuge Ibduxty- Leusin, xxi Tlue,xix-o xxii Futxux I ishuicix erilicisds Lueliig suvcretv Important Hints to Our Readers. BACK NCMBERS AND VOLUMES OF TIlE SCIENTIFIC AnSEEI CANVolumes I, II and III (Insumnd or uxnbsuxnuh) maybe Ixad at Slits sixice axad from alt perisdical denldra Price, bound, $130 per volume; by mail, $2aitnieb inctuides postage Pu-ire in sheets, $1 Every me etnamuic, invnnlor or artisan ha htxn Unitnd Slates shomuld have a com- plete odS of this pmubxhicalion for edierence Sxxtoocribxdrs sbouxld not Sail to preserve itneir xnxumbdes for binding. PATENT CLADIsPersons desiring this claim of any inven- vexutioxa svtuieha has bden patentdd avihhaixn tbxirty years, can obtain a copy by adxireosing xx nold to this office, slating Ibe mnanie of lbs pat entee and date sf patexal, svhxen knoivo, and inclosing $1 as fee for copying IVd cain alno furnish a sketch of amy patdnted machine issuxeut since 3853, to acroxaxpasay Site claim, nun reccihot xii $2 Addrdos MUEN & CO, Paidmut Suxhteiloes, No 37 Park Hoxi, Ndxi Vork Btxnnna.We are prepared to hind volumes, in handsome covers, sxith ihimimiuxhed sidda, and to fuirnish covers for olber bust- ers Pried for binding, 50 cexals Prien for csvdrs, by mail, 30 cexats by express or delivered at the office 40 eduts RATES OF ADVERTISING. Thirty Cents per tine Sir eacta and every insdrhioin, pay-able mu advauuce To enable alt to isuderstaxad moss to calculate tIme anaxuuuxat they munot send avbin they avish advertisements puxbohiotned, ave xviii exIxtain that tdn ivords average one tine Exagravixags svilt not hoe admanitied ixaxo our adverlisixog cotuimno; and, as bereloforn, she putitisiunra reserve xxx tbdmoeives thin righat Is reject any advertisenient sent for pnbhicxtioua IMPORTANT TO INVENTORS. T HEGREAT AMERICAN AND FOREIGN PATENT AGENCYMessrs MUNN it CO, Proprietors of Stud ScuENmuruc AxunnucAms inform their patrons Sinat Shiny are ssill engagexi in prepariung specihicatiouns auui draisingo tuxud axuexaxtiung Is the siamnus of uxuxensiurs iii every deparlmexntbdfuore thue Paidunt Ottice, mcix as ISxidxasixuns, Appeats, Ixstdrfercxnceo, exurrecting inahoeridet puahodes otsbxaoiitext lxx thd 1titdtut Olhicux by incompelexas persouus, exaxuuimmiuug ixuto tine umos-nixy of insuxuimons, arguing rejected cases, ite Time huoxug experiexuce Messrs MUNN it (fI taace bad in prepariuug speciflcaxioxas and duaxituags, extexuxtiuug ovet a periset of sixteeui yexms, hauns reunxheuext lisem }xerteclly consersuuust ax-ixix line mote of doixug ixxusimxeos at thin Uxaileut Stales Puiluxit fiutice, auud xi-xstx time grealex puuu~xxf Siud iuis-dtntiiuixs iitiiitu laxuse beexa uxaidunidd Ixafuxuxaxa- hiuuma coaceruniuig thud txuutdxxtxniuitily of ixssexuxions is teensy given, sxithxxuxt chmasge, on sexading xx mxxdci ur uieaxs-ing axuxi xiescriioxiuoxu Sum shim tultice Cxinsuuttatioun uaaav bin math xx ixin Site tirm, hoeliceexa NINE amnut FOuR semi-k, daub-, aS their 1 titNiittiL Oucucni, No 37 PAuIK-usoxy Nuxw Vouxuc We ixuive alt a hussiun Oucursi un Sian 5u-ryou IVasuuu~oroz, nix had CORNER OF F sin Sna SiTu STinEETs, opposite mIme tuxited Slates Pal- exit Ouhice Thuis xxihuce is xsxxder tint gexadruuh smhpdeixateiuiti-nce of mouxe ox had tirm, anxi is un tinily cuoxnnnxuxsux otlun ssittn tiad Frincipuxi ilitice in Nesi Vuxuk, uxmnd tadesounal aitdmaimoxa sill be gisnn ax uixo Fascist Outlet to xii suucia eases as mx mx uxxuure it Iuuvexuxors axoch uxutncrs svixo runny visit Wastatuagion, inaximno txuusuness at tine Puxtent tIlhtird, tim coeutiahty ixixiteut to call aS their moibi Messrs MUNN A 0 a e ems extensively exagaged ha SIte preparatismn amaxi seenurisag of P ulemnis xxx tine s aeixxxus Euuuxuixeaxx cuuuuxniries, For the truxxssacliuxma xxii thus lumuxuxuess they hunse Oltices ax Nuxo, 55 (huxuxcexy Lame, Luxuxxhoxa; 20 hiuuxulex xx d St H ~ xiii xxxix; amid 26 Ruse ubes IStuduxxxxxuinus hiruxosiets Wi tixunk xe 0-ax- natety 5ii~ lutist Oeiexn-eigixiixs xxii alt shut Exuropeama Puxtents seeuuxexi un Xsxaceicaux cihi-idsso aee pexuemmeeui htursuighm nix Agesucy Ixms-euu5srs is-ill do xxeht to beuxr isa noiuuut that hun Emaghisti taxi does nuit unit tine issute of patents SO iiisdiiSitCs Ausy OOd cain Ixhd omit a patexul iii Gm-dat hirilain A panaplut of imnionmaxion concerning thus proper course to be piursumeut in oblaimxisxg 5xxatetahs hhuruxxsgia their Agdxscy, site reuhititdnadxxls of the latent Oltien, xt-c, may be taxud gualis mutton apixtucattums al thd Pnixacipat Oltice, xxx either of hits hirauuches Tinny also fuxexuisim a liruxulax 01 Imniixuuxaumlioxs uuiuxoxst Fxurtign Pxxmexuxs Than axusacied letters, lexono than last Slxcee Cuommisoisner of Ptntents, sin cuimmexaxt Ixo tine pnrxuaxxl xxii till mocronuns tuxicresux-ul iii uxtolaixaimag hat dm010 Mesors MuJNN t- Co I take piduixutee iso staling that, uvhxile I Ineld time uxiSce miii Cxummissixusaer of luxuesuxo, OtOtOC TitiN ONEFOUtnsut OF ALL TIlE SUOtNEOs or outs: oerucsa csaxu: TuttxOiJdin a-outs umnaios 5 tuave man duxxsht thaunt tine bouhlotic cxxutiutencx ulnuss imuhienmnx5 buns toeeus sully mieners-exi, as S haunse aixiuxys ixiuxetiexi, iii xxii yuxxus ixuhcmxuxuxsmx si-ixin hue tithed, a maeked degree cxii iorxxuuuixixxcso, skill itiaui tiuidlixy lxx site ixuteexots xii smuxux employers Vuxuro, sexy lexuly, CHAS MASfIN Immediately after the oppsintmemxt of Mi Holt to lIxe office of Posh maoxcr-(tenerunl of time Ummihed States, tad uxxlduesosext to xis tine sxuitjxuiuaed xnry gruxtifyixug testinosmnixul Messrs MUNE & Co uIt affords me mumeta pleasure to beor teotimuony to tine auxte axad eflicietat mnnxacr its situicla yxouu hmaxe dioctuargeut yxsur ditties of Sxohicitors of Palcusus silmiun I hnuxui time huxunom of tuxxhxhiung shun uxitlee of Cumnxunissiuxuner Your bommoixoess ivas s-cry hauge, auth yxuxu omssuausdxi (amid, I dixusbt nut, justly desdrstxhl thin ui5umuiattutxx of duicrgy ituxuikexi atoihity and xnnconaprmxxuxisixug Smuxtixy lxx txeeiormuuixxg yxomsr iuexuhesxmxuxua engagemenis Idly reo~oectfxuiiy, Ixaxti uxixentiemni snix-ant, 3 MOLT MESsRS MUNN it Co Genllnman It gives me muich pleasure to say that, dnning the lime of my holding Site ottied of Commissuxmner xxii Pal enis a very large proportion oh the buisiuxess of imnvexntnrs lxeiiurn thut Pat- emit ouxics svao Iransacted tlxrxumsgln yxxxxr agency, md tixat S inave ever fouxid youx faitiatmul auumi desuxted mo time isulceests of s-our stienlo, as si-chi as enniunenthy qnahiiiued Is perixurm line xiuuxics of Patent Ashxuruney o sshh ix skill and accxiruxcy Very rcopectfxutty, Vomur uxheuliexut servant, ItM TI BISItOP Mensrs MUNN it Co exordiahic imuvixe pirsuuuss visiliung stun cimy, uxr ecot dexats, to calt at uhanir spacioums oSices, Nxu 37 Parh-roiv, nod examiuxe she models obicis are nix exhibutioxa, or infer ho than ivorks of relereuxee coux tauxued in their imbrary, access to ivlxichx cain be hind at alt ixouses Invensors can couaxunxsxuieatn tin Germuxan, Feexachx, Spaxuishx, or nearly any other language, in sotixixixag inflxrnaaxixxuu iirsm this olhice Ciresuluxes of informaltoux regaudimug thin proemuxixug of patnnts, torixuteut in Geronan muxy be baxI on auxtoticaxiuuuu, Commumnicaxiouxo axaxi remittances should be addreused Is MIJNN & CO., Puibtishuers No 37 Park-mon, Nexi York 63 Death of Dr. Hackley. VP A MEETING OF TIlE SENIOR CLASS OF COLUM nI (otteoc on Thursday, Too. 111, 18(11, the tittowiog resolutions were illtot)ied oiot ontevelt to to tobtiohed 1 IV? 1101, Ve. lose leell sort Irloelt 111111 Ooltdllle(t lv tile illtettigltllce (If till Ill Ill, this llllll11i1110, III 1111 llllellltllt ilIlIt beloved ilIstrIletol, R( 5 (11 P0LES VI. I At toLL Y, 5. 1.1)., P totisO SlIt Astronomy iii 110 1110111111011 01111 1 11111011, tIl this lIfitiet lIe ItiotlI 110011101 If 1)iviite ]rllvi(teltee, a the Seinor (Itoso: I F I 51 tIll, foIl 1i1111111 (1010, 11110 111111 elllllle1telt wit I itljo Cotiege, OIl 11111111 lIt 111,11 lIt Ito 0111 1(10 lIt 0 1111101 Ibte 11111 lltIl11llt l11011llltlllt tile 11111101 111111 II t 1 01101 III 111111 11111 ltl1111110t glllltl1ll1Ill, 111111 tIe cx III 0 11110 t 11111ltlt 1111111 (11101st 1111 1 111(1 eollltlltlllll Ill till titlltl Ii 11111111 lIt 1100 11111110111, 111111 11111 551111 lilt l0t1l1111i5 lii 111 It tIll 1111 lOOlOtlIl 11111111 ellIlOllillltllll 00111111 Ire level 11 1 11111 11111111 it 1 lIt till 00111011 1100 lttltllt 10 0 111110, tile fottevIli ilf Itleir 1t 1151 1 1 llitl0oilt Ill hIlt 111011 tl11111li 111100 11111 111111 hi 11011111111111011 1 11011111 11111 Or 01011 11110 IIloll/lll 1 1111111 I ill If 111101 leoilitl(ii11l0 ill tlI1oelltlit ill tile fIlmily I It 1111111(1 1St 11 (1 WIJITEI tt)tSE, CiloirlIloll. 10. VI. Ill 010 Iv SI irs. SEMI-STEEL. L~EMI-STD L LOCOMOTIVE TIRES, FIRE-BOX AND IYll 11111 Itll till v t~ leIlt 0111111gev 11111 noore ltItratlte Itlan Itle ilest Lots It 11111 1(111 tItles lIt 111111 TIRES 1011t11 ii ililIl hI it attit soetitell to fit any given diameter of I I~ III 1 PLATRo iOliiiilit ottit citt is nov p1lttetn 11011 51715 oritered. A Il( tIlt 11111 111 tIll Ill 1111111 lteOillt ssitt los iltlllistlett, Old ail orders ]tlIllll1lii\ 0 ill 11 Ill 11111111 11111 ItiCIltilIll, ItllIlIliIll Ill lii hI I0OIININI1, VIINSLOIV & CO., lii AitI~llIy lIon Wtlrkn, Tiny, N. Y. W HFIN VP ~ WII SONS SEWING MACHINES, WITH iIntiivtltlt ltlltllllvltueItts, at reltIteelt 111005. 0111cc, No, 505 ItI1111110110 o II N 1 k Tilts Inleill Ill 1ll110e5 11111 iOCk-Otitetl, tIflht rallks Ilitihest on llreOltltt fills rlfliii It 0 Ix 111 11111111011CC 01111 tillS 1155il1iis at tile Fair of 11110 11(11 it 011110 1111 II 10 If tile Anoetie 10 ItlOli Nilt l111111i11It1 (tel I 11111 0 III 1111111 IN ilOillIllltllll - Ill eil 111 110 11101111111 It Itlttlliltl IttitlIlltl0 ok1i1llIlIlll1l (1111 11111 III 1 1111111kv 111011 tIll e toi lillOllI I - II lIIll1l1l0 A0011e1IItll11 81 Lonlo Ill elI 11111 0 111011 ItlIe 8111 1 11111 10111111 II 01111 F IIIS If ItlIllI N I1nOiilot I llIllleeill lIt N en (Irk N Ill 11101s 1 lllIlsvtSIIl1o 1 IrlIllIll M100100111111 N115511111 I AND PRACTICE OF 18110 Ito (1Ocllnitcrg Cool- Ill115eit trIo NI Id A 01 k 11115 III IsO 2 lION 1) SlItFIOT LFW NORI 1011111 eelltt It till lIllIn ItetlOllOlled 111 I ite 1 111111 1 ltl1ctIoI rIl ellnllIleIleIt in tile f01OetIlIlIl1i it llllrv 11111 trIettel Jill (tIncielltlcrll lItleory 01111 tonos nf oil lilOIloes IlleIllellI Ill tilts I 1111111 lId CilIlt lIc 11115 lest IlElif NIANU IL 011 lIP II TiI rIll tIllrv 1111 1 Ill 111 of 2N Il1110 It is 1 11111 11111 ltiltc ill lii ltislllscs Itl01111Ill 01111 (llt1xl1t11Il 11110 - .1 11111111110 (10., IlIlIlli xl Ill I N els Xlllto, One (If till Ill 1111 011111015 505 5 111 tie I 111111 111111 NIanIlal 01 lel Iofltt~lIi 1110 1011111 Il III 111 1111 1 l1tIllIlI0l I 1tl illIlIl seiclllilir ltItli(tglillI I II 111111 tIll I-Ill III 1110 IltIlIlin lIlie 01111 ellIllilItldllllIs 11111k 15 11111 sillIls 11 is 11110 lleIIlg 1111 11511111 111111 III I IIIIIIIII II clint 01115 a 1111001 it io at oi 111 011111111 tilliOlli II 1111111 1111 cx 1111 11 01111 1111 nItlItIcin, lvilh OllCII 011 01111011 lx 11111111 cit at O1l1Il III hullS 1111 tlrllIOcI inclncltics Ill case of stlIlItetl 011 kllcos III tile 1101115 Ill 1111 clIllIllIS 0 copy of tile - MIllolmi Ill Iii 11111 IS 11lllIitl1Il0liltl loll (levy t1111115 0111111111 111155c55 (lnc. It s~-itt save II illlIlllrlll tilalco 10 elIot ill ItlIl-lors hIts, 111111 slililI is fanaitics 111111 rIhIlisls1 I clIssIf f ~UDGEONS POBTAlII F IIYI)IIAJITLIC JACKSFOR II Ill I0~ 110 tlvovv 5lIIOtilt 0 illiltItS illvOIllOlile5,IllI5,51011e,0t1151iIIg 1111111 titlIii Ill tllll5ItllI1ll, ill II t0t~e1 to lIfi IllIcit. 81111111111 0 rilcIliar, DII)(ILON k LX ON, No AhIl (l1-isnlt-strcct, Ness- York, 8 1101oSS SWISS DI tW ING INSTRUMENTSCATALOGUE (7Th by C. T ANISLI 10 No 635 (hilIsIlllll.sIrcet, PlliiIIltl111h115, to., eslail- lixilIlt 1lettIs- lv 1111 Ssstss Dr1lssing IIl0tl11111111 15 silIce 1848, 21) 601, D OP TFRS IMPROVED GOVERNOR. Tile 11111111111111 of tlII515 glIS-ernIlls is 55111 (15t01)tiSh15d, F~Irties irotlillelt II 111111 IlolIOlIl llIlsscr mily sIsnIt fIll tllcro in elIlire cllnfidlnce, TIle 011101111110 1,111 ex in 11511 aIlS alt eqtt~siiv good, if ssctt made; the fill-In of 1111 11111 1111111 Ii 11n1111111IilIt, 11115 kIllvlr 1101S 1110 Sval-Illntelt 10 5101k pOll el is 111111 111\ 11111 lIlt SlIlses, sslliell 111(1111 fl-eelS- anIt close A StylI 11 nlllil exttIesiVv ilItailIlIt III SSOtcrSSlIeetS, to 55-hictl they SSitt It hose lot 11111111 1111111 III ItItilIg nv I115111110e1s fill celtilicOtcs t hot am able to relel- 110 1 ilrkl IltIInlllr Ill IllIrlies 111111 IIsillg Itlis gllScrllllr (0 II I xviii scIlIt 0 IlilS-tIrIllIr til any IeslOi)105i11115 pttrt~ fill trial, If it does flIlt A tillcl-1lt Itioclltlllt Ill tIlls Ir1Ilte, IsilIlse olItels ssitt IIiISayS he promptly 1 itd, ChARLES T. PORTER, No, 235 Wcot 1ilirtecllIll-stIeIst, clIrIll r of Ntnth-as-entte, 113 New Yllrk City, FORT EDWARD LEDGERADVERTISERS WHO Sill to IltrIlet the attcntiola of tIll realtillg bIble in nortllcro ]~/[ ACHINE BIT TING, STEAM PACKING, ENGINE ilL I tf)8F Tb 0lI~I riority of 1111510 articles, inailIlfIlettired of 5111- clallizell 111111111 i~ cot 0t1110111lI. Es-el-) belt wilt he xsarianted superior 10 tellitter 11 1111 1111111 IsO tlriels. Tile Steam Packing is mllde in es-ery Sanely, 01111 51,11 1,1111111 tIl OtililIt 300 ItIgs. of lacat, TIle Hose never needs oiling, 111111 ii svOrlIltltlil III s1111111 lInv lellIlirelt Ili-esOlile I togettoer wiih all slIrlet IIS III ttltllil1 1110111e11 11111111 il:Itlie1li plirIllISeS, Directions, plices, bc., IllIl ill II Ill Illoell Is mIlil Ill S illrlsiolS lIt olir ssarehotise, NEW YORK B1L1tN1o AND PACIOINII COMPANY. 2(111 N II, (11 LEEVER, Treasniner, 1 13 NIb. 37 11111 38 Park-rosy, New York, SPECIAL NOTICE TO RAILROAD MANAGERS, Sieainioo,ot 01111 MiItIISS neis and otller parih s tisiog Lttioricaiing Oils 1 lie linltel 0lnlll be leole to IltIel a Lttbricator, glilIroilteed to toe cqtiat tIl Itte text Iso 1 Lot ii Oil ot dOc toer gaiioii, ltetiScrcd 110 Pitto- illIrolt Pt I ilc 0111 bell 15 it eonacx fI om tills 55db, lS1t11 ot oaix- Ill II llr pt c~tai lIllin 01 0115 kilot tilet ellS 111001iIlg Ililifornaity (11 Illolity, I ile fllttolsill I 110011 ioooivv lIbel 10 lilIes are isilog tho aiticte eXicil- sit I is 01111 C 111 toe it Ici 1 elt 111 1111 lIlfIll on 1111111 as 11) its qtialitico :Peiaia 5,11 11115 R R I 0 (11 ~1151111 & I iilitotiv~h R. E. CII. ; PitisllOrgtl, FlIrt NI 11 111 t 1iliCoo R P 1 Plttstllti ii k CllvIleiissilie R. R, CII. I 11151 seilIl tIll 0 baiiet ol it 1111 11101 fur Ishivil 110 clIllige Slut 1115 mollI IlIlicox 11 011 es entire sotisi letlIlil A ldreos UNION OIL COM- No NIl VI 1111,1 xii eel I11101111rtl Il 1105, 11, LANE, Ageot, I il-I.e II oil tIle foiboss ill cet tifleote I F1NsYiSAslt R E to IoccniaTnNnna-Ts Ornicto, NNl oil ill lOis ision, 1iios, II. Loin, Eoq., Agent Ulliota flit Co Den 811 IN c loave been tiSillit 111111 (Iii exetliSiSIsty 1111 Ooflle ss ecks 10111 1111 111111 leOtliOg tlti~PIIOl5S lillill ill Itle (lest No, 1 LaiiI Oil 01111 11l000P551100 till oddlillilat qtiaiity of lililIg IllIllileeted IS extielIle elItli 1 1111 P 110 llesilatioo 10 i-eclIInmeIllt- ito 1IiiIllOlt 111111 ottler elliuboanilI 110111 111th leollO oils ANionrIS f lONFO 1 811111 lIf IN cotei 10 Divtstoil, Pi(tSilttigtl, Pa. Dee, 24, 1810 0 40 O(7)() POUNDS PRESSURE BY ONE MANS 60 exu tilIrI ailit 011 11101 lIOtoilclltis ill lkI t0OI0lilI1lN1ii- arliells 111(11 rcI1ttii-eR I0IlCkiill~ tIos-ill takela tite 8iis ci NIell lb it tIle Nell .IlsrOev 01111 Nets- Yllnk 81511 1,111 101 IShO is IlOIS 111111 cd to tIle blItIltiC on t1l0oIl~1tlle tevIlto, 101111 Ssllii111111ll Ia lIe saIiofoelioii kdltilOs I)AIID J~. IIILLEII, M~lltisI0il, N, 4 fi0 I) AT I NTS IX \1S TEDTHE ADI IRIISER IS GOING bIllIe. I lIlt IhO1tlCliiovS IlOllill klllhlvil at an lolel S IPIS Adtlress F,, 11101 (tiltee BIb No 2oo Jeroly City, N, .1, 111 AGFN TS XV VN UD EVERYWHERE TO SELL CAR- 171Il etlIn) NI ole E ins, (Ii Erena 31011 1115 OsSo Btltiller and tlae Riemetot, If 11111111 51l111g, I Ille 11101 55-111k cxl lilt 4 511 1 h8 1 lIALLEN h SON, Plltllisheio Pllitadclpeia, Pa. I~ ARE ChANCEFOR SALE CHEAP, THE WHOLE In ill toot, 11 sattiattie iilsifltiOO desiglled fIll blolise lise, aiadt ssill 61111 its ssav tIl svcny kitellen, No risk; 11 011110 illSestmeilt, Patcoted Taia, 1, 18111, Seild a stamlo, alad get a (llsOcriblIivIS cinetlitln, Address 10 1. McNANIEE, Eastlln, Pa, IATANTEDA SITUATION BY A BRASS FINISHER VY of sixteeo xcars IllOetical expelililee I capabllls of clliidtlCIiiag a thtiOiiaf51i ill all IS ilrailelIeo, Tile SIlIltIl 1lieflnied, AdItless SCOhCII- MAN, 1hitahltilhllio 1111.1 PIlot Olitee, 110 CHEMISTRY AND NATURAL PHILOSOPHY AP- blileit III 1111 AnIs Mllntifaetures, Nletaittingv, Aglietliltire and Nb itoitlg. I bleifliC lb Tests Ailatvses alad Ilafllnnaotilhla 011 maiaofaettire 155-tIll llIalrillgsl 111 I hltors, lIlnoistles, Choal Oils, Caiadies, Shop, Sttgar, AiCIIhIII ReIn N it~eon Acillo, Alkties and Salis; analyses of Oies 01111 IlilIcrals Smelttia loll ltinifyitt5 MetlIls; Galvanlt-Itlastie (lId lIttler- A. L, FLEURY & FR. RUSCIIIIAUPT, (Ptipits 01 LothI oiait N11lscIoe1iietl), Otlice No, 24 TlairIt-osciltie lBitlt5 A IA OTT S (ON CENTRIC LATHES FOR BROOM, tIle 01111 RIke II lilltleo, Chair Rotinlts, hePrict, $25; 111111 alt IllihIr klbbltx III NN 111111 11111 kiIlg iNIaelliIlery, flln sate by 4 tell - C. IIILLS, No, 12 Ptatt-strecl, Ncsv York. GO AGENTS WANTEDTO SELL FIVE NEW !J. ~J ioventionsoae very recent, and of great value to families, All pay great profits Is agents. Seiad liltlr stomps and get 80 pages partictilar [17 13 1 EPHRAIM BROWN, LsSvell, Mass, (~UILD & GARRISONS STEAM PUMPS FOR ALL ~A kiilds of independeilt Steam Pnmping, for sale at Nos, 55 aild 57 Finst-slieet, NN~iitilIinslltirgll, L, I,, and NIl, 74 Beekman-street, Nesv Yhlrk, [1 20] GUILD, CIARRISON & CO. ~ I ASONS PATENT STORE WINDOW VENTILATOR (blaiclltell Jan, 24, 1860), totally preventseondensation frost heat aiod the ieotiiliilg damage to goods eXpIltelt io shosv svindosvs, Eights, single In distriet. lihr s~ste losv. Apply to 5, E, MASON, No, 1,522 NIbrib Fotlrlll-strcet, Philadelpllio, Pa. 1 5* I RON PLANERS, ENGINE LATHES, AND OTHER Maehtnisis Toots, of stipenior qtiatity, on Ilalad aiod finiohing, and fllr sate low; also Harrisons Grain Mitts, IlIr descriptive eirctltar ad. dress NeSv Haven ManIlfocttll-iilg Ithlnopany, Ness Raven, (101111. 1 260 F U1N IN T1~~ foY0~IM~Y MAGIC CASES FOR hhlibtoOlas, he., stamps. C, I. WILLIAMS, Loek 11110 385, rhIvilteilce, 11, I. 3 2- (1 LINTON WIRE CLOTH COMPANYMANUFACTUR. crslh f Potoer LorIlo NN1ire Clotla, for threshing moelaliacs, fan nIttis, grain asoontens, rice mills, liosllmotive spark-arrestero, 011(1 all otIler tises, of a stipenior qtiality, Chintnaets made sviitl tile trIlde aild large coilsIlincro, OIl stich terms that tlaev ssilt tind it ill tllein tIltenest to take tilcir stilapty Irom 100, Otir trodcinark P110-er Loom NNire Cloth, C, H., WATERS, Agent and Treasurer, 2 t4~ Ciiiaton, Mass. THE TIN, SHEET IRON AND COPPERSMITHS PRAC- T ICAL C(IMPANI(IN sill he sent by mail, free of postage, to 0110 part If tile Ullitell Stllies, Oil tile receilot (If 75 celats, Cinclllor of CililtISilIs sent gratis, Address BLINN & BATTLE, Detroit, Mich. 2 40 ~REAT CURIOSITY.PARTICULARS SENT FREE. ~,A Agents walated. SHAW & s CLARK, 624 Biddetiord, Maine. P0 RTABLE STEAM ENGINESIl, 8 AND 10-HORSE, at $500, 625 011(1 78t), Flor sale by S. C, BILLS, No, 12 Ilait- street, Ncsv N lInk, 1 c3w PUMPS! PUMPS!! PUMPS! ! CARYS IMPROVED R Iliary Foree Plimp, iiiarivaied for plimpilag hot or cold liqoids, Manolilctltred aiail sItilt thy CAttY & BRAINERD, Brbekpllrt, N, Y. Also, shdd by J, C. CARY, No, 2 Astor House, New York City. 11 13 ~3lIt ~3Ca6tjtlIn(~ jut beutjefic (5~vfinbcr. ~ie llutcr~eic(oteteu t)INIiCH 61116 2fHte11tuH~3, Ne (.~vfiuberu bct~i Q~er I, fdten ftHIlitst, urn ~i4i il)re I4J~teute ~u f14)erIt, lievo cIu~e ~eb Cu, uHb hCIVd5fOI~CH ~otct)C qratiti (111 boe~ettoeu. lTvfuibet, lveld)e uid)t mit bet cHi~iif4,eu l~,ra4)e betluut lIub, tottucu 4ve ~2UI iltiIeifuuIleH Ill bet beut~d~eu ~r~d~e fc~riebenen ~3e1ct)re11bun~eI1 Ileliebe HIOIH ~u fibbt6~It6n an ~MUH11 & ~Iut bet Sffice ltlitb beut~t1i ge~tcd~cn. ~ie ~afenf4eFef~e bet 9~ereinigfeu ~faafen, nebjt ben ~l6Il6hn nub bet ~Se~tA)cIft1~I2tbnung bet ~Jat6nto Z!11C6 utib 21n(eitunIlen fiir l~i4inbet, urn Iicfi ~Icttente ~u (id~ettn, ill bell QICI. ~t. ~o00ol)I at~ in iIuro~ict. 3erner 2lI1~o 3iiIle att~ ben ~ittento~3e~et~en ~tembet ~Rinber nub betrauf bet nub fotd)e, uitetefue ~~atentiten 1~o lien. ~Itei~ 20 ~ vet ~oft 25 (fly. PATENT LAWS OF THE UNITED STATES, WITH other information of importance to Inventors, Patentees and As- signees. JUST ISSUED, A work of over 100 pages, containing the Patent Lao-s ttf the ~nited States, svitli alt tlae information furnished from the Patent Ottice rela- tive to ttte iooode of applyiltg for patelato, forms of speciticati(htlhi, vl~vellbs, re-issues, adltitioloal impnosemeibts, assignments, h-c.; lile rtileo fol tIlboing testimttny iio cases of iIlteriereiace aiodt extensirhils, ovi 111 stiggIss- tiolas of imponialace regan~tiia Ille nihills (If patentees, boss tho mark tiblil loateilted nsacbaines, (ble penalty thIn ioegteeting to ptlt on hoe correct ht~lte and oIlIer iiafonmation of imphinloIlce tIl every inventor, pateilile on assiglace iia the United States, Tile svork also contains an epitome of the laos of foreign cotintnies SOitIl directions hosv to sectine inventions abroad, Tllis hlsild-book has beeia earefotty prepared by the editors of tIle ScIoNTIFIc AsnoninoN, and it is believed contains iooore ilafllrnoatihan of practical importance to persons ovlao soish to secttre patelots, or svlllo oSvn t~ateots, or Sv(hrk niaden a license, 111110 any other ptabiicatioto of a like Ilatlire osbicta lIas es-cr tteen ptitaiislaeit, Price, silagle copies, by mail, 25 cents; five copies for $1; fifty cotoles for $8. MUNN & CO Pnblishers of Ille SeienXifie American, No. 37 Pankrosv, NeSv York, TIlE NEW YORK OBSERVER, A RELIGIOUS AND papel, is hoe largest loeso-stoatocr in tlae SS(hrlll, Puba- lished sveekly, alad devoted to religious, tilciary, blnd oeellar inteittgcioee of evely vaniety. Ils mammoth Olbect 15 511 annanett 05 to coilstitotls tsvo ciltopiete lleSSsboaloeis 1151 olle reiilhttis allot hoc othei secttlai eacIl of sohicla is larger 111010 0 mOtIil 11) ol 110 clintemlool arics, It IS loot sectlsliaIa ill religillil, nor lO0~tb5 no ill pohtlex 11111 lteStilclt fbor Il ioieasiiag aild lilsintictiSe chhmlOaioioia 110 cs cro es aiageticat ( 111101100 101Oiis. It. is tlaorottgtbty coilsers-ative, naIl optbooecl 111 ~llt Itac diooranlZlIo iStlIs of tloc do). A lange iallnaiaer 01 Ilac boext vi itel s of the oge as opeci It cilnInitti- tons atod conresIOoiOdeilis, 10 alt the 101 ineipat eotilati ies 01 tlae ssIhrlll, are uiaited ss-ith a foll ehlit(tnioi dli 100 01111100 expericioce to ts e lIllenest 01111 vatlie to the papel, Tloe Retihlhllls Dethartmellt ileoldes its cititorial articles and correslaonhtenc c sIltolils a sttmmary of the most itaoltIintailI moSenlelIts (If all Clonisilala detlonoinaIloios The Seent ln Sileet, ill addttthhia to tlae fllneigil aIld dIlmeslic il~5S s, 1100 dcpontmcnts of agrietll- tone, of science, aiod of chlmmel ce the hatter embraclng ftiht 01111 acctt rate iclohOrts of moile)-, pillIllice collie aiod other inOl keis ti~o 10 till tinoe of glling to lorIss, floe price of tise (Sioserser is 2.50 0 )-lSai~ ill altSIlilcl. To es-ei-~- ~~~n~lil 0e1111111 tis the ntlmes of fiSe ileSs slltOOcnito - (1 aIls ot~ee 180251)1. sse ssiil gite the 01101 of $5, Svtlicll no. v be dedticled 111110 tIle 11110 lonsvarded to (15, Address SIDIsFX E NIORSE, Jo,, & Ctl., 1 5 - 37 Park-now, Ncw York, G WRAIThS BOILER INJECTORFOR SUPPLYING boilers las otineet presslire (If steam Svittlotit Itbe iiltenSela- tiola of ally machillery. It he atteiltbon of engineers and ottleno ill tenested is inS-itell ho these iaesvly 1101 entelt lilsIl ltiooents, flOSS 1110 IlhOlbibiliOlO 111111 for sale by CHARLES VI COt FLAND No, t22 Broaltsvoy, Ness Vonk, 24 33* OIL OIL OIL FOR RAILROADS STE XMPRS AND for Ntadtliiaery 0011 Btirnillo.Peascs Impiosed Nloehinets 01011 Burnin Oil SIlIi 0~S c ilft) hoer deilt, aild svitl 11111 ~lII0 Tlois I)ii boos sesses qttaltties vilati) essential fIll ltttortcaling and boil nilIg onol flollnd in no ollIel oil Itis ofierchl to tboe totiblic tl~hl0 Ille 1101101 nIh tote 111111 stih aiad practical test. Otir moot skiliflll IIaiileers 011(1 lnacllilaisls ~~1Ii1Otll0C~ it superior to and dlocaloer 111011 Ofl) lIttler 01111 1111 01111 liii Illat is 111 all coses reliohie lIlldSvilt 10110 glillO Tioe 8c~ NTi1If A-snlln SN after ses erol testl flu hlnhhllloces it stipenion II) otoy othel tiles lois 1 1 XII used foi noocillblci s For sale oiolv lv Ille Ins ciobol aiod NI Oibtil,lvtlli ci F 8 PFASE No, 61 Mom street Htittat N. B Reliable orrhers filled for 0115 poll of tIle LolIclI 81 tIes OlId Europe, 18 13 HOUSEHOLD ARTICLE FOR EVERYDAY USE- Patent for sateA self-soaping Serllbbing Batla or NIlit Bntisb. Coo be got ll~ cheap; an excellent opphortlilaity 111 make moto e~-. Palelli groiItellM ay 22, 1860. Address WM. TUSCII, Box No. 773 Ness- York Phost Ollice. 18 SAVE YOUR STEAMHOARD & WIGGINS LXI. prhlved Steam Trap Valve, for netieviagsteam pipes, cytinIlers, Ac., of cloildelloed Svaler. By us use the tollitIr pneostire is kept 1110, the full bleat maintained, and a large saving in liiel Inade. Several tllllssands nI these trap valves are ill sticcessful use, and sve offer Illem xvibh entire colllidence tilat they will accomplish alt that sse claim for them. FlIr an illustralelt circular or a trial machome, adttiess J. NN. HOARD, Provide 14 15* h-lEO. B. NN5IGGIN, flee, R. I. 11AYDEN SANDERS & CO., NO. 306 PEARL-STREET, Ness York, mtnltlfaettire ever) variety ss oork fIll bailrtatlte steam engines, ssllisties, valves, Itil clips, gage eocks, & c, 21 1311 SOLID EMERY VULCANITE.WE ARE NOW MANU- facttlring v-heels of tIlts remarkable stibstance for cuitilag, glilolt- ing and potislling metals, that ssitl lItltSSear IltilIdreds lIf tlle ktiorl chInI- monly oloclI, 111111 svill do a mlicll greater amIltint of sShork in the same time, aiad more etlicieiltll, All iibtei-IOted coo see them in lhthenlotiou at at nur ssarelaoItise, or ciretitans deoeriihilbg hllem ssiil the ftlnibiotlell ill maik NEW YORK BELTING AND PACKING CO., 1 13 Nhls. 57 and 38 Pork-rosy, NSsv York. CL. GODDARD AGFNT NO. 3 BOWLING GREEN. Ncss Ylhrk. OniS molItli leltil cr of Ille Steel Eiiog aiarl Solid PICking Blinring MaChilles lIld Feed 1011115 for XNoIll Cards, & e. 25 26~ S TOVER MACHINE COMPANY , No.13 PLATT-STREET, Nesv YonkMantlhctllrers (of Sios ens Potent Eagle MhOtllin0 Ma- etlille, bor clltting alad planing irnetll tr fibrins If every deselilaoihnail- lltsbrated in No. 25, Vol. I Stit OTICIC AawnIcAxaiod (If tIle Shover & (11010 Patent CombiIiatloll Plalilib NloetliileilinstrIlted in NIl. 19, VIIl. II., ScIENTIFIC ASIs1IoIOAN Also oil kinds (If NNlbohI and InhIll lIlbill- sos-ing mulclliIleny, ltotlload Stihlphiex & e , h-c, 1* SCIENTIFIC REPORTINGPATENT SUITS, INVOLY- iiag questions of science or mechanics, repllrted verhalim: sci- ciatifie lectures, or tile pioceedings (If sCieiltttie societies, cittsci- re- pnrhed in full (Ir condensed, by hENRY H. PARKHURST, of the firm Burr & Lord, Short-bond Wi-iters and Lao Rephlrters, Nba, 121 Nassau-street, New York. lIf STEPHENS DYES FOR STAINING INFERIOR WOOD to imitate black salotit, mahogany, satin oood, Ihlscoood, or (halt. Specimens and prospeeltises seist 11) alt parts of tile SIlStl5 on receipi of 15 celIts, C, J, REILLY, No. 70 William-street, Netv York, 1 55 YATES IMPROVED PATENT MACHINE FOR SAW- ing Shingles or Heading. E. A. JUDD, Proprietor, Cloittehlango, Madisoio cotlnty, N. V. W. H. YATES, Agelat, Rboellester, Miell, 25 5 milE NEW BRICK MACHINE IS GRADUALLY EN- 1. tending over ilie United States and Canada; is Svorkcd by one nlan, bay horse anIl by steam; makes from 4,000 tIl 25,000 bricks a (lay; costs from $75 to 400. For forther particut~tls ill 1 IlOnIPhiet gising fnhl instrttctions on biick-setting and bttnniiog, address eibchll5iiog tharee stamps, FRANCIS H. SMITH, Battimhore. 1 6~ NEW SHINGLE MACHINETHAT WThL RIVE AND Shave 24,000 Shingles in a day, for sale by 5, It. HILLS, No. 12 PlaIt-street, Nesv York. 1 If W OODWORTH PLANERSIRON FRAMES TO PLANE 18 to 24 inches side, at $90 to $110. For tale by S. ~t. HILLS, Ns. 12 Platt-street, Nesv York. t he A MESSIEURS LES INVENTEURSAVIS IMPORTANT. Los Inventeurs non lomiliers avec ha langue Anglaiso et qui prO f11reraient nous communiqtler leuns inventions en Frongais, peuven none adresser dans leur langue natabe, Eovhoyez notis nil dessin e une description concise pour notre examen, Tootes communication seront regues en confidence, MUNN & Co., SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN Office, No. 37 Park-row, New York. Improvements in Marine Engines. The arrangcment of steam ennines in boats and slLll)s has furnished a full opportunity for the exertion of the very hi~hest engineering ability that the world has ever known, and there is still room for the expendi- ture of an indefinite amount of h~genuity in this de- partment. As Great Britain has the largest number of sea-going steamers of any nation, the largest amount of attention has been bestowe(l in that country upon all l)arts of their structure. The following description of an improvement patente(l in England by Mr. J. F. Spencer, which we find in the London Engineer, we re- gard of sufficient ilnl)ortance to justify its transference 64 line of the keel, and either horizontally or slightly in- clined, end thus insures, as in the case of the applica- tion of the surface condensers to inverted screw en~ines, ready access to the tubes of the condensers, and the fa- cility of removing them by withdrawing them from the case forming the central condenser, to which is con- nected each cylinder. It is intended, though not indis- pensable, that the condenser should form the support for the central bearing of the paddle shaft, Mr. Spencer prefers to employ the following descrip- tion of slide valve In ordinary marine engines, it is usual to relieve the main slide from the steam pressure by a faced ring at the back so fitted as to prevent the to our columns steam acting on a given surface of the back of the In (lescril)ing this invention, and the modes of carry slide but when cut-oft slides work on the hack of the ing it into effect, the patentee illustrates its applica main slide, the arrangement ordinarily employed for tion to engines intended for driving the screw propeller, relieving the pressure cannot be effectually carried out. an(l he adopts for this pnr~~ e a type of engines which, But he is enabled to use one or more cut-off valves or i/742 lie 1)elieves, particularly suited for commercial marine slides, aml at the same time to relieve the main slide purposes. from the steam l)rCsSllre on its back an(l this is effected In constructing (lireet-actiug screw engines with in- by causing the cut-off slide or slides to work in a chain- verted cylinders, he introduces under the cylinders and ber of a rectangular, or approximately rectangular, between their vertical centers a central case or hollow section formed at the l)ack of the main slide. This frame of a suitable form, and of sufficient. size to receive chamber may either be a portion of the casting the arrangement of horizontal tubes forming a surface of the main slide, or a separate casting bolted condenser. In this comlenser the tubes are placed ho- on. It is formed by surrounding the back of the main rizontally or cut slightly inclined, and are in each case slide with a supplementary back and side, the supple- (hispose(l across the line of the keel of the ship an(l mentary back being fitted with the faced ring before the circulation of the con(lensing water is produced l)y referred to, for relieving the back pressure, the supple- mechanical means, and takes place within the thin mentary sides and ends being perforated with aper- metal tubes, whilst the steam to 1)0 condensed is tures of any convenient size or form to admit the brought in contact with the exterior surfaces. This steam freely to the cut-off slides. By this arrange- central surfimee comlenser forms the support to the ment the working of the cut-off slides does not inter- cylinders on the inner sidles, whilst the forward and fore with the fitting of the faced ring ordinarily em- aft l)ortiOns of the cyhimlers are carried by columns or ployed for the purpose of relieving the main or exhaust other framework secured to them, and also to the bed- slide from the pressure of the steam, audi forms a very plate. The central surface con(lenser is supported useful adjunct to the marine engine. upon, and secured to the bedplate by two chambered In the engraving two descriptions of engines are legs, one or 1)0th of which may be employed for, or shown, which will serve to illustrate the general fea- used as a portion of, tIme condenser, the central body tures of this invention, and, for the purpose of avoid- of which is raised sufficiently high above the level of ing complication, the figures are simplified materially. the bedplate to allow the cranks to be dirawn out or in Fig. 1 is a longitudinal elevational view, partly in entiways. The side chests may he placed in such posi- section, of a pair of direct-aetin~ cylinder screw - engines tions as may be found most convenient for giving mo- having the surface condenser arranged according to this tion to the slides, or for any other purpose. The air- invention. The ~ubcs in this ease, it will be observed, pumps can be worked either by the muain engine or by are placed across the line of the keel of the vessel. separate steam cylinders. By this arrangement of sur- Fig. 2 is part of a transverse sectional elevation of a face condensers, according to this invention, in inverted pair of direct-acting oscillating marine paddle-engines s~rew engines, ready access is secured to every part of with surface condenser, & c., the tubes of the condenser the engine and condenser for the purposes of examina- in this ease bomb placed in the direction of the line of tion, cleaning, and repair, and more particularly it en- the keel of the vessel, as shown, instead of athwart- ables any of the condenser tubes to be removed and re- ship, as in the direct-acting marine screw engines de- Itlaceti without deran~ing any steam joint or connec- scribed. In this view, as in the two preceding fig- tion in the engine, excepting only the water joints of ures, A is the surface condenser. Any other letters of the cover plate in the condenser case giving access to reference would be unnecessary, there being nothing the ends of the condenser timbes. novel in the form or arrangement of the engine. In direct-acting emigines for driving paddle-wheels, In the inverted cylinder engines the cylinder is shown tIme patentee ~1aces the tubes in tIme (hirection of time togetlmer with its top and bottomn covers, as hollow, for the purpose of surrounding the cylinders with steam of a suitably high temperature to prevent the undue condensation which would otherwise take place. In Fig. 2 is shown, for the sake of variation, the cyl- inder may be surrounded by a easing, and the bottom of each may likewise be hollow. Cunmous CmIEMIcAL Expaossox.On the 10th inst. an explosion of a remnarkable character took place in Whitehouse & Cos. glass cutting and enameling estab- lishment, situated in Nassau-street, Brooklyn. A still used for the generation of fluoric acid, which is minmeb used to produce figures on glass by corrosion, exploded, and Mr. Whitehonse, the senior partner, received such injuries from it, as soon terminated his life. Fluorie acid is exceedingly d~ ngerous its fumues are sumffocat- ing, and, imi the liquid state, it burns flesh almost like fire. Mr. Whitehouse was highly respected by all who knew Imim, audi he was an inventor and most skillfmml worker in ornamental glass. ExPLosIon OF TEETHExplosions of boilers, cannon and carbines are not uncommon occurrences, itut who- ever heard of teeth exploding. Such phenomena, how- ever, sometimes take place. A correspondentW. II. Atkinsonof the Dental cosmos, relates three eases of teeth exploding. He attributes these to tIme expan- sion of gases in the interior of the teeth, bmmt how these gases were generated we are not informed. OF THE SCIENTIFIC_AMERICAN. THE BEST MECHANICAL PAPER IN THE WORLD. SEVENTEENTH YEAR? VOLUME IYNEW SEIIIES. A new volume of this widely circulated paper commences about the inst of January and 1st of July each year. Ever~ m e olmitus six- teen pages of useful inforoinijon, and front five to ten oriotnil engrav- ings of new inventions and discoveries, all of w mcli u e ~l ep ii cii ex- presob for its columns. TIme SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN is imeveted to the totereslo of Poptimar Science, imie Mechanic Arts, Manufarmores, Ins enliotia ~Oi ictilt tile, Commerce and the Industrial Pursuits generalla -10(1 is a -illnl)l( and instritetive not only in the Workshop and Maimufactora bmtt alan in the Motisehold, the Library and the Ecading Enom. Tue SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN has the reputation, at home and abroad, of being mite heat weekly publication devoted to nacelsanical mud industrial ptiisuiis noms- piblislied, mud the publishers are determined to keep tip the reputation they have earned during the SIXTEEN YEARS they have been connected with its ptibiication. To f/to Inteator! The SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN is indispensable to every inventor, as it not only contains tilmlsirated tlescriptions of nearly all the Imest inveti- lions as they come silt, but each number contains an Official List iif the Claims of all the Patents issued from the United States Patent Otlice dilcing the week previotis Ibtis giving a correct history of the progress of inventions in this country. Mre are also receiving, every week, the best scientific jomirnals ofOreat Britain, France, slid Oermany thus placing in osir possession all that is transpiring tint mechanical science and art in those old cominiries. We shall coittinite to transfer to omlr columns copious extracts from these journals of whatever we may deem of interest to our readers. To flee Mechanic end lliaatufacturer! No person engaged in any of tIme mechanical puromitis should think ol doiiig without time SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN. It cools bitt four cents per week; every number cOlitaills deem six to ten engravitigs of new nsa- dittIes and ins-emations, which catitiot be founil in aiiy other piblication. It is an estabitolied role of the publishers to ilisert none bitt original en- gravillgs, and those of the first-class us the mid, rirasen atid engraveil liy experienced ~O~5Oll5 under their own supervision. Glteotists, Architects, llIillws-ights audi Ears-nets Tile SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN will be found a most useful jomirnal to them. All the miesv discovel-les ill Ibe ocience of chemistry are given in its colutuns, antI the interests of the architect and carpenter are 1101 overlooked ; all mIte nesv ilivelitiotas and discos-el-tea apperltliliilig mu these pmiroitils beiua published from sveck to sveek. Useful and practi- cal informatioti apperlaining to tIme interests of millavrtghals atiil mill- ossners st-ill be fotind published in the SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN, snitch itt- forusamion they cannot possibly obt~iita ft-sm ally other source. Suibjec-Is in as-hich plarfiers atmil farmers are interested still tie fottud utisetmoseth tI) ihe SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN ; muost of the iniprovenuelils in agrictllltll-al implements being illitotrateut in its coitmuins. Terms. To nasil smibseribers Two Dollars per atititim, or Olac DillIar for six montlas. Otte Dollar pays for one complete volttme of 416 pages; Iwo voltmmes compi ise out a ear Club Rates. Five Copies fiim Smx Mouths . - Ten Copies tuuI 515 Mouths Ten Copies, tsr ravelve Mottilis Fifteeta t,ohules tcii las else Montits Fss-euits ( pica liii Tins eta-c Months For all cluiba ol Tss etata and os-et-, the yearly siilisci-ipliiita is illily $~.4t). Names can be sent In -it ulitteretit times and froita ditferent Pool-othices. Specimema copmes as ill be aetat graids so any part of the country. LIUNH & CC., rutli~here, No. 17 Park-I-nsa-, New voik. SPENCERS IMPROVEMENTS IN MARINE ENGiNES.

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Scientific American. / New Series, Volume 4, Issue 5 65-80

( A JOURNAL OF PRACTICAL INFORMATION IN ART, SCIENCE, MECHANICS, AGRICULTURE, ChEMISTRY, AND MANUFACTURES. VOL. IV.---NO. 5. NEW YORK, FEBRUARY 2,1861. NEW SERIES. Improved Steam Plow. T, fitting loosely aroim(l the axle, S are secure(l the (lesires to turn the carriage round he throws one wheel rrhe great ohstacle in the way of plowing with steam pins, it, which pass through the hub of the gear wheel, out of action, upon which wheel the carriage turns as is the weight of the steam engine. The weight of a II, and which may be presse(I into holes in the huh of upon a pivot. locOmotive is not ohjectionable when it inns upon the (iriving wheel, C, or withdrawn from the same by The plows, A A A, arc secured to a triangular har(l iron rails, l)ut it is ver oheetionable when the moving the lever which communicates with the rear so collar, frame at the of the carriage, which frame is locomotive is designed arranged as to he raised to run upon arabIc perpendicularly ii p - land, nud especially wards clear of the upon plowed ground. ground, whenever it is The first thing to be desired to pass over the considere(l then for ma- ground without plow- chincry for steam plow- ing, or in order to avoid ing is the construction any obstruction thi~ of a light engine and may he encountered. carriage. This has heen The arrangement hy the aim in olesiguino which the frame may he the Plow here illos- thus raised is plainly trn.te(l, which is thus shown in the cuts. The described by the inven- front har, 6, of the too frame is supported at The object of my each side hetween two invention is the con- vertical hangers, c c, struetion of a steam acal it is suspended in 1)10w sufficiently light, the space tween these to be adapted to practi- hangers hy the chains, cal use both on gra~.s J and J, and hy the land and on plowed link, d, upon the end groun 1. lids I have of the shaft, e, in such effected by the combina- a manner that it may tion of three essential lie raised or lowered by fiatures:lst, By the tnrnh~g the shaft, K, adoption of the lightest. around which the uppci form of lioiler known ends of the chains are for the generation of a wound. A crank is ar veo) quantity of steam; . - ranged within conveni 2d, By eooostouctino the -~..-- ~ -~ cut reach of the fireman ...~ carriage of l)late anol .-- ~ ~ ~ .-~ .-~ to enable to raise or V.A ~~---~-- him angle iron, loy which .:- lower the plow trame at the necessary strength will. The rear angle of an(l stiffness is obtaine(I with less weight than REYNOLDS IMPROVED STEAM PLOW. the plow frame is sup ported by a wheel, H, by the employnoent (if any other material; nood 3d T and thons- the axle, S, may be secured rigidly to the axle of which is placed eccentric to the shaft of By making the supporting wlocels of sooffieient width cici or both of the driving wheels, or may be allowed which it is a continuation, so that, by turning the to) cover the ground throughout thoc whole wiolthi of to turn loosely in their boxes at the will of the oper- shaft over in its bearin~s, the rear end of the plow the carria~e; tloc whocels at floe same time, hoeing so ntor. The guide wheels, C, run upon a short axle frame may be raised or lowered to adjust the plows to arran~e(l that the 1)10w may be tuiro)eol iii a space the which is secured to the front part of the carriage by the run at any depth desired. radius of which is equal to its own width. This also makes one of the most convenient The construction of the portable engines for thresh- 1)10w will be readily under- ing grain and other pur stood by inspecting the en- poses. In this case the gravings, of which Fig. I is power is transferred to any a perspective view, and Fig. 2 a hongitul(linal vertical other machine by coupling a shaft upon the end of section. The whole width the main driving shaft of of the onachine is 8 feet, the two driving )vheeis, ~ the plow, the shaft to be coupled passhag through C, are each 2~ feet in width, one of the wheels between and the guide wheels, C, the spokes.~ are l~ feet each, running The patent for this in- (lose together, and doums vention was granted Dec. covering the space which is 18, 1860, and for the pur- o)ot trodden by the driving wheels. The piston rods chase of rights, or for any further information in rela of the steam cylinders, ID tion tothematter, inquiries ID, are joined by connecting maybe addressed to the in- rods to) the cranks, M, venter, John Reynolds, at upon the pinions, Q, which) No. 211 Dupont-street, pinions mesh) into the gear wheels, R, that are fastened king bolt, a. Around this king bolt is a spur wheel, Greenpoint, N. Y. firmly upon the axle of the driving wheels, C. Thus into which oneshes a pinion upon the lower end of the several strokes of the engine are required to effect one steering shaft, so that the direction of the guide wheels IN the year 1841, during Ihe brief existence of the revolution of the ohriving wheels. The driving wheels, may be changed at the pleasuore of the steersman. The Lone Star Republic of Texas, a letter sent from Arkan- C, fit loosely upon the axle, 5, boot they may be secured rods that actumate time clutches by which the driving sas to Brazoria, paid the following postage to floe spumr wheels, K, at the will of the operator, by wheels arc connected with the engine, are carried for- Fitty-two letters can now be sent over the same route means of a cluitch represented in Fih. 3. To tIme collar, ward within easy reach of the steersman, and when he for that amount. 66 FOREIGN SCIENTIFIC INTELLIGENCE. IRON PYRITES CONTAINING SILVER. A patent has 1)een taken out in England by J. Long- mai(l for treating pyrites and other ores as follows The ores are first ground so as to pass through a sieve having about 100 holes to the square inch. They are then introduced into a furnace where two processes are constantly being carried on with the same heat. The first part of the process consists in tile calcining of tile pyrites, so as to reduce tile sulphur in them to about five per cent; and secon(liy, tile decomposing of these calcined ores by comn~on salt. Flie groun(l ores, when first placed in a chamber of the furnace, evolve sul- phurous acid, which passes off into another chamber, where it is converted into sulphuric acid by being brought in contact with a proper quantity of oxygen. These calcined ores are now witlldrawn, mixed with about five per (ent of common salt, then placed in another cleunl)er of tile furnace, where they are re- duced. After this they are smelted to obtain eltiler the iron, copper, silver or tin which may be in them. This process would iC very useful for California pyrites, if fuel were cileap in that State. CARTRIDGES FOR naaacii LOAI)ERS. A patent for a enrtri(lge nla(le with gun cotton, coverell Witil a skin of collodion, has been obtained by J. Macintosh, London, England. It is statell to be impervious to moisture; it rea(lily ignites with a per- cussion cap and leaves no residue after firing. Gun cotton ignites so rapidly that it is very liable to burst a rifle or cannon. Were this not the case, it would be preferable to gunpowder for firearms. PURIFYING COAL OILS. A pateut has recently been taken out in England by W. 11. Bowdich, of Wakefield, for a peculiar method of purifying coal oil. In a proper vesselcalled a purifier-he arranges it with a tray on its upper part, which can be heated to a proper temperature. On this tray is placed sifted lime (hydrated peroxyd of iron may be use(i, hut clay is preferred) and pounded clay, and these are slightly raised above the boiling point of the oil. When the purifying material is at the proper temperature, tile oils are to be sent into the lower part of, and diowed to pass upwards through the ilot puri- fier, after which tiley are to 1)0 condensed in the usual way. Care must be taken not to send hl the oils too rapidly. Care is also required to prevent the tar liberated by this process from passing over with, and becoming absorbed in, the pllrified oils. The tar will not pass with tile purified oils, if the purifying material be not saturated with oil; but it will pass if the purifying material is saturated. It is requisite, therefore, to supply the hot purifier with tile coal oil slowly, so that the purifyin~ material may not become saturated. rThe purified oil will then be of good color. The oil passing from the purifier an(l through the condenser should he received ulto a glass vessel at intervals and examined; and, if found colored, the quantity passing through the ilot purifier 8110111(1 be lessene(l. If witil a slow current tile (listilled oil be colored, the hot purifier sllould be charged with fresil purifying mate- rial. The purified oils absorb some part of tile gases produced in the process of purification, which gases evolve more O(lOr than tile oils Ilave naturally. Such gas may be removed, an(l the smell of the oils im- proved by washing tileul witil a solution of caustic soda or potash, oul subsequently witil water. The quantity of removable matter is so small that a weak solution of alkali is sufficient, and tile oils witilout it are so good that probably the wasiling will not be thought necessary, except where smell is of great im- portance. Experience shows that a quantity of heated purifying material, equal to about a fourth of the weight of oil to be purified, gives an excellent result. The claim is for the passing of coal oils through slacked lime, or pounded clay, or hydrated peroxyd of iron, heated above tile distilling pohlt of tile oils, as de- scribed, by which treatment tar and sulphur com- pounds are removed, and the oils are rendered whiter and free from disagreeable smell. STEAM NAVIGATION ON ENGLISH CANALS. It is ratiler singular that steam navigation on Amer- ican canals should ilave been unsuccessful, as described on page 39 of the present volume of tile SCIENIIFIC ~MERIcAN, while in England it ilas become so success- ~nl as to reduce the cost of conveying freight no less than 25 per cent. Tile Grand Junction Canal Company, which formerly used to tow their boats with horses have (lispensad with animal power, and now use steam alone. There are 5,000 miles of canal in Great Britain representing a capital of about $200,000,000, and since the adoption of steam as the propelling agent, the traffic increased inst year 25,000 tuns. The most pecu- liar feature in the steamboats which are now employed by the Grand Junction Company plying between London and Bi~mingham or Manchester, is an improved form of screw propeller, called the waggle tail, which has the advantage of keeping all the disturbance of the water immediately behind the stern of the boat, instead of spreading it right and left. The effect of this im- provement is at once to secure the canal banks from being damaged by tile wash and to econonlize tile motive power. FRENCH RAILROADS. Tile French government is reported to be contem- plating the purchase of all the railroads in that country. An article in the Revue del deux Mondes, in opposition to tilis centralizing project, points out that tile Russian Austrian and Belgian governments, which all began by constructing railroads, have found it advantageous to get rid of most of them and encourage private enter- prise. Already the Frellch government monopolizes the manufacture of arms, gunpowder, naval architec- ture, public works, tobacco, salt, the conveyance of private messages by telegraph, the conveyance of small parcels, and controls the management of forests. It is the conservative or rather distrustful system which has caused France to be surpassed in railway extension, not only by England, but by Germany and Belginln. France is in the third rank, as regards the mileage of railroads executed or authorized by decree ; in the seventh rank in respect to the amount of her popula- tion served by railroads; and in every point inferior as conlpnred with England and Belgium. As regards commercial facilities and the general illduStry of the people, Louis Napoleon llas been a great patron of tile industrial arts. He must beware, how- ever, and not curtail illdividual effort by adopting a grand centralizing system.. The ~reat advancement and prospelity of the United States are principally due to intelligent and general individual effort. Supposed Cancer Speedily Cured. The Denial Cosmos contains an account of a case by J. L. Suesserot, M.D., relating to an aged lady who had suffered for such a length of time from a large ulcer OIl the inside of the lower lip that it was at last held to be malignant cancer. The exciting cause of this was the protruding apices of the roots of the central lower inci- sors which ilad escaped the notice of the attending physi- cian (a gentleman of acknowledged ability in his pro- fession), because of the coating of tartar, which rendered their appearance very similar to that of the illeer. Dr. Suesserot says respectin0 it: Prompted by a desire to benefit the patient, and at the same time demon- strate the advantage of a dental edneation, I was induced to commit the unprofessional act of oper- ating before the invitation was extended. No regular instrument being at hand, I called for a table fork, antl, in a much shorter time tilan the writhlg of tills ilas consumed, I relieved tile greatly distressed patient of a disease which she had expected would very SOOll ternlinate her existence. Nearly all of the alveolar margin Ilaving been absorbed, by plaeing a prong of the fork lander the protruding lower end of tile root, the operation of evulsion was readily per- formed; and by the removal of that which had become a foreign substance, the diseased condition of the lip, as well as all the surrounding parts, IYRS speedily removed. As this is not DII isolated case, it would be well for the cause of humanity were the dentist more frequently called in consultation; tile (liseases of tile teeth and their surroundings being his special province, many morbid changes which too often escape the notice of the physician, or are considered by him of minor importance, might he detected, and disastrous results prevented. SunlusssoN TO IMPROVEMENTS. In our time wllell science and art are making such rapid strides that almost every day startles us with the announcement of a new discovery calculated to annihilate time, or increase the productiveness of labor, mechanics often find themselves encroached upon in tileir occupation, and instinctively take a stand against the revolution intended. Nothing can be more natural, or, on calm reflection, more completely hopeloss. The consequence is inevitable. The mechanic must submit, and expect to receive his reward indirectly and in the course of tinle. -Shoe and Leather Reporter. AMERICAN NAVAL ARCHITECTURE. [Reported for the Scientific American.] TILE IRON STEAMShIP wR. 0. REwES. This is one of the largest iron steamships ever built in this country. She was launched on tile 15th of December, in the presence of 5,000 people. Her hull was built by Messrs. Harlan, Hollingswortll & Co.. of Wilmington, Del. Her machinery was constructed by the Morgan Iron Works, of New York City. Tile route of iler intended service is from New Orleans to Galveston. For strellgtll nald i)eallty of model, tiliS steamer eallIlOt be surpassed. We append flail antl correct particialars of Iler 111111 and lIlachillel Length 011 deck, 239 feet 4 indIes; length at load line, 239 feet; breadth of beam (molded), 33 feet deptla of hold, 10 feet; depth of ilold to spar deck, 18 feet; draft of water at load line ,9 feet; area of im- nlersed seetloal at the allove drnft, 270 square feet; displacement at load line, i 253 ttaus ; tunnage, l477~%oT~ talals. Her frame is of wiouglat 11011 hars, 4 inciaes by 1 hIck and 4 inches by ~ of RhI illell ill thickness. lvhich are fastened with keepers 31 illehes by % of an illeil thick, every 12 inches, togetiler witil Filets ~- of 111 4 mdl in (Ilameter. Distance of frame apart from cen- ters, 16 inclaes ; tiley ale molded 4 inches and sided 1 illela. Nunlber of strakes of plate, from keel to gun- wale, 16 ; thickness of plates, ~i to of an mdl. Tilere are 14 cross floors, silaped l ; deptil of tilese, 18 inches ; thickness, a and ~ of Rll ialdh, forming belts witla angle iron on top, six of tilenl contilluing up to guard (leek clamp, and tile halanee to nlaill deck lodger. Shape of keel, U; constructed of (louble plates, ~- RSl(l ~ of RD ilIch ill tilicklless ; depth of same, 6 illdlles. Tilere are 10 fore-and-aft keelsons, 18 illdlles iligil alIti silaped, T; these ale capped with angle iroll, doIltinililIg from eiad to end. Tile Win. C. Ilezces is fitted witil otae vertical beam condensing engine ; nunlber of cylinders, one; filaul- etar of same, 50 indiles; length of stroke of piston, 11 feet; lengtll of engine room, 76 feet; dianleter of water wheels 01-er boards, 30 feet; lengtll of wheel blades, 7 feet 6 illelles ; widtll of blades, 7 feet 6 indIes; deptil of blades, 1 foot 8 illdlles ; nunlber, 26; Illaterial, iroll; dip ot wheels at load line, 6 feet. Slae is also supplied witil one retllrn tubular boiler, nla(le of steel plates, wllidh is the only 0110 of any size ever constructed in this country. Lengtll of boiler, 21 feet; breadtil, 17 feet; laight, exelusive of steam cilimney, 9 feet; location, ill ibid forward of engine; it has a water bottom. Number of furaances, 4 ; breadth of saIlle, 3 feet 6 lIldiles ; lengtil of grate bars, 6 feet 8 inches ; number of tubes, above, in boiler, 92 ; nunl- her of flues below, 8 ; i nterllal diameter of tubes above, 5 inciaes; internal dianleter of flues below, 1 foot 7 inelles; lengtlt of tubes above, 15 feet ; lealgtil of flues below, 11 feet 4 illehes. Diameter of smoke pipe, 68 inches; bight, above grates, 50 feet. The boiler possesses a grate surface of 93 sqaaare feet, aIld a hettting surface of 2,600 square feet ; donsIlmptiOll of coal, per laoiar, 1,680 pounds ; nlttximunl pressure of steanl, 30 poalIlds, cut-off at olle-haif stroke ; maxi- ~llIll FeVOliltiOlls at this presslare, 18 ; weigilt of en.. gines, 190,000 pounds; wei~ht of boiler, witil water, 102,690 pounds. In addition to these essential features, the following deserve attention Bunkers are of wood aIld iron; the vessel is fitted with three anehors, weigilt, respect- ively, 2,000, 1,300 and 400 pounds; xvater ways are of wood; she has three bulkileads, iron braced witil angle iron; the water wheels have gunwale bearings she has one independent steam fire and bilge punlp, I two bilge pumps, two fire pumps, one bilge injection, and ~tve bottom valves or cocks, arranged as follows Two for fire pumps, two for injection punlp, aIld 0110 for steam pump. Ample protection against communi- cation from fire has been made, in tile shape of iron, tin, & e., & c. This steamer is nanled ill iloalor of the President of the New Orleans, Ohio and Great Western Railroad Company, of New Orleans; she will be commanded by Capt. James Lawless, formerly of the steamship On- Z0II0. In the furnishing of the steamer, expense ilas been a secondary consideration; the saloons are of hard wood finish, and fitted up in the most gorgeous style. Credit is jalstly due to Messrs. Harlan, Hollingsworth & Co. for sahell a sllccessful and splendid prodametion. India-Rubber Manufactures. Coneluded rron r9. To return, however, for a time to our own country. The application of india-rubber to waterproof garments by Charles Macintosh was the first practical adapta- tion on a large scale either here or abroad and the immense number which were sold proved fully their appreciation in- the public. In 1880, the first attempt at overshoes in this country was made by Thomas Ilancock, who took out a patent in that year for a composition for coating linen or cloth, or moulding into shoes. These, however, were a failure for the same reason that all manufactured in(lia-rubber goods had hitherto been found deficientthey would not withstand the action of the atmosphere. There was evidently a goal not yet reacheda grand secret which must be discovered crc success should fully attend the manufacture, or the value of the material be fully proved. It~s application, however, to various useful purposes was constantly going on, and both in France anil this country, as well as in America, large sums were expended in perfecting machinery for masticat- ing, spreading, and otherwise preparing the gum. One singular application was made, in 1840, by press- inn it into blocks combined with sawdust and finely- broken stone, for paving roads. This patentfor it was ma(le the subject of onewe fear (lid not prove remunerative to the inventor, as it does not seem to have ever been turned to practical account. Several patents were also taken out for cutting in(lia-rubber threa(l, aud applying it woven with silk and cotton to various rposes where elasticity was requireda biauch of manufacture which still exists as one of the most successful of its al)l)licatious. The year 1848 saw the intn)(lilctioli, however, of the long-sought-for change, by which the gum was ren(iere(l inadhesive and elastic alike under the influ- ence of heat or cold. ~fhe merit of this invention, about which there has been much litigation, is unquestionably due to Charles Goodyear, although a patent was taken out in this country by Thomas Hancock prior to Goodyear s, which bears date two months later. Reasons for this ae, however, given in the case of the American which are fully borne out by facts. Vulcanization, produced, as is now well known, by the action of sulphur under the influence of heat, ranks amongst the most important di Overies of the present century, and the discoverers have each, in their respective countries, reaped the reward of their labors by large returns received under patents granted to them for the process. The establishment of the india-rubber manufacture in America, though dating later than that of England, has reached greater perfection, and is more thoroughly understood than in this country. The first manufac- tory of any consequence was started there in 1882, and was called the Roxbury India-rubber Company, whilst here the first, we believe, was that of Mr. Chmrles Macintosh, who conunenced in the year 1821, more them ten years l)revioils. Charles Goodyear was born in New Haven, United States, in December, 1800, and for upwards of thirty years was engaged with his father and brothers in the hardware and clock business at Connecticut and Phila- delphia. During this time, indeed in his early days, commenced the (levehOpment of that inquirhig and in- ventive genius which afterwards led to such great re- sults when his attention was turned to india-rubber. Many ingenious and useful inventions in connection with his trade added to the celebrity of the firm, which then held a position as one of the first hardware con- cerns in the United States. From extended credit and heavy losses, however, the firm were obliged to suc- cumb, and young Goodyear, who had charge of a re- tail store at Philadelphia in connection with his fathers factory, was heft, after repeated imprisonments for debt, with no very bright prospects for the future. It was at this time that accident drew his attention to the decomposition of india-rubber goods, and he was told that if any means could be discovered to prevent it, a very large sum of money might h)e realized by the invention the numerous manufactories then existing, an(l the large sums of money invested, being placed in jeopardy by the goods hieing thus rendered unsaleable. He imme(hiately turned his attention to this point, and from that time to the (lay of his recent death, through good and evil report, in wealth and in pov- erty, in prison or palace, the sick lied or the traveling 67 carriage, he never ceased to give the one point of ren- dering india-rubber a perfect material his whole atten- tion. The perseverance which induced this deserved success, and in 1889 lie was rewarded by- the disco very of vulcanization. His first attempts were commenced in his own cot- tage, where, with the assistance of a New England wife, who was his only friend through many struggles an(h (lepressions, he succeeded in making a few pair of overshoes, as lie thought. of a superior kind to those ma(le by the companies then in existence but, alas they proved like the rest, and were destroyed after a short exposure to the air, indeed sooner than those without his improvement. On lookin~ at his stores, when about to take them into the market, he found them one mass of melted gum. This was a sad failure, and the furniture of the cottage had to go for the sustenance of his family. Cast down, but not undaunted, he put his family in a boarding-house, and set off for New York to continue his experiments. Here he met with a friend to give him lodging and a chemist who found him his drugs. Tie went to xvork again with magnesia and lime, and produced some in- adhesive materials, which, though apparently at the time perfection, turned out, like the rest, failures though he exhibited and obtained a medal for the im- provement at the fair of the American Institute. While experimenting with lime lie washed his mate- rial with nitric acid to remove the lime from the sur- face, and discovered what is known as the acid-gas process, which he patented and found of great value. During the winter of 188687 he entered into partner. ship with a Mr. Ballard to make goods on this plan, and they took steam-power in Bank-street, at the sanic thac making arrangements for occupying a large factory- on Staten Island that had been aheady tenant- ed liy a corporation in New York for the manufacture of india-rubber goods, but which, from their inahillity to surmount the difficulties of the business, had been closed for some time. The mercantile (lisasters, how- ever, of 1837 included the friend who was to find the capital, and lie was left without the means of carrying forward his plans. Again was the little home broken up, and he had to seek the assistance of a brother al- most as poorly off as himself. Located on Staten Island, he was allowed admission to the machinery of the closed factory, and there made a few goods to ob- tain his daily bread. These, though the general lot of inventors, were hard trials to be borne. The heavy losses whicli had been incurred by all who had invested in india-rubber stock made it utterly impossible to induce any one to assist him. He found the same state of things at Boston, and, taking some of his specimens to Roxbury, Mass., he found no better encouragement there, that company having entirely abandoned the manufacture. He here, however, also obtained access to the machinery, and still went on struggling for success. In 1888 his at- tention was first drawn to the use of sulphur by Mr. Hayward, a gentleman connected with one of the in- dia-rubber companies, who was using his solvent im- pregnated with it as a dryer. Goodyears notice being thus drawn to it, and seeing a value in it which Hay- ward did not, he purchased the patent which had been taken out at his suggestion, and which simply claimed the using of sulphur as (lescribed, neither party having any idea of vulcanization afterward dis- covered by Goodyear. During this time he issued several licenses for work- ing under his acid-gas and solarizing process, which was thought a great improvement, and which brought him in a few thousand dollars. His fortunes seemed in the ascendant, and he manufactured large quanti- ties of fancy articles, and obtained an order from the government for a number of mail-bags. With all the goods lie was now making he mixed large quantities of pigmentschromes, white lead, and vermilionbut without chemical knowledge, he was ignorant of the effect of these metallic colors on the india-rubber after under~oing his acid-gas process, and the result was, that the whole proved a ruinous failure, all the goods decomposing within a short time after their comple- tion. Everything he possessed was again brought to the hammer, and his aged parents, whom he had been for some time supporting, together with his own fam- ily and two younger brothers, were left penniless. Four years had been spent in experiments, all of which had proved fruitless, and it was generally agreed by those who had hitherto assisted him that the man who could proceed further in a course of this sort was fairly deserving of all the distress brought upon hihe - self. No hope could be looked for in that quarter. The only advice he got was to return to the hardware business even his licensees, dliscouraged by their fail- ures, wouldi not grant him any assistance. The india- rubber trade in the United States was at its lowest ehsb, the ruinous losses which had fallen upon those who had hinvested their money- in it making it a public calamity. He had, however, made it his leadhing star, and no nersuasions could make bins give it up. Be- diucedi to poverty and the pawn-shop, he is described as being recognizable as a man who has on an india- rubber cap, stock, coat, vest, and shoes, with an india- rubber purse without a cent of money in it an en- couraging picture for those to whom lie applies for help. But fortune was in store for him. One day ac- cidentally bringing a portion of rubber mixed with sul- phur, which he had in his hand, in contact with a hot stove, he found that it had undergone a change such as he had not before noticed, and following up the ex- periment for some months alone in the factory at Woburn, lie discovered the process which makes it proof against cold, and the usual solvents, and, as Ise hsimself says, he felt amply repaid for the past, amsd qisite indifferent as to tise trials of the future. Perse- verance had met with its reward, and the future, though not bright at first, and often clouded over by trouble, eventually bore out his Isopes to their fullest extent. Not to follow too closely Isis chiequered career, we may Isere state thsat although he at once pateisted his hivention, tsvo years elapsed before Ise could get any one to assist him in bringing it before the public, such was the general aversion to any more experiments with what Isadi hitherto provedi so disastrous a faibire a state of things so unfavorable to the promulgation of tlse dhiscovery as cams well be imagined. The intem-- val was occsspied Isy making various imisroveissents, life being sustained by means of diverse loans of five and ten diollars, presents ef barrels of flour frons symss - patliizing friends, pawning even his childrens school- books, and other shifts with whsich poverty is famihiam-. He felt he had nosy, Isowever, grounds of assurance which had never existed with regard to previous mi- provements. TIse (liscovery was made in wiister, andi the specimens dlldl not harden. Sumumer retum-ned and they did not soften by heat. Swallowing Indigestible Substances. Dr. Read exhibited at the & ston Society for Medical Improvement, a dpsant.ity- of stones varying in size from that of a pea to tlsat of a cherry, whiels lsad pass- edi through the intestinal canal of a boy sevems years 01(1. Havimsg seen one of the performers at a circus swallow, or pretend to swallow stones, lie resolved to follow his example, and in the course of one afternoomi lie swallowed si ty;fonr, the usnited weight of which was a little more than nine ounces, and which filled an eight ounce bottle. On tlse next dlay the stones could be felt tlsrouighi the walls of tlse abdomen, arid, uspon percussion, could be heard to rattle, lust produced no iisconvenience. Castor oil was administered, and thsey were readily ex- pelled. At the same usseeting, tue proceedings of whuicis are reportedl in the Boston Medical end Surgical Journal, Dr. Pyher said that it was a common thing for patients at the MeLeams Insane Asyluiss, to swallow small objects, suich as pieces of glass, coal, stone, thimbles, & c. Recently a woman swallowed a crochet needle whichs was voided without inconvenience. Among sonse of the patients was a cusriouss propensity to swallow toads, and there is now in tlse Asylum a man who Isas swal- lowed half a dozen live toads without injury. Dr. Adams stated, that in a case of obstruction of the bowel, which followed the eating of a lam-ge quan- tity of cherries and swallowing the stones, the nurse collected and cousuted one thousand end seventy-seven cherry stones which were evacuated. Dr. Agnew, of this city, lsas in his private collection a pseparation of the stomach and intestines from an insane patient, in which are accuniulated an extra- ordinary variety of foreign materials, among whiels we recollect having seen long strips of bamsdage, sinus- penders, portions of clothing, buttons, & c. - A soasn cake of gold, worth nearly 50,000, has been sold to the Bank of New South Wales, and the quartz reef from which it was obtained will produce $150,000 a year for many years to come. ~e ~dentifi~ ~rnevi~n. ROMANCE OF THE STEAM ENGINE. ARTICLE VIII. AMONTONSJ?IRE WHEEL. After Savery, the next inventor who produced a pe- enliar calorie motor was Guillaume Amontons, of Paris, who was so deaf that he was thereby deprived of the sweets of social intercourse except with his own family. He early exhibited a taste for mechan- ics and, as is mostly the ease with young enthusiasts in this line, his first efforts were directed to invent a perpetual motion. His experience soon taught him that he was in search of an impossibility, and he then levoted his attention to other projects, among the rest a hot air engine entirely different from any that had preceded him. Tbis machine was called a tire wheel by Amontons, and is described as beiug operate(l by the action of heated air forcing a quantity of water up one si(le of a wheel and producing a ro- tary motion liy its differing weight from the other side. Ainontons appears to have been partial to expansive air as the motive agent of his engine, represented in section l)y tbe annexe(l Figs. 1 and 2. This fire wheel, as described by its inventor, consists of two concentric rings connecte(l and communicating with small pipes, 1, 2, 3, 4, & ~. ~ outer ring of the wheel is divided into several compartments, a, b, c, d, e, f, & c. Tbese were closed so as to have no connection with one an- other. The inner ring is~divided into the same num- ber of compartments, a, b, c, d, e, f, & c.; each of these communicates with the adjoining chamber by a hinged valve opening only in one directionupwards. Al- though the two rings and their series of compartments are placed at a (listanee, each compartment of the one communicates with a corresponding division of the other hy small pipes, 1, 2, 3, 4, & c. The wheel is so placed as to have one side of its periphery exposed to the action of a fire, and the other side is immersed in a cistern, y, of cold water. Four or five of the lower chambers of the inner series are filled with water. A lire is made in the furnace, z; this heats the air in the a, of the ai chamber, the outer series, r of which, be- coming rarefied, flows through the pipe, 1, into the chamber, a, of the inner series, an(l presses upon the water which it contains and forces it upwards into the (livisions on the side of the wheel nearest the furnace, which gives it a preponderance and causes it to de- seen(I. The cell, a, is now in the position at first occu- pied by b, andc is in that where it begins to enter the cistern; the air which is contained in the divisions which had been heated now being brought into con- tact with the water, it is condensed, and continues so until, by the revolution of the wheel, it is again bought, in its turn, into contact with the fire of the furnace. Nothing can be simpler than the hypothetical action of this mechanism; its effect was, as usual, not under- rated. The wheel was 12 feet in diameter, and the cells were calculated to contain 750 cubic feet of water, and an entire revolution to be made in about thirty- five seconds. This ~reat weight, applied tangentially to one side of the wheel, was to give it a continuous preponderance, which was calculated, very minutely, to equal in effect the power of thirty-four horses, or two hundred and thirty-four men. Throwing the practical merit of this mechanism to- tally out of the question, the combination is exceed- ingly meritorious; and looking to the time of its in- vention, and the perfect novelty of the idea, it has many claims to a more favorable consideration as a first thought, than has usually hecn awarded to it. That it presents glaring defects cannot be denied; but had length of years been alloted by Providence to its amiable projector, the same ingenuity which first traced the outline might have effectively supplied its (leficiences. A negative proof of its merit is, that it has been the type of several attempts at the construc- tion of steam wheels among later mechanics. While Amontons, in France, was engaged in his steam wheel, and Savery, in England, had achieved so brilliant a triumph, Papin was again exerting himself at Marpurg, in Germany, to bend the same powerful agent to the use of man ; as if the three nations of Europe, which had made, says Belidor, the greatest advances in science, were each anxious to furnish a learned man to participate in the glory of so fine a (liscovery. ELECTRICITY AND SOME OF ITS PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS. ARTICLE \T When two electrodes of carbon are brought into con- tact with each other, or an electrode of carbon is lowered upon mercury, there is produced the well- known electric light. This light, which, for power and beauty, excels all other artificial luminaries, and is equalled only by the sun, is produced by a stream of small particles of carbon, which are transported from the positive to the negative electrode, where a portion of them is found piled in an irregular heap, and some- times crystallized. These particles are kept at a white heat by the battery, and while in that state give an in- tense light. Some idea may be formed of the brilliancy of this light, from the fact that two chemists, while experi- menting with it, brought it too near their organs of vision, and, as a consequence, were confined to a (lark room for several days, and barely escaped with their eyesight. Any such occurrence may be avoided by wearing green spectacles, which, although they prevent injury to the eyes, allow all the motions of the light to be studied, as well as its general charac- teristics. The flame takes the form of an arc when the electrodes are separated, which separation may he effected in a greater or less degree, according to the power of the hattery. When the electrodes are separ- ated nearly to their farthest limit, more light is given off than in almost any other position; and to effect and maintain this separation continuously is a subject to which much attention has been and is being given in Europe, although it has attracted but little atten- tion in this country. The positive electrode wastes away with a rapidity controlled by various circum- stances, the worst varying from one-third of an inch and upward per hour. If the exact waste can be ob- tained, one of the electrodes can be fed forward by means of clockwork, and the interval between the two kept of an uniform length. Another device is to have the current itself regulate the motion of the positive electrode; and such an arrangement is, if well con- structed, much the best, as it will accommodate itself to a current of any power, while, if simple clockwork is used, a new adjustment must be made for every im- portant change in the battery. One device is like the old fashioned steam engine, opening a port of the same size for each stroke ; the other like the modern en- gine with its self-adjusting cut-off, varying the use of its port according to the pressure and the amount of work to be done. The current required for the pro- duction of the electric light maybe either one of great quantity or of great intensity. A current of quantity will produce a wide and short arc of flame, E E, while a current of intensity will produce a long and narrow arc. From this, it is evident that the battery best suited for ~the production of this light is ~~-one which gives a current both of intensity and quantity, and such a current is pro- duced by a number of alternations of large cells. One of the best batteries for experimenting with this light is Daniells, twenty cells of which (the zinc being seven inches in hight and two in diameter) give a cur- rent sufficiently powerful to exhibit the light upon a small scale; but with from 50 to 100 cells, a magnifi- cent light will be produced. Bunsens battery is chiefly used for this purpose, and when well managed it is, for the same number of cells, far superior to Daniells, although very expensive and troublesome in its working, and liable to the objections before given. A series of 40 cells of this battery, recently exhibited in Paris, produced a light equal in power to 3,500 wax tapers! The battery, though very convenient for pro- ducing the light, has been superseded, to some extent, by a machine in which no acids or liquids of any kind are used, the current being induced by permanent magnetism. Before proceeding to a description of this important piece of apparatus, it will be necessary to mention a 4 5 12 few of the principles of induction. The subject of induction should pro- perly be considered by itself, but it is so intimately connected with that of the electric light that we shall con- sider it in this place. A number of years since, it was ob- served that if a current of electricity was made to traverse one of two par- allel wires, a wave of electricity was produced in the secondary wire, and in the opposite direction to that in the primary wire; and that when the current was broken, another current was produced in the same direction that the primary current had flowed. In the cut, S represents the secondary wire, and P the pri- mary. In 1831, it was observed by Faraday that an electro- magnet possessed the same power. The cut represents a sectional elevation of such an arrangement. ~S N S is a bar of soft iron, around which is wound the primary or battery wire; S S is the secondary coil. In this case, both the p1imary and secondary currents flow in the Fi~I1 same direction, because the secondary current A is induced, not by the primary one but by the eleetro-magnet. The moment that the current ceases, there is induced another current, opposite in direction to the first. About the same time that he made this discovevy, Faraday also found that permanent magnets possessed the same power of induction. The cut represents a device by which a spark may be oh- tamed by the use of a common horse- shoe magnet, of moderate power. S ~s~ N represent the poles of the magnet, AT and N S the extremities of its arma- ture. Around this, several feet of in- sulated wire are coiled, and its two ~LJ I ends brought as near as possible to each other without their touching. This being done, a faint spark will be seen whenever the armature is separated from, or brought in contact with the magnet. Salt and its Offices. Some modern agricultural writers have (bolibted the necessity of giving animals salt. The following re- marks as to the effect of salt upon health, by Professor Johnston, may be relished by those who still put salt in their own puddings, and allow their cattle a little now and then: The wild buffalo frequents the salt licks of Northwestern America~ the wild animals in the central parts of South Africa are a sure prey to the hunter who conceals himself behind a salt spring; and our domestic cattle run peace- fully to the hand that offers them a taste of this delicious luxury. From time immemorial, it has been known that, without salt, man would miserably perish; and among hor- rible punishments, entailing certain death, that of feeding culprits on saltless food is said to have prevailed in barbar- ous times. Maggots and corruption are spoken of by an- cient writers as the distressing symptoms which saltless food engenders; but no ancient or unchemical modern could explain how such sufferings arose. Now we know why the animal craves saltwhy it suffers discomfort, and why it ultimately falls into disease if salt is for a time with- held. Upward of half the saline matter of the blood (57 per cent) consists of common salt, and as this is partially discharged every day through the skin and the kidneys, the necessity of continued supplies of it to the healthy body becomes sufficiently obvious. The bile also contains soda as a special and indispensable constituent, and so do all the cartilages of the body. Stint the supply of salt, therefore, and neither will the bile be able properly to assist the di- gestion, nor allow the cartilages to be built up again as fast as they naturally waste. DIMINISHEB SLAIJOIITER.-ThO number of hogs slaught- ered this season at Louisville, Ky., and in its vicinity is 194,797, or about 40.000 less than at this time last year. The receipts of hogs at Cincinnati, Ohio, thus far this season, are 263,363, a decrease of 111,000, as compared with last year to this time. 4~iiii 69 HAINES IMPROVED LEATHER DRIVING STRAP LErorn the London Engineer.] This invention of Mr. M. J. Haine, of Strood (pat- ented August 14, 1860), has for its object improve- nients in the manufacture of driving straps. ror these purposes, the material (generally leather or hides) is cut into narrow strips or fillets, each strip or fillet being of the thickness of the intended driving strap, and these are placed side by side with the cut edges of the leather or material com~xg to the upper and under surfaces of the intended driving strap, until the de- sired width of strap is obtained. In arranging the strips side by side, care is taken flint the ends of the several strips or fillets come at a distance from each other, so that the strips or fillets break joint, in order that the strap many not be weaker in one part than in another. In order to connect together the several strips thus laid side by side, the several strips are pressed together and holes are bored through them at intervals from edge to edge of the driving strap; the strips may then be fastened together by introducin~ lengths of iron, copper or other wire, having a he~ formed at one end through the holes, and then turn- inn over, clinching or riveting the other ends of the wires. Or the several strips may be united together by screws screwing through the holes in the several strips, the screws being screwed into the holes alter- nately, first from one edge of the strap and then from the other, so that the heads of half of the screws will be on one edge, and the heads of the other half will be on the other edge. ~1he several strips may also be connected together after the holes have been made through them, as above described, by nieans of copper or other wires, two wires being employed for this pur- l)ose, arid both wires being passed in opposite direc- tions through each hole, and each wire, after it has passed through one hole, being bent round and passed through the next hole, and so on; or, in place of wire being employed, the several strips may be sewed to- gether, as described, by means of twine or any other material. In place of the holes being made in the several strips of leather after they have been placed side by side, each strip of leather may separately have holes made through it at regular intervals, so that when the stril)s are l)lmite(l side by side the holes may correspond, and then be fastened by any of the before- mentioned means. Ihese bands may be made of any re(luire(l length, without laps or cross joints their thickness being uniform from end to end, there are no weak places; and all unequal strain being avoided, they work smoothly and perfectly straight. The inventor states that these bands can be made of any thickness or strength required, without sewing or riveting, thus avoiding the liability to ripping which so frequently occurs in the commoii straps. By this mode of work- ing the strap on the edge of the leather instead of on the flat, all chance of cracking the grain of the leather, and thereby weakening the strap, and ultimately breakin0 it, is avoided. It is also elahued as an ad- vantage that they may also be use(l much slacker than the common strap, as the result of placing the edges of the leather in contact with the surface of time drum or pulley insures a much larger amount of adhesion (or hugging, as it is technically terme(l) than is pro- duced by the ordinary method. GRANTS IMPROVEMENTS IN BREAKWATERS. We find in the London Mechenics Magazine, the de- scription of a newly-invented breakwater, which ap- pears to be so remarkably cheap in its construction, that we transfer the description and illustration to our columns Mr. J. Grant, of Glen Grant, Moray county, Scotland, has patented certain improvements in floating break- waters. ills invention consists in forming a breakwater of any required number of apparatuses constructed as hereafter described. Each apparatus is formed of a frame made to carry a number of louvre boards or plates; the main part of the frame is coniposed of two beams brought close together at that part which is to become the bottom of the apparatus. As the beams are car- ried upward they diverge and make a conical-shaped frame ; the louvre boards or plates are fitted at an angle into and across the beams. The beams have fixed on them buoys to increase or insure their buoy- ancy. Each separate apparatus is moored to a screw- pile, a block of stone, or other mooring by its lower end; the upper end carries one or more projecting pins or studs, and iron rods, formed at both ends with eyes, are passed over the studs, to connect the appara- tuses to each other, prevent their coining in contact, and unite any desired number of the apparatuses into a complete breakwater. Each apparatus floats verti- cally, or at a greater or lesser angle to the horizontal line, and is partially submerged. Each of the appara- tuses is capable of independent play, and the waves, striking against the louvre plates, are broken, and the water becomes comparatively still inside of the break- water. In the accompanying engraving two of these appara- tuses, connected together in the manner just described, are shown. The beams, formin~ the frame of each apparatus, meet and are fixed together at their lower part. Across theiii are louvre boards, inserted in the beams, one above the other, as shown. The buoys are secured to the frame, one at or near its upper part, and f lie other near the bottom thereof. A ring is bolted to the lower end of the frame, whereby it may be connected to a niooning or anchor. At the top are connecting rods; they are made with eyes which pass over studs on the upper part of the frame, where they are secured by bolts, pins, or otherwise. Any number of these apparatuses may be connected together, and moored in a straight line, in a curve, or in amiy other ~n ure according to the part to be protect- ed or the extent of water to be mAe smooth. In some cases the connecting rods may be dispensed with. LEAVES or PLANTSAutumn leaves by millions rot in heaps unheeded, and yet each one a microscopic wonder of contrivance. And this snow wreath that half envelopes them, made up of mnyriads of crystals, melting while I look at them. What an utter waste it seems Wisdom and beauty thrown wholesale into _____ a pit of corruptiomi. Until the day of the resurrection limE imlmortatiomi of dry goods for the week ending we shall never comprehend this melancholy mystery. Jan. 12, were OVil $2,500,000, of which one and a half Then shall atoms all be portioned out, and every or- millions have gone at once to market. In the same ganized particle of the earths crust be found to be a week last seasomi emily $800,000 ~vere marketed out of part of seine souls tabernacle. Then shall we under- .1,500,000 entered at time post. ~Ihme figures indicate stand how (isesars dust has also lived in the leaf, and that importers in New York ale to have ample missort- Isis moistmmre effloresced in the snow, dimly to be re- mnents of goods, and that so flu as supplying merciman- stored and produced when time and its use are no disc to the country is eoncenmied, f lie political troubles longer; but meanwhile used everywhere, and nothing have not been allowed to dimimmish the preparations lost, mislaid, wasted or forgottenDublin University thus far. Magazine. THE SCIENCE OF COMMON THINGS. NUMBER Y. BONES AND ROCKS. In our examination of the beefsteak last week, we omitted all mention of the bit of bone in it. I wish to call your attention to this, as it contains a sample of the only remaining class of the simple elements. You remember that there are 62 elements at present knowmm, 47 of which are mnetals. With most of the metals which occur in any considerable quantity you are fami- liar; the four principal organic elements I have de- scribed; and now there remains a small class of other substances which are worthy of our attention. One of these is sulphur or brimstone, and another is phos- phorus. It is the latter which is contained in bones. A considerable portion of bommes, as they exist in livimig badies, consists of animal matter, but after this is re- moved, the remaining partdry bonesare the phos- phate of lime. They are composed of phosphoric acid and lime. If they were composed of simple phos- phorus and lime they would be called time phosphuret of lime, but combimmations of phosphoric acid are called phosphates. Phosphorus is extracted from bones and used, among other purposes, in the manufacture of friction matches. When warm it is soft like wax, but h)rittle when cold. If perfectly pure, it is colorless and transparent, but generally appears yellowish and translucent merely. Do you say that the phosphorus which is used for making matches is obtained from bones? It can be procured from other sources, but it is principally obtained from bones. There is one other element that exists in large quantity, which you never see separated from its compounds except in chemical laboratories, but with the oxyd of which you are veiny familiar. This is silicon, and its oxyd is silex. You see it as flint and as quartz rock. It also forms a part of many other rocks, amid is believed to constitute a larger portion of the solid crust of the earth than any other element, with the single exception of oxygen. Excepting silex, almost all rocks are oxyds of metals; indeed, some chenmists call silicon a metal, but it has none of the properties of metals. It is a dark brown powder. And are these all of the simple elements besides the metals? No; there are two more which I will mention to you in this connection, and that will complete our examination of the simple elements. One of these is iodine, which, from its changes under the action of light, is used extensively in photography; indeed, it may be regarded as the corner stone of photography. The other element is the great bleaching substance chlorine. Table salt is composed of chlorine and a metalsodiumand is therefore known to chemists as the chloride of sodium. And this brief account will give you a pretty good general idea of the simple elememits of which all the substances that constitute tIme earths, the air and the water of our globe are coni- posed. We will examine some of these mesa in detail hereafter; there are, especially, some facts in relation to the metals which I think you will find interesting. Locomotive Explosion. A serious boiler explosion took place on the Hudson and Boston Railroad on the 29th of December last. The locomotive Henry Grey, while standing at Claver- aek station, exploded her boiler with tremendous force, throwing the smoke stack upright in the air, and scattering the fragments of the boiler far and near in evemy direction. One piece unroofed a barn; an- other damaged a building in the vicinity; a third was thrown a quarter ofa mile upon a high hill, through the window of a seminary. The cylinder past of the boiler was blown open for the whole length, and the flues and machinery under it were twisted and bent in every conceivable direction by the force of the steans. Even the rails of the track were bent almost double, but, strange to say, the engineer and fireman were un- hiurt, though they were both on the engine at the time. Time boiler was lmmmilt by Chapin & Bemis, of Springfield, Mass., and had been in use about four years. On examination, it was found to have been of good iron, but the plate much thinner than usual in locomotives. The engineer states that there was about 90 lbs. pressure on at the time. The report was dis- tinctly heard a distance of four miles. The London Times---A Glance at its Machinery. 1he London Times is the recognized organ of British public opinion, and is beyond all question the most ably edited amid influential journal in the world. Its editorials are essays upon the great political, literary and social topics of tIme day, and so powerfully writ- teim that they have been collected into books; wimile its correspondence from all parts of the world is an inex- Imaustible source of information. A complete set of time London Times from its comumemicemnent formus tIme mmmost voluminous history of the world in print. All details, timerefore, commnected within this powerfmml jourmial will be read with interest by ommr readers. A corre- spondent of time Fremich jourmial, cherries de lEure, after visiting that establisimumemit, furnishes tee follow- ing partinculars I Imave visited imi London time printing-office of the Times. It is truly soumething great and wonderful there is nowhere in Frammee anything of the kind to esiiial it. At time startimmg of time paper in 1791, time Times consisted of only a simmgle page, and was printed by a band-press, wlmich struck off one side of two hun- (Ired sheets per hour. In l~14, Kmnig made a press whiclm struck off 1,800 simeets. In 1827, Applegarthm, aided by Courier. coimstructcd a new one, on which 1,000 to 5.000 copies could be printed. In 1828, tIme same Appiegartim established imis famous vertical ma- chine, which I examined. amid on wimich 10,000 copies per hour are struck off. Simmee 1828 tIme muanagers of the Times have erected another niachinine, with horizon- tal cylinders, which strikes off ciglint copies at once or about 12,500 per hour. These two presses, which make while at work a deafening noise, and whmiclm can be stopped at a mmmommments notice, are muoved by a steam emmgine of 45-morse pow-er. Adjoining the room iii which is the boiler is a closet containing white marble bathing tubs intended for time workmen in time c stablislmmnent. Timey cost ninety guineas. A compositor omi tIme Times must have passed an cx- munimmation showing thmat he can set at least 40 lines of 5th letters or abommt 2,240 letters per hour. TIme price paid for type-settiming is 11(1. per thmousaimd letters, at which rate time compositor can mnake from 25 to 30 francs in an ordummary (lays work. This anmounts to about five dollars per (lay. Ilmere are 124 composi- toms emmmphoye(h, 50 of whmm are occinmpied solely in setting mmp a(hx emtisemmmcuts. hive or six stenographers tahee notes of Parhiamucutary pmoeee(himmgs, at Westmin- ster, and retmmrn every qmmarter of an hommr to the news- paper office, to put tlmeir copy iii shape and let the compositors have it without delay. In this way it often hmappemis that a speechn (lehivered at two oclock in time morning appears imi time jommrnal whnichi is strmmck (1ff at six oclock and distributed at seven. The editorial roonin is large and well lighted. In the center is a hmige oak table, and amound the room are hittie (heshds fiminiabed with every convenience for writ- lug. Adjoining, is a iimming-roomn for the editors, and the arcimive room, where are stored nil time flies of time Times since its foundation. Next to the archive chain- her, I saw the proof-readers roomns, where are humi- dreds of dictionaries and encyclopuedias, imm all lain- guages mund relating to all smibjects. A diozeun proof- readers are cmnpioyed (luring time (lay and amiotimer dozeinm durimig the night. They have an eatimig-room adjoining that where timey work, and their macais are hirovided at time expense of tine establisimmiment. On anotimer story is a smuahi roommi wimere are printedi time registers and emivelopes for time mail papers. Every one of thme editors livimig in London carries v.-ithm I - inimmi a numubem of envelopes addressed to time Tim Poxnzaom-s IRON Pa.~mrs.. The machinery- of time so timat in any ~1ace where iso mnay imappen to 1)0, at Pimmnix Iron Compammy is now so posvcrfmml that they- time timeatre. the races, or elsewimere, he can semid by a cams roil time largest lseanms ever made in the United special messemiger his copy to tine office. Time foreigmi correspondents have envelopes of red paper, which are sent immediately on their arrival fromn thie Post Office to the Tissines office. Supplies of paper and ink are con- stanthy kept in readiness. Fommr thominsand pounds of ink snre used each week. The paper is weighed in the establishment by a very ingenioums machine. It is _______________ also postmarloed on ti